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Sample records for commune health stations

  1. The use of reproductive healthcare at commune health stations in a changing health system in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With health sector reform in Vietnam moving towards greater pluralism, commune health stations (CHSs) have been subject to growing competition from private health services and increasing numbers of patients bypassing CHSs for higher-level health facilities. This study describes the pattern of reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP) service utilization among women at CHSs and other health facilities, and explores socio-demographic determinants of RH service utilization at the CHS level. Methods This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thua Thien Hue and Vinh Long provinces, using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Questionnaire-based interviews with 978 ever-married women at reproductive age provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, current use of FP methods, history of RH service use, and the health facility attended for their most recent services. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify socio-demographic determinants of their use of CHS RH services. Results Eighty nine percent of ever-married women reported current use of birth control with 49% choosing intra-uterine device (IUD). Eighty nine percent of pregnant women attended facility-based antenatal care (ANC) with 62% having at least 3 check-ups during their latest pregnancy. Ninety one percent of mothers had their last delivery in a health facility. Seventy-one percent of respondents used CHS for IUD insertion, 55% for antenatal check-ups, and 77% gynecological examination. District and provincial/central hospitals dominated the provision of delivery service, used by 57% of mothers for their latest delivery. The percentage of women opting for private ANC services was reported at 35%, though the use of private delivery services was low (11%). Women who were farmers, earning a lower income, having more than 2 children, and living in a rural area were more likely than others to use ANC, delivery, and/or gynecological check-up services

  2. Capacity of Commune Health Stations in Chi Linh District, Hai Duong Province, for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases.

    PubMed

    Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen; Thi My Anh, Bui; Nguyen Ngoc, Nguyen; Minh Diem, Dang; Duy Kien, Vu; Bich Phuong, Tran; Quynh Anh, Tran; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-07-01

    The primary health care system in Vietnam has been playing an important role in prevention and control of diseases. This study aimed to describe the capacity of commune health stations in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong province for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). A mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative approaches) approach was applied to collect data in 20 commune health stations. The participants, including health workers, stakeholders, and patients with NCDs, were selected for the study. The findings reported that the main activities of prevention and control of NCDs at commune health stations (CHSs) still focused on information-education-community (IECs), unqualified for providing screening, diagnosis, and treatments of NCDs. The capacity for prevention and control of NCDs in CHSs was inadequate to provide health care services related to prevention and control of NCDs and unmet with the community's demands. In order to ensure the role and implementation of primary care level, there is an urgent need to improve the capacity of CHSs for prevention and control of NCDs, particularly a national budget for NCDs prevention and control, the essential equipment and medicines recommended by the World Health Organization should be provided and available at the CHSs.

  3. Establishment of drug chests in commune health stations in Vietnam, Bamako Initiative.

    PubMed

    Tran, T T; Nguyen, T N; Le, T; Truong, C H; Mogensen, K; Andersen, E

    1998-09-01

    In remote areas in Vietnam essential drugs are often not available. Some of the reasons are inadequate resources and failure of distribution. All activities at the health stations are very weak, partly because of inappropriate usage of drugs and lack of fund for buying drugs. The object of the project was to establish sustainable provision of essential drugs for commune health stations in rural areas, to teach the health personnel the importance of essential drugs and to create incentives for the staff and a certain surplus for other health activities. Four District Health Centers (DHC) and 10 Health Stations (HS), 2-4 in each DHC were selected. A pharmacist was made monitor of the project. The health personnel were trained in proper use of drugs, drug prescription, price setting, book keeping and management of pharmacy. Written guidelines were produced. One person was responsible for the drug chest at each HS. After recognizing the aim of the project and signing the contract by which the responsible person was bound, the initial capital was given free. The DHC was responsible for the supervision and advice to the HS. Reporting on prescribed drugs, buying and selling price, profit and fund left took place monthly. Monitoring of recovery of capital, turnover rate, rate of essential drugs and incentives for staff were monitored on forms and quarterly collected by the monitor on his visits. The HS were visited half-yearly by a steering group. All ten HS had been able to establish and maintain the pharmacy and to fully recover or even increase the capital and to create a surplus. Seven out of ten HSs had a turnover rate of more than one. The rate of essential drugs sold was more than 60% in seven pharmacies. The interest rate of 18% on average was used for incentives for staff, to provide drugs for those who cannot pay and for equipment for the HS. The cooperation between the DHC and the HS became closer. Establishment of drug chests seems to be a reasonable strategy

  4. Costing of commune health station visits for provider payment reform in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Özaltın, Annette; Cashin, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Expanding effective coverage in Vietnam will require better use of available resources and placing higher priority on primary care. The way providers are currently paid does not give priority to primary care and does not reflect the costs of delivering services. This paper aims to estimate the unit costs of primary care visits at commune health stations (CHS) in selected areas in Vietnam. Seventy-six CHS from two provinces in northern Vietnam were studied. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the CHS using the top-down costing using the step-down cost accounting technique in order to estimate the full cost of delivering services. On average, the cost of one outpatient visit in mountainous, rural and urban CHSs was VND 49,521 (US$2.40), VND 41,375 (US$2.01) and VND 39,794 (US$1.93), respectively. Personnel costs accounted for the highest share of total costs followed by medicines. The share of operating costs was minimal. On average, CHSs recover 18.9% of their total cost for an outpatient visit from social insurance payments or fees that can be charged patients. The results provide valuable information for policy-makers as they revise the provider payment methods to better reflect the costs of services and give greater priority to primary care.

  5. Quality of reproductive health services at commune health stations in Viet Nam: implications for national reproductive health care strategy.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study conducted in 2009 of provider and patient perceptions of primary level reproductive health services provided by commune health stations (CHSs), and the implications for Viet Nam's 2011-2020 National Strategy for Reproductive Health Care. In the three provinces of Thai Nguyen, Thua Thien Hue, and Vinh Long, we interviewed the heads of CHSs, held focus group discussions with midwives and women patients, and observed facilities. Half the 30 CHSs visited were in poor physical condition; the rest were newly renovated. However, the model of service delivery was largely unchanged from ten years before. Many appeared to fall short in meeting patient expectations in terms of modern medical equipment and technology, range of drug supplies, and levels of staff expertise. As a result, many women were turning to private doctors and public hospitals, at least in urban areas, or seeking medication from pharmacies. To make CHS clinics sustainable, promotion of access to reproductive health services should be undertaken concurrently with quality improvement. A responsive payment scheme must also be developed to generate revenues. Efforts should be made to reduce the unnecessary use of more costly services from private clinics and higher level public facilities.

  6. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Alden, Dana L; Pham, Van; Phan, Ha

    2010-02-28

    Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees) that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor). The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP) services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF) model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs). The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS) clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1) clinic-reported client volume; 2) the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3) self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05). Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use increased by 20% from the baseline survey to the

  7. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees) that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor). The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP) services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF) model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs). Methods The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS) clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1) clinic-reported client volume; 2) the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3) self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Results CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05). Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use increased by 20% from

  8. Going green: Metro Health starts health commune.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Taking on a total rebranding and environmentally friendly overhaul, Metro Health looks forward as it moves into a new facility. Incorporating green building details, Metro is managing environmental impact to improve its future in its Grand Rapids, MI, community.

  9. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. Objective This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely ‘benefits and prospects,’ ‘facility and equipment,’ ‘performance,’ and ‘professionals.’ Results The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for ‘performance’ (66.6/100) and lowest for ‘facility and equipment’ (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. Conclusion The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level. PMID:23374700

  10. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Van Hoang, Minh; Nguyen, Hinh Duc

    2013-01-30

    Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely 'benefits and prospects,' 'facility and equipment,' 'performance,' and 'professionals.' The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for 'performance' (66.6/100) and lowest for 'facility and equipment' (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

  11. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies.

    PubMed

    Xuan Tran, Bach; Minh, Hoang Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-01

    Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely 'benefits and prospects,' 'facility and equipment,' 'performance,' and 'professionals.' The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for 'performance' (66.6/100) and lowest for 'facility and equipment' (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

  12. Coping with health care expenses among poor households: evidence from a rural commune in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Thuy; Khuat, Oanh Thi Hai; Ma, Shuangge; Pham, Duc Cuong; Khuat, Giang Thi Hong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-03-01

    With the 1980s "Doi Moi" economic reforms, Vietnam transitioned from state-funded health care to a privatized user fee system. Out-of-pocket payments became a major source of funding for treatments received at both public and private health facilities. We studied coping strategies used by residents of Dai Dong, a rural commune of Hanoi, for paying health care costs, assessing the effects of such costs on economic and health stability. We developed a 2008 survey of 706 households (166 poor, 184 near-poor, 356 non-poor; 100% response rate). Outcome measures were reported episodes of illness; inpatient, outpatient, and self-treatments; out-of-pocket expenditures; and funding sources for health care costs. Households of all income levels borrowed to pay for inpatient treatments; loans are also more heavily used by the poor and near-poor than the non-poor for outpatient treatments. Compared to low cost treatments, the use of loans is intensified for extremely high cost health treatments for all poverty levels, but especially for the poor and near-poor. The likelihood of reducing food consumption to pay for extremely high cost treatment versus low cost treatments increased most for the poor in both inpatient and outpatient contexts. Decreased funding and increased costs in health care rendered Dai Dong's population vulnerable to the consequences of detrimental coping strategies such as debt and food reduction. Future reforms should focus on obviating these funding measures among at-risk populations.

  13. The effect of a poverty reduction policy and service quality standards on commune-level primary health care utilization in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong; Bich Hanh, Duong; Lavergne, M Ruth; Mai, Tung; Nguyen, Quang; Phillips, James F; Hughes, Jane; Van Thuc, Ha

    2010-07-01

    Although universal access to quality health services is a primary policy goal of the Government of Vietnam (GOVN), economic restructuring and privatization of health services have been associated with emerging inequities in access to care. A GOVN programme for socio-economic development known as Program 135 (P135) designates communes known to be relatively poor as priority localities for development resources. Under this programme, basic curative and preventive health services, including some prescription drugs, are provided free of charge at commune health centres (CHCs). In an effort to improve the quality of care provided at CHCs, the national Ministry of Health (MOH) has implemented a set of national benchmarks for commune health care, which defines a minimum configuration of equipment, staff, training and other elements of service provision. This research examines the impact of P135 poverty reduction policy, achievement of MOH benchmark indicators and commune socio-economic characteristics on CHC utilization rates in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. The analysis uses administrative data reported from 178 CHCs in Thai Nguyen Province for nine quarters, including 2004, 2005 and the first quarter of 2006. Mixed linear regression models are used to estimate the main and interaction effects on utilization rates of exposure to the P135 policies, achievement of MOH benchmarks, poverty, distance to the district hospital and ethnic composition. Communes that are poor and remote have comparatively high CHC utilization rates. Multivariate regression results suggest that communes exposed to the P135 policy have higher utilization rates, but these effects are conditional upon achievement of benchmark standards, thus perceived quality care enhances CHC utilization. Combining Program P135 with benchmark investment reduced the gap between primary health care utilization in poor communes versus those that are less poor. These commune-level findings suggest that CHC policies

  14. The Provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health Education to Children in a Remote Mountainous Commune in Rural Vietnam: An Exploratory Study of Parents' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Fisher, Jane R. W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of parents in a remote mountainous commune in Vietnam about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education for their children. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 parents of eight-year-old children and key informants including a principal, a teacher and staff of the Youth…

  15. The Provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health Education to Children in a Remote Mountainous Commune in Rural Vietnam: An Exploratory Study of Parents' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Fisher, Jane R. W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of parents in a remote mountainous commune in Vietnam about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education for their children. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 parents of eight-year-old children and key informants including a principal, a teacher and staff of the Youth…

  16. Commune Health Workers' Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Knowledge and Perceived Difficulties Providing Decentralized MMT Services in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunqing; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Li, Li

    2017-07-13

    With the initial establishment of countrywide methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) system, Vietnam is in the process of expanding and decentralizing the MMT program to community-based healthcare settings. The study aimed to measure the MMT-related knowledge and perceived difficulties in treating patient who use drugs (PWUD) among community-based healthcare providers, e.g., commune health workers (CHW), and examine its correlated factors. A total of 300 CHW from 60 communes in two provinces of Vietnam completed a survey using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) method. Twelve true-or-false questions were used to assess the CHW's MMT-related knowledge. The CHW's background characteristics and perceived difficulties treating PWUD were recorded. The mean MMT knowledge score was 8.2 (SD = 1.2; range: 5-11). Misconceptions toward the benefits, procedure, and side effects of MMT were prevalent. The participants perceived varying degrees of difficulties in recruiting, engaging, and communicating with PWUD. With all covariates holding constant, younger age (standardized ẞ = -0.166; p = 0.0078) was associated with less MMT-related knowledge. Number of PWUD seen in a month and MMT-related knowledge was associated with less perceived difficulties treating PWUD. Conclusions/importance: The finding shed lights on the CHW's knowledge gap, which need to be addressed to facilitate the decentralization of MMT services in Vietnam. In preparation for a decentralized MMT service delivery model, specially designed training is warranted to equip CHW with knowledge and confidence to provide MMT-related services to PWUD.

  17. Integration Within a Commune

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammers, Linda Stoneall

    1974-01-01

    Reports an in-depth participant observation of a rural American commune located in a canyon in Northwestern United States in the summer of 1971, focusing on the internal dynamics of the commune; values and beliefs are viewed as the primary focus of integration in addition to common definitions, solidarity, and other factors. (JM)

  18. Effect of health expenses on household capabilities and resource allocation in a rural commune in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Thuy; Khuat, Oanh Thi Hai; Ma, Shuangge; Pham, Duc Cuong; Khuat, Giang Thi Hong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP) and other health expenses have typically characterized them as "catastrophic" in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household "flourishing" in terms of "basic capabilities." We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden.

  19. Health maintenance on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Medical support for extended manned missions aboard such spacecraft as the NASA Space Shuttle must encompass prevention, diagnosis, and therapy capabilities in the preflight and postflight as well as actual mission phases. An evaluation is presently made of the technological and management challenges that must be met in order to furnish an adequate inflight health care delivery system that possesses adequate inflight health care, real-time environmental monitoring, physiological countermeasures, and medical rescue/recovery facilities for ill or injured crew members.

  20. Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

  1. Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

  2. Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom.

    PubMed

    Santy, P A

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling of crew rotations for up to 180 days on Space Station Freedom presents a special challenge for behavioral scientists who are tasked with providing psychological support for the crews, their families, and mission flight controllers. Preflight psychological support planning may minimize the negative impact of psychological and social issues on mission success, as well as assist NASA management in making real-time mission planning decisions in the event of a significant social event (for example, the death of a family member). During flight, the combined psychological, emotional, and social stressors on the astronauts must be monitored, along with other aspects of their health. The Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will have the capability of providing preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems which may develop. Psychological support will not end with the termination of the mission. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel whose job will be to facilitate the transition--physical and mental--from the space environment back to planet Earth. This paper reviews each phase of mission planning for Space Station Freedom and specifies those factors that may be critical for psychological health maintenance on extended-duration space missions.

  3. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  4. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  5. The Communes and Cultural Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Heikki; Seikkula, Ari

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Finland's system of cultural services provided for communes that includes adult education, art activities, entertainment and physical culture. Article outlines the scope of the available and planned programs. (GB)

  6. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  7. Health and Safety Plan, Kalakaket Creek, Radion Relay Station, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska Final Health and Safety Plan Kalakaket Creek Radio Relay Station , Alaska Accesion For NTIS CRA&M DTIC TAB U...Kalakaket Creek Radio Relay Station , Alaska C-F41624-94-D-804"-005 6. AUTHOR(S) Radian Corporation 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...NUMBER OF PAGES Health and Safety Plan, Kalakaket Creek Radio Relay Station , Alaska 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY

  8. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  9. An overview of the Space Station Freedom environmental health system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1989-01-01

    The proposed environmental health system (EHS) designed for the closed environment of the Space Station is examined. The internal contamination control and environmental health considerations for the Space Station are discussed. The microbiology, toxicology, water quality, radiological health, vibroacoustics, and barothermal physiology subsystems of the EHS are described. Proposed capabilities of the EHS are: the environmental sample collection, processing, and analysis of the breathing atmosphere, potable and hygiene water, and internal surfaces.

  10. An overview of the Space Station Freedom environmental health system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1989-01-01

    The proposed environmental health system (EHS) designed for the closed environment of the Space Station is examined. The internal contamination control and environmental health considerations for the Space Station are discussed. The microbiology, toxicology, water quality, radiological health, vibroacoustics, and barothermal physiology subsystems of the EHS are described. Proposed capabilities of the EHS are: the environmental sample collection, processing, and analysis of the breathing atmosphere, potable and hygiene water, and internal surfaces.

  11. The tourism resources and possibilities using of its for development of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Structural part of the resources of the tourism potential of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów was studied in this paper. In the study, the attractiveness of tourism resources of the communes was assessed based on 48 features grouped into four divisions: sightseeing assets, recreational and special assets, tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. A field survey (listing, query) and a quantitative evaluation of tourist resources, carried out by means of a multidimensional comparative analysis, indicated an appreciable difference in features between the commune of Nałęczów and commune of Wojciechów. The tourist attractiveness index determined for the commune of Nałęczów was 0.695, almost twice as high as the index for the commune of Wojciechów (0.349). In the light of carrying out of investigations, the tourist attractiveness of the commune of Nałęczów results primarily from its environmental (mineral springs, unique flora) and cultural assets (historic monuments) as well as recreational assets (bioclimate, forest complexes, ravines; more than half of the commune's territory is within the Kazimierz Landscape Park) and special assets (angling). The tourism potential of the commune of Wojciechów is primarily determined by its recreational assets (diverse land relief) and special assets (hunting). The commune of Nałęczów is superior with regard to tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. Owing to the diversity of tourist assets, different degrees of tourist infrastructure development and varying quality of the natural environment, various forms of tourism exist in the two communes, i.e. educational tourism (environmental, geotourism, ecotourism, cultural and festival tourism), recreational tourism (agritourism), adventure tourism (walking, cycling, skiing and cross-country skiing) as well as health tourism (health, spa and wellness tourism).

  12. The Success of Urban Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornfield, Noreen

    1983-01-01

    Studied 32 secular urban communal households to discover conditions of their relative success. Success was measured by duration of commune and satisfaction of members. Elements of conventionality (economic prudence, voluntary time limitation, regular housework, perception of sufficient private time) enhanced satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  13. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  14. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  15. A health maintenance facility for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, R. D.; Doarn, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a health care facility to be built and used on an orbiting space station in low Earth orbit. This facility, called the health maintenance facility, is based on and modeled after isolated terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of Space Station Freedom. This paper presents the capabilities of the health maintenance facility. As Freedom is constructed over the next decade there will be an increase in activities, both construction and scientific. The health maintenance facility will evolve with this process until it is a mature, complete, stand-alone health care facility that establishes a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As our experience in space continues to grow so will the commitment to providing health care.

  16. A health maintenance facility for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, R. D.; Doarn, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a health care facility to be built and used on an orbiting space station in low Earth orbit. This facility, called the health maintenance facility, is based on and modeled after isolated terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of Space Station Freedom. This paper presents the capabilities of the health maintenance facility. As Freedom is constructed over the next decade there will be an increase in activities, both construction and scientific. The health maintenance facility will evolve with this process until it is a mature, complete, stand-alone health care facility that establishes a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As our experience in space continues to grow so will the commitment to providing health care.

  17. Preparing a health care delivery system for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Station is viewed as the beginning of man's permanent presence in space. This paper presents the guidelines being developed by NASA's medical community in preparing a quality, permanent health care delivery system for Space Station. The guidelines will be driven by unique Space Station requirements such as mission duration, crew size, orbit altitude and inclination, EVA frequency and rescue capability. The approach will emphasize developing a health care system that is modular and flexible. It will also incorporate NASA's requirements for growth capability, commonality, maintainability, and advanced technology development. Goals include preventing unnecessary rescue attempts, as well as maintaining the health and safety of the crew. Proper planning will determine the levels of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment necessary to achieve these goals.

  18. Service functions of private community health stations in China: A comparison analysis with government-sponsored community health stations.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wanli; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fang; Chai, Yun; Xu, Hancheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Bin; Jin, Jianqiang; Lu, Zuxun

    2012-04-01

    In China, with the restructuring of health care system moving forward, private community health facilities have been playing a complementary but increasingly important role in providing public health and basic medical care services in urban areas. However, only limited evidence is available concerning the service functions of private community health facilities in China. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of private community health stations (PCHSs) to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy-making and practice in the development of urban community health services systems. A total of 818 PCHSs and 4320 government-sponsored community health stations (GCHSs) located in 28 cities of China were investigated in 2008. The percentages of stations that provided health services and the annual workload per community health worker (CHW) were compared between the two types of institutions. The results showed that the percentages of PCHSs providing public health services were significantly higher than those of GCHSs (P<0.05); but no significant differences were found in the percentages of basic medical services providing between PCHSs and GCHSs (P>0.05). The annual workloads of all the public health services and basic medical services per CHW in PCHSs were lighter than those in GCHSs (P<0.05), except for resident health records establishment and health education materials distribution (P>0.05). At present, the GCHSs are still the mainstream in urban China, which will last for a long period in future. However, our findings showed that the annual workloads of CHWs in PCHSs were no heavier than those in GCHSs, and the PCHSs were willing to provide public health services. In view of current inadequacy of health resources in China, it is feasible to further develop PCHSs under the guidance of the government, given that PCHSs can perform the basic functions of community health services, which is useful for the formation of public-private partnerships (PPP

  19. Focus on coal power station installations and population health.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Marco; Masedu, Francesco; Tiberti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence.

  20. Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health.

    PubMed

    Kundi, Michael; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2009-08-01

    Studying effects of mobile phone base station signals on health have been discouraged by authoritative bodies like WHO International EMF Project and COST 281. WHO recommended studies around base stations in 2003 but again stated in 2006 that studies on cancer in relation to base station exposure are of low priority. As a result only few investigations of effects of base station exposure on health and wellbeing exist. Cross-sectional investigations of subjective health as a function of distance or measured field strength, despite differences in methods and robustness of study design, found indications for an effect of exposure that is likely independent of concerns and attributions. Experimental studies applying short-term exposure to base station signals gave various results, but there is weak evidence that UMTS and to a lesser degree GSM signals reduce wellbeing in persons that report to be sensitive to such exposures. Two ecological studies of cancer in the vicinity of base stations report both a strong increase of incidence within a radius of 350 and 400m respectively. Due to the limitations inherent in this design no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results underline the urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of this issue. Animal and in vitro studies are inconclusive to date. An increased incidence of DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats at a SAR of 1.4W/kg in one experiment could not be replicated in a second trial. Indications of oxidative stress after low-level in vivo exposure of rats could not be supported by in vitro studies of human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. From available evidence it is impossible to delineate a threshold below which no effect occurs, however, given the fact that studies reporting low exposure were invariably negative it is suggested that power densities around 0.5-1mW/m(2) must be exceeded in order to observe an effect. The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating

  1. Evaluation of morphological variation and biomass growth of Nostoc commune under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yi; Yang, Zujun

    2014-05-01

    Nostoc commune is a blue green alga used for health food and herbal medicine due to its nutritional values and antioxidant properties. However, wild type N. commune has been decreasing in quantity as a result of ever-growing market demand and environmental pollution. Therefore, artificial culture of N. commune is important as it can bring great social and economic benefits. In this article, N. commune was cultured in BG11 medium, under which condition morphological variation and biomass growth of N. commune were investigated. Results indicated that concentration, fresh weight and dry weight of the colony increased fastest at 40 rpm from the 1st day to 14th day and the fresh and dry weight increased as the culturing time was prolonged, and reached 27.22 g l⁻¹ and 0.88 g l⁻¹ respectively on 56th day. Aggregated cell mass formed on 4th day and it expanded to asteriated colonies on 10th day. Single microcolonies formed on the 21st day had diameters 200-250 μm. Macrocolonies obtained after 28 days had diameters of 5 mm on 42nd day. Discoid colonies were formed as macrocolonies ruptured on 49th day and the diameter reached 15 mm on 56th day. Results of the present study can promote large-scale industrial production of N. commune.

  2. A health care system for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Life science will be one of the pacing technologies for long duration manned spaceflight. The ability to effectively deliver state-of-the-art inflight medical care will have a major impact on crew health and mission success. The future Space Station crews will participate in missions of extended duration with limited capability for emergency return. This factor alone places great responsibility on program designers to ensure the health, safety, and well-being of the crews. The Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) under development at the Johnson Space Center is described.

  3. The Station Community Mental Health Centre Inc: nurturing and empowering.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Judy; Jones, Rosalind M; O'Reilly, Peta; Oldfield, Wayne; Blackburn, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Consumer-driven community mental health services play an important role in rehabilitation, recovery, and advocacy in rural and remote Australia. The origins of services often lie in the need to provide options for people with mental illness and their carers when there is a lack of on-the-ground support. This article adds to the information about the strengths and limitations of consumer-driven mental health services by presenting the findings of an evaluation of The Station Inc. in rural South Australia. This consumer-driven mental health service provides a safe and supportive environment, social connections, and activities for its members (those with a lived experience of mental illness). Using a realist evaluation approach, the evaluation identified the contextual factors and the program mechanisms that produce positive outcomes for members. The evaluation was conducted as participatory action research with The Station members, volunteers, management committee members, and staff involved in all phases of the research process. Because of the complexity of The Station's functioning a realist evaluation using qualitative data was conducted to identify how the program worked, for whom, and in what circumstances. Twenty-five in-depth interviews were conducted with participants who were randomly selected from within the groups identified above. Interviews focused on The Station's role in assisting recovery from mental illness, the limitations and strengths of the program, and relationships with the mental health system. The Station's goals, policies and procedures, and the role of stakeholders were analysed in order to identify any links among these contextual factors, program mechanisms, and program outcomes. Qualitative data were entered into descriptive categories in N6 software (QSR; www.qsr.international.com). Data from the stakeholder analysis were entered into Microsoft Excel. Using an iterative approach

  4. Development of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Health System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.

  5. Development of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Health System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.

  6. Reluctant Communitarians: Personal Stories and Commune Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    1986-01-01

    Uses a thematic approach to explore the therapeutic norm, the confrontation communication, and the nature of commitment in a small contemporary commune. Focuses on the behavior of prominent individuals. (MS)

  7. Incorporating elements of social franchising in government health services improves the quality of infant and young child feeding counselling services at commune health centres in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Keithly, Sarah C; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2014-12-01

    Although social franchising has been shown to enhance the quality of reproductive health services in developing countries, its effect on nutrition services remains unexamined. This study assessed the effects of incorporating elements of social franchising on shaping the quality of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counselling facilities and services in Vietnam. Process-related data collected 12 months after the launch of the first franchises were used to compare randomly assigned Alive & Thrive-supported health facilities (AT-F, n = 20) with standard facilities (SF, n = 12) across three dimensions of service quality: 'structure', 'process' and 'outcome' that capture the quality of facilities, service delivery, and client perceptions and use, respectively. Data collection included facility assessments (n = 32), staff surveys (n = 96), counselling observations (n = 137), client exit interviews (n = 137) and in-depth interviews with mothers (n = 48). Structure: AT-F were more likely to have an unshared, well-equipped room for nutrition counselling than SF (65.0% vs 10.0%). Compared with SF providers, AT-F staff had better IYCF knowledge (mean score 9.9 vs 8.8, range 0-11 for breastfeeding; mean score 3.6 vs 3.2, range 0-4 for complementary feeding). AT-F providers also demonstrated significantly better interpersonal communication skills (score 9.6 vs 5.1, range 0-13) and offered more comprehensive counselling sessions. Overall utilization of franchises was low (10%). A higher proportion of pregnant women utilized franchise services (48.9%), compared with mothers with children 6-23.9 months (1.4%). There was no quantitative difference in client satisfaction with counselling services between AT-F and SF, but franchise users praised the AT-F for problem solving related to child feeding. Incorporating elements of social franchising significantly enhances the quality of IYCF counselling services within government primary healthcare facilities, particularly their

  8. Schizophyllum commune-induced allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and sinobronchial mycosis.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Haruhiko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hasegawa, Hiroki; Makimura, Koichi; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Ueda, Norishi

    2015-06-01

    We present 32- and 38-year-old males with Schizophyllum commune-induced allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). S. commune-induced AFRS was diagnosed by clinical and radiographic findings, positive specific IgE antibodies against S. commune as measured by the ImmunoCAP system, and sequencing analysis of the fungus. Our two cases with S. commune-induced AFRS for the first time showed evidence for type 1 hypersensitivity to S. commune as determined by using specific IgE antibodies against S. commune, and the fungus was identified by sequence analysis.

  9. Schizophyllum commune-induced allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and sinobronchial mycosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsukatani, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Haruhiko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hasegawa, Hiroki; Makimura, Koichi; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Ueda, Norishi

    2015-01-01

    We present 32- and 38-year-old males with Schizophyllum commune-induced allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). S. commune-induced AFRS was diagnosed by clinical and radiographic findings, positive specific IgE antibodies against S. commune as measured by the ImmunoCAP system, and sequencing analysis of the fungus. Our two cases with S. commune-induced AFRS for the first time showed evidence for type 1 hypersensitivity to S. commune as determined by using specific IgE antibodies against S. commune, and the fungus was identified by sequence analysis. PMID:25756007

  10. Assessment of health effects in workers at gasoline station.

    PubMed

    Pranjić, Nurka; Mujagić, Hamza; Nurkić, Mahmud; Karamehić, Jasenko; Pavlović, Slobodan

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to made assessment of health effects in 37 workers exposed to gasoline, and its constituents at gasoline stations between 1985 and 1996. Thirty-seven persons who had been exposed to gasoline for more than five years were examined. The evaluation included a medical / occupational history, haematological and biochemical examination, a physical exam, standardized psychological tests, and ultrasound examination of kidneys and liver. The groups were identical in other common parameters including age, gender (all men), and level of education (P<0. 05). The data were compared to two control groups: 61 healthy non-exposed controls and 25 workers at gasoline stations exposed to organic lead for only nine months. Peripheral smear revealed basophilic stippling and reticulocytosis. We found in chronic exposed gasoline workers haematological disorders: mild leukocytosis (7 of 37), lymphocytosis (20 of 37), mild lymhocytopenia (3 of 37), and decrease of red blood cells count (11 of 37). Results indicated that they have suffered from liver disorders: lipoid degeneration of liver (14 of 37), chronic functional damages of liver (3 of 37), cirrhosis (1 of 37). Ultrasound examination indicated chronic kidney damages (8 of 37). These results significantly differed from those of controls (P< 0.05). In 13 out of 37 workers at gasoline stations exposed to gasoline for more than 5 years the symptom of depression and decreased reaction time and motor abilities were identified. The summary of diseases of workers exposed to organic lead and gasoline are discussed.

  11. A healthful options food station can improve satisfaction and generate gross profit in a worksite cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Kimathi, Amber N; Gregoire, Mary B; Dowling, Rebecca A; Stone, Marcelle K

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine customer satisfaction with a healthful options food station offered in a worksite cafeteria and document the financial contribution of such a station. The healthful options station featured daily entrées with fewer than 500 calories and less than 30% of calories from fat. Questionnaires from 655 (24.5% response) employees and students provided data on satisfaction with and usage of the station. The majority of the respondents who had purchased from the healthful options station were female (77.3%), white (51.6%), aged 30 to 50 years (52.0%), and had annual incomes of $60,000 to $100,000 (29.3%) or $20,000 to $39,999 (22.2%). Sales and gross profit from the healthful options station were compared to those of the comfort station. Customers were satisfied with attributes of the healthful options station (means >3 on a 5-point scale). Results of paired t tests suggested that customers who had purchased from the healthful options station rated the station significantly (P<0.001) higher for healthfulness of entrées, food presentation, food quality, overall quality of the cafeteria, length of line, and food choices available compared to their ratings for the cafeteria in general. The healthful options station generated average daily sales of $458 and gross profit of $306. However, the sales and gross profit were significantly (P<0.05) less than the comparison comfort station.

  12. Preventing pollution by commune, brigade-run industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This article reports on efforts to control pollution in Shunde County, China. With regard to the county's economic output value, state-run enterprises produce 19.8%; enterprises run by communes, brigades and collectives produce 52.7%; and agriculture produces 27.5%. Shunde County has an environmental protection office, an environmental monitoring station, and an environmental control office. Of the 4,161 large and small enterprises in the county, polluting enterprises number 1,739 (41.8%) and the remaining 2,422 (or 58.2%) have little or no pollution. Topics considered include deepening the understanding of environmental protection, the functional role of the county's office for environmental protection, and environmental management measures.

  13. Sex-Role Differentiation in Contemporary Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minturn, Leigh

    1984-01-01

    Commune residents and university students were asked to compare present and past social interactions in terms of 13 questions derived from differences between nuclear and extended families. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that communal social roles evolve to become similar to those in extended families, with the exception of work roles.…

  14. Pulmonary Schizophyllum Commune Infection Developing Mucoid Impaction of the Bronchi

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Tokunaga, Daidou; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Matsushita, Aya; Harasawa, Keiji; Yoneda, Koichiro; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shozaburo; Miyahara, Yousuke; Yano, Ryozo; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted for cough, sputum, and an abnormal chest X-ray shadow. Bronchoscopy showed mucoid impaction of the bronchi (MIB). Histopathologic evidence of mucous plugs was consistent with one component of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis. Schizophyllum commune (S. commune) was identified. Two attempts at removal of the mucous plugs were unsuccessful. Itraconazole was then administered, and the mucous plugs disappeared. There are few reports of MIB due to S. commune; we herein report a case of MIB due to S. commune infection. PMID:18299722

  15. Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Vini G; Hardell, Lennart; Everaert, Joris; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Carlberg, Michael; Ahonen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.

  16. Why Communes Fail: A Comparative Analysis of the Viability of Danish and American Communes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shey, Thomas H.

    1977-01-01

    Danish communes, while exhibiting substantial flexibility, ingenuity and viability, invariably fail for primarily personal reasons or motives. However, unlike their American counterparts, economic and practical considerations play a correspondingly minor role. Presented at the Southern Sociological Society, Miami, Florida, April 9, 1976. (Author)

  17. Validation of the CSI Health Station 6K Blood Pressure Kiosk®

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Iain L. O.; Adams, John Q.; Gore, Mark; Sullivan, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1978, Computerized Screening Inc. (CSI) is the manufacturer of medical kiosks that combine non-invasive & invasive preventive health-screening technology and services in the U.S. The centerpiece of CSI’s health complement is the CSI Health Station, one-stop health information and screening using patented technology. The CSI Health Station (Model 6K) represents the corporation’s evolution from its self-administered automated blood pressure monitors (Model 3K). CSI Health Stations also offer touch screen activated heart rate testing, patented, seated weight measurement and fitness evaluations plus other non-invasive features like BMI, resting metabolic rate, spirometry, pulse oximetry and customized health risk assessments or triage guidelines. Invasive testing such as urine analysis, cholesterol, and glucose is also accommodated in an attended setting. In addition, CSI Health Stations feature comprehensive, one-stop availability of health information, with access to a drug encyclopedia and an extensive library of health education videos, and information on local health providers and services. It also is web enabled and supports secure website access direct from the kiosk. The purpose of this study was to determine, using current standards from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), whether or not the CSI 6K could accurately and reproducibly measure blood pressure in an ambulatory population in comparison to manual auscultation. PMID:18605260

  18. Validation of the CSI health station 6K blood pressure kiosk.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Iain L O; Adams, John Q; Gore, Mark; Sullivan, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Established in 1978, Computerized Screening Inc. (CSI) is the manufacturer of medical kiosks that combine non-invasive & invasive preventive health-screening technology and services in the U.S. The centerpiece of CSl's health complement is the CSI Health Station, one-stop health information and screening using patented technology. The CSI Health Station (Model 6K) represents the corporation's evolution from its self-administered automated blood pressure monitors (Model 3K). CSI Health Stations also offer touch screen activated heart rate testing, patented, seated weight measurement and fitness evaluations plus other non-invasive features like BMI, resting metabolic rate, spirometry, pulse oximetry and customized health risk assessments or triage guidelines. Invasive testing such as urine analysis, cholesterol, and glucose is also accommodated in an attended setting. In addition, CSI Health Stations feature comprehensive, one-stop availability of health information, with access to a drug encyclopedia and an extensive library of health education videos, and information on local health providers and services. It also is web enabled and supports secure website access direct from the kiosk. The purpose of this study was to determine, using current standards from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), whether or not the CSI 6K could accurately and reproducibly measure blood pressure in an ambulatory population in comparison to manual auscultation.

  19. Visual clone identification of Penicillium commune isolates.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Lund, Flemming; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-02-01

    A method for visual clone identification of Penicillium commune isolates was developed. The method is based on images of fungal colonies acquired after growth on a standard medium and involves a high degree of objectivity, which in future studies will make it possible for non-experts to perform a qualified identification of different species as well as clones within a species. A total of 77 P. commune isolates from a cheese dairy were 3-point inoculated on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. After incubation, the isolates were classified into groups containing the same genotype determined by DNA fingerprinting (AFLP). Each genotype also has a specific phenotype such as different colony colours. By careful image acquisition, colours were measured in a reproducible way. Prior to image analysis, each image was corrected with respect to colour, geometry and self-illumination, thereby gaining a set of directly comparable images. A method for automatic extraction of a given number of concentric regions was used. Using the positions of the regions, a number of relevant features--capturing colour and colour-texture from the surface of the fungal colonies--was extracted for further analysis. We introduced the Jeffreys-Matusitas (JM) distance between the feature distributions to express the similarity between regions in two colonies, and to evaluate the overall (weighted) similarity. The nearest neighbour (NN) classification rule was used. On a dataset from 137 isolates, we obtained a "leave-one-out" cross-validation identification rate of approximately 93-98% compared with the result of DNA fingerprinting.

  20. The Eskdale Commune: Desert Alternative to Secular Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Frederick S.; Stott, Larry W.

    1974-01-01

    The Schools of Eskdale, a religious commune of the Order of Aaron, are attempting to escape the dualism and fragmentation so prevalent in public schools and show promise of becoming another viable alternative to secular schooling. (Author)

  1. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P < 0.01) as compared to the control subjects. Conclusions: The effects of prolonged exposure to EMRs from mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health. PMID:27011934

  2. Glucoamylase is a major allergen of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Toyotome, T; Satoh, M; Yahiro, M; Watanabe, A; Nomura, F; Kamei, K

    2014-03-01

    Schizophyllum commune is one of the causative agents of basidiomycosis including disorders such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis, allergic fungal sinusitis, and mucoid impaction of bronchi, the incidence of those of which has been increasing. These mycoses are difficult to diagnose because only a limited number of diagnostic tools are currently available. The biggest problem is that no specific antigens of S. commune have been identified to enable serodiagnosis of the disease. In this study, we attempted to identify a major antigen of S. commune to establish a reliable serodiagnostic method. We used mass spectrometry to identify an antigen that reacted with the serum of a patient with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by S. commune. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, highly purified, and the patient sera IgG and IgE titres against the protein were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein identified as a major antigen of S. commune was named Sch c 1; it was a homolog of glucoamylase. The IgG and IgE titres against Sch c 1 in patient sera were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer sera (P < 0.01). Sch c 1 is recognized by the host immune system of patients as an antigen/allergen. The purified glucoamylase Sch c 1 is a promising candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of S. commune-induced mycosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Psychiatric components of a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1987-01-01

    The operational psychiatric requirements for a comprehensive Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on a permanently manned Space Station are examined. Consideration is given to the psychological health maintenance program designed for the diagnosis of mental distress in astronauts during flight and for prevention of mental breakdown. The types of mental disorders that can possibly affect the astronauts in flight are discussed, including various organic, psychotic, and affective mental disorders, as well as anxiety, adjustment, and somatoform/dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to therapeutic considerations for psychiatric operations on Space Station, such as restraints, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, and psychosocial support.

  4. Microcomputer Learning Stations and Student Health and Safety: Planning, Evaluation, and Revision of Physical Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety's recommendations for computer stations in industrial settings and proposes their adaptation to educational institutions. The human side of computer applications is stressed; solutions to educational problems are described; and a checklist of requirements for student comfort is…

  5. Unusual reversible elastomeric gels from Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sol; Gonzales, Karen N; Romero, Eduardo G; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2017-04-01

    Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in extreme conditions of desiccation and nutrient-poor soils. Their colonies form spherical gelatinous bodies are composed of a variety of polysaccharides that allow them to store water and nutrients. In this paper, we study this type of biological gel that shows characteristics of both chemical and physical gels. The structure of this gel was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy, plate-plate rheometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and absorption/desorption tests. The storage modulus of this gel was found to be frequency independent, as is usual for chemical gels. The stress sweeps showed a reversible stress softening behaviour that was explained in terms of the physical nature of the interactions of this network. The high density of physical crosslinks probably allows this physical network to behave as a highly elastomeric chemical network, limiting the relaxation of individual chains. On the other hand, reversibility is associated with the physical nature of its bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [New legislation from the Politique Agricole Commune passed in 1994 and its impact on the spread of ragweed. The public health laws are the responsibility of the mayor, the health department, the General Council and the State Council].

    PubMed

    Riotte-Flandrois, F; Déchamp, C

    1995-11-01

    Until recently, Ragweed tended to thrive on untended land, but now it is spreading even on cultivated soils. The Common Agricultural Policy, which instituted the fallow system, initially contributed thereby to the increase of Ragweed. However, this same policy prescribes the minimum upkeep of fallow zones to prevent weeds from becoming rampant, especially those harmful to public health such as Ambrosia. There are a series of regulations, from Parliament level down to local government level, from prevention to repression, designed to safeguard public health and hence to combat the proliferation of Ragweed.

  7. An assessment of clinical chemical sensing technology for potential use in space station health maintenance facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Health Maintenance Facility is currently under development for space station application which will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on Earth. This final report addresses the study of alternate means of diagnosis and evaluation of impaired tissue perfusion in a microgravity environment. Chemical data variables related to the dysfunction and the sensors required to measure these variables are reviewed. A technology survey outlines the ability of existing systems to meet these requirements. How the candidate sensing system was subjected to rigorous testing is explored to determine its suitability. Recommendations for follow-on activities are included that would make the commercial system more appropriate for space station applications.

  8. Hydrocarbon Release During Fuel Storage and Transfer at Gas Stations: Environmental and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Mora, Bernat Adria; Ni, Jian; Rule, Ana M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-12-01

    At gas stations, fuel is stored and transferred between tanker trucks, storage tanks, and vehicle tanks. During both storage and transfer, a small fraction of unburned fuel is typically released to the environment unless pollution prevention technology is used. While the fraction may be small, the cumulative release can be substantial because of the large quantities of fuel sold. The cumulative release of unburned fuel is a public health concern because gas stations are widely distributed in residential areas and because fuel contains toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. We review the pathways through which gasoline is chronically released to atmospheric, aqueous, and subsurface environments, and how these releases may adversely affect human health. Adoption of suitable pollution prevention technology should not only be based on equipment and maintenance cost but also on energy- and health care-saving benefits.

  9. A Medical Decision Support System for the Space Station Health Maintenance Facility

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, David V.; Gardner, Reed M.; Logan, James S.

    1988-01-01

    NASA is developing a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) to provide the equipment and supplies necessary to deliver medical care in the Space Station. An essential part of the Health Maintenance Facility is a computerized Medical Decision Support System (MDSS) that will enhance the ability of the medical officer (“paramedic” or “physician”) to maintain the crew's health, and to provide emergency medical care. The computer system has four major functions: 1) collect and integrate medical information into an electronic medical record from Space Station medical officers, HMF instrumentation, and exercise equipment; 2) provide an integrated medical record and medical reference information management system; 3) manage inventory for logistical support of supplies and secure pharmaceuticals; 4) supply audio and electronic mail communications between the medical officer and ground based flight surgeons. ImagesFigure 1

  10. Investigating health information needs of community radio stations and applying the World Wide Web to disseminate audio products.

    PubMed

    Snyders, Janus; van Wyk, Elmarie; van Zyl, Hendra

    2010-01-01

    The Web and Media Technologies Platform (WMTP) of the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) conducted a pilot project amongst community radio stations in South Africa. Based on previous research done in Africa WMTP investigated the following research question: How reliable is the content of health information broadcast by community radio stations? The main objectives of the project were to determine the 1) intervals of health slots on community radio stations, 2) sources used by community radio stations for health slots, 3) type of audio products needed for health slots, and 4) to develop a user friendly Web site in response to the stations' needs for easy access to audio material on health information.

  11. Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

  12. Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

  13. Space Station Freedom CHeCS overview. [Crew Health Care System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joey B.

    1990-01-01

    The current status, progress, and future plans for development of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) for the International Space Station Freedom are presented. Essential operational biomedical support requirements for the astronauts, including medical care, environmental habitat monitoring, and countermeasures for the potentially maladaptive physiological effects of space flight will be provided by the CHeCS. Three integral parts will make up the system: a health maintenance facility, an environmental health system, and the exercise countermeasures facility. Details of each of the major systems and their subsystems are presented.

  14. Space Station Freedom CHeCS overview. [Crew Health Care System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joey B.

    1990-01-01

    The current status, progress, and future plans for development of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) for the International Space Station Freedom are presented. Essential operational biomedical support requirements for the astronauts, including medical care, environmental habitat monitoring, and countermeasures for the potentially maladaptive physiological effects of space flight will be provided by the CHeCS. Three integral parts will make up the system: a health maintenance facility, an environmental health system, and the exercise countermeasures facility. Details of each of the major systems and their subsystems are presented.

  15. Bioconversion of cinnamic acid derivatives by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Yoshifumi; Tsujiyama, Sho-ichi; Ueno, Masayoshi

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the production of useful phenols from plant resources, we examined the metabolism of cinnamic acid derivatives by a wood-rotting fungus, Schizophyllum commune. Four cinnamic acid derivatives (cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids) were tested as substrates. Two main reactions, reduction and cleavage of the side chain, were observed. Reduction of the side chain was confirmed in cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid metabolism. The side chain cleavage occurred in p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid metabolism but the initial reactions of these acids differed. Sinapic acid was not metabolized by S. commune. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde accumulation was observed in the culture to which p-coumaric acid was added. This suggests that S. commune is a useful agent for transforming p-coumaric acid into p-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  16. Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks—Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

  17. Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

    2007-03-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health.

  18. Rhynchosporium commune: a persistent threat to barley cultivation.

    PubMed

    Avrova, Anna; Knogge, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    Rhynchosporium commune is a haploid fungus causing scald or leaf blotch on barley, other Hordeum spp. and Bromus diandrus. Rhynchosporium commune is an anamorphic Ascomycete closely related to the teleomorph Helotiales genera Oculimacula and Pyrenopeziza. Rhynchosporium commune causes scald-like lesions on leaves, leaf sheaths and ears. Early symptoms are generally pale grey oval lesions. With time, the lesions acquire a dark brown margin with the centre of the lesion remaining pale green or pale brown. Lesions often merge to form large areas around which leaf yellowing is common. Infection frequently occurs in the leaf axil, which can lead to chlorosis and eventual death of the leaf. Rhynchosporium commune is seed borne, but the importance of this phase of the disease is not fully understood. Debris from previous crops and volunteers, infected from the stubble from previous crops, are considered to be the most important sources of the disease. Autumn-sown crops can become infected very soon after sowing. Secondary spread of disease occurs mainly through splash dispersal of conidia from infected leaves. Rainfall at the stem extension growth stage is the major environmental factor in epidemic development. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION: Rhynchosporium commune produces unique beak-shaped, one-septate spores both on leaves and in culture. The development of a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and, more recently, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has allowed the identification of asymptomatic infection in seeds and during the growing season. The main measure for the control of R. commune is the use of fungicides with different modes of action, in combination with the use of resistant cultivars. However, this is constantly under review because of the ability of the pathogen to adapt to host plant resistance and to develop fungicide resistance. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  19. The influence of Schizophyllum commune on asthma severity.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    The sensitization and exposure to fungal allergens have been reported to be associated with asthma. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of sensitization to Schizophyllum commune (S. commune) on the severity and exacerbations of asthma. Ninety-two patients with asthma of various levels of severity [mild (n = 18), moderate (28), and severe (46)] and exacerbation severity [moderate (n = 43) and severe (6)] were retrospectively examined with regard to fungal sensitization such as specific IgE or intradermal skin reactions against S. commune and other common allergens. We also classified the patients into three groups: (1) three or more asthma attacks during the past year (F-BA) (n = 29),(2) one or two asthma attacks (NF-BA) (n = 20), and (3) no asthma attack (C-BA) (n = 43). The positive rate of late cutaneous reactions to S. commune was higher in patients with severe asthma (41.2%) than with moderate (26.1%) or mild asthma (6.7%), and was significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05). Although the ratio did not show a significant difference between the patients with severe (83.3%) or moderate (36.1%) exacerbation, it was higher in F-BA (60.9%) than in NF-BA (21.1%) and C-BA patients (10.0%), and it was significantly different among the three groups (P = 0.0002). Multivariate analysis identified positive results for late-phase skin reactions to S. commune and the age of the patients as an independent determinant of asthma severity, and the skin results and %FVC an independent determinant of exacerbation frequency. This study demonstrated that S. commune is an environmental fungus that appears to enhance both the severity of asthma and the exacerbation frequency.

  20. A case of Schizophyllum commune sinusitis following unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Toya, Takashi; Shinohara, Akihito; Tatsuno, Keita; Seo, Sachiko; Nannya, Yasuhito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Makimura, Koichi; Moriya, Kyoji; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2013-08-01

    Schizophyllum commune is a globally distributed basidiomycete fungus that is known as a rare cause of sinusitis, for which no prompt treatment has been established. We describe the first report of S. commune sinusitis following unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Thirteen days after transplantation, a 23-year-old female developed maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis. The sinusitis was antimicrobial-resistant, and the sinus aspirate culture revealed white wooly mold, which was identified as S. commune by nucleotide sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous administration of liposomal amphotericin B for 2 months, followed by oral voriconazole. This report suggests the effectiveness of liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole for S. commune infection in immunocompromised patients. Given the difficulty in distinguishing S. commune infection from aspergillosis by standard culture methods, the incidence of S. commune infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be underestimated. Nucleotide sequencing may be useful in the diagnosis of S. commune infection.

  1. The Urban Commune: Fact or Fad, Promise or Pipe Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Saul V.; And Others

    This paper focuses its attention on the evolving communes in many North American cities and their members. The purpose was to learn as much as possible about how people live under this one particular set of conditions, the criteria for success or failure of this life style, and the implications for society and the future. This is an…

  2. Sparetime Education in Shanyang People's Commune. (People's Republic of China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang-Da, Yao

    Sparetime education has been developed in the Shanyang People's Commune to accomplish three major tasks. These are to wipe out illiteracy among the young and middle-aged, to disseminate knowledge about society and about agricultural technology, and to train personnel with knowledge in various social, economic, and technological fields. To meet the…

  3. Schizophyllum commune: an emergent or misdiagnosed fungal pathogen in rhinology?

    PubMed

    Michel, Justin; Maubon, Danièle; Varoquaux, Damien Arthur; Boulze, Carole; Normand, Anne Cécile; Righini, Christian Adrien; Piarroux, Renaud; Dessi, Patrick; Ranque, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Schizophyllum commune is a common basidiomycete fungus that is rarely involved in human disease. The medical records of patients operated on for fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) in two University Hospitals between 2012 and 2014 were reviewed. Within the two-year survey, six female, and notably no male, patients were diagnosed with S. commune rhinosinusitis. Mean age was 44.6 years at diagnosis (30 to 68 years). Mean time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 8.5 months (2 to 12 months). All six patients were immunocompetent and had no particular host factor for FRS. S. commune was identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and identifications were confirmed via DNA sequence analysis. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis was diagnosed in three of our six patients. Based on histological findings, antifungal treatment was delivered in association with surgery. The basidiomycete fungus S. commune is an emerging cause of rhinosinusitis probably as a direct consequence of the recent technological progress in fungal identification methods (DNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Chitin-glucan complex production by Schizophyllum commune submerged cultivation.

    PubMed

    Smirnou, Dzianis; Krcmar, Martin; Prochazkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Chitin-glucan complex is a fungal origin copolymer that finds application in medicine and cosmetics. Traditionally, the mycelium of Micromycetes is considered as an industrial chitin-glucan complex source. Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune submerged cultivation for chitin-glucan complex production was studied. In different S. commune strains chitin-glucan complex composed 15.2 +/- 0.4 to 30.2 +/- 0.2% of mycelium dry weight. Optimized conditions for chitin-glucan complex production (nutrient medium composition in g/l: sucrose - 35, yeast extract - 4, Na2HPO4*12H2O - 2.5, MgSO4*7 H2O - 0.5; medium initial pH 6.5; aeration intensity 21 of air per 11 of medium; 144 hours of cultivation) resulted in 3.5 +/- 0.3 g/l complex yield. Redirection of fungal metabolism from exopolysaccharide synthesis to chitin-glucan complex accumulation was achieved most efficiently by aeration intensity increase. Chitin-glucan complex from S. commune had the structure of microfibers with diameter 1-2 microm, had water-swelling capacity of 18 g/g, and was composed of 16.63% chitin and 83.37% glucan with a degree of chitin deacetylation of 26.9%. S. commune submerged cultivation is a potent alternative to Micromycetes for industrial-scale chitin-glucan complex production.

  5. Behavioral Health Support of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Two areas of focus for optimizing behavioral health and human performance during International Space Station missions are 1) sleep and circadian assessment and 2) behavioral medicine. The Mir experience provided the opportunity to examine the use and potential effectiveness of tools and procedures to support the behavioral health of the crew. The experience of NASA has shown that on-orbit performance can be better maintained if behavioral health, sleep, and circadian issues are effectively monitored and properly addressed. For example, schedules can be tailored based upon fatigue level of crews and other behavioral and cognitive indicators to maximize performance. Previous research and experience with long duration missions has resulted in the development and upgrade of tools used to monitor fatigue, stress, cognitive function, and behavioral health. Self-assessment and objective tools such as the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool have been developed and refined to effectively address behavioral medicine countermeasures in space.

  6. Behavioral Health Support of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Two areas of focus for optimizing behavioral health and human performance during International Space Station missions are 1) sleep and circadian assessment and 2) behavioral medicine. The Mir experience provided the opportunity to examine the use and potential effectiveness of tools and procedures to support the behavioral health of the crew. The experience of NASA has shown that on-orbit performance can be better maintained if behavioral health, sleep, and circadian issues are effectively monitored and properly addressed. For example, schedules can be tailored based upon fatigue level of crews and other behavioral and cognitive indicators to maximize performance. Previous research and experience with long duration missions has resulted in the development and upgrade of tools used to monitor fatigue, stress, cognitive function, and behavioral health. Self-assessment and objective tools such as the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool have been developed and refined to effectively address behavioral medicine countermeasures in space.

  7. A simple health sign increases stair use in a shopping mall and two train stations in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Boen, Filip; Maurissen, Katrien; Opdenacker, Joke

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a simple health-promotion sign on stair use in three community settings in Flanders, Belgium. A health sign was placed at the junction between the stairs and an escalator in a shopping mall and two train stations. Observations took place on four days: baseline, first intervention, post-intervention and second intervention. In the second station, a second post-intervention phase was added. In total, 1437 choices of shoppers were registered in the mall, while 2869 and 2025 choices of commuters were recorded in the two stations, respectively. Despite the different baselines of stair use, the introduction of the health sign in the first intervention phase resulted in a significant increase in all three settings: 10.0% increase in the mall, 8.6% in the first station and 18.0% in the second station. In the second station, the increase during the second intervention exceeded that of the first intervention. Moreover, in this station stair use in the second post-intervention phase was significantly higher than at baseline. An inexpensive health-promoting sign has a substantial effect on the proportion of stair users among shoppers and commuters. Preliminary evidence was found that repeated exposure to a health sign might have a longer term effect on stair use.

  8. The approach of prehospital health care personnel working at emergency stations towards forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Asci, Ozlem; Hazar, Guleser; Sercan, Isa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the states of health care personnel, working at 112 emergency stations in the province of Artvin, to encounter with regarding forensic cases and determine their practices aimed at recognizing, protecting, and reporting the evidences that may affect the forensic process. This descriptive study was conducted with nurses and emergency medicine technicians working at 112 emergency stations in Artvin between January 2013 and February 2014. Of 141 health personnel that constituted sample of the study, 48.9% were nurses, 9.9% emergency medicine technicians, and 41.1% ambulance and emergency care technicians. The rate of feeling sufficient in coping with forensic cases and incidents was 20.6%. There was a lower rate of receiving education about the approach towards forensic cases (15.6%). In the study, the frequency of encountering with at least one forensic case was 88.7%. Traffic accidents (72.5%), suicides (41.5%) and assaults (41.5%) were among the most frequent reasons of forensic cases. The practices of nurses were more successful in woundings by firearms compared to other health personnel (p < 0.05). The rate of recognizing the evidences was 81.6-96.5%. Almost one fourth of the personnel had no sufficient information about storing and protecting the evidences. The personnel working at 112 emergency stations in the province of Artvin frequently encounter with forensic cases. The personnel with higher educational level and nurses have more successful practices in forensic cases. Health personnel have approaches that may negatively affect the solution of forensic cases.

  9. Bilateral allergic fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune and Aspergillus niger. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Khalifa; Ishino, Takashi; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Schizophillum commune (S. commune) is a rare type of basidiomycetous fungus that has being reported as a cause of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), invasive type of fungal sinusitis and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM). However, it is believed that S. commune was often misdiagnosed to Aspergillus sp. We report a case of bilateral nasal polyps and maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoidal involvement within the context of S. commune and Aspergillus niger associated AFRS. Our patient was suffering from a chronic disease with periods of remission and exacerbation and was treated successfully by a combination of surgical and antifungal treatment. In our experience, S. commune may be found frequently in patients with AFRS. AFRS, including the S. commune-associated type, usually runs a prolonged course and can affect any paranasal sinus. Surgical treatment alone is not sufficient and must be combined with medical treatment.

  10. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  11. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  12. The Russian experience in medical care and health maintenance of the International Space Station crews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, V. V.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-02-01

    The main purpose of the medical support system aboard International Space Station (ISS) is crew health maintenance and high level of work capability assurance prior to during and after in space flights. In the present communication the Russian point of view dealing with the problems and achievements in this branch is presented. An overview on medical operations during flight and after finalization of the space missions based on Russian data of crew health and environment state monitoring, as well as data on the inflight countermeasures (prophylaxis) jointly with data on operational problems that are specific to ISS is presented. The report summarizes results of the medical examination of Russian members of the ISS and taxi crews during and after visits to the ISS.

  13. The distribution of all French communes: A composite parametric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderín-Ojeda, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of the size of all French settlements (communes) from 1962 to 2012 is examined by means of a three-parameter composite Lognormal-Pareto distribution. This model is based on a Lognormal density up to an unknown threshold value and a Pareto density thereafter. Recent findings have shown that the untruncated settlement size data is in excellent agreement with the Lognormal distribution in the lower and central parts of the empirical distribution, but it follows a power law in the upper tail. For that reason, this probabilistic family, that nests both models, seems appropriate to describe urban agglomeration in France. The outcomes of this paper reveal that for the early periods (1962-1975) the upper quartile of the commune size data adheres closely to a power law distribution, whereas for later periods (2006-2012) most of the city size dynamics is explained by a Lognormal model.

  14. Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune: an emerging pathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Ashok, Rangaiahgari; Majety, Madhavi; Chitta, Megharaj; Narayen, Nitesh

    2016-07-12

    Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune is very rare. In this study, we report the clinical and microbiological profile of five patients with fungal keratitis due to S. commune. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings from all five patients showed septate branching hyaline fungal filaments. Similarly, in all five patients Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates inoculated with corneal scrapings showed white, cottony colonies on the second day of incubation. Lactophenol cotton blue stained wet preparation of 7-day-old colonies on SDA revealed clamp connections and no spores. The fungus was identified by its characteristic clamp connections, fan-shaped bracket fruiting body with pinkish-grey longitudinally split-radiating gills. The phenotypic identification of one of the five isolates further conformed by ITS sequencing. Treatment outcome was available for two of the five patients; in these two patients, the keratitis resolved with topical natamycin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. A Case of Sinusitis Caused by Schizophyllum Commune and Bacteria in Acute Myelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiuyun; Liang, Yuying; Zeng, Lijun; Chen, Shuiping

    2015-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune infections have been rarely reported. Here we reported a rare case of sinusitis in an acute myelocytic leukemia patient, who was co-infected by Escherichia coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and basidiomycetous fungi (Schizophyllum commune) in sinuses. Considering the in vitro and in vivo anti-fungal activity of voriconazole, it might be a good option to treat Schizophyllum commune infections when antifungal susceptibility testing is not available. When severe side effects occur, amphotericin B or itraconazole might be subsequent choice.

  16. Maxillary Sinusitis Caused by Medusoid Form of Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Lynne; Bartley, James R.; Parr, Dinah H.; Morris, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of maxillary sinusitis in a diabetic female caused by the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. Identification of the isolate was hampered by its atypical features. Subcultures formed sterile medusoid structures from nonclamped mycelia until spontaneous dikaryotization resulted in the development of characteristic fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Identification was confirmed by the presence of spicules formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates. PMID:10488217

  17. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-09-23

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Finally, taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically.

  18. Schizophyllum commune: a new organism in eye infection.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suman; Sengupta, Jayangshu; Banerjee, Debdulal; Khetan, Archana; Mandal, Santi Mohan

    2013-04-01

    We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by a rare fungus Schizophyllum commune. Clinical examination, slit-lamp examination, and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer were done, and its treatment outcome was studied. The fungal etiology was established by conventional microbiological techniques, polymerase chain reaction and speciation by DNA sequencing. Corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments. The fungus was identified as S. commune based on DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region. The organism was susceptible to amphotericin B and voriconazole and demonstrated resistance to anidulafungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed but there was recurrence of the infection in the graft, which was controlled with topical voriconazole and intracameral amphotericin B. At the end of 3 months, the affected eye had developed phthisis bulbi. The best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of keratitis caused by the rare fungus S. commune. Management of these cases is difficult, and surgical procedures may be needed.

  19. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire.

    PubMed

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-09-23

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically.

  20. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically. PMID:27659065

  1. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    DOE PAGES

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; ...

    2016-09-23

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regionsmore » (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Finally, taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically.« less

  2. Prognostics and health management (PHM) for astronauts: a collaboration project on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexandre; Fink, Wolfgang; Hess, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Long-duration missions bring numerous risks that must be understood and mitigated in order to keep astronauts healthy, rather than treat a diagnosed health disorder. Having a limited medical support from mission control center on space exploration missions, crew members need a personal health-tracking tool to predict and assess his/her health risks if no preventive measures are taken. This paper refines a concept employing technologies from Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) for systems, namely real-time health monitoring and condition-based health maintenance with predictive diagnostics capabilities. Mapping particular PHM-based solutions to some Human Health and Performance (HH&P) technology candidates, namely by NASA designation, the Autonomous Medical Decision technology and the Integrated Biomedical Informatics technology, this conceptual paper emphasize key points that make the concept different from that of both current conventional medicine and telemedicine including space medicine. The primary benefit of the technologies development for the HH&P domain is the ability to successfully achieve affordable human space missions to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and beyond. Space missions on the International Space Station (ISS) program directly contribute to the knowledge base and advancements in the HH&P domain, thanks to continued operations on the ISS, a unique human-tended test platform and the only test bed within the space environment. The concept is to be validated on the ISS, the only "test bed" on which to prepare for future manned exploration missions. The paper authors believe that early self-diagnostic coupled with autonomous identification of proper preventive responses on negative trends are critical in order to keep astronauts healthy.

  3. Health risk assessment of odors emitted from urban wastewater pump stations in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Xu, Shi-Ying; Gong, Qing-Chao

    2014-09-01

    In order to evaluate the potential adverse health effects of odor emissions from wastewater pump stations (WWPSs) to human, a health risk assessment was performed to study the odors emitted from an urban WWPS in a residential area, Tianjin (in North China). First, 15 types of volatile organic compounds in the WWPS were collected and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Next, Monte Carlo probabilistic modeling was applied to evaluate the potential health effects of four odors (chlorobenzene, dichloromethane, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide), which had higher concentrations. The results revealed that the 95th percentile of the total non-carcinogenic risk was approximately 1.73, which poses a threat to human health. In addition, hydrogen sulfide had the highest non-carcinogenic risk value of the four; the hazard quotient of hydrogen sulfide was estimated to be 1.60 at the 95th percentile, higher than the upper confidence limit (1.0). The 95th percentile of the carcinogenic risk was approximately 5.47E-08, much lower than the maximum acceptable level (1.0E-06). Finally, the influence of the input variables on the output was evaluated using sensitivity analysis, and contaminant concentration, reference concentration, and inhalation unit risk were the most influential variables.

  4. [Inhalation of gasoline and damage to health in workers at gas stations].

    PubMed

    Pranjić, Nurka; Mujagić, H; Pavlović, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to made assessment of chronic health effects in 37 workers exposed to gasoline, and its constituents at gasoline stations between 1985 and 1996. By the study we have involved thirty-seven persons who had been exposed to gasoline for more than five years were examined. The evaluation included a medical/occupational history, hematological and biochemical examination, a physical exam, standardized psychological tests, and ultrasound examination of kidneys and liver. The groups were identical in other common parameters including age, gender (all men), and level of education (P < 0.05). The data were compared to two control groups: 61 gasoline unexposed controls and 25 workers at gasoline stations exposed to organic lead for only nine months. Peripheral smear revealed basophilic punctuated eritrocytes and reticulocytosis. We found in chronic exposed gasoline workers haematological disorders: mild leukocytosis (7 of 37), lymphocytosis (20 of 37), mild lymhocytopenia (3 of 37), decrease of red blood cells count (11 of 37). Results indicated that they have suffered from liver disorders: lipoid degeneration of liver (14 of 37), chronic functional damages of liver (3 of 37), cirrhosis (1 of 37). Ultrasound examination indicated chronic kidney damages (8 of 37). These results significantly differed from those of controls (P < 0.05). In 13 out of 37 workers at gasoline stations exposed to gasoline for more than 5 years the symptom of depression and decreased reaction time and motor abilities were identified. The summary of diseases of workers exposed to organic lead and gasoline are discussed.

  5. Ergonomics work stations decreases the health impairment and saves electrical energy at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sudiajeng, Lilik; Adiputra, Nyoman; Leibbrandt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to assess the positive effect of the ergonomics work station on the health impairment and electrical energy usage at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia. Woodworking workshops are dangerous, particularly when they are used improperly. Workers are exposed to health hazards that cause health impairment and inefficiencies in their work conditions. A preliminary study at a woodworking workshop at the Bali State Polytechnic showed that the work station was not suitable to body size of the participants and caused awkward postures. In addition, there was also an inappropriate physical work environment. Both inappropriate work station and physical work environment caused participants to be less active and motivated. This paper reports on an experimental study into the effects of an ergonomic intervention at this workshop. The participants were 2 groups of male students with 10 participants in each group. The first group performed the task with the original work station as a control group, while the second group performed the task with the new work station. The study found a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05) both for the health impairment and the electrical energy usage. The ergonomics intervention on the work station decreased the working heart rate (16.7%), the total score of musculoskeletal disorders (17.3%), and the total score of psychological fatigue (21.5%). Furthermore, it also decreased the electrical energy usage (38.7%). This shows that an ergonomics intervention on work station decreased the health impairment and saved electrical energy usage. It also protected the workers from woodworking hazards and allowed participants to perform their tasks in healthy, safe, convenient and efficient work conditions.

  6. Evaluation of prototype air/fluid separator for Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Smith, Maureen; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype air/fluid separator suction apparatus proposed as a possible design for use with the Health Maintenance Facility aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) was evaluated. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed for this purpose. The flights followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. A protocol was prepared to evaluate the prototype device in several regulator modes (or suction force), using three fluids of varying viscosity, and using either continuous or intermittent suction. It was felt that a matrixed approach would best approximate the range of utilization anticipated for medical suction on SSF. The protocols were performed in one-gravity in a lab setting to familiarize the team with procedures and techniques. Identical steps were performed aboard the KC-135 during parabolic flight.

  7. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range. PMID:26287229

  8. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  9. Feruloyl esterases from Schizophyllum commune to treat food industry side-streams.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-11-01

    Agro-industrial side-streams are abundant and renewable resources of hydroxycinnamic acids with potential applications as antioxidants and preservatives in the food, health, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) from Schizophyllum commune were functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris with extracellular activities of 6000UL(-1). The recombinant enzymes, ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2, released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet pectin. Overnight incubation of coffee pulp released caffeic (>60%), ferulic (>80%) and p-coumaric acid (100%) indicating applicability for the valorization of food processing wastes and enhanced biomass degradation. Based on substrate specificity profiling and the release of diferulates from destarched wheat bran, the recombinant FAEs were characterized as type D FAEs. ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2 preferably hydrolyzed feruloylated saccharides with ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues and showed an unprecedented ability to hydrolyze benzoic acid esters.

  10. Fatal empyema thoracis caused by Schizophyllum commune with cross-reactive cryptococcal antigenemia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper F W; Teng, Jade L L; Li, Iris W S; Wong, Sally C Y; Leung, Sally S M; Ho, Po-On; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-02-01

    We report a fatal case of Schizophyllum commune empyema thoracis with cross-reactive cryptococcal antigenemia. In vitro testing confirmed the ability of the fungus to cause a positive cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination system (CALAS) test result. Such a result may lead to delay in diagnosis and treatment, as most strains of S. commune are resistant to fluconazole.

  11. From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a…

  12. Reorganization of Elementary Educational System and Commutation of Children to Collective Commune Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palonka, Krystyna Maria

    Between 1973-1979, the elementary educational system in rural areas of Poland has been reorganized into a system of collective commune schools; students commute or are bused to the schools. Since September 1973, 944 new collective commune schools have been set up. A study of the data indicates that the process of setting up collective commune…

  13. Fatal Empyema Thoracis Caused by Schizophyllum commune with Cross-Reactive Cryptococcal Antigenemia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper F. W.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Li, Iris W. S.; Wong, Sally C. Y.; Leung, Sally S. M.; Ho, Po-On; To, Kelvin K. W.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal case of Schizophyllum commune empyema thoracis with cross-reactive cryptococcal antigenemia. In vitro testing confirmed the ability of the fungus to cause a positive cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination system (CALAS) test result. Such a result may lead to delay in diagnosis and treatment, as most strains of S. commune are resistant to fluconazole. PMID:24478514

  14. From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a…

  15. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  16. Functional and Comparative Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation by Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; Lee, Hanbyul; Park, Hongjae; Brewer, Heather M.; Carver, Akiko; Copeland, Alex; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Purvine, Samuel O.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Tegelaar, Martin; Tritt, Andrew; Baker, Scott; Choi, In-Geol; Lugones, Luis G.; Wosten, Han A. B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    The Basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune is a wood-decaying fungus and is used as a model system to study lignocellulose degradation. Version 3.0 of the genome assembly filled 269 of 316 sequence gaps and added 680 kb of sequence. This new assembly was reannotated using RNAseq transcriptomics data, and this resulted in 3110 (24percent) more genes. Two additional S. commune strains with different wood-decaying properties were sequenced, from Tattone (France) and Loenen (The Netherlands). Sequence comparison shows remarkably high sequence diversity between the strains. The overall SNP rate of > 100 SNPs/kb is among the highest rates of within-species polymorphisms in Basidiomycetes. Some well-described proteins like hydrophobins and transcription factors have less than 70percent sequence identity among the strains. Some chromosomes are better conserved than others and in some cases large parts of chromosomes are missing from one or more strains. Gene expression on glucose, cellulose and wood was analyzed in two S. commune strains. Overall, gene expression correlated between the two strains, but there were some notable exceptions. Of particular interest are CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) that are regulated in different ways in the different strains. In both strains the transcription factor Fsp1 was strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose and wood, when compared to glucose. Over-expression of Fsp1 using a constitutive promoter resulted in higher cellulose and xylose-degrading enzyme activity, which suggests that Fsp1 is involved in regulating CAZyme gene expression. Two CAZyme genes (of family GH61 and GH11) were shown to be strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose, compared to glucose. Proteomics on the secreted proteins in the growth medium confirmed this. A promoter analysis revealed the shortest active promoters for these two genes, as well as putative transcription factor binding sites.

  17. Cyclohexanone derivatives with cytotoxicity from the fungus Penicillium commune.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-zhi; Ren, Jin-wei; Tang, Jin-shan; Liu, Xing-zhong; Che, Yong-sheng; Yao, Xin-sheng

    2013-06-01

    Four new cyclohexanone derivatives (2-5) and one known analog, (-)-Palitantin (1) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Penicillium commune, a fungal strain of low-temperature habitats. The structures of 2-5 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of 2 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, whereas that 3-5 were deduced via the CD data. Cytotoxicities of 2-5 against five human carcinoma cell lines (Hela, A549, MCF7, HCT116, T24) were evaluated.

  18. Health risk assessment of ambient air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) in service station environments.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2014-06-18

    A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR) and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

  19. Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) in Service Station Environments

    PubMed Central

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR) and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario. PMID:24945191

  20. Spatial analysis of undernutrition of children in léogâne Commune, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Spray, Andrea L; Eddy, Brittany; Hipp, James Aaron; Iannotti, Lora

    2013-12-01

    Over a fifth (21.9%) of children under 5 years of age in Haiti suffer from chronic malnutrition, 11.4% are underweight, and 5.1% suffer from acute malnutrition. Léogâne Commune has one of the highest under-five mortality rates in the country. Ordinary least squares regression conducted using data from household surveys to assess the impact of causal factors on child undernutrition may mask important local variations. To characterize the nutrition and health situation of children 6 to 35 months of age in LLogdne Commune, Haiti, using geographically weighted regression. In July 2008, the Children's Nutrition Program of Haiti conducted a representative cross-sectional household survey (N = 150) using a modified 33 x 6 alternative sampling design. Household questionnaires were administered to caregivers of children 6 to 35 months of age and anthropometric measurements were collected. Geographically weighted regression was employed to evaluate how undernutrition (weight-forage) and its household determinants vary across the region. Geographically weighted regression and ordinary least squares regression models were compared. The residuals of the ordinary least squares regression model were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.08, z = 1.90, p = .058), indicating that undernutrition occurs in pockets rather than being evenly distributed throughout the population. There was no improvement in performance from the ordinary least squares regression model to the geographically weighted regression model. Despite some limitations, this study illustrates a promising approach for using geospatial data to improve the understanding of how a nutrition situation varies across a region and provide deeper insight into its underlying causes.

  1. Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

    2010-09-01

    Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta). II. Clonal integration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.; Schiele, E.M.; Damberg, D.T. )

    1990-12-01

    Polytrichum commune is a perennial moss that grows by rhizomatous production of interconnected shoots. It possesses a well-developed internal system of food-conducting tissue. Liquid scintillation determinations following pulse-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} treatment of a single shoot in rhizomatously connected groups indicate that tagged photoassimilates are transported into: (1) newly developing stems during the early growing season; (2) shared rhizomes (with an increase observed in rhizome allocation toward the end of the year, as well as a year-end percentage increase in starch reserves); and (3) mature neighboring shoots. Over the course of the growing season, photoassimilate export from pulse-labeled shoots ranges between 12.9% and 21.4% of total tagged. The amount of export is significantly influenced by defoliation, shading, stem tip removal, and 50 ppm indole-3-acetic acid treatments performed on rhizomatously connected neighbor shoots. Physiological integration within P. commune can be inferred from these results. Control is exerted by endogenous hormones or by changes in the activity of sources and sinks.

  3. Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Robin A; de Jong, Jan F; Lugones, Luis G; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E; de Vries, Ronald P; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E; Bartholomew, Kirk A; Coutinho, Pedro M; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J; Gathman, Allen C; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kües, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K; Piumi, François; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W M R; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Horton, J Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V; Wösten, Han A B

    2010-09-01

    Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  4. Hydrophobin gene expression affects hyphal wall composition in Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    van Wetter, M A; Wösten, H A; Sietsma, J H; Wessels, J G

    2000-11-01

    Disruption of the SC3 hydrophobin gene of Schizophyllum commune (DeltaSC3 strain) affected the composition of the cell wall. Compared to a wild-type strain the amount of mucilage (i.e., water-soluble (1-3)beta-glucan with single glucose residues attached by (1-6)beta-linkages) increased considerably, while the amount of alkali-resistant glucan (linked to chitin) decreased. Reintroduction of the SC3 gene or other hydrophobins genes expressed behind the SC3 promotor restored wild-type cell wall composition. However, addition of purified SC3 protein to the medium or growing the DeltaSC3 strain in spent medium of the wild-type strain had no effect. In young cultures of wild-type strains of S.commune, not yet expressing SC3, the amount of mucilage was also relatively high. These data show that hydrophobins not only function at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces, as shown previously, but also affect wall composition.

  5. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-03-07

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  6. Operational behavioral health and performance resources for international space station crews and families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.; Vander Ark, Stephen T.

    2005-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Section (BHP) at NASA Johnson Space Center provides direct and indirect psychological services to the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts and their families. Beginning with the NASA-Mir Program, services available to the crews and families have gradually expanded as experience is gained in long-duration flight. Enhancements to the overall BHP program have been shaped by crewmembers' personal preferences, family requests, specific events during the missions, programmatic requirements, and other lessons learned. The BHP program focuses its work on four areas: operational psychology, behavioral medicine, human-to-system interface, and sleep and circadian. Within these areas of focus are psychological and psychiatric screening for astronaut selection as well as many resources that are available to the crewmembers, families, and other groups such as crew surgeon and various levels of management within NASA. Services include: preflight, in flight, and postflight preparation; training and support; resources from a Family Support Office; in-flight monitoring; clinical care for astronauts and their families; and expertise in the workload and work/rest scheduling of crews on the ISS. Each of the four operational areas is summarized, as are future directions for the BHP program.

  7. Operational behavioral health and performance resources for international space station crews and families.

    PubMed

    Sipes, Walter E; Vander Ark, Stephen T

    2005-06-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Section (BHP) at NASA Johnson Space Center provides direct and indirect psychological services to the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts and their families. Beginning with the NASA-Mir Program, services available to the crews and families have gradually expanded as experience is gained in long-duration flight. Enhancements to the overall BHP program have been shaped by crewmembers' personal preferences, family requests, specific events during the missions, programmatic requirements, and other lessons learned. The BHP program focuses its work on four areas: operational psychology, behavioral medicine, human-to-system interface, and sleep and circadian. Within these areas of focus are psychological and psychiatric screening for astronaut selection as well as many resources that are available to the crewmembers, families, and other groups such as crew surgeon and various levels of management within NASA. Services include: preflight, in flight, and postflight preparation; training and support; resources from a Family Support Office; in-flight monitoring; clinical care for astronauts and their families; and expertise in the workload and work/rest scheduling of crews on the ISS. Each of the four operational areas is summarized, as are future directions for the BHP program.

  8. Operational behavioral health and performance resources for international space station crews and families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.; Vander Ark, Stephen T.

    2005-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Section (BHP) at NASA Johnson Space Center provides direct and indirect psychological services to the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts and their families. Beginning with the NASA-Mir Program, services available to the crews and families have gradually expanded as experience is gained in long-duration flight. Enhancements to the overall BHP program have been shaped by crewmembers' personal preferences, family requests, specific events during the missions, programmatic requirements, and other lessons learned. The BHP program focuses its work on four areas: operational psychology, behavioral medicine, human-to-system interface, and sleep and circadian. Within these areas of focus are psychological and psychiatric screening for astronaut selection as well as many resources that are available to the crewmembers, families, and other groups such as crew surgeon and various levels of management within NASA. Services include: preflight, in flight, and postflight preparation; training and support; resources from a Family Support Office; in-flight monitoring; clinical care for astronauts and their families; and expertise in the workload and work/rest scheduling of crews on the ISS. Each of the four operational areas is summarized, as are future directions for the BHP program.

  9. Water stress proteins from Nostoc commune Vauch. exhibit anti-colon cancer activities in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guo, Songjia; Shan, Shuhua; Jin, Xiaoting; Li, Zongwei; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Liangqi; An, Quan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-14

    Nostoc commune has been traditionally used in China as a health food and medicine. The water stress proteins (WSP) of Nostoc commune are the major component of the extracellular matrix. This study purified and identified the water stress proteins (WSP1) from Nostoc commune Vauch., which could inhibit the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines. The IC50 values of WSP1 against DLD1, HCT116, HT29, and SW480 cells were 0.19 ± 0.02, 0.21 ± 0.03, 0.39 ± 0.05, and 0.41 ± 0.01 μg/μL, respectively. Notably, it displayed very little effect on the normal human intestinal epithelial FHC cell line. The IC50 value of WSP1 against FHC cells was 0.67 ± 0.05 μg/μL. Moreover, the growth of DLD1 xenografted tumors in nude mice were significantly suppressed in the WSP1 treated group. Mechanistically, the cell-cycle analysis revealed that WSP1 induced growth inhibition by G1/S arrest. Meanwhile, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays showed WSP1 could activate caspase-8, -9, and -3, along with subsequent PARP cleavage. Furthermore, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, partly reversed the effect caused by WSP1, confirming that WSP1 induced cell apoptosis through caspase-dependent pathway. Collectively, WSP1 has targeted inhibition for colon cancer proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and it is valuable for future exploitation and utilization as an antitumor agent.

  10. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.

    PubMed

    Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic effect of Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing, an edible blue-green alga.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Heather E; Blobaum, Kara R; Jesch, Elliot D; Ku, Chai Siah; Park, Young-Ki; Lu, Fan; Carr, Timothy P; Lee, Ji-Young

    2009-10-01

    Intake of an edible blue-green alga Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (N. Commune) has been shown to lower plasma total cholesterol concentration, but the mechanisms behind the hypocholesterolemic effect have not been elucidated. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of N. commune in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed the AIN-93 M diet supplemented with 0 or 5% (wt/wt) dried N. Commune for 4 weeks. Lipid levels in the plasma and liver, intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal sterol excretion were measured. Expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was evaluated by quantitative realtime PCR. N. commune supplementation significantly reduced total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by approximately 20% compared to controls. Intestinal cholesterol absorption was significantly decreased, while fecal neutral sterol output was significantly increased in N. commune-fed mice. mRNA levels of the cholesterol transporters such as Niemann Pick C1 Like 1, scavenger receptor class B type 1, ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and A1 in small intestine were not significantly different between two groups. Hepatic lipid contents including total cholesterol, triglyceride and free cholesterol in N. commune-fed mice were not significantly altered. However, the expression of cholesterol modulating genes including sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase were significantly increased in mice fed N. commune. N. commune supplementation exerted a hypocholesterolemic effect in mice, largely in part, by reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption and promoting fecal neutral sterol excretion.

  12. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  13. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  14. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  15. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-06

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  16. Molecular detection of Schizophyllum commune in a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prashant; Verma, Nitya; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Agarwal, Satya Prakash

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of Schizophyllum commune causing allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) in a 56-year-old immunocompetent woman. In our case, diagnosis of AFRS was based on the history of illness, CT scan findings, culture and PCR. The PCR product was further analysed by sequencing to confirm S. commune. The patient was treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and antiallergic drugs. PMID:26009605

  17. Molecular detection of Schizophyllum commune in a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prashant; Verma, Nitya; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Agarwal, Satya Prakash

    2015-05-24

    We present a rare case of Schizophyllum commune causing allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) in a 56-year-old immunocompetent woman. In our case, diagnosis of AFRS was based on the history of illness, CT scan findings, culture and PCR. The PCR product was further analysed by sequencing to confirm S. commune. The patient was treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and antiallergic drugs. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can not however be fully explained by attributions or concerns.

  19. An overview of the space medicine program and development of the Health Maintenance Facility for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee

    1988-01-01

    Because the prolonged stay on board the Space Station will increase the risk of possible inflight medical problems from that on Skylab missions, the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) planned for the Space Station is much more sophisticated than the small clinics of the Skylab missions. The development of the HMF is directed by the consideration of three primary factors: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of injuries and illnesses that may occur in flight. The major components of the HMF include the clinical laboratory, pharmacy, imaging system, critical-care system, patient-restraint system, data-management system, exercise system, surgical system, electrophysiologic-monitoring system, introvenous-fluid system, dental system, and hyperbaric-treatment-support system.

  20. An overview of the space medicine program and development of the Health Maintenance Facility for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee

    1988-01-01

    Because the prolonged stay on board the Space Station will increase the risk of possible inflight medical problems from that on Skylab missions, the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) planned for the Space Station is much more sophisticated than the small clinics of the Skylab missions. The development of the HMF is directed by the consideration of three primary factors: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of injuries and illnesses that may occur in flight. The major components of the HMF include the clinical laboratory, pharmacy, imaging system, critical-care system, patient-restraint system, data-management system, exercise system, surgical system, electrophysiologic-monitoring system, introvenous-fluid system, dental system, and hyperbaric-treatment-support system.

  1. Permanently effective in health development. JICA Reproductive Health Project. Nghi Loc district.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Huy Huyen

    1999-01-01

    The most common health problems in Nghi Trong in Vietnam include reproductive tract infections, children's diseases such as diarrhea, and acute bronchitis. Reproductive tract infections take place because of unsanitary water and acute bronchitis is rampant because of the cold weather. Although no HIV/AIDS cases have been reported in the commune, the Nghi Trong Commune Health Center (CHC) is making every effort to prevent HIV infection while providing other services. Under the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project, information, education and communication activities have been implemented in the district. These activities are important because they have been helping commune people identify and understand common health problems, how to prevent them, and how to get timely treatment. It is not only temporary, but it is permanently effective in health development. In addition, health staff workers at the CHCs are benefiting from the training program provided by the JICA project. More commune people are also visiting the CHCs for examination and treatment.

  2. Application of a quantitative histological health index for Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Mondon, Julie A

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative Histological Health Index (HHI) was applied to Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii) using gill, liver, spleen, kidney and gonad to assess the impact of wastewater effluent from Davis Station, East Antarctica. A total of 120 fish were collected from 6 sites in the Prydz Bay region of East Antarctica at varying distances from the wastewater outfall. The HHI revealed a greater severity of alteration in fish at the wastewater outfall, which decreased stepwise with distance. Gill and liver displayed the greatest severity of alteration in fish occurring in close proximity to the wastewater outfall, showing severe and pronounced alteration respectively. Findings of the HHI add to a growing weight of evidence indicating that the current level of wastewater treatment at Davis Station is insufficient to prevent impact to the surrounding environment. The HHI for T. bernacchii developed in this study is recommended as a useful risk assessment tool for assessing in situ, sub-lethal impacts from station-derived contamination in coastal regions throughout Antarctica.

  3. Molecular Identification of Schizophyllum commune as a Cause of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Lim, Sang Chul; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2012-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune, a basidiomycetous fungus, rarely causes disease in humans. We report a rare case of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in a 14-yr-old girl. The patient presented with nasal obstruction and a purulent nasal discharge. Materials obtained during endoscopic surgery of the frontal recess revealed allergic mucin and a few fungal hyphae. A potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture from the allergic mucin yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mold. Although no distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules or a clamp connection were present, the case isolate disclosed compatible mycological features including growth at 37℃, susceptibility to cycloheximide, and production of a tart and disagreeable smell. S. commune was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA. We believe this is the first report of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in Korea. Moreover, this report highlights the value of gene sequencing as an identification tool for non-sporulating isolates of S. commune. PMID:22950076

  4. Transcriptional analysis of genes encoding β-glucosidase of Schizophyllum commune KUC9397 under optimal conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Heo, Young Mok; Lee, Hwanhwi; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-05-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the gene responsible for beta-glucosidase (BGL) production and to generate a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of one of the putative BGL genes, which showed a significant expression level when Schizophyllum commune KUC9397 was grown in optimized medium. The relative expression levels of seven genes encoding BGL of S. commune KUC9397 were determined with real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR in cellulose-containing optimized medium (OM) compared to glucose-containing basal medium (BM). The most abundant transcript was bgl3a in OM. The transcript number of the bgl3a increased more than 57.60-fold when S. commune KUC9397 was grown on cellulose-containing OM compared to that on glucose-containing BM. The bgl3a was identified, and a deduced amino acid sequence of bgl3a shared homology (97%) with GH3 BGL of S. commune H4-8. This is the first report showing the transcription levels of genes encoding BGL and identification of full-length cDNA of glycoside hydrolase 3 (GH3) BGL from S. commune. Furthermore, this study is one of the steps for consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol.

  5. Glycosylated porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine from the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Yamaba, Minami; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2013-08-26

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally different MAAs have been identified in eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. In this study novel glycosylated MAAs were found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune (N. commune). An MAA with an absorption maximum at 334 nm was identified as a hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 508 Da. Another MAA with an absorption maximum at 322 nm was identified as a two hexose-bound palythine-threonine derivative with a molecular mass of 612 Da. These purified MAAs have radical scavenging activities in vitro, which suggests multifunctional roles as sunscreens and antioxidants. The 612-Da MAA accounted for approximately 60% of the total MAAs and contributed approximately 20% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract, indicating that it is the major water-soluble UV-protectant and radical scavenger component. The hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative and the glycosylated palythine-threonine derivatives were found in a specific genotype of N. commune, suggesting that glycosylated MAA patterns could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the characterization of the morphologically indistinguishable N. commune. The glycosylation of porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine in N. commune suggests a unique adaptation for terrestrial environments that are drastically fluctuating in comparison to stable aquatic environments.

  6. Molecular identification of Schizophyllum commune as a cause of allergic fungal sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Shin, Jong Hee; Lim, Sang Chul; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2012-09-01

    Schizophyllum commune, a basidiomycetous fungus, rarely causes disease in humans. We report a rare case of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in a 14-yr-old girl. The patient presented with nasal obstruction and a purulent nasal discharge. Materials obtained during endoscopic surgery of the frontal recess revealed allergic mucin and a few fungal hyphae. A potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture from the allergic mucin yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mold. Although no distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules or a clamp connection were present, the case isolate disclosed compatible mycological features including growth at 37℃, susceptibility to cycloheximide, and production of a tart and disagreeable smell. S. commune was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA. We believe this is the first report of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in Korea. Moreover, this report highlights the value of gene sequencing as an identification tool for non-sporulating isolates of S. commune.

  7. Glycosylated Porphyra-334 and Palythine-Threonine from the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    PubMed Central

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Yamaba, Minami; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally different MAAs have been identified in eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. In this study novel glycosylated MAAs were found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune (N. commune). An MAA with an absorption maximum at 334 nm was identified as a hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 508 Da. Another MAA with an absorption maximum at 322 nm was identified as a two hexose-bound palythine-threonine derivative with a molecular mass of 612 Da. These purified MAAs have radical scavenging activities in vitro, which suggests multifunctional roles as sunscreens and antioxidants. The 612-Da MAA accounted for approximately 60% of the total MAAs and contributed approximately 20% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract, indicating that it is the major water-soluble UV-protectant and radical scavenger component. The hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative and the glycosylated palythine-threonine derivatives were found in a specific genotype of N. commune, suggesting that glycosylated MAA patterns could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the characterization of the morphologically indistinguishable N. commune. The glycosylation of porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine in N. commune suggests a unique adaptation for terrestrial environments that are drastically fluctuating in comparison to stable aquatic environments. PMID:24065157

  8. Molecular genetic and chemotaxonomic characterization of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and its neighboring species.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hiromi; Horiguchi, Noriomi; Takaichi, Shinichi; Kofuji, Rumiko; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Wada, Keishiro; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeny of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and its neighboring Nostoc species was studied using molecular genetic and chemotaxonomic approaches. At least eight genotypes of N. commune were characterized by the differences among 16S rRNA gene sequences and the petH gene encoding ferredoxin-NADP⁺ oxidoreductase and by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The genotypes of N. commune were distributed in Japan without regional specificity. The nrtP gene encoding NrtP-type nitrate/nitrite permease was widely distributed in the genus Nostoc, suggesting that the occurrence of the nrtP gene can be one of the characteristic features that separate cyanobacteria into two groups. The wspA gene encoding a 36-kDa water stress protein was only found in N. commune and Nostoc verrucosum, suggesting that these Nostoc species that form massive colonies with extracellular polysaccharides can be exclusively characterized by the occurrence of the wspA gene. Fifteen species of Nostoc and Anabaena were investigated by comparing their carotenoid composition. Three groups with distinct patterns of carotenoids were related to the phylogenic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences. Nostoc commune and Nostoc punctiforme were clustered in one monophyletic group and characterized by the occurrence of nostoxanthin, canthaxanthin, and myxol glycosides.

  9. Accumulation of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Terrestrial Cyanobacteria Nostoc commune

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight 134Cs and 607,000 Bq kg−1 dry weight 137Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil. PMID:24256969

  10. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Manh Hoai; Sebesvari, Zita; Tu, Binh Minh; Pham, Hung Viet; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2011-12-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In-flight demonstration of the Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility fluid therapy system (E300/E05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will provide medical care for crew members for up to 10 days. An integral part of the required medical care consists of providing intravenous infusion of fluids, electrolyte solutions, and nutrients to sustain an ill or injured crew member. In terrestrial health care facilities, intravenous solutions are normally stored in large quantities. However, due to the station's weight and volume constraints, an adequate supply of the required solutions cannot be carried onboard SSF. By formulating medical fluids onboard from concentrates and station water as needed, the Fluid Therapy System (FTS) eliminates weight and volume concerns regarding intravenous fluids. The first full-system demonstration of FTS is continuous microgravity will be conducted in Spacelab-Japan (SL-J). The FTS evaluation consists of two functional objectives and an in-flight demonstration of intravenous administration of fluids. The first is to make and store sterile water and IV solutions onboard the spacecraft. If intravenous fluids are to be produced in SSF, successful sterilization of water and reconstituting of IV solutions must be achieved. The second objective is to repeat the verification of the FTS infusion pump, which had been performed in Spacelab Life Sciences - 1 (SLS-1). during SLS-1, the FTS IV pump was operated in continuous microgravity for the first time. The pump functioned successfully, and valuable knowledge on its performance in continuous microgravity was obtained. Finally, the technique of starting an IF in microgravity will be demonstrated. The IV technique requires modifications in microgravity, such as use of restraints for equipment and crew members involved.

  12. The mycelial response of the white-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune to the biocontrol agent, Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Ujor, Victor C; Monti, Monia; Peiris, Diluka Gayani; Clements, Mark Owen; Hedger, John Norman

    2012-02-01

    In this study, agar plate interaction between Schizophyllum commune and Trichoderma viride was investigated to characterise the physiological responses occurring during interspecific mycelial combat. The metabolite profiles and morphological changes in both fungi paired on agar were studied relative to the modulation of phenoloxidase activity in S. commune. The calcium ionophore A23187 was incorporated in self-paired cultures of S. commune to explore possible involvement of calcium influx in the response of S. commune to T. viride. The levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls in the confronted mycelia of S. commune were also measured. Contact with T. viride induced pigmentation and cell wall hydrolysis in S. commune with concomitant increase in phenoloxidase activity, rise in the levels of oxidative stress indicators and increased levels of phenolic compounds, antioxidant γ-amino butyric acid, and pyridoxine and osmo-protective sugar alcohols. Calcium ionophore mimicked the pigmentation in the T. viride-confronted mycelia of S. commune, implicating calcium influx in the response to T. viride. The changes in S. commune are indicative of targeted responses to osmotic and oxidative stresses and phenoloxidase-mediated detoxification of noxious compounds in the contact interface with T. viride, which may confer resistance in natural environments. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Communes and Changing Family Norms: Marriage and Life-Style Choice among Former Members of Communal Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidala, Angela A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined by follow-up interviews the attitudes and behavior about marriage, parenting, and lifestyle among former commune members (N=344) previously interviewed in 1974-76. Found ex-commune members: (l) less likely to have married, (2) more likely to live in multi-adult households and, (3) more receptive to possible collective living arrangements…

  14. Systematic review on the health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Hug, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review and evaluate the recent literature on the health effects of exposure to mobile phone base station (MPBS) radiation. Methods We performed a systematic review of randomized human trials conducted in laboratory settings and of epidemiological studies that investigated the health effects of MPBS radiation in the everyday environment. Findings We included in the analysis 17 articles that met our basic quality criteria: 5 randomized human laboratory trials and 12 epidemiological studies. The majority of the papers (14) examined self-reported non-specific symptoms of ill-health. Most of the randomized trials did not detect any association between MPBS radiation and the development of acute symptoms during or shortly after exposure. The sporadically observed associations did not show a consistent pattern with regard to symptoms or types of exposure. We also found that the more sophisticated the exposure assessment, the less likely it was that an effect would be reported. Studies on health effects other than non-specific symptoms and studies on MPBS exposure in children were scarce. Conclusion The evidence for a missing relationship between MPBS exposure up to 10 volts per metre and acute symptom development can be considered strong because it is based on randomized, blinded human laboratory trials. At present, there is insufficient data to draw firm conclusions about health effects from long-term low-level exposure typically occurring in the everyday environment. PMID:21124713

  15. Systematic review on the health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations.

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin; Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Hug, Kerstin

    2010-12-01

    to review and evaluate the recent literature on the health effects of exposure to mobile phone base station (MPBS) radiation. we performed a systematic review of randomized human trials conducted in laboratory settings and of epidemiological studies that investigated the health effects of MPBS radiation in the everyday environment. we included in the analysis 17 articles that met our basic quality criteria: 5 randomized human laboratory trials and 12 epidemiological studies. The majority of the papers (14) examined self-reported non-specific symptoms of ill-health. Most of the randomized trials did not detect any association between MPBS radiation and the development of acute symptoms during or shortly after exposure. The sporadically observed associations did not show a consistent pattern with regard to symptoms or types of exposure. We also found that the more sophisticated the exposure assessment, the less likely it was that an effect would be reported. Studies on health effects other than non-specific symptoms and studies on MPBS exposure in children were scarce. the evidence for a missing relationship between MPBS exposure up to 10 volts per metre and acute symptom development can be considered strong because it is based on randomized, blinded human laboratory trials. At present, there is insufficient data to draw firm conclusions about health effects from long-term low-level exposure typically occurring in the everyday environment.

  16. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W.; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han A.B.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivation of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  17. Isolation and antitumor efficacy evaluation of a polysaccharide from Nostoc commune Vauch.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Ding, Guo-Bin; Guo, Songjia; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Liangqi; Li, Ke; Guo, Xiangrong

    2015-09-01

    Nostoc commune Vauch. has been traditionally used as a healthy food and medicine for centuries especially in China. It has been demonstrated that the polysaccharides isolated from Nostoc commune Vauch. exhibit strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about their anticancer activities and the underlying mechanisms of action. Herein, we report the isolation of a polysaccharide from Nostoc commune Vauch. (NVPS), and its physicochemical properties were analyzed. In an attempt to demonstrate the potential application of NVPS in tumor chemotherapy, the in vitro antitumor activity was determined. NVPS significantly suppressed the growth and proliferation of MCF-7 and DLD1 cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this in vitro antitumor efficacy was elucidated, and the results indicated that NVPS simultaneously triggered intrinsic, extrinsic and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NVPS could be used as a novel promising source of natural antitumor agents.

  18. [Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis induced by Schizophyllum commune--case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yuka; Shirai, Ryo; Tokimatsu, Issei; Oka, Hiroaki; Iwata, Atsuko; Otani, Satoshi; Umeki, Kenji; Sakashita, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Gendo, Yoshiko; Kishi, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2009-08-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of pyrexia, cough and sputum. He suffered from bronchial asthma. Chest X-ray showed infiltrates in the left upper and right lower lung fields. Chest CT scans showed mucoid impaction and consolidation predominantly in the left upper lobe. Laboratory tests showed peripheral eosinophilia, elevated level of serum IgE, and the increased eosinophils in his sputum. Schizophyllum commune was isolated from the bronchoscopically-removed mucous plug. A diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) due to S. commune was made. Simultaneous daily administration of 400 mg itraconazole (ITCZ) and corticosteroid (prednisolone; 30 mg daily) provided sufficient improvement. However recurrence was recognized on chest CT scan findings one year later. There are not enough case reports concerning S. commune-induced ABPM to establish a therapeutic approach to the condition.

  19. Isolation and in silico analysis of Fe-superoxide dismutase in the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Kesheri, Minu; Kanchan, Swarna; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-12-15

    Cyanobacteria are known to endure various stress conditions due to the inbuilt potential for oxidative stress alleviation owing to the presence of an array of antioxidants. The present study shows that Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune possesses two antioxidative enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase that jointly cope with environmental stresses prevailing at its natural habitat. Native-PAGE analysis illustrates the presence of a single prominent isoform recognized as Fe-SOD and three distinct isoforms of catalase. The protein sequence of Fe-SOD in N. commune retrieved from NCBI protein sequence database was used for in silico analysis. 3D structure of N. commune was predicted by comparative modeling using MODELLER 9v11. Further, this model was validated for its quality by Ramachandran plot, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA-web which revealed good structure quality of the model. Multiple sequence alignment showed high conservation in N and C-terminal domain regions along with all metal binding positions in Fe-SOD which were also found to be highly conserved in all 28 cyanobacterial species under study, including N. commune. In silico prediction of isoelectric point and molecular weight of Fe-SOD was found to be 5.48 and 22,342.98Da respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that among 28 cyanobacterial species, Fe-SOD in N. commune was the closest evolutionary homolog of Fe-SOD in Nostoc punctiforme as evident by strong bootstrap value. Thus, N. commune may serve as a good biological model for studies related to survival of life under extreme conditions prevailing at the Antarctic region. Moreover cyanobacteria may be exploited for biochemical and biotechnological applications of enzymatic antioxidants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of the plant protection practices on the operators' exposure: survey by the communes and ministry of equipment and transport (MET-RW).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the health-related aspects of the surveys (environmental aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of bad practices and a growing awareness of the non-agricultural users with respect to health risks. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major health risks (which endanger the operator and the public). Information, awareness-raising and, especially, training of people therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  1. Space Medicine: Shuttle - Space Station Crew Health and Safety Challenges for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation combines some views of the shuttle take off, and the shuttle and space station on orbit, and some views of the underwater astronaut training , with a general discussion of Space Medicine. It begins with a discussion of the some of the physiological issues of space flight. These include: Space Motion Sickness (SMS), Cardiovascular, Neurovestibular, Musculoskeletal, and Behavioral/Psycho-social. There is also discussion of the space environment and the issues that are posed including: Radiation, Toxic products and propellants, Habitability, Atmosphere, and Medical events. Included also is a discussion of the systems and crew training. There are also artists views of the Constellation vehicles, the planned lunar base, and extended lunar settlement. There are also slides showing the size of earth in perspective to the other planets, and the sun and the sun in perspective to other stars. There is also a discussion of the in-flight changes that occur in neural feedback that produces postural imbalance and loss of coordination after return.

  2. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, the Space Station Task Force was formed, signaling the initiation of the Space Station Freedom Program, and eventually resulting in the Marshall Space Flight Center's responsibilities for Space Station Work Package 1.

  3. Assessing Medical Students' Awareness of and Sensitivity to Diverse Health Beliefs Using a Standardized Patient Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lynne S.; White, Casey B.; Alexander, Gwen L.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Grum, Cyril M.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed students' competence in addressing the health beliefs and cultural concerns of a standardized patient, an African American woman with diabetes, during a clinical interview. Found that minority students displayed greater competence in addressing the patient's concerns about altering culturally-based dietary behaviors; white students…

  4. Assessing Medical Students' Awareness of and Sensitivity to Diverse Health Beliefs Using a Standardized Patient Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lynne S.; White, Casey B.; Alexander, Gwen L.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Grum, Cyril M.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed students' competence in addressing the health beliefs and cultural concerns of a standardized patient, an African American woman with diabetes, during a clinical interview. Found that minority students displayed greater competence in addressing the patient's concerns about altering culturally-based dietary behaviors; white students…

  5. [Health of women living near oil wells and oil production stations in the Amazon region of Ecuador].

    PubMed

    San Sebastián, M; Armstrong, B; Stephens, C

    2001-06-01

    Investigate the environmental conditions in and the state of health of women who live in rural communities surrounded by oil wells and oil production stations in the Amazon region of Ecuador. We used a comparative cross-sectional design, classifying exposure according to the location of the communities with respect to the oil wells and production stations. Water samples from the local rivers were analyzed to determine total petroleum hydrocarbons, and a structured questionnaire was used with the head of each family in the study. The study was performed in rural communities in northeastern Ecuador from November 1998 through April 1999. The study included 9 communities in the exposed area (368 participants) and 14 communities in the unexposed area (291 participants). The rivers of the exposed communities showed contamination levels much above the limits acceptable for human use. Statistically significant differences between the exposed communities and the unexposed communities were found for the prevalence of skin fungi for the two weeks prior to the study (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.86) as well as for nasal irritation (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.64-2.91) and for throat irritation (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.02-2.75) in the preceding 12 months. Also associated with exposure in the two preceding weeks were fatigue and the category of "other symptoms"; similarly associated with exposure in the preceding 12 months were headaches, eye irritation, earaches, diarrhea, and gastritis. The symptoms found among the participants in the exposed communities match the toxicity symptoms caused by oil. There is an urgent need to establish an adequate environmental control and remediation program in order to prevent unnecessary and unacceptable health hazards for these populations.

  6. Development of Molecular Methods for Identification of Schizophyllum commune from Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Buzina, Walter; Lang-Loidolt, Doris; Braun, Hannes; Freudenschuss, Kurt; Stammberger, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In the last 50 years, to our knowledge, only 16 cases of diseases caused by Schizophyllum commune in humans have been reported. Within only 6 months, we found four isolates of this basidiomycetous fungus, obtained from patients suffering from chronic sinusitis. The cultures of the isolated fungi showed neither clamp connections nor fruiting bodies (basidiocarps), which are distinctive features for S. commune, but fast-growing cottony white mycelium only. This was harvested, and DNA was extracted. The internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified with fungus-specific primers, and the PCR products were sequenced. Two strains of S. commune, collected from branches of a European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and a tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), respectively; four specimens from the herbarium of the Institute of Botany, Karl-Franzens-University Graz; and two strains from internationally known culture collections (CBS 340.81 [ATCC 44201] and CBS 405.96) were investigated in the same way. The sequence data of all strains were compared and showed homology of over 99% in this 660-bp-long fragment of rDNA. With these results, a map of restriction enzyme cutting sites and a primer set specific for S. commune were created for reliable identification of this human pathogenic fungus. PMID:11427544

  7. First report of otitis externa caused by Schizophyllum commune and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Matos, Tadeja; Tomazin, Rok; Battelino, Saba

    2016-05-01

    Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune is a widely distributed cellulolytic fungus that is a well-known pathogen. It can cause a wide range of different infections, and here we describe the first case of otitis externa and a molecularly based identification process.

  8. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  9. Novel thermostable glycosidases in the extracellular matrix of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed; Kuzuha, Satomi; Takani, Yayoi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2008-10-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and forms a visible colony in which the cells are embedded in extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), which play a crucial role in the extreme desiccation tolerance of this organism. When natural colonies were immersed in water, degradation of the colonies occurred within 2 days and N. commune cells were released into the water. The activities that hydrolyze glycoside bonds in various N. commune fractions were examined using artificial nitrophenyl-linked sugars as substrates. A beta-D-glucosidase purified from the water-soluble fraction was resistant to 20 min of boiling. The beta-D-glucosidase, with a molecular mass of 20 kDa, was identified as a cyanobacterial fasciclin protein based on its N-terminal amino-acid sequence. The 36-kDa major protein in the water-soluble fraction was purified, and the N-terminal amino-acid sequence of the protein was found to be identical to that of the water-stress protein (WspA) of N. commune. This WspA protein also showed heat-resistant beta-D-galactosidase activity. The fasciclin protein and WspA in the extracellular matrix may play a role in the hydrolysis of the EPSs surrounding the cells, possibly as an aid in the dispersal of cells, thus expanding the colonies of this cyanobacterium.

  10. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Masafumi; Ohno, Hideaki; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Tomono, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with eosinophilic pneumonia accompanied by bronchial asthma. She was finally diagnosed with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) due to co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizophyllum commune detected by genetic analysis of the plug and from cultures. PMID:26839766

  11. An Analysis of Communes and Intentional Communities with Particular Attention to Sexual and Genderal Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conover, Patrick W.

    1975-01-01

    The contemporary development of communes and intentional communities is described and accounted for as an institutionalizing response to the development of an alternate culture. Various themes of communal life are discussed and the implications of these themes for sexual and genderal relations is considered. (Author)

  12. The Relations between the School and the Commune in New China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kexiao, Lei

    1980-01-01

    Describes the structure of the Chinese rural school system and its operational ties to the communes, which provide the "productive labor" component of Chinese education, various resources and facilities for schools, and governance of agrotechnical education at the middle and secondary level. (SJL)

  13. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Seki, Masafumi; Ohno, Hideaki; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Tomono, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with eosinophilic pneumonia accompanied by bronchial asthma. She was finally diagnosed with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) due to co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizophyllum commune detected by genetic analysis of the plug and from cultures.

  14. Schizophyllum commune as an emerging fungal pathogen: a review and report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, A; Randhawa, H S; Gaur, S N; Agarwal, K; Kathuria, S; Roy, P; Klaassen, C H; Meis, J F

    2013-01-01

    We report Schizophyllum commune as the aetiological agent of one case each of allergic broncho-pulmonary mycosis (ABPM) and pulmonary fungal ball, and present a literature review. The fungus was characterised by clamp connections, hyphal spicules, and formation of basidiocarps with basidiospores. The phenotypic identification was confirmed by sequencing of the ITS region. To-date, ABPM and pulmonary fungal ball to S. commune have been reported exclusively from Japan and North America respectively. Of the 71 globally reported cases due to S. commune, 45 (63%) were bronchopulmonary, 22 (31%) sinusitis and 4 extrapulmonary. Taken together, cases of bronchopulmonary disease and sinusitis numbered 67 (94%), indicating the respiratory tract as the primary target of disease. Concerning the country-wise distribution, Japan topped the list with 33 cases (46%), followed by Iran - 7 cases (10%), U.S.A. - 6 cases (9%), and a lower prevalence of 1.4-6% for the remaining 12 countries. The preponderance of the disease in Japan may be attributed to its greater awareness vis-à-vis that in other countries rather than to any geographical/climatic factors. We believe that the burden of S. commune-incited disease is currently underestimated, warranting comprehensive prospective studies to determine its prevalence. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune, to our knowledge never before examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan, were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1.0% (w/v) distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by...

  16. Crucial Role of Extracellular Polysaccharides in Desiccation and Freezing Tolerance in the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    PubMed Central

    Tamaru, Yoshiyuki; Takani, Yayoi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and has a cosmopolitan distribution. In this study, the role of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis in N. commune was examined. Although photosynthetic O2 evolution was not detected in desiccated colonies, the ability of the cells to evolve O2 rapidly recovered after rehydration. The air-dried colonies contained approximately 10% (wt/wt) water, and field-isolated, natural colonies with EPS were highly water absorbent and were rapidly hydrated by atmospheric moisture. The cells embedded in EPS in Nostoc colonies were highly desiccation tolerant, and O2 evolution was not damaged by air drying. Although N. commune was determined to be a mesophilic cyanobacterium, the cells with EPS were heat tolerant in a desiccated state. EPS could be removed from cells by homogenizing colonies with a blender and filtering with coarse filter paper. This treatment to remove EPS did not damage Nostoc cells or their ability to evolve O2, but O2 evolution was significantly damaged by desiccation treatment of the EPS-depleted cells. Similar to the EPS-depleted cells, the laboratory culture strain KU002 had only small amount of EPS and was highly sensitive to desiccation. In the EPS-depleted cells, O2 evolution was also sensitive to freeze-thaw treatment. These results strongly suggest that EPS of N. commune is crucial for the stress tolerance of photosynthesis during desiccation and during freezing and thawing. PMID:16269775

  17. [Mucoid impaction of the bronchi caused by Schizophyllum commune which developed after discontinuation of itraconazole administration].

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Harasaw, Keiji; Yoshii, Yutaka; Matsushita, Aya; Yoneda, Koichiro; Miyahara, Yousuke; Kagiyama, Naho; Tokunaga, Daido; Aoki, Fumiaki; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with mucoid impaction of the bronchi (MIB) due to Schizophyllum commune who improved with itraconazole (ITCZ) administration and relapsed after discontinuation of the drug. She improved again after readministration of ITCZ, and MIB has not recurred. This patient was not suffering from asthma and has been well without steroid administration. Reports of respiratory disorders due to S. commune have been increasing, and cases of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM), fungus ball, lung abscess, and pneumonia have been reported. Including this report, 12 cases of ABPM and MIB due to S. commune have been reported by Japanese authors. Treatment in these 12 cases included anti-fungal agent in 6, single steroid therapy in 3, combination therapy in 2, and bronchial toilet in 1 case. S. commune is not well recognized; however, one should suspect this fungus to be the causative pathogen when Aspergillus species are not detected or anti-Aspergillus antibody is negative.

  18. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  19. Crucial role of extracellular polysaccharides in desiccation and freezing tolerance in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Yoshiyuki; Takani, Yayoi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2005-11-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and has a cosmopolitan distribution. In this study, the role of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis in N. commune was examined. Although photosynthetic O2 evolution was not detected in desiccated colonies, the ability of the cells to evolve O2 rapidly recovered after rehydration. The air-dried colonies contained approximately 10% (wt/wt) water, and field-isolated, natural colonies with EPS were highly water absorbent and were rapidly hydrated by atmospheric moisture. The cells embedded in EPS in Nostoc colonies were highly desiccation tolerant, and O2 evolution was not damaged by air drying. Although N. commune was determined to be a mesophilic cyanobacterium, the cells with EPS were heat tolerant in a desiccated state. EPS could be removed from cells by homogenizing colonies with a blender and filtering with coarse filter paper. This treatment to remove EPS did not damage Nostoc cells or their ability to evolve O2, but O2 evolution was significantly damaged by desiccation treatment of the EPS-depleted cells. Similar to the EPS-depleted cells, the laboratory culture strain KU002 had only small amount of EPS and was highly sensitive to desiccation. In the EPS-depleted cells, O2 evolution was also sensitive to freeze-thaw treatment. These results strongly suggest that EPS of N. commune is crucial for the stress tolerance of photosynthesis during desiccation and during freezing and thawing.

  20. UV irradiation and desiccation modulate the three-dimensional extracellular matrix of Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria).

    PubMed

    Wright, Deborah J; Smith, Sue C; Joardar, Vinita; Scherer, Siegfried; Jervis, Jody; Warren, Andrew; Helm, Richard F; Potts, Malcolm

    2005-12-02

    Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune can tolerate the simultaneous stresses of desiccation, UV irradiation, and oxidation. Acidic WspA, of approximately 33.6 kDa, is secreted to the three-dimensional extracellular matrix and accounts for greater than 70% of the total soluble protein. The wspA gene of N. commune strain DRH1 was cloned and found in a single genomic copy, in a monocistronic operon. Transcription of wspA and sodF (superoxide dismutase), and synthesis and secretion of WspA, were induced upon desiccation or UV-A/B irradiation of cells. Recombinant WspA binds the UV-A/B absorbing pigment scytonemin through non-covalent interactions. WspA peptide polymorphism, and heterogeneity of multiple wspA sequences within cells of a single colony, account for distinct WspA isoforms. WspA has no similarity to entries in the sequence databases and wspA, a possible xenolog, is restricted to a subset of strains in the "form species" N. commune characterized through group I intron phylogeny. We hypothesize that WspA plays a central role in the global stress response of N. commune through modulation of the structure and function of the three-dimensional extracellular matrix, particularly the transport, distribution, and/or macromolecular architecture of mycosporine and scytonemin UV-A/B absorbing pigment complexes.

  1. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in midwestern and western United States

    Treesearch

    J. E. Stewart; R. K. Dumroese; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium commune can cause damping-off and root rot of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries. The pathogen is only reported in Oregon, Idaho, and Washington within United States. Fusarium isolates were collected from midwestern and western United States to determine occurrence of this pathogen. DNA sequences of mitochondrial small subunit gene were used to identify F....

  2. Characterization of cytochrome c3 from the thermophilic sulfate reducer Thermodesulfobacterium commune.

    PubMed Central

    Hatchikian, E C; Papavassiliou, P; Bianco, P; Haladjian, J

    1984-01-01

    A c3 type cytochrome has been purified from the thermophilic, non-spore-forming, sulfate-reducing bacterium Thermodesulfobacterium commune. The purified protein was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and isoelectric focusing. A pI of 6.83 was observed. The molecular weight of the cytochrome was estimated to be ca. 13,000 from both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The hemoprotein exhibited absorption maxima at 530, 408.5, and 351 nm in the oxidized form and 551.5 (alpha band), 522.5 (beta band), and 418.5 nm (gamma band) in the reduced form. The extinction coefficients of T. commune cytochrome c3 were 130,000, 74,120, and 975,000 M-1 cm-1 at 551.5, 522.5, and 418.5 nm, respectively. It contains four hemes per molecule, on the basis of both the iron estimation and the extinction coefficient value of its pyridine hemochrome. The amino acid composition showed the presence of eight cysteine residues involved in heme binding. T. commune cytochrome c3 had low threonine, serine, and glycine contents and high glutamic acid and hydrophobic residue contents. The electrochemical study of T. commune cytochrome c3 by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse polarography has shown that the cytochrome system behaves like a reversible system. Four redox potential values at Eh1 = -0.140 +/- 0.010 V, Eh2 = Eh3 = Eh4 = -0.280 +/- 0.010 V have been determined. T. commune cytochrome c3, which acts as the physiological electron carrier of hydrogenase, is similar in most respects to the multiheme low-potential cytochrome c3 which is characteristic of the genus Desulfovibrio. PMID:6090384

  3. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory, we selected terrestrial mosses with different life forms: the orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. Metal concentrations were determined in both species growing together at sites situated at various distances approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 km from polluters. MARS analysis evaluated different tendencies of both species for Cd, Co and Pb accumulation depending on the distance from the emitter. In P. schreberi, the concentration of these metals diminished relatively rapidly with an increasing distance from the emitter up to 3000 m and then stabilised. For P. commune, a steady decrease could be observed with increasing the distance up to 6000 m. PCCA ordination explained that both species from the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant were correlated with the highest Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb as well as Mn and Ni concentrations in their tissues. The mosses from sites closest to both power plants were correlated with the highest Cd and Zn concentrations. P. commune contained significantly higher Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations compared to P. schreberi. This may be caused by the lamellae found in the leaves of P. commune which increase the surface area of the possible aerial absorption of contaminants. Soil may also be an additional source of metals, and it affects the uptake in endohydric P. commune more than in ectohydric P. schreberi. However, the precise explanation of these relations needs further investigation.

  4. Health hazard evaluation report No. HETA 81-278-1371, Warrick Generating Station, Yankeetown, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Donohue, M.

    1983-09-01

    Environmental samples were collected to evaluate employee exposures to airborne concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, coal dust, fly ash, crystalline silica, and inorganic metals. In addition, gas leaks from the boilers were evaluated. While the majority of personal samples were below current criteria, a health hazard did exist for some employees exposed to sulfur dioxide, coal dust, and crystalline silica. Highest concentrations were obtained on samples worn by electrical and maintenance personnel and employees working on the positive pressure boiler (unit 4). In addition, the potential exists for employee exposure to boiler gases due to boiler leaks. Respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm production, and wheezing were twice the expected rate for this group of workers. If preventive maintenance and engineering measures are employed, the occurrence of continued group health effects will likely be reduced. Recommendations are made in the body of the full report for an improved respiratory protection program, reducing leaks from boiler units, and for periodic environmental monitoring of the employees.

  5. [Health assessments of a military company stationed on the Maroni River in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Lial, J P

    1999-01-01

    Over a 5 month period (October 1996 to February 1997), a rotating company of 146 servicemen belonging to the Navy Airborne 6th Regiment were assigned along the Maroni River in French Guyana. During this mission, the medical personnel treated 387 local residents. Etiologies comprised 51 malaria attacks including 46 involving Plasmodium falciparum and 4 rattlesnake envenomations. The most common cause of consultation by military personnel was mycotic and staphylococcal skin infections, but 5 cases involving poor acclimatization were treated during the hot and dry season. Seven malaria attacks involving Plasmodium falciparum including 2 that were severe occurred despite prophylaxis using chloroquine-proguanil. Treatment with halofantrine was successful in all but one case which required combined chemotherapy using quinine and doxycycline. Five cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were observed in subjects involved in jungle training. No case of HIV infection was detected upon returning home since most personnel either followed the recommendation to abstain from sex (51 p. 100) or used a condom (90 p. 100 of personnel who had sexual relations). These data illustrate the health risks for mainland French nationals in the region of the Maroni River and underline the need for preventive measures and education.

  6. The State, Communes and Free Cultural Activity: The Tenth National Adult Education Conference in Orivesi, May 22-24, 1974

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education in Finland, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The excerpts from four speeches at the National Adult Education Conference deal with the distribution of tasks of the State, communes, and organizations of free cultural activities in the field; administrative questions; and economic responsibilities. (Author/BP)

  7. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune.

    PubMed

    Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali Akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses.

  8. Production of (+)-valencene in the mushroom-forming fungus S. commune.

    PubMed

    Scholtmeijer, Karin; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G; Bosch, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Production of commercially interesting sesquiterpenes was previously examined in plants and microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We here investigate the potential of the mushroom Schizophyllum commune for the production of sesquiterpenes. Genomic analysis of S. commune revealed that the mevalonate pathway required for the synthesis of the farnesyl diphosphate substrate for sesquiterpene production is operational. Introduction of a valencene synthase gene resulted in production of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene, both in mycelium and in fruiting bodies. Levels of (+)-valencene in culture media of strains containing a mutated RGS regulatory protein gene (thn) were increased fourfold compared to those in wild-type transformants. Up to 16 mg L(-1) (+)-valencene was produced in these strains. In addition, the amount of (+)-valencene containing n-dodecane recovered from the culture medium increased sixfold to sevenfold in the thn mutant strains due to the absence of schizophyllan.

  9. Migration Suppression of Small Cell Lung Cancer by Polysaccharides from Nostoc commune Vaucher.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Ding, Guo-Bin; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lichao; Wu, Haili; Li, Hanqing; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-08-17

    Nostoc commune Vauch., classified into cyanobacteria, has been always well appreciated as a healthy food and medicine worldwide owing to its rich nutrition and potent bioactivities. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from N. commune Vauch. (NVPS) against cancer cell progression and metastasis is still being unraveled. The results in this study showed that NVPS remarkably suppressed cell migration through blocking the epithelial-mesenchymal transition program in NCI-H446 and NCI-H1688 human small cell lung cancer cells. The inhibitory effects were attributed to the suppression of integrin β1/FAK signaling through regulating cell-matrix adhesion. Furthermore, NVPS treatment could increase E-cadherin expression, but down-regulate N-cadherin, Vimentin, and MMP-9 expression, which resulted in the blockage of STAT3 nuclear translocation and JAK1 signaling. These findings suggest that NVPS may be a good candidate for development as a possible antitumor agent against small cell lung cancer.

  10. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses. PMID:24371755

  11. Production of cellulolytic enzymes containing cinnamic acid esterase from Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Tsujiyama, Sho-ichi; Ueno, Hitomi

    2011-01-01

    To develop enzyme preparations capable of digesting plant biomass, we examined the production of cinnamic acid esterase as well as cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes in cultures of Schizophyllum commune. The cinnamic acid esterase was produced in the cultures containing solid cellulosic substrates, with production being enhanced by delignifying the wood powder. This indicates that these esterases are produced by cellulose, despite their substrates being phenolic compounds. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes, with the exception of α-arabinofuranosidase, were also produced in cultures containing cellulosic substances. These results show that enzyme preparation can have high activity of cinnamic acid esterase and cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes when S. commune is incubated in the presence of cellulose. These enzyme preparations will be useful for digesting plant biomass and for releasing cinnamic acid derivatives from plant cell walls.

  12. Analysis of the sexual development-promoting region of Schizophyllum commune TRP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kikuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Tazuke, Kazuyuki; Maki, Yoshinori; Yoshiura, Yumi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Kurosawa, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of sexual development of basidiomycetous mushrooms from mating to fruit body formation. Sequencing analysis showed the TRP1 gene of basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encoded an enzyme with three catalytic regions of GAT (glutamine amidotransferase), IGPS (indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase), and PRAI (5-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase); among these three regions, the trp1 mutant (Trp(-)) had a missense mutation (L→F) of a 338th amino acid residue of the TRP1 protein within the IGPS region. To investigate the function of IGPS region related to sexual development, dikaryons with high, usual, and no expression of the IGPS region of TRP1 gene were made. The dikaryotic mycelia with high expression of the IGPS formed mature fruit bodies earlier than those with usual and no expression of the IGPS. These results showed that the IGPS region in TRP1 gene promoted sexual development of S. commune.

  13. An efficient gene deletion procedure for the mushroom-forming basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Robin A; de Jong, Jan F; Berends, Elsa; Wang, Fengfeng; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G

    2010-10-01

    Gene deletion in Schizophyllum commune is hampered by a low incidence of homologous integration. As a consequence, extensive screening is required to identify a transformant with the desired genotype. To alleviate this and to facilitate the assembly of deletion plasmids, vector pDelcas was constructed. This construct has a set of restriction sites, which allows for directional cloning of the flanking sequences at both sides of a nourseothricin resistance cassette. Moreover, it contains a phleomycin resistance cassette elsewhere in the plasmid, which is used to screen for transformants with an ectopic integration of the pDelcas derivative. The use of pDelcas derivatives in combination with an improved PCR screening protocol permitted the efficient identification of S. commune deletion strains. This procedure may also function in other basidiomycetes. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11274-010-0356-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  14. Cultural Conditions for Mycelial Growth and Molecular Phylogenetic Relationship in Different Wild Strains of Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Cha, Youn Jeong; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Tae Soo

    2010-01-01

    The common split-gilled mushroom, Schizophyllum commune is found throughout the world on woody plants. This study was initiated to evaluate conditions for favorable vegetative growth and to determine molecular phylogenetic relationship in twelve different strains of S. commune. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 30℃. This mushroom grew well in acidic conditions and pH 5 was the most favorable. Hamada, glucose peptone, Hennerberg, potato dextrose agar and yeast malt extract were favorable media for growing mycelia, while Lilly and glucose tryptone were unfavorable. Dextrin was the best and lactose was the less effective carbon source. The most suitable nitrogen sources were calcium nitrate, glycine, and potassium nitrate, whereas ammonium phosphate and histidine were the least effective for the mycelial growth of S. commune. The genetic diversity of each strain was investigated in order to identify them. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA were amplified using PCR. The size of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rDNA from the different strains varied from 129 to 143 bp and 241 to 243 bp, respectively. The sequence of ITS1 was more variable than that of ITS2, while the 5.8S sequences were identical. A phylogenetic tree of the ITS region sequences indicated that the selected strains were classified into three clusters. The reciprocal homologies of the ITS region sequences ranged from 99 to 100%. The strains were also analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with 20 arbitrary primers. Twelve primers efficiently amplified the genomic DNA. The number of amplified bands varied depending on the primers used or the strains tested. The average number of polymorphic bands observed per primer was 4.5. The size of polymorphic fragments was obtained in the range of 0.2 to 2.3 kb. These results indicate that the RAPD technique is well suited for detecting the genetic diversity in the S. commune strains tested. PMID:23956620

  15. Two new diketopiperazines from the tin mine tailings-derived fungus Schizophyllum commune YIM DT 10058.

    PubMed

    Chunyu, Wei-Xun; Ding, Zhang-Gui; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Wang, Yong-Xia; Han, Xiu-Lin; Li, Ming-Gang; Wen, Meng-Liang

    2017-07-01

    Two new diketopiperazines, named diphenylalazine C (1) and epicoccin U (2), together with six known compounds (3-8) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth of the tin mine tailings-derived fungus Schizophyllum commune YIM DT 10058. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

  16. Cultural Conditions for Mycelial Growth and Molecular Phylogenetic Relationship in Different Wild Strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nuhu; Cha, Youn Jeong; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Tae Soo; Lee, U Youn

    2010-03-01

    The common split-gilled mushroom, Schizophyllum commune is found throughout the world on woody plants. This study was initiated to evaluate conditions for favorable vegetative growth and to determine molecular phylogenetic relationship in twelve different strains of S. commune. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 30℃. This mushroom grew well in acidic conditions and pH 5 was the most favorable. Hamada, glucose peptone, Hennerberg, potato dextrose agar and yeast malt extract were favorable media for growing mycelia, while Lilly and glucose tryptone were unfavorable. Dextrin was the best and lactose was the less effective carbon source. The most suitable nitrogen sources were calcium nitrate, glycine, and potassium nitrate, whereas ammonium phosphate and histidine were the least effective for the mycelial growth of S. commune. The genetic diversity of each strain was investigated in order to identify them. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA were amplified using PCR. The size of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rDNA from the different strains varied from 129 to 143 bp and 241 to 243 bp, respectively. The sequence of ITS1 was more variable than that of ITS2, while the 5.8S sequences were identical. A phylogenetic tree of the ITS region sequences indicated that the selected strains were classified into three clusters. The reciprocal homologies of the ITS region sequences ranged from 99 to 100%. The strains were also analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with 20 arbitrary primers. Twelve primers efficiently amplified the genomic DNA. The number of amplified bands varied depending on the primers used or the strains tested. The average number of polymorphic bands observed per primer was 4.5. The size of polymorphic fragments was obtained in the range of 0.2 to 2.3 kb. These results indicate that the RAPD technique is well suited for detecting the genetic diversity in the S. commune strains tested.

  17. First isolation of Schizophyllum commune in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, Yasuko; Hirano, Yuzo; Watabe, Hirofumi; Hosaka, Kentaro; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2016-07-01

    To date, Schizophyllum commune infection has been identified in only humans and dogs. A 7-year-old female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) died after exhibiting corneal opacity, anorexia, and labored respiration. At necropsy, phthisis of the left eyeball was detected, and multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions, especially in the lung, heart, and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, numerous hyphae were seen in granulomatous lesions in the eyes, lung, heart, and lymph nodules. An isolate on potato dextrose agar from the eyes, lung, and sputum yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mycelia with basidiocarps (fruiting bodies) at 37°C. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 25°C, although sustained growth also occurred at 37°C. The fungal isolate, KH-JPN15-011, had distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules and clamp connections, which were consistent with the characteristics of basidiomycete fungus. The sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA showed 99.67% (617 bp) similarity with those of S. commune Phylogenetic analysis showed that the present isolate is most closely related to the samples from the Old World. This is the first report of a fatal disease caused by S. commune in exotic animals. Previously reported human and canine infections have not included granulomatous endophthalmitis and myocarditis. After considering these and previous findings, there is a possibility that S. commune from the Old World may include numerous highly pathogenic strains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Identification of Indole-3-Acetic Acid in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune 1

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ephraim; Miles, Philip G.

    1967-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was detected in the ether extracts of culture filtrates of indigotin-producing strains of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. Several solvents, known to give distinctly different RF values for IAA, and 3 location reagents gave identical results with synthetic IAA and IAA found in the extract. Confirmation was obtained by the Avena straight growth test, split pea test, and ultraviolet absorption spectrum. PMID:16656596

  19. Characterization and biological activities of extracellular melanin produced by Schizophyllum commune (Fries).

    PubMed

    Arun, G; Eyini, M; Gunasekaran, P

    2015-06-01

    Melanins are enigmatic pigments produced by a wide variety of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Here, we have isolated and characterized extracellular melanin from mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune. The extracellular dark pigment produced by the broth culture of S. commune, after 21 days of incubation was recovered by hot acid-alkali treatment. The melanin nature of the pigment was characterized by biochemical tests and further, confirmed by UV, IR, EPR, NMR and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra. Extracellular melanin, at 100 μg/ml, showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens and antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii and T. rubrum. At a concentration of 50 μg/ml, melanin showed high free radical scavenging activity of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) indicating its antioxidant potential. It showed concentration dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line (HEP-2). This study has demonstrated characterization of melanin from basidiomycetes mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune and its applications.

  20. Ligand recognition in multiallelic pheromone receptors from the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune studied in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hegner, J; Siebert-Bartholmei, C; Kothe, E

    1999-04-01

    The homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encodes a multiallelic pheromone receptor system that distinguishes more than 20 nonself from at least 2 self pheromones. The well-investigated pheromone response system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to link the FUS1::lacZ reporter system to the heterologous pheromone receptors from S. commune. To investigate yeast G-protein binding, the unchanged heterologous receptor was compared to constructs carrying an exchange of the 3rd cytoplasmatic loop for the Ste2 sequence. A better coupling could be achieved with the altered constructs. In order to examine activation by single pheromones, an artificial peptide based on the sequence of a new putative pheromone gene, bap2(1), in the Balpha2 mating-type locus encoding the shortest pheromone found so far in fungal mating types was used. Thus, we have reassembled the pheromone recognition of the basidiomycete S. commune and constructed a system ideal for specificity analysis in the yeast S. cerevisiae. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Provision of water by halite deliquescence for Nostoc commune biofilms under Mars relevant surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by findings of new mineral related water sources for organisms under extremely dry conditions on Earth we studied in an interdisciplinary approach the water sorption behaviour of halite, soil component and terrestrial Nostoc commune biofilm under Mars relevant environmental conditions. Physicochemical methods served for the determination of water sorption equilibrium data and survival of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilm samples with different water contents was assured by recultivation. Deliquescence of halite provides liquid water at temperatures <273 K and may serve as water source on Mars during the morning stabilized by the CO2 atmosphere for a few hours. The protecting biofilm of N. commune is rather hygroscopic and tends to store water at lower humidity values. Survival tests showed that a large proportion of the Alphaproteobacteria dominated microbiota associated to N. commune is very desiccation tolerant and water uptake from saturated NaCl solutions (either by direct uptake of brine or adsorption of humidity) did not enhance recultivability in long-time desiccated samples. Still, a minor part can grow under highly saline conditions. However, the salinity level, although unfavourable for the host organism, might be for parts of the heterotrophic microbiota no serious hindrance for growing in salty Mars-like environments.

  2. Novel glycosylated mycosporine-like amino acids with radical scavenging activity from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kei; Nazifi, Ehsan; Kunita, Shinpei; Wada, Naoki; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2011-10-05

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV absorbing pigments, and structurally distinct MAAs have been identified in taxonomically diverse organisms. Two novel MAAs were purified from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, and their chemical structures were characterized. An MAA with an absorption maximum at 335 nm was identified as a pentose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 478 Da. Another identified MAA had double absorption maxima at 312 and 340 nm and a molecular mass of 1,050 Da. Its unique structure consisted of two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen and two pentose and hexose sugars. These MAAs had radical scavenging activity in vitro; the 1050-Da MAA contributed approximately 27% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract of N. commune. These results suggest that these glycosylated MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Two sudden deaths of children with mesenterium commune -- a case report].

    PubMed

    Grusová, Kateřina; Votava, Milan; Zeman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the digestive system represent a complicated topic concerning many medical specializations. The goal of this article is to describe two cases of children with mesenterium commune. First was an infant (5.5 months old female) who died shortly after being admitted to hospital with acute bronchitis, vomiting and diarrhoea. The autopsy revealed the cause of death--volvulus of the entire small intestine and the first portion of the large intestine with haemorrhagic infarsation of the intestinal wall in an infant with congenital anomaly of intestinal fixation--mesenterium commune. Second case was a 2.5 years old female after two heart surgeries, with pulmonary hypertension, who died suddenly at home. The cause of death was volvulus of a portion of the small intestine with haemorrhagic infarsation of the intestinal wall and also mesenterium commune. Congenital malpositions of the intestine originate due to malrotation and malfixation of the intestine during prenatal and early postnatal period. This wide range of the individuals developmental disorders always result in a condition where the topographical findings in the abdominal cavity are not as commonly found. Abnormally positioned intestines cannot develop a normal mesentery and are prone to volvulus, which represents the most serious complication with acute abdominal symptoms and when diagnosed late, it can lead to sudden death. Whilst performing autopsies such cases are rarely seen. However in forensic medicine and also in clinical practice it is important to consider intestinal malposition as a cause of acute abdomen.

  4. [Characteristics of toxigenic properties of Myrothecium cinctum (Corda) sacc., 1886 and Myrothecium commune pidopl., 1969].

    PubMed

    Zaĭchenko, A M; Tsyganenko, E S; Andrienko, E V; Savchuk, Ia I

    2013-01-01

    The comparative study of toxigenic potential of Myrothecium cinctum (12 strains) and Myrothecium commune (7 strains) was conducted. The ability to produce the complex of macrocyclic trichothecenes (MCTC) presented in ethanol soluble fraction (ESF), as well as fungistatic activity against yeasts test-cultures (strains Saccharomyces vini "Feodosia" and Candida stellatoidea 62) and rabbit skin test were evaluated. It was established that ESF output varied within wide limits in all studied strains of both species but it was significantly lower in M. commune strains. Higher ESF yields were accompanied as a rule by higher fungistatic activity and skin reaction in rabbits. The separate strains showed high biological activity with minor ESF output that could be possible caused by domination of more toxic components in complex preparation. The study of MCTC component structure by high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) showed with a few exceptions the presence of verrucarins A and J, roridins A, E, and H as well as unidentified components whose column retention times were 2.1 and 4.9 minutes. The production of roridin H and unknown component with 2.1 min. retention time was typical of M. cinctum strains while verrucarin A and unidentified component with 4.9 min. retention time was typical of M. commune strains.

  5. A Global Analysis of CYP51 Diversity and Azole Sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Patrick C; Stefansson, Tryggvi S; Fountaine, James; Richina, Veronica; McDonald, Bruce A

    2016-04-01

    CYP51 encodes the target site of the azole class of fungicides widely used in plant protection. Some ascomycete pathogens carry two CYP51 paralogs called CYP51A and CYP51B. A recent analysis of CYP51 sequences in 14 European isolates of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium commune revealed three CYP51 paralogs, CYP51A, CYP51B, and a pseudogene called CYP51A-p. The same analysis showed that CYP51A exhibits a presence/absence polymorphism, with lower sensitivity to azole fungicides associated with the presence of a functional CYP51A. We analyzed a global collection of nearly 400 R. commune isolates to determine if these findings could be extended beyond Europe. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that CYP51A played a key role in the emergence of azole resistance globally and provide new evidence that the CYP51A gene in R. commune has further evolved, presumably in response to azole exposure. We also present evidence for recent long-distance movement of evolved CYP51A alleles, highlighting the risk associated with movement of fungicide resistance alleles among international trading partners.

  6. Evolutive and structural characterization of Nostoc commune iron-superoxide dismutase that is fit for modification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Lu, M; Li, J-Y; Qin, Y; Gong, X-G

    2012-10-04

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has extensive clinical applications for protecting organisms from toxic oxidation. In this study, the integrated iron-superoxide dismutase gene (fe-sod) coding sequence of Nostoc commune stain CHEN was cloned from genomic DNA and compared to sods from other reported algae. These analyses of immunology and phylogenetics indicated that this Fe-SOD is considerably homologous with SODs from lower prokaryotes (Fe-SOD or Mn-SOD) but not those from higher animals (Cu/Zn-SOD). In addition, the N. commune Fe-SOD shows 67 to 93% protein sequence identity to 10 other algal Fe-SODs (or Mn-SODs) and 69 to 93% gene sequence identity. Rare nonsynonymous substitutions imply that algal SODs are being subjected to strong natural selection. Interestingly, the N. commune Fe-SOD enzyme molecule has a compact active center that is highly conserved (38.1% of residues are absolutely conserved), and 2 loose ends localized outside the molecule and inclined to mutate (only 11.5% of residues are absolutely conserved). Based on associative analyses of evolution, structure, and function, this special phenomenon is attributed to function-dependent evolution through negative natural selection. Under strong natural selection, although the mutation is random on the gene level, the exterior region is inclined to mutate on the protein level owing to more nonsynonymous substitutions in the exterior region, which demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of modifying Fe-SOD on its ends to overcome its disadvantages in clinical applications.

  7. Physicochemical Requirement for the Vegetative Growth of Schizophyllum commune Collected from Different Ecological Origins

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Jayasinghe, Chandana; Lee, Geon Woo; Kim, Hye Young; Shim, Mi Ja; Rho, Hyun-Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U-Youn

    2008-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely distributed in the world. The optimal growth conditions for the mycelia of 10 strains of the fungus were investigated. The temperature suitable for the mycelial growth and density was obtained at 30~35℃. Among the tested conditions, the minimum mycelial growth was found at 15℃. In case of pH, the most favorable growth was found at pH 5. The results indicated that this mushroom well adapted to high temperature and low pH for its mycelial growth. Considering growth phenotype of mycelia, Hamada, Hennerberg, PDA and YM were the most suitable and Lilly, Glucose triptone, Glucose peptone and Hoppkins were the most unfavorable among tested media for the mycelial growth of S. commune. Out of tested carbon sources, dextrin and fructose were the most suitable and lactose, mannose and sorbitol were the unsuitable for the fungus. Compact mycelial density was obtained from most of the carbon sources. Among used nitrogen sources, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate and alanine were the most appropriate and the most incompatible were ammonium phosphate, histidine, urea and arginine for mycelial growth of S. commune on the culture media. Calcium nitrate, histidine and potassium nitrate showed moderately thin or thin, and rest of nitrogen sources showed compact or moderately compact mycelial density. PMID:23997605

  8. Nostoc commune UTEX 584 gene expressing indole phosphate hydrolase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, W Q; Whitton, B A; Simon, J W; Jäger, K; Reed, D; Potts, M

    1989-01-01

    A gene encoding an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing indole phosphate was isolated from a recombinant gene library of Nostoc commune UTEX 584 DNA in lambda gt10. The gene (designated iph) is located on a 2.9-kilobase EcoRI restriction fragment and is present in a single copy in the genome of N. commune UTEX 584. The iph gene was expressed when the purified 2.9-kilobase DNA fragment, free of any vector sequences, was added to a cell-free coupled transcription-translation system. A polypeptide with an Mr of 74,000 was synthesized when the iph gene or different iph-vector DNA templates were expressed in vitro. When carried by different multicopy plasmids and phagemids (pMP005, pBH6, pB8) the cyanobacterial iph gene conferred an Iph+ phenotype upon various strains of Escherichia coli, including a phoA mutant. Hydrolysis of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate was detected in recombinant E. coli strains grown in phosphate-rich medium, and the activity persisted in assay buffers that contained phosphate. In contrast, indole phosphate hydrolase activity only developed in cells of N. commune UTEX 584, when they were partially depleted of phosphorus, and the activity associated with these cells was suppressed partially by the addition of phosphate to assay buffers. Indole phosphate hydrolase activity was detected in periplasmic extracts from E. coli (Iph+) transformants. Images PMID:2536677

  9. Transcription factor genes of Schizophyllum commune involved in regulation of mushroom formation.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Robin A; de Jong, Jan F; de Bekker, Charissa; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms represent the most conspicuous structures of fungi. Their development is being studied in the model basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. The genome of S. commune contains 472 genes encoding predicted transcription factors. Of these, fst3 and fst4 were shown to inhibit and induce mushroom development respectively. Here, we inactivated five additional transcription factor genes. This resulted in absence of mushroom development (in the case of deletion of bri1 and hom2), in arrested development at the stage of aggregate formation (in the case of c2h2) and in the formation of more but smaller mushrooms (in the case of hom1 and gat1). Moreover, strains in which hom2 and bri1 were inactivated formed symmetrical colonies instead of irregular colonies like the wild type. A genome-wide expression analysis identified several gene classes that were differentially expressed in the strains in which either hom2 or fst4 was inactivated. Among the genes that were downregulated in these strains were c2h2 and hom1. Based on these results, a regulatory model of mushroom development in S. commune is proposed. This model most likely also applies to other mushroom-forming fungi and will serve as a basis to understand mushroom formation in nature and to enable and improve commercial mushroom production. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Protecting Astronaut Health at First Entry into Vehicles Visiting the international Space Station: Insights from Whole-Module Offgas Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    NASA has accumulated considerable experience in offgas testing of whole modules prior to their docking with the International Space Station (ISS). Since 1998, the Space Toxicology Office has performed offgas testing of the Lab module, both MPLM modules, US Airlock, Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, ATV1, HTV1, and three commercial vehicles. The goal of these tests is twofold: first, to protect the crew from adverse health effects of accumulated volatile pollutants when they first enter the module on orbit, and secondly, to determine the additional pollutant load that the ISS air revitalization systems must handle. In order to predict the amount of accumulated pollutants, the module is sealed for at least 1/5th the worst-case time interval that could occur between the last clean air purge and final hatch closure on the ground and the crew's first entry on orbit. This time can range from a few days to a few months. Typically, triplicate samples are taken at pre-planned times throughout the test. Samples are then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the rate of accumulation of pollutants is then extrapolated over time. The analytical values are indexed against 7-day spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) to provide a prediction of the total toxicity value (T-value) at the time of first entry. This T-value and the toxicological effects of specific pollutants that contribute most to the overall toxicity are then used to guide first entry operations. Finally, results are compared to first entry samples collected on orbit to determine the predictive ability of the ground-based offgas test.

  11. Filling the gap. JICA Reproductive Health Project. Nghi Loe district.

    PubMed

    Luong Minh Dan

    1999-01-01

    Our district, which is composed of 33 communes, is economically poor with unacceptably low health conditions. Many health problems could not be adequately addressed due to the lack of needed resources and technology. But the Japan International Cooperation Agency project, which was started in 1997, has been effectively assisting us in improving the health situation, especially in reproductive health. We highly appreciate the support, which has helped us to disseminate health information to the general public, especially pregnant women. Health workers such as midwives and assistant doctors have been able to improve their skills after attending the training courses. The provision of equipment and instruments has been of great help. We would not have been able to procure them on our own budget, even over the next 10 years. One of our major concerns is the big gap in the health conditions among communes. The health conditions of people in the mountainous area are lower compared to the people in communes in and near the center of the district. The difference exists not only in the health field, but also education and economic fields. To fill the gap, we are encouraging the advanced communes to continue to develop their programs while giving much stronger assistance to the less advanced communes. full text

  12. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a modular space station. In 1970 the Marshall Space Flight Center arnounced the completion of a study concerning a modular space station that could be launched by the planned-for reusable Space Shuttle. The study envisioned a space station composed of cylindrical sections 14 feet in diameter and of varying lengths joined to form any one of a number of possible shapes. The sections were restricted to 14 feet in diameter and 58 feet in length to be consistent with a shuttle cargo bay size of 15 by 60 feet. Center officials said that the first elements of the space station could be in orbit by about 1978 and could be manned by three or six men. This would be an interim space station with sections that could be added later to form a full 12-man station by the early 1980s.

  13. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  14. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  15. Lipid extract of Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kutzing, a blue-green alga, inhibits the activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Heather E; Blobaum, Kara R; Park, Young-Ki; Ehlers, Sarah J; Lu, Fan; Lee, Ji-Young

    2008-03-01

    Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (N. commune), a blue-green alga, has been used as both a food ingredient and in medicine for centuries. To determine the effect of N. commune on cholesterol metabolism, N. commune lipid extract was incubated at increasing concentrations (25-100 mg/L) with HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. The addition of N. commune lipid extract markedly reduced mRNA abundance of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and LDL receptor (LDLR) (P < 0.05), with a concomitant decrease in their protein expression (P < 0.001). Reduced HMGR activity by 90% with N. commune lipid extract confirmed the inhibitory role of N. commune in cholesterol synthesis (P < 0.006). To elucidate a molecular mechanism underlying the repression of HMGR and LDLR by N. commune lipid extract, expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) was assessed. Whereas mRNA for SREBP-2 remained unchanged, SREBP-2 mature protein was reduced by N. commune (P < 0.009). In addition, N. commune lipid extract also decreased SREBP-1 mature protein by approximately 30% (P < 0.002) and reduced the expression of SREBP-1-responsive genes such as fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) (P < 0.05). Therefore, our results demonstrate that N. commune lipid extract inhibits the maturation process of both SREBP-1 and -2, resulting in a decrease in expression of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

  16. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-10-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase.

  17. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λmax, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  18. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  19. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-01-01

    This is a von Braun 1952 space station concept. In a 1952 series of articles written in Collier's, Dr. Wernher von Braun, then Technical Director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development Group at Redstone Arsenal, wrote of a large wheel-like space station in a 1,075-mile orbit. This station, made of flexible nylon, would be carried into space by a fully reusable three-stage launch vehicle. Once in space, the station's collapsible nylon body would be inflated much like an automobile tire. The 250-foot-wide wheel would rotate to provide artificial gravity, an important consideration at the time because little was known about the effects of prolonged zero-gravity on humans. Von Braun's wheel was slated for a number of important missions: a way station for space exploration, a meteorological observatory and a navigation aid. This concept was illustrated by artist Chesley Bonestell.

  20. Pre-School Education in a Vietnamese Commune: A Case Report. Pre-School Education Documents Reprint Series; Number F.l.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinh, Tran Thi

    This brief report discusses the development of mass participation in the provision of preschool education for 769 children of 3 to 6 years of age in Tan Tien-- a pilot commune located in the Red River Delta, Hai Hung province, North Vietnam. Tan Tien commune is described and the targets of the preschool movement are indicated. Phases of the…

  1. Pre-School Education in a Vietnamese Commune: A Case Report. Pre-School Education Documents Reprint Series; Number F.l.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinh, Tran Thi

    This brief report discusses the development of mass participation in the provision of preschool education for 769 children of 3 to 6 years of age in Tan Tien-- a pilot commune located in the Red River Delta, Hai Hung province, North Vietnam. Tan Tien commune is described and the targets of the preschool movement are indicated. Phases of the…

  2. Inactivation of ku80 in the mushroom-forming fungus Schizophyllum commune increases the relative incidence of homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jan F; Ohm, Robin A; de Bekker, Charissa; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G

    2010-09-01

    Schizophyllum commune is the only mushroom-forming fungus in which targeted gene deletions by homologous recombination have been reported. However, these deletions occur with a low frequency. To overcome this, the ku80 gene of S. commune was deleted. This gene is involved in the nonhomologous end-joining system for DNA repair. The Deltaku80 strain was not affected in growth and development. However, the transformation efficiency was reduced up to 100-fold. This was accompanied by a strong increase in the relative number of transformants with a homologous integration of a knockout construct. Genes sc15, jmj3 and pri2 were deleted in the Deltaku80 strain. In total, seven out of 10 transformants showed a gene deletion. This frequency will facilitate a systematic analysis of gene function in S. commune.

  3. Schizophillum commune causing sinusitis with nasal polyposis in the sub-Himalayan region: first case report and review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Santwana; Gupta, Poonam; Singh, Digvijay; Kanga, Anil; Mohindroo, N K; Jhobta, Anupam

    2014-02-01

    Schizophillum commune is an environmental fungus rarely causing human infections of diverse nature. Sinusitis occurs in immunocompromised persons and seldom in healthy subjects. Though easily isolated, the lack of awareness of its virulence is a bottleneck in the diagnosis of this infection. We report the first case of S. commune sinusitis with nasal polyps in an immunocompetent male from the sub-Himalayan region. The computerized tomography scan findings established the clinical diagnosis, and causative agent was confirmed as S. commune. A white, woolly mold with septate, hyaline hyphae and characteristic spicules but unclamped connections suggested a monokaryotic isolate. Patient was treated successfully with fiberoptic endoscopic sinus surgery, and no antifungal therapy was instituted. There was no recurrence at review after 1 year.

  4. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  5. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth, illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station featured a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  6. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth; illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station features a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  7. Acceptability and use of portable drinking water and hand washing stations in health care facilities and their impact on patient hygiene practices, Western kenya.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sarah D; Otieno, Ronald; Ayers, Tracy L; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Quick, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at 200 rural HCFs lacking a reliable water supply in western Kenya. We performed a survey at baseline and a follow-up evaluation at 15 months to assess the impact of the intervention at a random sample of 40 HCFs and 391 households nearest to these HCFs. From baseline to follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of dispensaries with access to HWSs with soap (42% vs. 77%, p<0.01) and access to safe drinking water (6% vs. 55%, p<0.01). Female heads of household in the HCF catchment area exhibited statistically significant increases from baseline to follow-up in the ability to state target times for hand washing (10% vs. 35%, p<0.01), perform all four hand washing steps correctly (32% vs. 43%, p = 0.01), and report treatment of stored drinking water using any method (73% vs. 92%, p<0.01); the percentage of households with detectable free residual chlorine in stored drinking water did not change (6%, vs. 8%, p = 0.14). The installation of low-cost, low-maintenance, locally-available, portable hand washing and drinking water stations in rural HCFs without access to 24-hour piped water helped assure that health workers had a place to wash their hands and provide safe drinking water. This HCF intervention may have also contributed to the improvement of hand hygiene and reported safe drinking water behaviors among households nearest to HCFs.

  8. Acceptability and Use of Portable Drinking Water and Hand Washing Stations in Health Care Facilities and Their Impact on Patient Hygiene Practices, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Ronald; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H.

    2015-01-01

    Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at 200 rural HCFs lacking a reliable water supply in western Kenya. We performed a survey at baseline and a follow-up evaluation at 15 months to assess the impact of the intervention at a random sample of 40 HCFs and 391 households nearest to these HCFs. From baseline to follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of dispensaries with access to HWSs with soap (42% vs. 77%, p<0.01) and access to safe drinking water (6% vs. 55%, p<0.01). Female heads of household in the HCF catchment area exhibited statistically significant increases from baseline to follow-up in the ability to state target times for hand washing (10% vs. 35%, p<0.01), perform all four hand washing steps correctly (32% vs. 43%, p = 0.01), and report treatment of stored drinking water using any method (73% vs. 92%, p<0.01); the percentage of households with detectable free residual chlorine in stored drinking water did not change (6%, vs. 8%, p = 0.14). The installation of low-cost, low-maintenance, locally-available, portable hand washing and drinking water stations in rural HCFs without access to 24-hour piped water helped assure that health workers had a place to wash their hands and provide safe drinking water. This HCF intervention may have also contributed to the improvement of hand hygiene and reported safe drinking water behaviors among households nearest to HCFs. PMID:25961293

  9. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune Isolates from a Conifer Nursery.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jane E; Kim, Mee-Sook; James, Robert L; Dumroese, R Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and colony morphology are not correlated. Forty-one isolates of Fusarium spp., morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum, were collected from nursery samples (soils, healthy seedlings, and diseased seedlings). These isolates were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and DNA sequencing of nuclear rDNA (internal transcribed spacer including 5.8S rDNA), mitochon-drial rDNA (small subunit [mtSSU]), and nuclear translation elongation factor 1-alpha. Each isolate had a unique AFLP phenotype. Out of 121 loci, 111 (92%) were polymorphic; 30 alleles were unique to only highly virulent isolates and 33 alleles were unique to only isolates nonpathogenic on conifers. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from all three regions and the combined data set showed that all highly virulent isolates clearly separated into a common clade that contained F. commune, which was recently distinguished from its sister taxon, F. oxysporum. Interestingly, all but one of the nonpathogenic isolates grouped into a common clade and were genetically similar to F. oxysporum. The AFLP cladograms had similar topologies when compared with the DNA-based phylograms. Although all tested isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum based on currently available monographs, some morphological traits can be plastic and unreliable for identification of Fusarium spp. We consider the highly virulent isolates to be F. commune based on strong genetic evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence that shows F. commune is a cause of Fusarium disease (root rot and dampingoff) on Douglas-fir seedlings. Furthermore

  10. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Price, Neil Pj

    2013-01-01

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune were examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan from agricultural biomass. Strains were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1% (w/v) distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by the dry grind process. Ten of 11 strains tested produced more than 2 g schizophyllan/L. Two strains, ATCC 20165 and CBS 266.60, produced more than 10 g schizophyllan/L. Schizophyllan from these strains was similar to commercial product in terms of solution viscosity, molecular weight, and surface tension properties, suggesting that they would be equivalent in biomaterial applications.

  11. A favorable clinical effect of an expectorant in allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Haruki; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Wakuda, Kazushige; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Endo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old Japanese woman with wet cough and dyspnea was diagnosed with pneumonia at a clinic. Antibiotics did not improve her symptoms; therefore, she was referred to our hospital one month after symptom onset. Chest radiograph findings revealed complete collapse of the left lung. Bronchoscopy showed white mucus plug in the left main bronchus, which could not be removed. She was initially treated with bromhexine. Subsequently, culture results of the mucus plug specimen obtained during bronchoscopy yielded Schizophyllum commune. After three weeks, improvement of the collapsed lung was observed on chest radiograph.

  12. Mushrooms by magic: making connections between signal transduction and fruiting body development in the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Gail E; Horton, J Stephen

    2006-09-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune has been utilised as a model system for examining the genetic regulation of sexual reproduction, a process that culminates in the production of mushrooms in this and many other related species. Recent studies have suggested that conserved elements of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathway play a role in the control of mushroom development in S. commune. The small G-protein Ras also appears to impinge on the process, either by inputting into the cAMP pathway, or by acting in parallel. The molecular connections between nutrient sensing and mushroom development are now beginning to be examined.

  13. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  14. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This is an illustration of the Space Base concept. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial-gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  15. Lassa Virus Seroprevalence in Sibirilia Commune, Bougouni District, Southern Mali

    PubMed Central

    Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F.; Branco, Luis M.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d’Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali. PMID:26981786

  16. Lassa Virus Seroprevalence in Sibirilia Commune, Bougouni District, Southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F; Branco, Luis M; Traoré, Sékou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2016-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d'Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali.

  17. Evaluation of prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) pack for use by the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) Pack which was developed for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). This pack will enable the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) to have ready access to advanced life support supplies and equipment for time critical responses to any situation within the Space Station Freedom. The objectives are: (1) to evaluate the design of the pack; and (2) to collect comments for revision to the design of the pack. The in-flight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic test flight to simulate weightlessness are presented.

  18. A novel ribonuclease with potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from cultured mushroom Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Chang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    A 20-kDa ribonuclease (RNase) was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of cultured Schizophyllum commune mushrooms. The RNase was not adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel but adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. It exhibited maximal RNase activity at pH 6.0 and 70°C. It demonstrated the highest ribonucleolytic activity toward poly (U) (379.5 μ/mg), the second highest activity toward poly (C) (244.7 μ/mg), less activity toward poly (A) (167.4 μ/mg), and much weaker activity toward poly (G) (114.5 μ/mg). The RNase inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 65 μM. No effect on [(3)H-methyl]-thymidine uptake by lymphoma MBL2 cells and leukemia L1210 cells was observed at 100 μM concentration of the RNase. A comparison of RNases from S. commune and Volvariella volvacea revealed that they demonstrated some similarities in N-terminal amino acid sequence, optimum pH and polyhomoribonucleotide specificity. However, some differences in chromatographic behavior and molecular mass were observed.

  19. Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of an Exopolysaccharide from Submerged Mycelial Culture of Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Du, Bin; Yang, Yuedong; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Mushroom polysaccharides have attracted attention in food and pharmacology fields because of their many biological activities. The structure characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune were evaluated in present study. Methods: An exopolysaccharide from a submerged mycelial fermentation of S. commune was obtained using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-150 chromatography. The molecular weight (MW), monosaccharide compositions, chemical compositions, methylation analysis, circular dichroism studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy were investigated. Results: It was a homogeneous protein-bound heteropolysaccharide with MW of 2,900 kDa. The exopolysaccharide contained a β-(1→3) glycosidic backbone, (1→4)- and (1→6)- glycosidic side chain, and high amount of glucose. The anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide was assessed by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 5- lipoxygenase (5-LOX) from macrophages. This exopolysaccharide significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited lipopolysaccharides-induced iNOS expression levels in the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: It indicated significant anti-inflammatory effects, which showed that exopolysaccharide might be exploited as an effective anti-inflammatory agent for application in NO-related disorders such as inflammation and cancer. PMID:28555107

  20. Purification and characterization of a novel acid phosphatase from the split gill mushroom Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qing; Chen, Qing-Jun; Sun, Jian; Wang, He-Xiang; Han, Chun-Hua

    2013-10-01

    A monomeric acid phosphatase (ACP) with a molecular mass of 72.5 kDa was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of cultured Schizophyllum commune mushroom. The isolation procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Q-sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. It demonstrated a unique N-terminal amino acid sequence of NAPWAQIDEV, which exhibited 60% amino acid identity to that of S. commune hypothetical histidine ACP based on its genome sequence, but less than 30% amino acid identity to that of other fungal ACPs previously reported. The ACP exhibited an optimum temperature at 50 °C, an optimum pH at pH 4.6, and was considerably stable at a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0, and a temperature range of 20-40 °C. The Km of the purified enzyme for ρ-nitrophenyl phosphate (ρNPP) was 0.248 mM and the Vmax was 9.093 × 10(-3)  μM/min. ACP activity was strongly inhibited by Al(3+) and Fe(3+) , but enhanced by Co(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) at a concentration of 0.5 mM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of an Exopolysaccharide from Submerged Mycelial Culture of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Du, Bin; Yang, Yuedong; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Mushroom polysaccharides have attracted attention in food and pharmacology fields because of their many biological activities. The structure characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune were evaluated in present study. Methods: An exopolysaccharide from a submerged mycelial fermentation of S. commune was obtained using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-150 chromatography. The molecular weight (MW), monosaccharide compositions, chemical compositions, methylation analysis, circular dichroism studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy were investigated. Results: It was a homogeneous protein-bound heteropolysaccharide with MW of 2,900 kDa. The exopolysaccharide contained a β-(1→3) glycosidic backbone, (1→4)- and (1→6)- glycosidic side chain, and high amount of glucose. The anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide was assessed by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 5- lipoxygenase (5-LOX) from macrophages. This exopolysaccharide significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited lipopolysaccharides-induced iNOS expression levels in the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: It indicated significant anti-inflammatory effects, which showed that exopolysaccharide might be exploited as an effective anti-inflammatory agent for application in NO-related disorders such as inflammation and cancer.

  2. Penicillium commune metabolic profile as a promising source of antipathogenic natural products.

    PubMed

    Diblasi, Lorena; Arrighi, Federico; Silva, Julio; Bardón, Alicia; Cartagena, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium is an important genus of ascomycetous fungi in the environment and in food and drug production. This paper aims to investigate statins and antipathogenic natural products from a Penicillium commune environmental isolate. Fractions (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were obtained from an ethyl acetate extract. Direct insertion probe/electron ionisation/ion trap detection mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS) identified lovastatin (1) in F1, while GC-MS showed that 3-isobutylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione (2) was the main constituent of F2 (49.34%). F4 presented 3 (16.38%) as an analogue of 2 and their known structures were similar to that of an autoinducer-signal. F1 produced a significant decrease in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, which is the main cause of bacterial pathogenicity. F2 and F4 were effective against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, but when F2 was associated with oxacillin, it showed an important activity against both bacteria. These novel results suggest that P. commune INTA1 is a new source of promising antipathogenic products.

  3. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Research and Applications Modules (RAM). Evolutionary growth was an important consideration in space station plarning, and another project was undertaken in 1971 to facilitate such growth. The RAM study, conducted through a Marshall Space Flight Center contract with General Dynamics Convair Aerospace, resulted in the conceptualization of a series of RAM payload carrier-sortie laboratories, pallets, free-flyers, and payload and support modules. The study considered two basic manned systems. The first would use RAM hardware for sortie mission, where laboratories were carried into space and remained attached to the Shuttle for operational periods up to 7 days. The second envisioned a modular space station capability that could be evolved by mating RAM modules to the space station core configuration. The RAM hardware was to be built by Europeans, thus fostering international participation in the space program.

  4. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-08-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts a configuration with enhanced capabilities. It builds on the horizontal boom and module pattern of the revised baseline. This configuration would feature dual keels, two vertical spines 105-meters long joined by upper and lower booms. The structure carrying the modules would become a transverse boom of a basically rectangular structure. The two new booms, 45-meters in length, would provide extensive accommodations for attached payloads, and would offer a wide field of view. Power would be increased significantly, with the addition if a 50-kW solar dynamic power system.

  5. Production of cyclopiazonic acid by Penicillium commune isolated from dry-cured ham on a meat extract-based substrate.

    PubMed

    Sosa, María J; Córdoba, Juan J; Díaz, Carmen; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2002-06-01

    Penicillium commune, a mold frequently found on dry-cured meat products, is able to synthesize the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). To evaluate the hazard due to CPA on such foods, the ability of P. commune to grow and produce CPA at water activities (a(w)) in the range of 0.99 to 0.90 with a meat extract-based medium from 12 to 30 degrees C was determined. CPA was quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. P. commune was able to grow at every a(w) and temperature tested. The optimal environmental conditions for growth were 20 to 25 degrees C, at 0.97 to 0.96 a(w), but the highest amount of CPA was produced at 30 degrees C, 0.96 a(w). No direct correlation between growth rate and CPA production was assessed. Temperature seems to be the most important factor influencing CPA production. However, there was an interaction between temperature and a(w) that significantly (P < 0.001) affected growth and CPA production. An a(w) of 0.90 had a marked effect, depressing growth and CPA production. Meat extract-based medium proved to be an appropriate substrate for CPA biosynthesis by P. commune under a wide range of conditions.

  6. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in forest nurseries of the midwestern and western United States

    Treesearch

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jane E. Stewart; R. Kasten Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium commune can cause damping-off and root rot of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries, and this pathogen has been previously reported from Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, USA. We collected Fusarium isolates from additional nurseries in the midwestern and western USA to more fully determine occurrence of this pathogen. We used DNA sequences of the mitochondrial...

  7. Detection of the cytochrome b mutation G143A in Irish Rhynchosporium commune populations using targeted 454 sequencing.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sinead; Barthe, Marie-Sophie; Tobie, Camille; Kildea, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Rhynchosporium commune is a major fungal pathogen of barley crops, and the application of fungicides, such as quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs), plays an important role in crop disease control. The genetic mechanisms linked to QoI resistance have been identified in the cytochrome b gene, with QoI resistance conferred by the G143A substitution. The objective of this study was to develop a high-throughput molecular assay to detect and identify mutations associated with QoI resistance within the Irish R. commune population. Leaf lesions of R. commune sampled from 74 sites during 2009-2014 and isolates from 2006 and 2007 were screened for non-synonymous mutations of the cytochrome b gene using 454 targeted sequencing. The presence of the G143A substitution was confirmed in R. commune samples at one site in 2013 and at four sites in 2014; however, the frequency of the substitution in these samples was low (2-18%). The 454 sequencing results were confirmed by PCR-RFLP and Sanger sequencing. The molecular assay that has been applied to this monitoring programme has shown that the application of 454 next-generation sequencing offers the potential for high throughput and accurate characterisation of non-synonymous mutations associated with fungicide resistance in a crop pathogen. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the response of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, to the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Ujor, V C; Peiris, D G; Monti, M; Kang, A S; Clements, M O; Hedger, J N

    2012-04-01

    Investigation of changes in the protein profile of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, when paired against the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride, for 48 h. Variations in protein profile resulting from contact with T. viride were assessed by spot separation using 2 dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS protein identification. Contact with T. viride elicited a systematic response in S. commune, characterized by marked increases in proteins involved for transcription and translation (61%) and cell wall/hyphal biogenesis and stabilization (17%), whereas metabolism-associated proteins decreased in amounts (64%). Trichoderma viride, however, exhibited typical mycoparasitic behaviour with increases in the amounts of proteins involved in proteolysis and carbohydrate metabolism. The protein profile of S. commune confronted by T. viride indicates the up-regulation of mechanisms specifically targeted at the mycoparasitic machinery of T. viride, particularly cell wall lysis and antibiosis. The proteomic responses observed in S. commune may occur in natural environments, providing an insight to the mechanism involved in conferring resistance to mycoparasitic attack. This study, therefore, warrants further investigation for the targeted design of more robust biocontrol agents. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. extract during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Heng, Pei Ying; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune's crude extract (CE), the formic acid (FA) fraction and semipurified subfractions (SF) II and IV were tested, compared to BHA and alpha-tocopherol, by measuring their peroxide value, iodine value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and free fatty acid content. Their total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were also evaluated. FA and CE exhibited highest DPPH* scavenging, while FA and SFIV showed the highest FRAP; TPC was found to be highest in CE, FA, and SFIV. BHA and alpha-tocopherol are more protective in stabilizing the sunflower oil; SFII and SFIV had short-term protective effect in secondary oxidation for 1 year, while CE and FA retarded secondary oxidation and extended the shelf life 1 1/2 years and 2 years, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis found (+)-catechin in Sch. commune's extracts. Sch. commune's extracts did not show similar retardation of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA at the 200 ppm level. However, the higher concentration of Sch. commune's extract that provided the protective effect in stabilizing sunflower oil can be further studied.

  10. [Marital violence, a social and public health problem: a study in a police station in the state of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Lamoglia, Cláudia Valéria Abdala; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2009-01-01

    This article presents data of an investigation for drawing the profile of men and women involved in domestic violence taken from reports made at a police station in a small city in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 1997 and 2001. Data were crossed with the speeches of the couples at the police station. The article highlights the importance of this issue for public health, confirmed both in the feminist literature and in health studies. The results show that cultural determinants have an important influence on the construction of the roles of males and females, legitimating the power of the man over the woman and turning men violent when they cannot control the situation. More than half of the reports of women (53%) was due to corporal injuries, the rest were threats and attempted murder (39%), and psychological abuse (8%) through insults and defamation. The article presents information about the profile, professional status, color and race of aggressors and victims. It is concluded that, despite the feminist movement and other achievements, domestic violence continues reproducing and investments are necessary for understanding, reporting and overcoming the problem and changing behavior patterns.

  11. Extending the mission to the work site. A Denver provider joins a local television station in sponsoring health fairs.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S; Ginsburg, D; Godbey, V

    1994-10-01

    In 1991 KUSA Channel 9Health Fair Foundation asked Provenant Health Partners--a Catholic multi-institutional healthcare system in the Denver area--to become a sponsor of its annual fairs. Provenant viewed this invitation as an excellent opportunity to extend its mission and increase its focus on health and community service. Since January 1992, Provenant and 9Health Fair have conducted more than 45 fairs at 28 different work sites. At many sites, more than one employer participates, so approximately 90 companies have actually been served. Health fair volunteers and healthcare professionals check attendees' weight, blood pressure, lung function, body fat composition, foot conditions, vision, and hearing. Attendees may be screened for peripheral vascular disease, glaucoma, and a variety of cancers. In addition, a comprehensive blood chemistry test and a prostate-specific antigen blood test are offered for a small fee. For conditions requiring further evaluation, attendees are referred for medical follow-up. The fairs have been successful in identifying pathological conditions, enabling many people to seek early treatment. The early detection has resulted in significant healthcare cost savings. Health fairs have also promoted higher familiarity and favorability ratings of Provenant Health Partners and constituent institutions. Perhaps more important, the health fairs have enabled hundreds of Provenant employees and staff physicians to devote thousands of hours volunteering to promote better health in the community.

  12. Characterization of the chemical diversity of glycosylated mycosporine-like amino acids in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Iwamuro, Yoshiaki; Chinaka, Satoshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally unique glycosylated MAAs are found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In this study, we examined two genotypes of N.commune colonies with different water extract UV-absorption spectra. We found structurally distinct MAAs in each genotype. The water extract from genotype A showed a UV-absorbing spectrum with an absorption maximum at 335nm. The extract contained the following compounds: 7-O-(β-arabinopyranosyl)-porphyra-334 (478Da), pentose-bound shinorine (464Da), hexose-bound porphyra-334 (508Da) and porphyra-334 (346Da). The water extract from genotype B showed a characteristic UV-absorbing spectrum with double absorption maxima at 312 and 340nm. The extract contained hybrid MAAs (1050Da and 880Da) with two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen linked to 2-O-(β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside. A novel 273-Da MAA with an absorption maximum at 310nm was also identified in genotype B. The MAA consisted of a 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one linked to a γ-aminobutyric acid chain. These MAAs had potent radical scavenging activities in vitro and the results confirmed that the MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune. The two genotypes of N. commune exclusively produced their own characteristic glycosylated MAAs, which supports that MAA composition could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the classification of N. commune. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  14. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-08-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  15. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-12-01

    Skylab's success proved that scientific experimentation in a low gravity environment was essential to scientific progress. A more permanent structure was needed to provide this space laboratory. President Ronald Reagan, on January 25, 1984, during his State of the Union address, claimed that the United States should exploit the new frontier of space, and directed NASA to build a permanent marned space station within a decade. The idea was that the space station would not only be used as a laboratory for the advancement of science and medicine, but would also provide a staging area for building a lunar base and manned expeditions to Mars and elsewhere in the solar system. President Reagan invited the international community to join with the United States in this endeavour. NASA and several countries moved forward with this concept. By December 1985, the first phase of the space station was well underway with the design concept for the crew compartments and laboratories. Pictured are two NASA astronauts, at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS), practicing construction techniques they later used to construct the space station after it was deployed.

  16. Characterization of a New Type of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Present in Thermodesulfobacterium commune

    PubMed Central

    Hatchikian, E. C.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A new type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase, desulfofuscidin, was isolated from the nonsporeforming thermophilic sulfate-reducing microorganism Thermodesulfobacterium commune. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated at 167,000 by sedimentation equilibrium, and the protein was pure by both disc electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. The bisulfite reductase was a tetramer and had two types of subunits with an α2β2 structure and an individual molecular weight of 47,000. The enzyme exhibited absorption maxima at 576, 389, and 279 nm, with a weak band at 693 nm. Upon the addition of dithionite, the absorption maxima at 576 and 693 nm were weakened, and a new band appeared at 605 nm. The protein reacted with CO in the presence of dithionite to give a complex with absorption peaks at 593, 548, and 395 nm. The extinction coefficients of the purified enzyme at 576, 389, and 279 nm were 89,000, 310,000, and 663,000 M−1 cm−1, respectively. Siroheme was detected as the prosthetic group. The protein contains 20 to 21 nonheme iron atoms and 16 to 17 acid-labile sulfur groups per molecule. The data suggest the presence of four sirohemes and probably four (4Fe-4S) centers per molecule by comparison with desulfoviridin, the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio species. The protein contains 36 cysteine residues and is high in acidic and aromatic amino acids. The N-terminal amino acids of the α and β subunits were threonine and serine, respectively. With reduced methyl viologen as electron donor, the major product of sulfite reduction was trithionate, and the pH optimum for activity was 6.0. The enzyme was stable to 70°C and denatured rapidly above this temperature. The dependence of T. commune bisulfite reductase activity on temperature was linear between 35 and 65°C, and the Q10 values observed were above 3. The presence of this new type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase in T. commune is discussed in terms of taxonomic significance. PMID

  17. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta) I. Conduction and allocation of photoassimilates

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.; Schiele, E.M.; Scheirer, D.C. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA )

    1988-02-01

    Leafy stems and connecting underground rhizomes of Polytrichum commune Hedw. contain leptome tissues similar in structure to phloem. Isolated stems in clonal groupings were pulse labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Labelled sugar, mostly sucrose, glucose, and fructose, appeared in the pulse labelled stems 30 min after treatment. A small amount (3.3%) of labelled sugar was transported to neighboring stems. Silver grain deposition in microautoradiographs of interconnecting rhizomes occurred predominantly over leptome tissues. Increased amounts of translocated radioactivity appeared in starch and cell wall polysaccharide pools one week and six weeks after treatment. These results (1) indicate that transport of photoassimilate occurs through the leptome of perennating rhizomes, (2) demonstrate that translocated carbon is subsequently utilized or stored, and (3) raise important questions about the significance of long distance transport in the life strategy of this complex clonal moss.

  18. Nanoscale reduction in surface friction of polymer surfaces modified with Sc3 hydrophobin from Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rahul; Li, Jun; Cannon, Gordon C; Morgan, Sarah E

    2006-05-01

    Hydrophobins are amphipathic self-assembling proteins secreted by filamentous fungi that exhibit remarkable ability to modify synthetic surfaces. Thin coatings of Sc3 hydrophobin isolated from the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune were prepared via spin coating and adsorption techniques onto polymeric surfaces. Surface morphology and nanotribological characteristics of the films were evaluated using lateral force microscopy (LFM) and nanoindentation techniques. This paper reports the first observation of reduction in nanoscale relative surface friction of Sc3 hydrophobin protein modified polymeric surfaces. Relative friction coefficients were dramatically reduced and hydrophilicity increased for polymer surfaces modified with Sc3 hydrophobin thin films. Morphology of the protein films as well as degree of surface modification was observed to be a function of film formation technique and composition of the substrate.

  19. Schizophyllum Commune a Causative Agent of Fungal Sinusitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Premamalini, T.; Ambujavalli, B. T.; Anitha, S.; Somu, L.; Kindo, Anupma J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune, in a 50-year-old female. The patient presented with nasal obstruction, purulent nasal discharge from right side of the nose, cough, headache, and sneezing. Computed tomography revealed extensive opacity of the right maxillary sinus as well as erosion of the nasal wall and maxillary bone. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was done, and fungal debris present on right side of the maxillary sinus was removed and sent to laboratory. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination of the nasal discharge showed hyaline, septate hyphae. Primary isolation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) yielded a white woolly mould. Banana peel culture after 8 weeks showed macroscopically visible fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB) mount of the same revealed hyaline septate hyphae, often with clamp connections. Identification was confirmed by the presence of clamp connections formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates. PMID:22567479

  20. Schizophyllum commune a causative agent of fungal sinusitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Premamalini, T; Ambujavalli, B T; Anitha, S; Somu, L; Kindo, Anupma J

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune, in a 50-year-old female. The patient presented with nasal obstruction, purulent nasal discharge from right side of the nose, cough, headache, and sneezing. Computed tomography revealed extensive opacity of the right maxillary sinus as well as erosion of the nasal wall and maxillary bone. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was done, and fungal debris present on right side of the maxillary sinus was removed and sent to laboratory. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination of the nasal discharge showed hyaline, septate hyphae. Primary isolation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) yielded a white woolly mould. Banana peel culture after 8 weeks showed macroscopically visible fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB) mount of the same revealed hyaline septate hyphae, often with clamp connections. Identification was confirmed by the presence of clamp connections formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates.

  1. Preparation of polysaccharides from cyanobacteria Nostoc commune and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bin; Wu, Sheng-Jun; Liu, Dou

    2014-01-01

    In this study, water soluble polysaccharides were prepared from cyanobacteria Nostoc commune by water extraction. Factors affecting the polysaccharide yields were investigated, and the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: time, 4h; temperature, 90 °C; the ratio of liquid to solid, 60:1 (v/w); and extraction times, 4. The extract was filtered, concentrated to ∼10% (w/v), precipitated with 3 volumes of ethanol, freeze-dried, and ground to yield a water soluble power. The polysaccharide content of the product was 96.7%, and the yield was 9.18% (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrated that the product samples were mainly composed of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides showed high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (92.71%) and reducing capacity (0.445) at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  3. Comparative analysis of the secretomes of Schizophyllum commune and other wood-decay basidiomycetes during solid-state fermentation reveals its unique lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ning; Liu, Jiawen; Yang, Jinshui; Lin, Yujian; Yang, Yi; Ji, Lei; Li, Meng; Yuan, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    The genome of Schizophyllum commune encodes a diverse repertoire of degradative enzymes for plant cell wall breakdown. Recent comparative genomics study suggests that this wood decayer likely has a mode of biodegradation distinct from the well-established white-rot/brown-rot models. However, much about the extracellular enzyme system secreted by S. commune during lignocellulose deconstruction remains unknown and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, extracellular proteins of S. commune colonizing Jerusalem artichoke stalk were analyzed and compared with those of two white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and a brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. Under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, S. commune displayed considerably higher levels of hydrolytic enzyme activities in comparison with those of P. chrysosporium, C. subvermispora and G. trabeum. During biodegradation process, this fungus modified the lignin polymer in a way which was consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, similar to that of G. trabeum. The crude enzyme cocktail derived from S. commune demonstrated superior performance over a commercial enzyme preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum in the hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass at low enzyme loadings. Secretomic analysis revealed that compared with three other fungi, this species produced a higher diversity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, especially hemicellulases and pectinases acting on polysaccharide backbones and side chains, and a larger set of enzymes potentially supporting the generation of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, multiple non-hydrolytic proteins implicated in enhancing polysaccharide accessibility were identified in the S. commune secretome, including lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and expansin-like proteins. Plant lignocellulose degradation by S. commune involves a hydroxyl radical-mediated mechanism for lignocellulose modification

  4. Effect of Introns and AT-Rich Sequences on Expression of the Bacterial Hygromycin B Resistance Gene in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Scholtmeijer, Karin; Wösten, Han A. B.; Springer, Jan; Wessels, Joseph G. H.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that introns are required for efficient mRNA accumulation in Schizophyllum commune and that the presence of AT-rich sequences in the coding region of genes can result in truncation of transcripts in this homobasidiomycete. Here we show that intron-dependent mRNA accumulation and truncation of transcripts are two independent events that both affect expression of the bacterial hygromycin B resistance gene in S. commune. PMID:11133486

  5. Impact of a hygiene curriculum and the installation of simple handwashing and drinking water stations in rural Kenyan primary schools on student health and hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal K; Harris, Julie R; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

    2012-10-01

    School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half ("intervention schools"). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention.

  6. Impact of a Hygiene Curriculum and the Installation of Simple Handwashing and Drinking Water Stations in Rural Kenyan Primary Schools on Student Health and Hygiene Practices

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Minal K.; Harris, Julie R.; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half (“intervention schools”). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention. PMID:22869631

  7. CHeCS (Crew Health Care Systems): International Space Station (ISS) Medical Hardware Catalog. Version 10.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  8. Use and Adequacy of Health-Care Services in New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Report 320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Clyde; And Others

    Patterns of health care use in New Mexico were examined to determine whether income, education, occupation, or other socioeconomic characteristics were associated with use of the service. Adequacy of services were assessed relative to the State's immediate neighbors and the United States from the perspectives of structure, process, and outcomes.…

  9. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section 35.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent persons...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent persons...

  15. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  16. Cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in Fusarium commune transcriptome and functional characterization of three identified xylanases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhong; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-06-01

    Specific enzymes from plant-pathogenic microbes demonstrate high effectiveness for natural lignocellulosic biomass degradation and utilization. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes of Fusarium species have not been investigated comprehensively, however. In this study we compared cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes of classical fungal enzyme producers with those of Fusarium species. The results indicated that Fusarium species are robust cellulose and hemicellulose degraders. Wheat bran, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan-based growth media induced a broad spectrum of lignocellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium commune. Prediction of the cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in the F. commune transcriptome using peptide pattern recognition revealed 147 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and six genes encoding lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (AA9 and AA11), including all relevant cellulose decomposing enzymes (GH3, GH5, GH6, GH7, GH9, GH45 and AA9), and abundant hemicellulases. We further applied peptide pattern recognition to reveal nine and seven subfamilies of GH10 and GH11 family enzymes, respectively. The uncharacterized XYL10A, XYL10B and XYL11 enzymes of F. commune were classified, respectively, into GH10 subfamily 1, subfamily 3 and GH11 subfamily 1. These xylanases were successfully expressed in the PichiaPink™ system with the following properties: the purified recombinant XYL10A had interesting high specific activity; XYL10B was active at alkaline conditions with both endo-1,4-β-d-xylanase and β-xylosidase activities; and XYL11 was a true xylanase characterized by high substrate specificity. These results indicate that F. commune with genetic modification is a promising source of enzymes for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials by consolidated biological processing using the wood rot fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Horisawa, Sakae; Ando, Hiromasa; Ariga, Osamu; Sakuma, Yoh

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, ethanol production from polysaccharides or wood chips was conducted in a single reactor under anaerobic conditions using the white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune NBRC 4928, which produces enzymes that degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The ethanol yields produced from glucose and xylose were 80.5%, and 52.5%, respectively. The absolute yields of ethanol per microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylan and arabinogalactan were 0.26g/g-MCC, 0.0419g/g-xylan and 0.0508g/g-arabinogalactan, respectively. By comparing the actual ethanol yields from polysaccharides with monosaccharide fermentation, it was shown that the rate of saccharification was slower than that in fermentation. S. commune NBRC 4928 is concluded to be suitable for CBP because it can produce ethanol from various types of sugar. From the autoclaved cedar chip, only little ethanol was produced by S. commune NBRC 4928 alone but ethanol production was enhanced by combined use of ethanol fermenting and lignin degrading fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Providing quality services. JICA Reproductive Health Project. Thanh Chuong district.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Huu Son

    1999-01-01

    This article concerns the quality of services provided by the different groups sponsored by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Reproductive Health project. Nguyen Huu Son, Chairperson of the People's Committee of Thanh Tien Commune, cites that the JICA project has helped improve their Commune Health Center (CHC). The project has provided basic medical equipment that has been lacking in the CHCs, subsequently making the task of providing quality services easier and more comfortable for midwives and other health personnel. For the Thanh Tien Commune Health Center, Nguyen Hoang An reports that the JICA project has brought about improvement in their CHC fields; namely, 1) providing health knowledge to community people; 2) increase in health staff's skills through training; 3) keeping record of management and the CHC services; and 4) renovating health facilities. As a result, clients have increased and many of the community people now have confidence in their services. For the Women's Union of Thanh Tien Commune, Nguyen Thi Loc reports that the assistance provided by JICA has greatly helped in the acquisition of necessary skills for disseminating adequate information to women.

  19. Smart Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel - Integrated Structural Health Monitoring System to Meet Space Exploration and International Space Station Mission Assurance Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Nichols, Charles; Waller, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are no integrated NDE methods for baselining and monitoring defect levels in fleet for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) or related fracture critical composites, or for performing life-cycle maintenance inspections either in a traditional remove-and-inspect mode or in a more modern in situ inspection structural health monitoring (SHM) mode. Implicit in SHM and autonomous inspection is the existence of quantitative accept-reject criteria. To be effective, these criteria must correlate with levels of damage known to cause composite failure. Furthermore, implicit in SHM is the existence of effective remote sensing hardware and automated techniques and algorithms for interpretation of SHM data. SHM of facture critical composite structures, especially high pressure COPVs, is critical to the success of nearly every future NASA space exploration program as well as life extension of the International Space Station. It has been clearly stated that future NASA missions may not be successful without SHM [1]. Otherwise, crews will be busy addressing subsystem health issues and not focusing on the real NASA mission

  20. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) were each awarded 16-month contracts in April 1976 for the Space Station Systems Analysis Study (SSSAS). Grumman Aerospace Corporation was MSFC's contractor and McDornell Douglas Aerospace Company was JSC's contractor. The goal of this study was to formulate plans for a permanent operational base and laboratory facility in Earth orbit in addition to developing a space construction base design for implementing the program. An expended Space Shuttle external tank was to be the central core platform of the base, and additional pressurized modules could be added to provide laboratory facilities. This artist's concept depicts a space construction base design for implementing the SSSAS.

  1. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  2. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  3. Do TETRA (Airwave) Base Station Signals Have a Short-Term Impact on Health and Well-Being? A Randomized Double-Blind Provocation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Background “Airwave” is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. Objectives We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported “electrosensitivity” and of participants who served as controls. Methods Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. Results We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself. PMID:20075020

  4. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge... for the efficient operation of the station or hospital and for the proper and humane care...

  5. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge... for the efficient operation of the station or hospital and for the proper and humane care...

  6. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge... for the efficient operation of the station or hospital and for the proper and humane care...

  7. The potential and realistic hazards after a solar-driven chemical treatment of benzene using a health risk assessment at a gas station site in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hyoung; Chang, Soon-Woong

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential use for ex situ remediation, a solar-driven, photocatalyzed reactor system was constructed and applied for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene using selected advanced oxidation processes (AOP) processes, such as H(2)O(2)/solar light, TiO(2) slurry/solar light and immobilized TiO(2)/solar light. However; to date, there have been few attempts to characterize the potential impact of residual levels of benzene on human health after treatment. Some papers have focused on the application of treatment methods of benzene, but most have not considered the effects of realistic hazards and human health. Therefore, potential and realistic hazards of benzene to human health were investigated at a gas station site using a risk-based assessment approach. Among the different remediation actions, the solar light/TiO(2) slurry/H(2)O(2) system (Action 5) showed higher removal efficiency than the solar light/TiO(2) slurry (Action 3) and the solar light/immobilized TiO(2) (Action 2) systems for the treatment of benzene. The Action 5 remediation method achieved 98% degradation, and lead to a substantial increase in the removal of benzene due to the synergetic effect of TiO(2) with the oxidant, H(2)O(2). Also, using the realistic and potential hazard assessment instead of the point estimation of concentration after benzene treatment, the total health risk exceeded the target risk value (1 x 10(-6)). However, the 95th percentile target cancer risk, found using a probabilistic analysis (Monte Carlo method), was around 1 x 10(-6), indicating a low potential carcinogenic risk. Therefore, it was concluded that no adverse health risk was unlikely to be posed if the Action 5 system, which included the addition of TiO(2) and H(2)O(2), or if an increased reaction time was applied. In addition, continuous efforts and proper actions must be taken on the "Soil and Groundwater Remediation Action" based on the risk assessment in Korea.

  8. Interaction of U(VI) with Schizophyllum commune studied by microscopic and spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Günther, Alix; Raff, Johannes; Merroun, Mohamed Larbi; Rossberg, André; Kothe, Erika; Bernhard, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Biosorption of actinides like uranium by fungal cells can play an important role in the mobilization or immobilization of these elements in nature. Sorption experiments of U(VI) with Schizophyllum commune at different initial uranium concentrations and varying metal speciation showed high uranium sorption capacities in the pH range of 4–7. A combination of high angle annular dark-field and scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis (HAADF-STEM) showed that living mycelium cells accumulate uranium at the cell wall and intracellular. For the first time the fluorescence properties of uranium accumulates were investigated by means of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) beside the determination of corresponding structural parameters using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). While the oxidation state of uranium remained unchanged during sorption, uranium speciation changed significantly. Extra and intracellular phosphate groups are mainly responsible for uranium binding. TRLFS spectra clearly show differences between the emission properties of dissolved species in the initial mineral medium and of uranium species on fungi. The latter were proved to be organic and inorganic uranyl phosphates formed depending on the uranyl initial concentration and in some cases on pH.

  9. A Novel Expansin Protein from the White-Rot Fungus Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Carbente, María del Rayo; Iracheta-Cárdenas, María Magdalena; Arévalo-Niño, Katiushka; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    A novel expansin protein (ScExlx1) was found, cloned and expressed from the Basidiomycete fungus Schizophylum commune. This protein showed the canonical features of plant expansins. ScExlx1 showed the ability to form “bubbles” in cotton fibers, reduce the size of avicel particles and enhance reducing sugar liberation from cotton fibers pretreated with the protein and then treated with cellulases. ScExlx1 was able to bind cellulose, birchwood xylan and chitin and this property was not affected by different sodium chloride concentrations. A novel property of ScExlx1 is its capacity to enhance reducing sugars (N-acetyl glucosamine) liberation from pretreated chitin and further added with chitinase, which has not been reported for any expansin or expansin-like protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bona fide fungal expansin found in a basidiomycete and we could express the bioactive protein in Pichia pastoris. PMID:25803865

  10. Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C, and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (QST) was significantly higher at 22°C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (GST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18°C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as QST was significantly lower than GST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58–0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143

  11. Novel small molecule 11β-HSD1 inhibitor from the endophytic fungus Penicillium commune

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiguang; Chen, Xintao; Tong, Qingyi; Zhu, Hucheng; He, Yan; Lei, Liang; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Jianping; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Two new phenone derivatives penicophenones A (1) and B (2), a new cyclic tetrapeptide penicopeptide A (3), and five known compounds were isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium commune, an endophytic fungus derived from Vitis vinifera. Compounds 1–3 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were determined by comparing its ECD with related molecules and modified Marfey’s analysis, respectively. Penicophenone A (1) possesses a rare benzannulated 6,6-spiroketal moiety, which is a new member of the unusual structural class with peniphenone A as the representative. Compound 3 exhibited significant inhibition activities against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in vitro and showed strong binding affinity to 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compound 3 treatments decreased the lipid droplet accumulation associate with the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 expression in differentiate-induced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the molecular docking demonstrated that compound 3 coordinated in the active site of 11β-HSD1 is essential for the ability of diminishing the enzyme activity. PMID:27194583

  12. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-15

    A carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the γ-class has been cloned, purified and characterized from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The enzyme showed a good catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction (hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and a proton) with the following kinetic parameters, kcat of 9.5×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/KM of 8.3×10(7)M(-1)s(-1), being the γ-CA with the highest catalytic activity described so far. A range of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and one sulfamate were investigated as inhibitors of the new enzyme, denominated here NcoCA. The best NcoCA inhibitors were some sulfonylated sulfanilamide derivatives possessing elongated molecules, aminobenzolamide, acetazolamide, benzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and topiramate, which showed inhibition constants in the range of 40.3-92.3nM. As 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) and γ-CAs are closely associated in carboxysomes of cyanobacteria for enhancing the affinity of RubisCO for CO2 and the efficiency of photosynthesis, investigation of this new enzyme and its affinity for modulators of its activity may bring new insights in these crucial processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and structural elucidation of a glucomannogalactan from marine fungus Penicillium commune.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanli; Mao, Wenjun; Wang, Junfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Zhao, Chunqi; Li, Na; Wang, Chunyan; Yan, Mengxia; Guo, Tao; Liu, Xue

    2013-09-12

    The coral-associated fungus Penicillium commune produces an extracellular polysaccharide, FP2-1, when grown in potato dextrose-agar medium. FP2-1 was isolated from the fermented broth using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, and its structure was elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including detailed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that FP2-1 was a glucomannogalactan with a molar ratio of galactose, mannose and glucose of 3.9:1.9:1.0. Structure of FP2-1 may be represented, at an average, as a backbone of (1→2)-linked α-mannopyranose with the every second residue substituted at position 6 by a pentasaccharide branch. The branches consist of four (1→6)-linked β-galactofuranose residues with terminal α-glucopyranose residue attached to the last galactofuranose residue at position 2. FP2-1 was a novel galactofuranose-containing extracellular polysaccharide differing from previously described extracellular polysaccharides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular weight and helix conformation determine intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of exopolysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Du, Bin; Yang, Yuedong; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2017-09-15

    Intestinal anti-inflammatory activities of exopolysaccharide from S. commune were assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice model. The changes of molecular weight (MW), atomic force microscope morphology, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and viscosity were recorded after sonication treatment. The results indicated that the triple helical structure of exopolysaccharide was dissociated into single helical structure and random coiled structure by ultrasonication via breaking of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The medium (936kDa) and high MW (1437kDa) exopolysaccharide had the mixture of triple helix and single helix conformation, while the low MW (197kDa) exopolysaccharide exhibit random coiled conformation. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity study showed that oral administration of medium and high MW (1437kDa) exopolysaccharide significantly recovered DSS-induced colitis in inflamed tissues and reduced inflammation induced infiltration of macrophages. These results showed that medium (936kDa) and high MW (1437kDa) exopolysaccharide had intestinal anti-inflammatory activity. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide was related to helical structure and molecular weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel small molecule 11β-HSD1 inhibitor from the endophytic fungus Penicillium commune.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiguang; Chen, Xintao; Tong, Qingyi; Zhu, Hucheng; He, Yan; Lei, Liang; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Jianping; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-05-19

    Two new phenone derivatives penicophenones A (1) and B (2), a new cyclic tetrapeptide penicopeptide A (3), and five known compounds were isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium commune, an endophytic fungus derived from Vitis vinifera. Compounds 1-3 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were determined by comparing its ECD with related molecules and modified Marfey's analysis, respectively. Penicophenone A (1) possesses a rare benzannulated 6,6-spiroketal moiety, which is a new member of the unusual structural class with peniphenone A as the representative. Compound 3 exhibited significant inhibition activities against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in vitro and showed strong binding affinity to 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compound 3 treatments decreased the lipid droplet accumulation associate with the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 expression in differentiate-induced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the molecular docking demonstrated that compound 3 coordinated in the active site of 11β-HSD1 is essential for the ability of diminishing the enzyme activity.

  16. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of rat aorta induced by extract of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyun; Li, Sujuan; Wang, Peng; Yan, Saimei; Hu, Lin; Pan, Xiaoxia; Yang, Cui; Leung, George Pakheng

    2014-09-25

    Schizophyllum commune (SC) is widely consumed by Chinese, especially in southern part of China. The aim of the present study was to assess the extract of SC on vascular tone and the mechanisms involved. Experiments were performed on aorta of 18-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dried SC was extracted with 50% ethanol, 90% ethanol and deionized water, respectively. The effects of SC on the isometric tension of rat aortic rings were measured. Protein expression for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was also determined in the primarily cultured rat aortic arterial endothelial cells (RAECs). The results showed that the water extract of SC induced a marked relaxation in aortic rings with or without endothelium. After the pretreatments of N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, RP-cAMP, and methylene blue, the SC-induced relaxation was significantly decreased. In addition, the contraction due to Ca(2+) influx and intracellular Ca(2+) release was also inhibited by SC. Furthermore, expression of the eNOS protein was significantly elevated in RAECs after treatment of SC. In conclusion, the water extract of SC induces an endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation in rat aorta. The relaxing effect of SC involves the modulation of NO-cGMP-dependent pathways, PGI2-cAMP-depedent pathways, Ca(2+) influx though calcium channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune as affected by ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Du, Bin; Zeng, Huansong; Yang, Yuedong; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound treatment was applied to modify the physicochemical properties of an exopolysaccharide from mycelial culture of Schizophyllum commune. Molecular weight (MW) degradation, viscosity and anti-inflammatory property of ultrasonic treated polysaccharide were optimized with response surface methodology. The best ultrasonic parameters were obtained with a three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design. The optimized conditions for efficient anti-inflammatory activity are initial concentration at 0.4%, ultrasonic power at 600W, and duration of ultrasonic irradiation for 9min. Under these conditions, the nitric oxide inhibition rate was 95±0.03% which agreed closely with the predicted value (96%). Average MW of polysaccharide decreased after ultrasonic treatments. The viscosity of degraded polysaccharide dropped compared with native polysaccharide. The anti-inflammatory activity was improved by ultrasound treatment. The results suggested that ultrasound treatment is an effective approach to decrease the MW of polysaccharide with high anti-inflammatory activity. Ultrasonic treatment is a viable modification technology for high MW polymer materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Are PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR Genes Involved in Mediating Resistance to Rhynchosporium commune in Barley?

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Stephan; Hanemann, Anja; Sharma, Shailendra; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Günther; Röder, Marion S.

    2016-01-01

    A family of putative PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR (PEI) genes, which were detected in the genomic region co-segregating with the resistance gene Rrs2 against scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune in barley, were characterized and tested for their possible involvement in mediating resistance to the pathogen by complementation and overexpression analysis. The sequences of the respective genes were derived from two BAC contigs originating from the susceptible cultivar ‘Morex’. For the genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3, HvPEI4 and HvPEI6, specific haplotypes for 18 resistant and 23 susceptible cultivars were detected after PCR-amplification and haplotype-specific CAPS-markers were developed. None of the tested candidate genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3 and HvPEI4 alone conferred a high resistance level in transgenic over-expression plants, though an improvement of the resistance level was observed especially with OE-lines for gene HvPEI4. These results do not confirm but also do not exclude an involvement of the PEI gene family in the response to the pathogen. A candidate for the resistance gene Rrs2 could not be identified yet. It is possible that Rrs2 is a PEI gene or another type of gene which has not been detected in the susceptible cultivar ‘Morex’ or the full resistance reaction requires the presence of several PEI genes. PMID:26937960

  19. Are PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR Genes Involved in Mediating Resistance to Rhynchosporium commune in Barley?

    PubMed

    Marzin, Stephan; Hanemann, Anja; Sharma, Shailendra; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Günther; Röder, Marion S

    2016-01-01

    A family of putative PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR (PEI) genes, which were detected in the genomic region co-segregating with the resistance gene Rrs2 against scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune in barley, were characterized and tested for their possible involvement in mediating resistance to the pathogen by complementation and overexpression analysis. The sequences of the respective genes were derived from two BAC contigs originating from the susceptible cultivar 'Morex'. For the genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3, HvPEI4 and HvPEI6, specific haplotypes for 18 resistant and 23 susceptible cultivars were detected after PCR-amplification and haplotype-specific CAPS-markers were developed. None of the tested candidate genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3 and HvPEI4 alone conferred a high resistance level in transgenic over-expression plants, though an improvement of the resistance level was observed especially with OE-lines for gene HvPEI4. These results do not confirm but also do not exclude an involvement of the PEI gene family in the response to the pathogen. A candidate for the resistance gene Rrs2 could not be identified yet. It is possible that Rrs2 is a PEI gene or another type of gene which has not been detected in the susceptible cultivar 'Morex' or the full resistance reaction requires the presence of several PEI genes.

  20. Repression of proinflammatory gene expression by lipid extract of Nostoc commune var sphaeroides Kützing, a blue-green alga, via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Ki; Rasmussen, Heather E; Ehlers, Sarah J; Blobaum, Kara R; Lu, Fan; Schlegal, Vicki L; Carr, Timothy P; Lee, Ji-Young

    2008-02-01

    We investigated whether lipid extract from a blue-green alga, N commune, modulates proinflammatory gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cells were incubated with N commune lipid extract (0-100 microg/mL) and subsequently activated by LPS (100 ng/mL). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that mRNA abundance of proinflammatory mediators, including TNF-alpha, COX-2, IL-1beta, IL-6, and iNOS, was significantly reduced by N commune lipid extract in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta into cell culture medium was also significantly decreased by N commune lipid extract. Thin-layer chromatography-densitometry analysis showed that N commune lipid extract contained approximately 15% of fatty acids. To determine whether the inhibition of proinflammatory mediator production by N commune lipid extract is primarily conferred by fatty acids in the lipid extract, macrophages were incubated with 100 microg/mL of N commune lipid extract or 15 microg/mL of a fatty acid mixture, which was formulated to reflect the fatty acid composition of N commune lipid extract. The fatty acid mixture significantly reduced RNA abundance of TNF-alpha and COX-2, but to a lesser extent than did the N commune lipid extract, suggesting the presence of additional bioactive compounds with an antiinflammatory property in the lipid extract. As NF-kappaB is a major regulator for the proinflammatory gene expression, we measured its DNA-binding activity. DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB was significantly reduced by N commune lipid extract. In conclusion, our study suggests that N commune lipid extract represses the expression of proinflammatory genes in RAW 264.7 macrophages, at least in part, by inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB pathway.

  1. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  2. Aerospace crew station design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Gerald P. (Editor); Montemerlo, Melvin D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Consideration is given to spacecraft cockpits and work stations, commercial aircraft cockpits and crew stations, high performance aircraft cockpits and crew stations, and space stations and habitat crew stations. Particular attention is given to an historical review of NASA manned spacecraft crew stations, ESA spacelab crew stations, the evolution of commercial aircraft flight station design, Boeing 757/767 flight deck, a historical review of Concorde flight deck design, trends in the cockpit design of new European fighters, and state-of-the-art applications for Space Station crew interface design.

  3. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section 35.1... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such instructions...

  4. Application of principal component analysis to ecodiversity assessment of postglacial landscape (on the example of Debnica Kaszubska commune, Middle Pomerania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, Adam

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess ecodiversity understood as a comprehensive natural landscape factor (Jedicke 2001), it is necessary to apply research methods which recognize the environment in a holistic way. Principal component analysis may be considered as one of such methods as it allows to distinguish the main factors determining landscape diversity on the one hand, and enables to discover regularities shaping the relationships between various elements of the environment under study on the other hand. The procedure adopted to assess ecodiversity with the use of principal component analysis involves: a) determining and selecting appropriate factors of the assessed environment qualities (hypsometric, geological, hydrographic, plant, and others); b) calculating the absolute value of individual qualities for the basic areas under analysis (e.g. river length, forest area, altitude differences, etc.); c) principal components analysis and obtaining factor maps (maps of selected components); d) generating a resultant, detailed map and isolating several classes of ecodiversity. An assessment of ecodiversity with the use of principal component analysis was conducted in the test area of 299,67 km2 in Debnica Kaszubska commune. The whole commune is situated in the Weichselian glaciation area of high hypsometric and morphological diversity as well as high geo- and biodiversity. The analysis was based on topographical maps of the commune area in scale 1:25000 and maps of forest habitats. Consequently, nine factors reflecting basic environment elements were calculated: maximum height (m), minimum height (m), average height (m), the length of watercourses (km), the area of water reservoirs (m2), total forest area (ha), coniferous forests habitats area (ha), deciduous forest habitats area (ha), alder habitats area (ha). The values for individual factors were analysed for 358 grid cells of 1 km2. Based on the principal components analysis, four major factors affecting commune ecodiversity

  5. The production of cyclopiazonic acid by Penicillium commune and cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus as affected by water activity and temperature on maize grains.

    PubMed

    Gqaleni, N; Smith, J E; Lacey, J; Gettinby, G

    1996-11-01

    The combined effects of water activity (a(w)) and temperature on mycotoxin production by Penicilium commune (cyclopiazonic acid - CPA) and Aspergillus flavus (CPA and aflatoxins - AF) were studied on maize over a 14-day period using a statistical experimental design. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant interaction (P ≤ 0.001) between these factors and mycotoxin production. The minimum a(w)/temperature for CPA production (2264 ng g(-1) P. commune, 709 ng g(-1) A. flavus) was 0.90 a(w)/30 °C while greatest production (7678 ng g(-1) P. commune, 1876 ng g(-1) A. flavus) was produced at 0.98 a(w)/20 °C. Least AF (411 ng g(-1)) was produced at 0.90 a(w)/20 °C and most (3096 ng g(-1)) at 0.98 a(w)/30 °C.

  6. Isolation and purification of an axenic diazotrophic drought-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, from natural cyanobacterial crusts and its utilization for field research on soils polluted with radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Jun; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nishi, Yasuaki

    2012-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation and drought tolerance confer the ability to grow on dry land, and some terrestrial cyanobacteria exhibit these properties. These cyanobacteria were isolated in an axenic form from Nostoc commune clusters and other sources by modifying the method used to isolate the nitrogen-fixing and drought-tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. HK-01. Of these cyanobacteria, N. commune, which is difficult to isolate and purify, uses polysaccharides to maintain water, nitrogen fertilizers for nitrogen fixation, and can live in extreme environments because of desiccation tolerance. In this study, we examined the use of N. commune as biosoil for space agriculture and possible absorption of radioisotopes ((134)Cs, (137)Cs). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. International Space Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of the program vision and mission; Space Station uses; definition of program phases; as well as descriptions and status of several scheduled International Space Station Overview assembly flights.

  8. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  9. Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, the Space Station Task Force was formed, signaling the initiation of the Space Station Freedom Program, and eventually resulting in the Marshall Space Flight Center's responsibilities for Space Station Work Package 1.

  10. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - One of many vendors displaying their products during the Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida Power and Light draws a crowd during a demonstration. The annual KSC event is dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - One of many vendors displaying their products during the Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida Power and Light draws a crowd during a demonstration. The annual KSC event is dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Many vendors and organizations displayed their products during the Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, an annual event dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce. This scene is at Hangar S, CCAFS.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Many vendors and organizations displayed their products during the Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, an annual event dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce. This scene is at Hangar S, CCAFS.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Employees file around table displays under a tent near the Operations and Checkout Building. Many vendors and organizations displayed their products during the Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, an annual event dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Employees file around table displays under a tent near the Operations and Checkout Building. Many vendors and organizations displayed their products during the Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, an annual event dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An employee gets a blood pressure check from one of the participating organizations in Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Many vendors and Center organizations displayed and demonstrated their products during the annual event dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An employee gets a blood pressure check from one of the participating organizations in Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Many vendors and Center organizations displayed and demonstrated their products during the annual event dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce.

  15. Variation in Phospholipid Ester-Linked Fatty Acids and Carotenoids of Desiccated Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) from Different Geographic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Malcolm; Olie, Jaap J.; Nickels, Janet S.; Parsons, John; White, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Profiles of phospholipid fatty acids and carotenoids in desiccated Nostoc commune (cyanobacteria) collected from China, Federal Republic of Germany, and Antarctica and in axenic cultures of the desiccation-tolerant strains N. commune UTEX 584 and Hydrocoleum strain GOEI were analyzed. The phospholipid fatty acid contents of the three samples of desiccated Nostoc species were all similar, and the dominant compounds were 16:1ω7c, 16:0, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, and 18:1ω7c. In comparison with the field materials, N. commune UTEX 584 had a much higher ratio of 18:2ω6 to 18:3ω3 (5.36) and a significantly lower ratio of 18:1ω7c to 18:1ω9c (1.86). Compound 18:3 was present in large amounts in the samples of desiccated Nostoc species which had been subject, in situ, to repeated cycles of drying and rewetting, but represented only a small fraction of the total fatty acids of the strains grown in liquid culture. This finding is in contrast to the data obtained from studies on the effects of drought and water stress on higher plants. Field materials of Nostoc species contained, in contrast to the axenic strains, significant amounts of apocarotenoids and a P384 pigment which, upon reduction with NaBH4, yielded a mixture of a chlorophyll derivative and a compound with an absorption maximum of 451 nm. A clear distinction can be made between the carotenoid contents of the axenic cultures and the desiccated field materials. In the former, β-carotene and echinenone predominate; in the latter, canthaxanthin and the β-γ series of carotenoids are found. PMID:16347265

  16. The UV-B stimulon of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune comprises early shock proteins and late acclimation proteins.

    PubMed

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Schulz, Stefan; Wait, Robin; Görg, Angelika; Scherer, Siegfried

    2002-11-01

    The UV-B and desiccation-tolerant terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune was grown under defined UV irradiation. Proteome changes were monitored in the membrane and the cytosolic and the extracellular fractions. Tools were developed to separate stress-triggered from growth stage-dependent changes. UV-B changed the relative cellular concentration of 493 out of 1,350 protein spots at least by a factor of three, rendering the UV-B stimulon of N. commune the most complex one described so far. It comprises two different parts: an early shock response influencing 214 proteins and a late acclimation response involving 279 proteins. The shock response comprised many membrane or membrane-associated proteins, whereas the acclimation response mainly changed cytosolic proteins. Most of the shock-induced changes were transient and did not overlap with the acclimation response. In the extracellular fraction, UV irradiation induced superoxide dismutase and the water stress protein. In total, 27 intracellular, UV-B-induced proteins were partially sequenced by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Three functional classes were identified: proteins involved in lipid metabolism, in carbohydrate metabolism and in regulatory pathways. About 50% of the sequenced proteins were homologous to cyanobacterial database entries with un-known function. Interestingly, all of these proteins belong to the UV-B acclimation response. We conclude that the UV-B shock response and the UV-B acclimation response represent two completely different and remarkably complex strategies of N. commune to protect itself against UV-B radiation in its natural environment.

  17. Transcriptome and Functional Analysis of Mating in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Susann; Freihorst, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Jung, Elke-Martina; Senftleben, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we undertook a functional characterization and transcriptome analysis that enabled a comprehensive study of the mating type loci of the mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Induced expression of both the bar2 receptor and the bap2(2) pheromone gene within 6 to 12 h after mates' contact was demonstrated by quantitative real-time PCR. Similar temporal expression patterns were confirmed for the allelic bbr1 receptor and bbp1 pheromone-encoding genes by Northern hybridization. Interestingly, the fusion of clamp connections to the subterminal cell was delayed in mating interactions in which one of the compatible partners expressed the bar2 receptor with a truncated C terminus. This developmental delay allowed the visualization of a green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labeled truncated receptor at the cell periphery, consistent with a localization in the plasma membrane of unfused pseudoclamps. This finding does not support hypotheses envisioning a receptor localization to the nuclear membrane facilitating recognition between the two different nuclei present in each dikaryotic cell. Rather, Gfp fluorescence observed in such pseudoclamps indicated a role of receptor-pheromone interaction in clamp fusion. Transcriptome changes associated with mating interactions were analyzed in order to identify a role for pheromone-receptor interactions. We detected a total of 89 genes that were transcriptionally regulated in a mating type locus A-dependent manner, employing a cutoff of 5-fold changes in transcript abundance. Upregulation in cell cycle-related genes and downregulation of genes involved in metabolism were seen with this set of experiments. In contrast, mating type locus B-dependent transcriptome changes were observed in 208 genes, with a specific impact on genes related to cell wall and membrane metabolism, stress response, and the redox status of the cell. PMID:22210832

  18. Transcription factors of Schizophyllum commune involved in mushroom formation and modulation of vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Patil, Mohini B; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G

    2017-03-22

    Mushrooms are the most conspicuous fungal structures. Transcription factors (TFs) Bri1 and Hom1 of the model fungus Schizophyllum commune are involved in late stages of mushroom development, while Wc-2, Hom2, and Fst4 function early in development. Here, it is shown that Bri1 and Hom1 also stimulate vegetative growth, while biomass formation is repressed by Wc-2, Hom2, and Fst4. The Δbri1Δbri1 and the Δhom1Δhom1 strains formed up to 0.6 fold less biomass when compared to wild-type, while Δwc-2Δwc-2, Δhom2Δhom2, and Δfst4Δfst4 strains formed up to 2.8 fold more biomass. Inactivation of TF gene tea1, which was downregulated in the Δwc-2Δwc-2, Δhom2Δhom2, and Δfst4Δfst4 strains, resulted in a strain that was severely affected in mushroom development and that produced 1.3 fold more biomass than the wild-type. In contrast, introducing a constitutive active version of hom2 that had 4 predicted phosphorylation motifs eliminated resulted in radial growth inhibition and prompt fructification in both Δhom2 and wild-type strains, even in sterile monokaryons. Together, it is concluded that TFs involved in mushroom formation also modulate vegetative growth. Among these TFs is the homeodomain protein Hom2, being the first time that this class of regulatory proteins is implicated in repression of vegetative growth in a eukaryote.

  19. A Central Role for Ras1 in Morphogenesis of the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Knabe, Nicole; Jung, Elke-Martina; Freihorst, Daniela; Hennicke, Florian; Horton, J. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Fungi have been used as model systems to define general processes in eukaryotes, for example, the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, as well as to study polar growth or pathogenesis. Here, we show a central role for the regulator protein Ras in a mushroom-forming, filamentous basidiomycete linking growth, pheromone signaling, sexual development, and meiosis to different signal transduction pathways. ras1 and Ras-specific gap1 mutants were generated and used to modify the intracellular activation state of the Ras module. Transformants containing constitutive ras1 alleles (ras1G12V and ras1Q61L), as well as their compatible mating interactions, did show strong phenotypes for growth (associated with Cdc42 signaling) and mating (associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling). Normal fruiting bodies with abnormal spores exhibiting a reduced germination rate were produced by outcrossing of these mutant strains. Homozygous Δgap1 primordia, expected to experience increased Ras signaling, showed overlapping phenotypes with a block in basidium development and meiosis. Investigation of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A indicated that constitutively active ras1, as well as Δgap1 mutant strains, exhibit a strong increase in Tpk activity. Ras1-dependent, cAMP-mediated signal transduction is, in addition to the known signaling pathways, involved in fruiting body formation in Schizophyllum commune. To integrate these analyses of Ras signaling, microarray studies were performed. Mutant strains containing constitutively active Ras1, deletion of RasGap1, or constitutively active Cdc42 were characterized and compared. At the transcriptome level, specific regulation highlighting the phenotypic differences of the mutants is clearly visible. PMID:23606288

  20. Molecular characterization and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of Schizophyllum commune, an emerging basidiomycete in bronchopulmonary mycoses.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra N; Roy, Pradip; Randhawa, Harbans S; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-06-01

    Schizophyllum commune (n = 30) showed lowest geometric mean MICs of isavuconazole (0.19 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.2 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.24 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.29 μg/ml) and high geometric mean MICs of fluconazole (19.39 μg/ml) and flucytosine (17.28 μg/ml). Five cases (of 8) of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis that were treated with itraconazole had no recrudescence after 6 to 24 months of follow-up. One case each of invasive pulmonary mycosis and fungal ball were treated successfully with voriconazole and itraconazole.

  1. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Schizophyllum commune, an Emerging Basidiomycete in Bronchopulmonary Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra N.; Roy, Pradip; Randhawa, Harbans S.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune (n = 30) showed lowest geometric mean MICs of isavuconazole (0.19 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.2 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.24 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.29 μg/ml) and high geometric mean MICs of fluconazole (19.39 μg/ml) and flucytosine (17.28 μg/ml). Five cases (of 8) of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis that were treated with itraconazole had no recrudescence after 6 to 24 months of follow-up. One case each of invasive pulmonary mycosis and fungal ball were treated successfully with voriconazole and itraconazole. PMID:23507274

  2. Psychological distress of residents in Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koji; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Nakashima, Kanami; Orita, Makiko; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kumagai, Atsushi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    To shed light on the mental health of evacuees after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), we evaluate the results of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS) of the residents at Kawauchi village in Fukushima, which is located less than 30 km from the FDNPS. We conducted the cross-sectional study within the framework of the FHMS. Exposure values were "anorexia," "subjective feelings about health," "feelings about sleep satisfaction," and "bereavement caused by the disaster," confounding variables were "age" and "sex," and outcome variables were "K6 points." We collected data from the FHMS, and employed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist Stressor-Specific Version (PCL-S) to carry out the research. A total of 13 or greater was the cut-off for identifying serious mental illness using the K6 scale. The study subjects included residents (n = 542) of over 30 years of age from Kawauchi village, and data were used from the period of January 1, 2012 to October 31, 2012. A total of 474 residents (87.5%) scored less than 13 points in the K6 and 68 (12.6%) scored 13 points or more. The proportion of elderly residents (over 65 years old) among people with K6 score above the cut-off was higher than that among people with K6 score below the cut-off (44.1 vs 31.0%, p < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of residents with anorexia and mental illness among people with K6 score above the cut-off was higher than among people with K6 score below the cut-off (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The amount of residents who scored 44 points or more in the PCL-S among people with K6 score above the cut-off was also considerably higher than among people with K6 score below the cut-off (79.4 vs 12.9%, p < 0.001). Interestingly, the proportion of residents who scored more than among people with K6 score above the cut-off and the among people with PCL-S score above the cut-off in Kawauchi was

  3. Psychological distress of residents in Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Koji; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Nakashima, Kanami; Orita, Makiko; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kumagai, Atsushi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Background To shed light on the mental health of evacuees after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), we evaluate the results of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS) of the residents at Kawauchi village in Fukushima, which is located less than 30 km from the FDNPS. Methods We conducted the cross-sectional study within the framework of the FHMS. Exposure values were “anorexia,” “subjective feelings about health,” “feelings about sleep satisfaction,” and “bereavement caused by the disaster,” confounding variables were “age” and “sex,” and outcome variables were “K6 points.” We collected data from the FHMS, and employed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist Stressor-Specific Version (PCL-S) to carry out the research. A total of 13 or greater was the cut-off for identifying serious mental illness using the K6 scale. The study subjects included residents (n = 542) of over 30 years of age from Kawauchi village, and data were used from the period of January 1, 2012 to October 31, 2012. Results A total of 474 residents (87.5%) scored less than 13 points in the K6 and 68 (12.6%) scored 13 points or more. The proportion of elderly residents (over 65 years old) among people with K6 score above the cut-off was higher than that among people with K6 score below the cut-off (44.1 vs 31.0%, p < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of residents with anorexia and mental illness among people with K6 score above the cut-off was higher than among people with K6 score below the cut-off (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The amount of residents who scored 44 points or more in the PCL-S among people with K6 score above the cut-off was also considerably higher than among people with K6 score below the cut-off (79.4 vs 12.9%, p < 0.001). Interestingly, the proportion of residents who scored more than among people with K6 score above the cut-off and the among

  4. Radiation-related anxiety among public health nurses in the Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Goto, Aya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Ohtsuru, Akira; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-10-24

    In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13). We classified the low and high levels of anxiety by asking them to answer questions about radiation, and compared the anxiety-negative (-) group with the anxiety-positive (+) group. Of the PHNs, 269 (62.6%) were classified in the anxiety (-) group and 161 (37.4%) were in the anxiety (+) group. When the multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, the PHNs at the time of the accident (OR: 2.37, p=0.007), current general anxieties about radiation (OR: 3.56, p<0.001), current possession of materials to obtain knowledge about radiation (OR: 2.11, p=0.006) and knowledge of the childhood thyroid cancer increase after the Chernobyl accident (OR: 1.69, p=0.035) were significantly associated with anxiety after the FDNPS accident. The mean SOC-13 was 43.0±7.7, with no significant difference between the anxiety (-) group and anxiety (+) group (p=0.47). Our study suggested that anxiety about radiation was associated with materials and knowledge about radiation in the PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture 4 years after the FDNPS accident. It is important for PHNs to obtain knowledge and teaching materials about radiation, and radiation education programmes for PHNs must be established in areas that have nuclear facilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  5. Radiation-related anxiety among public health nurses in the Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Goto, Aya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Ohtsuru, Akira; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13). We classified the low and high levels of anxiety by asking them to answer questions about radiation, and compared the anxiety-negative (−) group with the anxiety-positive (+) group. Results Of the PHNs, 269 (62.6%) were classified in the anxiety (−) group and 161 (37.4%) were in the anxiety (+) group. When the multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, the PHNs at the time of the accident (OR: 2.37, p=0.007), current general anxieties about radiation (OR: 3.56, p<0.001), current possession of materials to obtain knowledge about radiation (OR: 2.11, p=0.006) and knowledge of the childhood thyroid cancer increase after the Chernobyl accident (OR: 1.69, p=0.035) were significantly associated with anxiety after the FDNPS accident. The mean SOC-13 was 43.0±7.7, with no significant difference between the anxiety (−) group and anxiety (+) group (p=0.47). Conclusions Our study suggested that anxiety about radiation was associated with materials and knowledge about radiation in the PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture 4 years after the FDNPS accident. It is important for PHNs to obtain knowledge and teaching materials about radiation, and radiation education programmes for PHNs must be established in areas that have nuclear facilities. PMID

  6. Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bich, Tran Huu; Quang, La Ngoc; Thanh Ha, Le Thi; Duc Hanh, Tran Thi; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Background Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. Objective The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension) between flood affected and non-affected households. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected) from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. Results The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. Conclusions For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding), flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis. PMID:21866222

  7. Space station user's handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A user's handbook for the modular space station concept is presented. The document is designed to acquaint science personnel with the overall modular space station program, the general nature and capabilities of the station itself, some of the scientific opportunities presented by the station, the general policy governing its operation, and the relationship between the program and participants from the scientific community.

  8. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  9. Biochemical constituents of a wild strain of Schizophyllum commune isolated from Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve (ABR), India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Arpita Mani; Tiwary, Bhupendra N

    2013-08-01

    A wild strain of Schizophyllum commune (MTCC 9670) isolated from Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve of Central India was evaluated for the production of bioactive compounds. The chemical constituents of wild and in vitro grown cultures were compared. Under optimized conditions, different organic and aqueous extracts from mycelia and fruiting bodies were used to extract chemical components from the cultures grown in vitro. The gas chromatography combined wih mass spectrometry analysis of extracts identified two phenolic compounds, namely Phenyl benzoate (C13H10O2) and 4-(phenyl methoxy) phenol (C13H12O2) in the ethanolic extract of in vitro grown fruiting bodies and one antibacterial compound Pyrrolo (1, 2-a) piperazine-3, 6-dione (C7H10O2N2) in the methanolic extract of mycelia. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the gallic acid and L-ascorbic acid were identifiable antioxidant components in the extracts possessing high free radical scavenging activity. The findings suggest that the wild strain of S. commune may serve as the source of novel bioactive compounds with effective antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  10. On the right track. The integrated IEC campaign succeeds in recruiting many acceptors in a fishing commune.

    PubMed

    Hata, K

    1995-01-01

    The Population and Family Planning Committee of Quangnam Danang Province's integrated information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign promotes late marriage, having two children, and spacing births from 3 to 5 years. The total fertility rate (TFR) in the province is 3.4. One urgent priority of the committee is to tackle poverty by reducing the rapid rate of natural population increase in rural areas. Xa Cam Ha is a poor, rice-producing commune of population 11,114 in which family planning used to be widely unaccepted among families. TFR in the commune is now slightly less than 3. The steady promotion of the Population and Family Planning Program has encouraged couples to accept and practice family planning such that the rate of natural increase fell from 2.0% in 1985 to 1.8% in 1994. Financial incentives are also offered to family planning acceptors; poor acceptors are eligible for loans from the People's Committee to start income-generating activities. More and more couples are accepting family planning.

  11. Characterization of cellulolytic enzyme system of Schizophyllum commune mutant and evaluation of its efficiency on biomass hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sornlake, Warasirin; Rattanaphanjak, Phatcharamon; Champreda, Verawat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Kittisenachai, Suthathip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    Schizophyllum commune is a basidiomycete equipped with an efficient cellulolytic enzyme system capable of growth on decaying woods. In this study, production of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from S. commune mutant G-135 (SC-Cel) on various cellulosic substrates was examined. The highest cellulase activities including CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase were obtained on Avicel-PH101 while a wider range of enzymes attacking non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin were found when grown on alkaline-pretreated biomass. Proteomic analysis of SC-Cel also revealed a complex enzyme system comprising seven glycosyl hydrolase families with an accessory carbohydrate esterase, polysaccharide lyase, and auxiliary redox enzymes. SC-Cel obtained on Avicel-PH101 effectively hydrolyzed all agricultural residues with the maximum glucan conversion of 98.0% using corn cobs with an enzyme dosage of 5 FPU/g-biomass. The work showed potential of SC-Cel on hydrolysis of various herbaceous biomass with enhanced efficiency by addition external β-xylosidase.

  12. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Brunsch, Melanie; Schubert, Daniela; Gube, Matthias; Ring, Christiane; Hanisch, Lisa; Linde, Jörg; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes) was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing.

  13. Reduced scytonemin isolated from Nostoc commune induces autophagic cell death in human T-lymphoid cell line Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Toshiomi; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2013-10-01

    Nostoc commune is a terrestrial benthic blue-green alga that often forms an extended mucilaginous layer on the soil, accumulates on stones and mud in aquatic environments. Reduced-scytonemin (R-scy), isolated from N. commune Vaucher, has been shown to suppress the human T-lymphoid Jurkat cell growth. To reveal the mechanisms underlying the R-scy-mediated inhibition of Jurkat cell growth, we examined cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modification in these cells. We observed multiple vacuoles as well as the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II in R-scy-treated cells. These results suggest that the R-scy induced Jurkat cell growth inhibition is attributable to the induction of type II programmed cell death (PCD II; autophagic cell death or autophagy). We further examined the mechanisms underlying R-scy-induced PCDII. The cells treated with R-scy produced large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the elimination of R-scy-induced ROS by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly opposed R-scy-induced PCDII. Based on these results, we conclude that ROS formation plays a critical role in R-scy-induced PCDII. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałaś, Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  15. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2013-04-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X 1 : 99.5-290.5 min) and temperature (X 2 : 30.1-54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were: 290.5 min and 35.7 °C (DPPH(•) scavenging ability); 180.7 min and 41.7 °C (ABTS(•+) inhibition ability); 185.2 min and 42.4 °C (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP); 290.5 min and 40.3 °C (TPC). These optimum conditions yielded 85.10%; 94.31%; 0.74 mM Fe(2+) equivalent/100 g; 635.76 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g, respectively. The yields of antioxidant activities and TPC obtained experimentally were close to its predicted values. The establishment of such model provides a good experimental basis employing RSM for optimizing the extraction time and temperature on antioxidants from S. commune aqueous extract.

  16. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Gube, Matthias; Ring, Christiane; Hanisch, Lisa; Linde, Jörg; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes) was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing. PMID:26284622

  17. The tourism potential of the commune Janów Podlaski and its evaluation of tourism appeal as compared to the administrative district of Biała Podlaska (Lublin voivodeship)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Chmielewska, Anna Beata

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis has been to evaluate tourism appeal of the commune of Janów Podlaski, as compared to the other communes in the administrative district of Biała Podlaska, and to analyse the recreational potential of the natural environment within the commune and it's present day infrastructure for tourism industry. For evaluation of the tourism attractiveness of the commune, based on comparative analysis, the method of synthetic measures was applied. The commune of Janów Podlaski belongs to one of the most attractive areas for tourists in the administrative district of Biała Podlaska. The attractiveness of the commune is associated with the Bug river, which flows across high-value landscapes and possess many ecological assets. Development of water tourism, however, is hindered by the fact that the Bug forms part of Poland's state border and it's water is rather polluted. Walking tourism in the commune of Janów Podlaski is encouraged owing to a well-developed and properly sing-posted networks of trails. The accommodation facilities are not evenly distributed as most of the rooms for tourists can be found in Janów Podlaski.

  18. Chiliying: Life in a Rural Commune in China. Part 1: People of Asia Series, Middle School, No. 1. Student Booklet and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Burton F., Ed.; Parramore, Barbara M., Ed.

    This resource book contains fourteen readings on the People's Republic of China and in particular on Chiliying, a farming commune in the province of Honan. Political, geographical, and historical perspectives are presented as well as glimpses into the working, educational, social, and family lives of Chinese citizens. Each short reading is…

  19. Wisdom and eagerness to improve women's health. JICA Reproductive Health Project. Nghi Loc district.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thi Hien

    1999-01-01

    This article concerns a report by Nguyen Thi Hien, chairperson of Nghi Loc District Women's Union on the contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project to their organization. She states that prior to the start of the JICA project, the women's union had a lot of campaigns for maternal and child health and family planning. However, the impact was not strongly felt. After the implementation of the JICA project, women in the district have become interested and excited about the various activities conducted under the project. Subsequently, more women understood the correct way to take care of their health and their children's health. Furthermore, more people in the district frequently use the services of commune health centers and district health centers. In the family planning field, contraceptive prevalence rate has increased and the number of abortions and menstrual regulations has been reduced. Despite the achievements of the campaign, the district still has a few big problems to address. These problems include: 1) a gap between commune health centers in remote areas and those near the district health centers; and 2) a low level of family planning acceptance in Catholic communes.

  20. Mercury in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of Hg pollution--an accumulation and desorption experiment with microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Dubińska, Anna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2014-10-01

    Because of its high mobility in ecosystems, mercury is one of the main toxic threats to the environment, and its concentration must be carefully controlled. To fulfill this need, we selected terrestrial mosses with different characteristic life forms: orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. The concentrations of mercury were determined in both species growing together at sites situated approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6km to the north, south, east and west, respectively of five known mercury polluters. The mercury concentrations reflected the emissions produced by the surrounding industry, reaching values of 0.44mgkg(-1) in P. schreberi and 0.79mgkg(-1) in P. commune in the vicinity of the chlor-alkali industry. To determine how long a load of Hg would remain in the mosses after mercury emitters restricted releases of Hg to the atmosphere, accumulation and desorption experiments were performed. We compared the two moss species collected from clean and moderately and heavily mercury-polluted sites. After eight days of exposure to mercury, P. schreberi accumulated up to 25mgkg(-1) of Hg, and P. commune accumulated up to 31mgkg(-1). Both in the field and in the experiment, P. commune accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg than did P. schreberi, most likely because of its surface morphology, which is likely to enhance the capture of metal from the atmosphere. After sixteen days of exposure, mercury changed the structure of the plasma membrane and affected organelles such as the nuclei and chloroplasts, leading to cell disintegration and death. The negative effects of mercury on the functioning of living cells appeared first in the older leaves of P. schreberi. After 64 days growing in the absence of Hg, P. schreberi clearly retained only 10-14% of the initially accumulated Hg, while P. commune retained 10-21%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Active Fe-Containing Superoxide Dismutase and Abundant sodF mRNA in Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) after Years of Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Shirkey, Breanne; Kovarcik, Don Paul; Wright, Deborah J.; Wilmoth, Gabriel; Prickett, Todd F.; Helm, Richard F.; Gregory, Eugene M.; Potts, Malcolm

    2000-01-01

    Active Fe-superoxide dismutase (SodF) was the third most abundant soluble protein in cells of Nostoc commune CHEN/1986 after prolonged (13 years) storage in the desiccated state. Upon rehydration, Fe-containing superoxide disumutase (Fe-SOD) was released and the activity was distributed between rehydrating cells and the extracellular fluid. The 21-kDa Fe-SOD polypeptide was purified, the N terminus was sequenced, and the data were used to isolate sodF from the clonal isolate N. commune DRH1. sodF encodes an open reading frame of 200 codons and is expressed as a monocistronic transcript (of approximately 750 bases) from a region of the genome which includes genes involved in nucleic acid synthesis and repair, including dipyrimidine photolyase (phr) and cytidylate monophosphate kinase (panC). sodF mRNA was abundant and stable in cells after long-term desiccation. Upon rehydration of desiccated cells, there was a turnover of sodF mRNA within 15 min and then a rise in the mRNA pool to control levels (quantity of sodF mRNA in cells in late logarithmic phase of growth) over approximately 24 h. The extensive extracellular polysaccharide (glycan) of N. commune DRH1 generated superoxide radicals upon exposure to UV-A or -B irradiation, and these were scavenged by SOD. Despite demonstrated roles for the glycan in the desiccation tolerance of N. commune, it may in fact be a significant source of damaging free radicals in vivo. It is proposed that the high levels of SodF in N. commune, and release of the enzyme from dried cells upon rehydration, counter the effects of oxidative stress imposed by multiple cycles of desiccation and rehydration during UV-A or -B irradiation in situ. PMID:10613879

  2. Active Fe-containing superoxide dismutase and abundant sodF mRNA in Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) after years of desiccation.

    PubMed

    Shirkey, B; Kovarcik, D P; Wright, D J; Wilmoth, G; Prickett, T F; Helm, R F; Gregory, E M; Potts, M

    2000-01-01

    Active Fe-superoxide dismutase (SodF) was the third most abundant soluble protein in cells of Nostoc commune CHEN/1986 after prolonged (13 years) storage in the desiccated state. Upon rehydration, Fe-containing superoxide disumutase (Fe-SOD) was released and the activity was distributed between rehydrating cells and the extracellular fluid. The 21-kDa Fe-SOD polypeptide was purified, the N terminus was sequenced, and the data were used to isolate sodF from the clonal isolate N. commune DRH1. sodF encodes an open reading frame of 200 codons and is expressed as a monocistronic transcript (of approximately 750 bases) from a region of the genome which includes genes involved in nucleic acid synthesis and repair, including dipyrimidine photolyase (phr) and cytidylate monophosphate kinase (panC). sodF mRNA was abundant and stable in cells after long-term desiccation. Upon rehydration of desiccated cells, there was a turnover of sodF mRNA within 15 min and then a rise in the mRNA pool to control levels (quantity of sodF mRNA in cells in late logarithmic phase of growth) over approximately 24 h. The extensive extracellular polysaccharide (glycan) of N. commune DRH1 generated superoxide radicals upon exposure to UV-A or -B irradiation, and these were scavenged by SOD. Despite demonstrated roles for the glycan in the desiccation tolerance of N. commune, it may in fact be a significant source of damaging free radicals in vivo. It is proposed that the high levels of SodF in N. commune, and release of the enzyme from dried cells upon rehydration, counter the effects of oxidative stress imposed by multiple cycles of desiccation and rehydration during UV-A or -B irradiation in situ.

  3. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  4. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  5. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  6. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  7. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  8. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  9. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  10. [Information for health equity in Chile].

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oscar; Thollaug, Susan; Nogueira, Ana Cristina; Darras, Christian

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the magnitude of geographical health inequalities in Chile through key indicators based on data and information that are routinely collected and easily obtained, and to characterize the current situation with respect to the availability, quality, and access to information on health equity that official sources routinely collect. A conceptual framework proposed by the World Health Organization was used to study health equity in terms of four dimensions: 1) state of health, 2) health determinants, 3) resources for and the supply of health system services, and 4) utilization of health system services. For each of these four dimensions, indicators were selected for which there was available information. The information was aggregated according to geographical and administrative units in the country: communes (342 in Chile), sanitary districts called "Health Services" (28), and regions (13). The aggregated information was analyzed using univariate analysis (distribution characteristics), bivariate analysis (correlations and frequency tables), and tabulation of values for selected indicators for the communes. With respect to the first dimension, state of health, we found an inverse relationship between mortality and average family income in the communes (r = -0.24; P < 0.001; n = 191 communes). With health determinants, there were important differences among the communes with regard to average household income, years of schooling, literacy, quality of housing, drinking water supply, and the wastewater disposal system. In terms of resources for and the supply of health system services, the municipal governments of the communes with higher average household incomes tended to contribute more funds per beneficiary (r = 0.19; P = 0.013). The financial contributions from the national government were targeted well, but they only partially compensated for the more limited resources available in poorer communes. With respect to the utilization of health care services

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-20

    Photograph shows the International Space Station Laboratory Module under fabrication at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Building 4708 West High Bay. Although management of the U.S. elements for the Station were consolidated in 1994, module and node development continued at MSFC by Boeing Company, the prime contractor for the Space Station.

  12. Regions in the Z5 mating gene of Schizophyllum commune involved in Y-Z binding and recognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Ullrich, R C; Novotny, C P

    1996-10-28

    The A alpha mating locus of the woodrotting fungus Schizophyllum commune encodes two multiallelic genes, Y and Z, which regulate the A-pathway of development. The Y alleles contain a homeobox, suggesting that the Y proteins may be DNA-binding regulatory proteins. During mating, development is induced when Y from one mating partner interacts with Z from the other mating partner; self combinations of Y and Z are inactive. Two-hybrid analyses indicate that nonself combinations of Y and Z form heteromultimers and self combinations do not. To understand Y-Z binding and self-nonself recognition further we used mutagenesis and chimeras to identify regions in one allele of Z(Z5) that are involved in these processes. Here we report the results, which broadly define regions in Z5 that are essential for activity, Y-Z binding and Z5 allelic specificity.

  13. Chemical profile of the secondary metabolites produced by a deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium commune SD-118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhuo; Li, Xiaoming; Meng, Li; Li, Chunshun; Gao, Shushan; Huang, Caiguo; Wang, Bingui

    2012-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from Penicillium commune SD-118, a fungus obtained from a deep-sea sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of a known antibacterial compound, xanthocillin X ( 1), and 14 other known compounds comprising three steroids ( 2-4), two ceramides ( 5 and 6), six aromatic compounds ( 7-12), and three alkaloids ( 13-15). Xanthocillin X ( 1) was isolated for the first time from a marine fungus. In the bioassay, xanthocillin X ( 1) displayed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HepG2, H460, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Meleagrin ( 15) exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report of the cytotoxicity of xanthocillin X ( 1).

  14. Effect of habitat fragmentation on levels and patterns of genetic diversity in natural populations of the peat moss Polytrichum commune.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Pamela J; Provan, Jim

    2003-04-22

    Peat bogs represent unique ecosystems that are under particular threat from fragmentation due to peat harvesting, with only 38% of the original peatland in Europe remaining intact and unaffected by peat cutting, drainage and silviculture. In this study, we have used microsatellite markers to determine levels and patterns of genetic diversity in both cut and uncut natural populations of the peat moss Polytrichum commune. Overall diversity levels suggest that there is more genetic variation present than had previously been assumed for bryophytes. Despite this, diversity values from completely cut bogs were found to be lower than those from uncut peatlands (average 0.729 versus 0.880). In addition, the genetic diversity was more highly structured in the cut populations, further suggesting that genetic drift is already affecting genetic diversity in peat bogs subjected to fragmentation.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Before the start of the kickoff presentation for Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day, Center Director Jim Kennedy (left) chats with guest speaker Capt. Charles Plumb (USNR retired) and United Space Alliance Vice President and Deputy Program Manager, Florida Operations, Bill Pickavance. Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day is an annual event at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce. Safety Awards were also given to individuals and groups.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Before the start of the kickoff presentation for Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day, Center Director Jim Kennedy (left) chats with guest speaker Capt. Charles Plumb (USNR retired) and United Space Alliance Vice President and Deputy Program Manager, Florida Operations, Bill Pickavance. Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day is an annual event at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce. Safety Awards were also given to individuals and groups.

  16. Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

  17. Public health assessment for El Toro Marine Corps Air Station, Santa Ana, Orange County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CA6170023208. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-07

    El Toro Marine Corps Air Station is in Orange County, California, near the city of Irvine. The Marine Corps established El Toro in 1943, and it currently serves as the center for marine aviation operations on the Pacific Coast. El Toro Marine Corps Air Station was proposed for listing on EPA's National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989 because past operations and disposal practices contaminated local groundwater. Agricultural farm workers and well operators are exposed to contaminants in groundwater through unintentional ingestion of contaminated groundwater, dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, and inhalation of aerosolized groundwater contaminants. Future exposure could occur through two potable water wells that are located 10 miles downgradient of the contaminant plume. At the current rate of contaminant migration, those wells will be affected in one and a half to five years.

  18. Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is being designed and developed with user requirements being used to shape the configuration. Plans include accommodation provisions for a wide variety of attached payloads including the Earth sciences research activities which are the focus of this conference. The station program is even beginning some preliminary payload manifesting which involves planning for accommodation of payload during the station's assembly flights. Potential payload organizations should be aware of the station's plans for payload accommodations so as to guide their own payload activities for future space station use.

  19. Neuroradiology viewing station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shyhliang A.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Huang, H. K.; Hanafee, William; Jabour, Bradly; Bentsen, John R.; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Dion, Jacques E.

    1990-07-01

    A distributed CT/MR digital viewing station for the neuroradiology section has been developed and is being evaluated in our department. The major components of the station consist of a SUN host computer, a PIXAR II image processor, and four 1K x 1K progressive video monitors. The software modules operating in the station include an image acquisition process, a local database process, and an user image display and processing process. Functions provided by the station are described. Preliminary results obtained from clinical evaluation are reported. Future plans to refine the station are presented.

  20. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft stations shall...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft stations shall...

  2. Evaluation of Three Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Van; Nguyen, Hoang; Tho, Le Huu; Minh, Truong Tan; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Green, Mackenzie S.; Kaljee, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    With an increase in sexual activity among young adults in Vietnam and associated risks, there is a need for evidence-based sexual health interventions. This evaluation of three sexual health programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was conducted in 12 communes in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District. Inclusion criteria included unmarried youth 15–20 years residing in selected communes. Communes were randomly allocated to an intervention, and participants were randomly selected within each commune. The intervention programs included Vietnamese Focus on Kids (VFOK), the gender-based program Exploring the World of Adolescents (EWA), and EWA plus parental and health provider education (EWA+). Programs were delivered over a ten-week period in the communities by locally trained facilitators. The gender-based EWA program with parental involvement (EWA+) compared to VFOK showed significantly greater increase in knowledge. EWA+ in comparison to VFOK also showed significant decrease at immediate postintervention for intention to have sex. Sustained changes are observed in all three interventions for self-efficacy condom use, self-efficacy abstinence, response efficacy for condoms, extrinsic rewards, and perceived vulnerability for HIV. These findings suggest that theory-based community programs contribute to sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual risk among Vietnamese adolescents. PMID:22666565

  3. Automating existing stations

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.E.

    1986-09-01

    The task was to automate 20 major compressor stations along ANR Pipeline Co.'s Southeastern and Southwestern pipelines in as many months. Meeting this schedule required standardized hardware and software design. Working with Bristol Babcock Co., ANR came up with an off-the-shelf station automation package suitable for a variety of compressor stations. The project involved 148 engines with 488,880-hp in the 20 stations. ANR Pipeline developed software for these engines and compressors, including horsepower prediction and efficiency. The system places processors ''intelligence'' at each station and engine to monitor and control operations. The station processor receives commands from the company's gas dispatch center at Detroit and informs dispatchers of alarms, conditions, and decision it makes. The automation system is controlled by the Detroit center through a central communications network. Operating orders from the center are sent to the station processor, which obeys orders using the most efficient means of operation at the station's disposal. In a malfunction, a control and communications backup system takes over. Commands and information are directly transmitted between the center and the individual compressor stations. Stations receive their orders based on throughput, with suction and discharge pressure overrides. Additionally, a discharge temperature override protects pipeline coatings.

  4. Space station, 1959 to . .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  5. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  6. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  7. Technology for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Carlisle, R. F.

    1984-10-01

    Some of the most significant advances made in the space station discipline technology program are examined. Technological tasks and advances in the areas of systems/operations, environmental control and life support systems, data management, power, thermal considerations, attitude control and stabilization, auxiliary propulsion, human capabilities, communications, and structures, materials, and mechanisms are discussed. An overview of NASA technology planning to support the initial space station and the evolutionary growth of the space station is given.

  8. Tolerance of the widespread cyanobacterium Nostoc commune to extreme temperature variations (-269 to 105°C), pH and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Jespersen, Thomas Sand

    2012-06-01

    Nostoc commune is a widespread colonial cyanobacterium living on bare soils that alternate between frost and thaw, drought and inundation and very low and high temperatures. We collected N. commune from alternating wet and dry limestone pavements in Sweden and tested its photosynthesis and respiration at 20°C after exposure to variations in temperature (-269 to 105°C), pH (2-10) and NaCl (0.02-50 g NaCl kg(-1)). We found that dry field samples and rewetted specimens tolerated exposure beyond that experienced in natural environmental conditions: -269 to 70°C, pH 3-10 and 0-20 g NaCl kg(-1), with only a modest reduction of respiration, photosynthesis and active carbon uptake at 20°C. (14)CO(2) uptake from air declined markedly below zero and above 55°C, but remained positive. Specimens maintained a high metabolism with daily exposure to 6 h of rehydration and 18 h of desiccation at -18 and 20°C, but died at 40°C. The field temperature never exceeded the critical 40°C threshold during the wet periods, but it frequently exceeded this temperature during dry periods when N. commune is already dry and unaffected. We conclude that N. commune has an excellent tolerance to low temperatures, long-term desiccation and recurring cycles of desiccation and rewetting. These traits explain why it is the pioneer species in extremely harsh, nutrient-poor and alternating wet and dry environments.

  9. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  10. Control of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made to develop controllers for the NASA-JSC Triangular Space Station and evaluate their performances to make recommendations for structural design and/or control alternatives. The control system design assumes the rigid body of the Space Station and developes the lumped parameter control system by using the Inverse Optimal Control Theory. In order to evaluate the performance of the control system, a Parameter Estimation algorithm is being developed which will be used in modeling an equivalent but simpler Space Station model. Finally, a scaled version of the Space Station is being built for the purpose of physical experiments to evaluate the control system performance.

  11. Space Station fluid resupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Al

    Viewgraphs on space station fluid resupply are presented. Space Station Freedom is resupplied with supercritical O2 and N2 for the ECLSS and USL on a 180 day resupply cycle. Resupply fluids are stored in the subcarriers on station between resupply cycles and transferred to the users as required. ECLSS contingency fluids (O2 and N2) are supplied and stored on station in a gaseous state. Efficiency and flexibility are major design considerations. Subcarrier approach allows multiple manifest combinations. Growth is achieved by adding modular subcarriers.

  12. Station Crew Celebrates Christmas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

  13. PFP1, a Gene Encoding an Epc-N Domain-Containing Protein, Is Essential for Pathogenicity of the Barley Pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Siersleben, Sylvia; Penselin, Daniel; Wenzel, Claudia; Albert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune is an important foliar disease of barley. Insertion mutagenesis of R. commune generated a nonpathogenic fungal mutant which carries the inserted plasmid in the upstream region of a gene named PFP1. The characteristic feature of the gene product is an Epc-N domain. This motif is also found in homologous proteins shown to be components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes of fungi and animals. Therefore, PFP1 is suggested to be the subunit of a HAT complex in R. commune with an essential role in the epigenetic control of fungal pathogenicity. Targeted PFP1 disruption also yielded nonpathogenic mutants which showed wild-type-like growth ex planta, except for the occurrence of hyphal swellings. Complementation of the deletion mutants with the wild-type gene reestablished pathogenicity and suppressed the hyphal swellings. However, despite wild-type-level PFP1 expression, the complementation mutants did not reach wild-type-level virulence. This indicates that the function of the protein complex and, thus, fungal virulence are influenced by a position-affected long-range control of PFP1 expression. PMID:24906413

  14. PFP1, a gene encoding an Epc-N domain-containing protein, is essential for pathogenicity of the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune.

    PubMed

    Siersleben, Sylvia; Penselin, Daniel; Wenzel, Claudia; Albert, Sylvie; Knogge, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune is an important foliar disease of barley. Insertion mutagenesis of R. commune generated a nonpathogenic fungal mutant which carries the inserted plasmid in the upstream region of a gene named PFP1. The characteristic feature of the gene product is an Epc-N domain. This motif is also found in homologous proteins shown to be components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes of fungi and animals. Therefore, PFP1 is suggested to be the subunit of a HAT complex in R. commune with an essential role in the epigenetic control of fungal pathogenicity. Targeted PFP1 disruption also yielded nonpathogenic mutants which showed wild-type-like growth ex planta, except for the occurrence of hyphal swellings. Complementation of the deletion mutants with the wild-type gene reestablished pathogenicity and suppressed the hyphal swellings. However, despite wild-type-level PFP1 expression, the complementation mutants did not reach wild-type-level virulence. This indicates that the function of the protein complex and, thus, fungal virulence are influenced by a position-affected long-range control of PFP1 expression. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Alteration of white-rot basidiomycetes cellulase and xylanase activities in the submerged co-cultivation and optimization of enzyme production by Irpex lacteus and Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Metreveli, Eka; Kachlishvili, Eva; Singer, Steven W; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Mono and dual cultures of four white-rot basidiomycete species were evaluated for cellulase and xylanase activity under submerged fermentation conditions. Co-cultivation of Pycnoporus coccineus or Trametes hirsuta with Schizophyllum commune displayed antagonistic interactions resulting in the decrease of endoglucanase and total cellulase activities. In contrast, increases in cellulase and xylanase activity were revealed through the compatible interactions of Irpex lacteus with S. commune. Co-cultivation conditions were optimized for maximum enzyme production by I. lacteus and S. commune, the best producers of cellulase/xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. An optimized medium for the target enzyme production by the mixed culture was established in a laboratory fermenter yielding 7U/mL total cellulase, 142U/mL endoglucanase, 104U/mL xylanase, and 5.2U/mL β-glucosidase. The dual culture approach resulted in an enzymatic mixture with 11% improved lignocellulose saccharification potential compared to enzymes from a monoculture of I. lacteus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using GIS techniques to detect the impact of territorial evolution on producing natural hazard in Northern Romania, commune Vorniceni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gălbău, Ionela

    2015-04-01

    Using techniques of information, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), on spatial analysis, offers numerous possibilities in terms of spatial emphasizing the study area and marking hazard risk areas (especially landslides). Although the means ultra modern techniques have advanced, using GIS in spatial planning remains the most important technique used. Also, GIS maps obtained are more objective than paper made by hand, using the same data and the same conceptual model. The study area, commune Vorniceni is situated in the north of Romania, Ibaneasa River basin, a tributary of Jijiei and occupies an area of 63 km2. The area has experienced over the past 50 years, a trend not only territorial but also morphological and morphometric. This study involves a relation between the evolution of territorial distribution of the population of the commune Vorniceni and influence on the environment. The construction of the dam reservoir Ibaneasa River using poor borrow pits, meant a starting point for the development of landslides. Brutal antropic intervention on the environment by building a dam or lake clogging the two reservoirs (ponds) increased possibility of negative phenomena in the area. These phenomena directly affect the village population as territorial evolution involved the construction of settlements in areas with potential risk of landslides. The analysis of the factors that have influenced the evolution of territorial and producing negative phenomena and making GIS database will be followed by the realization of a hypsometric map of slopes, slope inclination and land use. All this, highlights the relationship anthropic environment - natural environment, and not turning both low population provides another opportunity to use the land in a beneficial way by harnessing the risk map obtained. Although not without shortcomings, the method proved to be a feasible and cost-effective approach for assessing landslide susceptibility and mapping. "ACKNOWLEDGMENT This

  17. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-06

    Though very close to the International Space Station, the majority of Discovery's underside is visible in this frame. The image was captured by one of the Expedition 13 crew members onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-121 Rotating Pitch Maneuver (RPM) survey prior to docking of the two spacecraft.

  19. Summit Station Skiway Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    delivery of personnel and materials, is by skied airplanes (currently Twin Otters and LC-130s) or by annual traverse. To support aircraft, the station...Station during the first sea - son (2009) of skiway construction at Pegasus Airfield (Haehnel et al. 2013) but consistently lower than densities of

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-13

    Back dropped by the blue and white Earth is a Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) on the exterior of the Station. The photograph was taken during the second bout of STS-118 Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). MISSE collects information on how different materials weather in the environment of space.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-01

    This image of the International Space Station in orbit was taken from the Space Shuttle Endeavour prior to docking. Most of the Station's components are clearly visible in this photograph. They are the Node 1 or Unity Module docked with the Functional Cargo Block or Zarya (top) that is linked to the Zvezda Service Module. The Soyuz spacecraft is at the bottom.

  2. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  3. Space station dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reg

    1990-01-01

    Structural dynamic characteristics and responses of the Space Station due to the natural and induced environment are discussed. Problems that are peculiar to the Space Station are also discussed. These factors lead to an overall acceleration environment that users may expect. This acceleration environment can be considered as a loading, as well as a disturbance environment.

  4. [STEM on Station Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  5. Anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic activity of ethanolic extract and its various fractions from Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw in L1210 cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Yaping; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Li, Hongxia; Yan, Han; Liu, Quanhong

    2012-08-30

    Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw is a traditional Chinese herb for treatment of fever, hemostatic, uterine prolapse and especially for lymphocytic leukemia, but the antitumor effect and its potential mechanism remains unclear. The present study was to investigate the possible anti-proliferative activity of ethanolic extract and the organic fractions from P. commune on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The content of ethanolic extract and its fractions was performed on HPLC analysis with gradient elution. L1210 cells were treated with different concentrations of ethanolic extract and its fractions at different time intervals. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was monitored by nuclear condensation and confirmed by exposure of phosphatidylserine to outer leaflet of plasma membrane. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed by flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 staining. The obtained results showed that the cell viability of L1210 cells was reduced by ethanolic extract of P. commune in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC(50) value was about 77.22 μg/ml at 24h post treatment. The ethylacetate fraction displayed higher anti-tumor effect than that of chloroform and butanol fractions with 32.29 μg/ml (IC(50) value, 48 h). Microscopy studies revealed that ethanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction treated cells showed morphological characteristics of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation and DNA aggregation. Further, Annexin V-PE/ 7-AAD double staining showing the out leaflet of phosphatidylserine and the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry confirmed that the extracts do, in fact, induce apoptosis in L1210 cells. This is the first report on anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic effect of P. commune in cultured leukemia cells, which provides scientific basis for its usefulness as traditional medicine. Further studies are needed to confirm the precise mechanism not only the crude extract but as well the

  6. [Directions of interdepartmental interaction in case of delivery of health care for injured in emergency situations in stationing sites of navy].

    PubMed

    Ivchenko, E V; Chernyĭ, V S; Toporkov, M T; Aleksandrov, M V

    2012-09-01

    In points basing of navy will remain probability of emergence of emergency situations which is connected with existence of the enterprises of the industry and objects of navy. As a result of emergency situations in places of basing of navy discrepancy of prospective sanitary losses to possibilities of forces and means of a health service of fleet that demands interaction with health services of other ministries and departments is probable. Criterion of need of interaction is the ratio of quantity struck and possibilities of a health service of navy. Plans of interaction of a health service of fleet with medical institutions of other departments should provide options of use of available forces and means of medical institutions in garrisons for joint assistance struck in an emergency situation. The questions solved during interaction should become: radiation, chemical, biological survey; allocation of forces and means for rendering of medical care; use of sanitary transport; organization of sanitary processing, etc.

  7. [Using different indicators of preventable mortality as an approach to measuring health inequalities in Chilean municipalities].

    PubMed

    Gattini, Cesar; Sanderson, Colin; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2002-12-01

    To analyze differences in avoidable mortality among communes in Chile, using different indicators as an operational approach to estimating health inequalities. Small area variation analysis in a sample of 117 of all 335 Chilean communes that existed in 1992. By using secondary data, we developed and compared some avoidable-mortality indicators, such as potential years of life lost (PYLL), avoidable mortality (AM) (based on background and criteria drawn from the literature), health care avoidable mortality (HCAMR), and life expectancy. A socioeconomic development index (SEDI) was also developed. The scope of the variation was estimated through the weighted variation coefficient, the Gini coefficient, the ratio between the values for the quintiles at both extremes of the SEDI distribution, and the ratio of the lowest SEDI quintile to the group of municipalities having a SEDI greater than 0.90 (optimal empirical reference value). The socioeconomic pattern of variations was examined through concentration curves and by comparing communal quintiles based on their SEDI. The various avoidable-mortality indicators used showed an inverse and statistically significant correlation with socioeconomic development, as well as with the profile of the various SEDI quintiles and with the majority of specific causes of avoidable mortality. The distribution profile of AM indicators among SEDI communal quintiles reflects the same tendency, along with most of the mortality from specific avoidable causes. The use of three reference values (the mean, the quintile with the greatest SEDI, and the optimal empirical reference value) makes it possible to measure gaps that could be avoided. The ratio of the lowest SEDI quintile to the empirical optimal reference value was 2.1 for AM, 2.0 for PYLL, 1.7 for infant mortality, and 1.5 for HCAMR. These results, which are consistent with those found in previous published sources, estimate the magnitude and pattern of variations among communes. The

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-16

    Docked to the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyuz vehicle (foreground) and the Space Shuttle Atlantis were photographed by a crew member in the Pirs docking compartment on the orbital outpost. Atlantis launched on April 8, 2002, carrying the the STS-110 mission which prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's scapulas were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-13

    Astronaut Paul W. Richards, STS-102 mission specialist, works in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery during the second of two scheduled space walks. Richards, along with astronaut Andy Thomas, spent 6.5 hours outside the International Space Station (ISS), continuing work to outfit the station and prepare for delivery of its robotic arm. STS-102 delivered the first Multipurpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) named Leonardo, which was filled with equipment and supplies to outfit the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS' moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  10. The mating-type locus B alpha 1 of Schizophyllum commune contains a pheromone receptor gene and putative pheromone genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, J; Vaillancourt, L J; Hegner, J; Lengeler, K B; Laddison, K J; Specht, C A; Raper, C A; Kothe, E

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the multispecific B alpha mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune provided evidence that pheromones and pheromone receptors govern recognition of self versus non-self and sexual development in this homobasidiomycetous fungus. Four subclones of an 8.2 kb genomic fragment carrying B alpha 1 specificity induced B-regulated sexual morphogenesis when introduced into a strain with one of the eight compatible B alpha specificities that are known to exist in nature. One of these clones, which activated all other B alpha specificities, contains a gene termed bar1. The predicted protein product of bar1, as well as that of bar2, a homologous gene isolated from a B alpha 2 strain, has significant homology to known fungal pheromone receptor proteins in the rhodopsin-like superfamily of G protein-linked receptors. The other three active B alpha 1 clones were subcloned further to identify the minimal active element in each clone. Every active subclone contains a putative pheromone gene ending in a signal for possible isoprenylation. A message of approximately 600 bp was observed for one of these genes, bap1(1). This paper presents the first evidence for a system of multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors as a basis for multispecific mating types in a fungus. Images PMID:7489716

  11. Immobilized lipase from Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 for the production of fatty acids methyl esters from cyanobacterial oil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyoti; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Madan; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Novel lipase from model mushroom Schizophyllum commune strain ISTL04 produced by solid state fermentation of Leucaena leucocephala seeds, was immobilized onto Celite for enzymatic FAMEs production from cyanobacterial endolith Leptolyngbya ISTCY101. The isolate showed vigorous growth and produced remarkable lipase activity of 146.5 U g(-1) dry solid substrate, without any external lipase inducer. Single-factor experiments were carried out to study the effects of various reaction parameters on the FAMEs yield. The best conditions for enzymatic transesterification as revealed by the results were: 1:3 oil to methanol molar ratio, added at 3h intervals, 12% water content, 1581.5 U g(-1) immobilized lipase, temperature 45 °C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum FAMEs yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase was able to produce >90% of the relative FAMEs yield after four repeated transesterification cycles. This immobilized lipase exhibited potential for application in biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomic characterization and schizophyllan production by Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 cultured on Leucaena leucocephala wood under submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Madan; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-07-01

    In this study Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 was grown on Leucaena leucocephala wood (LLW) for secretome analysis and schizophyllan production. There is no report on extracellular protein profile and schizophyllan production on woody biomass by this fungus under submerged fermentation conditions. Leucaena leucocephala, a promising bioenergy crop having high holocellulose content was used as substrate without pretreatment. The maximum sugar, extracellular protein and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production during fermentation was found to be 8.53±0.07mgmL(-1), 391±7.51mgL(-1) and 4.2±0.1gL(-1) or 0.21gg(-1)LLW on day 18 respectively. The secretome profile was dominated by glycoside hydrolases followed by carbohydrate esterase and other oxidative enzymes. EPS was further characterized by FTIR and GC-MS for functional group, monomer composition and linkage analysis and was identified as schizophyllan. The result indicated that LLW can be utilized as a low cost substrate for enzyme cocktail and schizophyllan production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenolic acids isolated from the fungus Schizophyllum commune exert analgesic activity by inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui-Min; Wang, Gan; Liu, Ya-Ping; Rong, Ming-Qiang; Shen, Chuan-Bin; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to search for compounds with analgesic activity from the Schizophyllum commune (SC), which is widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushroom world. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), tosilica gel column chromatography, sephadex LH 20, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify compounds from SC. Structural analysis of the isolated compounds was based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effects of these compounds on voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels were evaluated using patch clamp. The analgesic activity of these compounds was tested in two types of mouse pain models induced by noxious chemicals. Five phenolic acids identified from SC extracts in the present study included vanillic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, o-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid, 3-hydroxy-5-methybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They inhibited the activity of both tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) and tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) NaV channels. All the compounds showed low selectivity on NaV channel subtypes. After intraperitoneal injection, three compounds of these compounds exerted analgesic activity in mice. In conclusion, phenolic acids identified in SC demonstrated analgesic activity, facilitating the mechanistic studies of SC in the treatment of neurasthenia. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of nostocionone isolated from Nostoc commune Vauch and its derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Yuji; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the primary pathogenic agent responsible for acne vulgaris on the skin and hair follicles. Overgrowth of this bacterium inhibits growth and promotes follicular inflammation, with an associated increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. P. acnes has therefore been considered the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-P. acnes and anti-inflammatory properties of 6 compounds isolated from Nostoc commune. One of these compounds, nostocionone (Nost), and one of its derivatives, NostD3 [(1E,4E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one], significantly inhibited P. acnes growth. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Nost and NostD3 on heat-killed (hk) P. acnes-induced inflammation in macrophages. Both Nost and NostD3 suppressed hk P. acnes-induced nitric oxide (NO) production through the suppression of inducible NO synthase expression, following inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B. Taken together, our findings suggested that both Nost and NostD3 were promising agents for the treatment of acne vulgaris, and that NostD3 showed higher efficacy than Nost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Invasion dynamics of Asian hornet, Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): a case study of a commune in south-west France.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Daniel N; Brown, Mike A; Datta, Samik; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Budge, Giles E; Keeling, Matt J

    2017-01-01

    Asian hornet, Vespa velutina Lepeletier nests were discovered in 2007 in Andernos-les-Bains on the south-west coast of France, 3 years after the first reported sightings in France. The number of nests increased in the commune over the following 7 years, despite local authorities enacting a destruction policy. The nests existed in close proximity to one another leading to a high density of over 10 nests per square kilometre in urban areas. New information on the chosen habitat for nests is presented, and the differences between primary and secondary locations are evident, with primary nests mostly occupying buildings and man-made structures, while secondary nests were found on trees. Using Bayesian inference methods, we fit a basic model to the observational data, which allows us to estimate key demographic parameters. This model fit is highly informative for predicting V. velutina spread and colonisation of other at-risk regions, and suggests that local control has a limited impact on the spread of V. velutina once established within a region.

  16. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition studies of a γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2015-11-01

    We report the cloning and catalytic activity of a γ-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isolated from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, NcoCA. The enzyme has a significant catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction, CO2 hydration to bicarbonate and protons, with a k(cat) of 9.5×10(5) s(-1) and a k(cat)/K(m) of 8.3×10(7) M(-1) × s(-1), being the most catalytically efficient γ-CA investigated so far. An anion inhibition study of NcoCA with inorganic/organic anions is also reported here. Fluoride, sulfate, perchlorate and tetrafluoroborate did not inhibit appreciably NcoCA, whereas the other halides, pseudohalides, bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite and many complex inorganic anions showed inhibition in the millimolar range. The best NcoCA inhibitors detected so far were diethyldithiocarbamate (K(I) of 0.80 mM) as well as sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (K(I)s in the range of 70-90 μM). Since γ-CAs are present in carboxysomes, being involved in photosynthesis, this study may be relevant for a better understanding of such processes in some Antarctic organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ras GTPase-activating protein gap1 of the homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune regulates hyphal growth orientation and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Knabe, Nicole; Kothe, Erika

    2006-04-01

    The white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune is used for the analysis of mating and sexual development in homobasidiomycete fungi. In this study, we isolated the gene gap1 encoding a GTPase-activating protein for Ras. Disruption of gap1 should therefore lead to strains accumulating Ras in its activated, GTP-bound state and to constitutive Ras signaling. Haploid Deltagap1 monokaryons of different mating types did not show alterations in mating behavior in the four different mating interactions possible in fungi expressing a tetrapolar mating type system. Instead, the growth rate in Deltagap1 monokaryons was reduced by ca. 25% and ca. 50% in homozygous Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons. Monokaryons, as well as homozygous dikaryons, carrying the disrupted gap1 alleles exhibited a disorientated growth pattern. Dikaryons showed a strong phenotype during clamp formation since hook cells failed to fuse with the peg beside them. Instead, the dikaryotic character of the hyphae was rescued by fusion of the hooks with nearby developing branches. Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons formed increased numbers of fruitbody primordia, whereas the amount of fruitbodies was not raised. Mature fruitbodies formed no or abnormal gills. No production of spores could be observed. The results suggest Ras involvement in growth, clamp formation, and fruitbody development.

  18. Hydrophobins Sc3 and Sc4 gene expression in mounds, fruiting bodies and vegetative hyphae of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutami; Robertson, Deborah L; Leonard, Thomas J

    2008-03-01

    An abnormal growth form called mound has been hypothesized to be a neoplasm in the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune. An alternative hypothesis is that mounds represent some unusual developmental form in the fruiting body morphogenetic pathway. Hydrophobin proteins have been found in fruiting bodies where they line the surface of gas exchange pores and function to keep the pores hydrophobic. To further determine possible relationships between mounds and fruiting bodies, mound tissue was examined for gas exchange pores and the presence of hydrophobins. Cryoscanning electron microscopic images revealed the presence of channels in mound tissue and presumptive hydrophobin rodlets similar to the air channels in fruiting bodies. Hydrophobin gene expression was also measured in mound tissue using quantitative real-time PCR and showed both monokaryotic and dikaryotic mound tissue exhibited high expression of the dikaryotic specific Sc4 hydrophobin gene. In contrast, Sc4 hydrophobin expression was barely detectable in monokaryotic fruiting bodies. The expression of Sc4 hydrophobin genes in mounds suggests mound development uses this aspect of the dikaryotic fruiting developmental pathway.

  19. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  20. Changes in mate recognition through alterations of pheromones and receptors in the multisexual mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T J; Mitton, M F; Vaillancourt, L J; Raper, C A

    2001-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune has thousands of mating types defined in part by numerous lipopeptide pheromones and their G-protein-coupled receptors. These molecules are encoded within multiple versions of two redundantly functioning B mating-type loci, B alpha and B beta. Compatible combinations of pheromones and receptors, produced by individuals of different B mating types, trigger a pathway of fertilization required for sexual development. Analysis of the B beta 2 mating-type locus revealed a large cluster of genes encoding a single pheromone receptor and eight different pheromones. Phenotypic effects of mutations within these genes indicated that small changes in both types of molecules could significantly alter their specificity of interaction. For example, a conservative amino acid substitution in a pheromone resulted in a gain of function toward one receptor and a loss of function with another. A two-amino-acid deletion from a receptor precluded the mutant pheromone from activating the mutant receptor, yet this receptor was activated by other pheromones. Sequence comparisons provided clues toward understanding how so many variants of these multigenic loci could have evolved through duplication and mutational divergence. A three-step model for the origin of new variants comparable to those found in nature is presented. PMID:11514441

  1. Overview of guideway, Pratt Street Station, Bridge Street Station and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of guideway, Pratt Street Station, Bridge Street Station and train yard, looking east. Dyre street in foreground. - Frankford Elevated, 52100-5400 Frankford Avenue (guideway & stations), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ON RIGHT. NOTE TUNNEL IN BACKGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Harpers Ferry Station, Potomac Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  3. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    MANDALAY 480420 8809 (OCDS) .................................................. .022 MYITKYINA 480080 8809 (OCDS...0 1 0 0 0 2 0 5 2 1 06-20 LST 8 3 # 1 # 1 1 2 4 10 11 13 4 ECR-KRW-7a OZi OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: MANDALAY , BM STATION #: 480420...18-20 LST # 0 # 0 # 1 0 2 1 # 1 1 1 06-20 LST 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 5 1 ECR-KRW-6 oZ3 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUPPLEMENT STATION: MANDALAY , BM

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-06-01

    Artist's digital concept of the International Space Station (ISS), a gateway to permanent human presence in space, after all assembly is completed in Year 2003. The Station will be powered by almost an acre of solar panels and have a mass of almost one million pounds. Station modules are being provided by the United States, Russia, Japan, and Europe. Canada is providing a mechanical arm and Canada Hand. Sixteen countries are cooperating to provide a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  5. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  6. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  7. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  8. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  9. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  10. Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

  11. 30 CFR 57.22225 - Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines). 57.22225 Section 57.22225 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... equipment stations (I-C mines). Battery charging stations, compressor stations, and electrical substations...

  12. [Urinary tract infection and pregnancy at the referral health center of the Commune II (CSFEF C.II].

    PubMed

    Diarra, Issa; Sogoba, S; Coulibaly, D; Sow, S A

    2008-01-01

    Prospective study has been conducted with regards to systematic cytological and bacteriological urine examination, including 505 pregnant women examined from April to May 2006. The results have shown that 50 persons have a positive urine cytology representing 9.9% of the population. The age range from 20-34 was mostly represented 66% of cause. Almost 90% of the patients has a history of urinary tract infection. Leukorrhea was present in 94% of examined women. The urine culture has concluded to E. coli infection was asymptomatic, against 50% of Staphylococcus aureus. We have noticed 16% complications related 3 premature deliveries, 4 abortions and 1 death in utero. Early diagnostic of urinary tract infection based on urine analysis on antibiotic selection by any pregnant women is the key of the prevention.

  13. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  14. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  15. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  16. The Space Station Chronicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    As early as the nineteenth century, writers and artists and scientists around the world began to publish their visions of a crewed outpost in space. Learn about the history of space stations, from ...

  17. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  18. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  19. Station Commander Praises AMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    When asked what's the most important International Space Station experiment, Commander Chris Hadfield names the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2, a state-of-the-art particle physics detector that coul...

  20. Multiple Craft Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Mary Sue

    1980-01-01

    Described are three craft stations (claywork, papermaking, and stamp designing) for intermediate grade students, to correlate with their classroom study which focused on Ohio: its history, geography, cities, industries, products and famous natives. (KC)

  1. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  2. Enabler operator station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Keitzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). This LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an earth-bound model. Several recommendations are made in the appendix as to the changes needed in material selection for the lunar environment. The operator station is designed dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which includes life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of grid members, semi-rigid members and woven fabrics.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-17

    This computer generated scene of the International Space Station (ISS) represents the first addition of hardware following the completion of Phase II. The 8-A Phase shows the addition of the S-9 truss.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-20

    An artist's concept of a fully deployed International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS-A is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experiments.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-01

    A section of the International Space Station truss assembly arrived at the Marshall Space Flight Center on NASA's Super Guppy cargo plane for structural and design testing as well as installation of critical flight hardware.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) in orbit was taken during a fly-around inspection by the Space Shuttle Endeavour after successfull attachment of the 240-foot-long, 38-foot-wide solar array.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-21

    Artist's concept of the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  8. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  9. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  10. Destination Station Atlanta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Destination Station was recently in Atlanta from April 15 through April 21. During the week, NASA visited schools, hospitals, museums, and the city’s well known Atlanta Science Tavern Meet Up gro...

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-01

    Not long after separation of the Space Shuttle Discovery from the International Space Station (ISS), a crew member was able to use a 70mm handheld camera to grab this image of the station, featuring its newest additions. Backdropped against the blackness of space, the Z1 truss structure and its anterna, as well as the new Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3), are visible in the foreground.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-28

    A Canadian "handshake" in space occurred on April 28, 2001, as the Canadian-built space station robotic arm (Canadarm-2) transferred its launch cradle over to Endeavor's robotic arm. Marning the controls from the shuttle's aft flight deck, Canadian Mission Specialist Chris A. Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) was instrumental in the activity. The Spacelab pallet that carried the Canadarm2 robotic arm to the station was developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 upon its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-14

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000 pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS fly-around mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to manuever spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000- pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  19. NASA develops Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Space Station program's planning stage began in 1982, with a view to development funding in FY1987 and initial operations within a decade. An initial cost of $8 billion is projected for the continuously habitable, Space Shuttle-dependent system, not including either operational or scientific and commercial payload-development costs. As a customer-oriented facility, the Space Station will be available to foreign countries irrespective of their participation in the development phase.

  20. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-19

    Eight days of construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). Back dropped by our colorful Earth, its newly expanded configuration is revealed as pilot Lee Archambault conducts a fly around upon departure from the station on June 19, 2007.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-19

    Eight days of construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). Back dropped by the blackness of space, its newly expanded configuration is revealed as pilot Lee Archambault conducts a fly around upon departure from the station on June 19, 2007.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-15

    Construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (on robotic arm), and John “Danny” Olivas joined forces with their colleagues inside the Shuttle and station, and controllers in Houston, to complete the delicate process of folding an older solar array, Port 6 (P6), so that it can be moved from its temporary location to its permanent home during an upcoming Fall scheduled Shuttle mission. The EVA lasted nearly 8 hours.

  4. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-01

    Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named "Kibo" (Hope). Node 2, the "utility hub" and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  6. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-12-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-16

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-08

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110, embarking on its 25th flight, lifts off from launch pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center at 3:44 p.m. CDT April 8, 2002. The STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-11

    STS-102 mission astronaut Susan J. Helms translates along the longerons of the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this walk, the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 was prepared for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-08

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    Pilot James M. Kelly (left) and Commander James D. Wetherbee for the STS-102 mission, participate in the movement of supplies inside Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). In this particular photograph, the two are handling a film magazine for the IMAX cargo bay camera. The primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, the Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight, the STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  13. Crew health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    Crew health concerns for Space Station Freedom are numerous due to medical hazards from isolation and confinement, internal and external environments, zero gravity effects, occupational exposures, and possible endogenous medical events. The operational crew health program will evolve from existing programs and from life sciences investigations aboard Space Station Freedom to include medical monitoring and certification, medical intervention, health maintenance and countermeasures, psychosocial support, and environmental health monitoring. The knowledge and experience gained regarding crew health issues and needs aboard Space Station Freedom will be used not only to verify requirements and programs for long duration space flight, but also in planning and preparation for Lunar and Mars exploration and colonization.

  14. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-14

    STS-110 Mission astronauts Steven L. Smith (right) and Rex J. Walheim work in tandem on the third scheduled EVA session in which they released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm (out of frame). Part of the Destiny laboratory and a glimpse of the Earth's horizon are seen in the lower portion of this digital image. The STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-16

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-14

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-14

    STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and Lee M.E. Morin work in tandem on the fourth scheduled EVA session for the STS-110 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis. Ross is anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the International Space Station's (ISS) Canadarm2, while Morin works inside the S0 (S-zero) truss. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    This is the STS-102 mission crew insignia. The central image on the crew patch depicts the International Space Station (ISS) in the build configuration that it had at the time of the arrival and docking of Discovery during the STS-102 mission, the first crew exchange flight to the Space Station. The station is shown along the direction of the flight as was seen by the shuttle crew during their final approach and docking, the so-called V-bar approach. The names of the shuttle crew members are depicted in gold around the top of the patch, and surnames of the Expedition crew members being exchanged are shown in the lower barner. The three ribbons swirling up to and around the station signify the rotation of these ISS crew members. The number 2 is for the Expedition 2 crew who flew up to the station, and the number 1 is for the Expedition 1 crew who then returned down to Earth. In conjunction with the face of the Lab module of the Station, these Expedition numbers create the shuttle mission number 102. Shown mated below the ISS is the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, that flew for the first time on this flight. The flags of the countries that were the major contributors to this effort, the United States, Russia, and Italy are also shown in the lower part of the patch. The build-sequence number of this flight in the overall station assembly sequence, 5A.1, is captured by the constellations in the background.

  20. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  1. Space station contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.

  2. The manned space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovit, B.

    The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

  3. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  4. ILRS Station Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    A crewmember of Expedition One, cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, is dwarfed by transient hardware aboard Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), a primary cargo of the STS-102 mission. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS's) moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments and supplies to and from the Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo into 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, the STS-102 mission served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-10

    This in-orbit close up shows the Italian Space Agency-built multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Leonardo, the primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, resting in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight and NASA's 103rd overall flight, STS-102 launched March 8, 2001 for an almost 13 day mission.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-08

    The Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-102 mission, clears launch pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center as the sun peers over the Atlantic Ocean on March 8, 2001. STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall flight and the eighth assembly flight, STS-102 was also the first flight involved with Expedition Crew rotation. The Expedition Two crew was delivered to the station while Expedition One was returned home to Earth.

  8. Plaie iatrogène de l'artère carotide commune secondaire a un cathétérisme veineux jugulaire interne

    PubMed Central

    Lame, Cheikh Ahmédou; Loum, Birame; Keita, Ibrahima; Diallo, Thierno Boubacar; Sow, Alamasso

    2017-01-01

    La plaie carotidienne lors du cathétérisme jugulaire veineux est un accident rare mais pouvant être dramatique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hématome cervical compressif avec hémothorax survenu à la suite d'une plaie de l'artère carotide commune au décours d'un cathétérisme veineux jugulaire interne. Le diagnostic et la prise en charge de ce type de complication sont discutés. PMID:28450997

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-14

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, works with a series of cables on the EXPRESS Rack in the United State's Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack is a standardized payload rack system that transports, stores, and supports experiments aboard the ISS. EXPRESS stands for EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to the Space Station, reflecting the fact that this system was developed specifically to maximize the Station's research capabilities. The EXPRESS Rack system supports science payloads in several disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, and medicine. With the EXPRESS Rack, getting experiments to space has never been easier or more affordable. With its standardized hardware interfaces and streamlined approach, the EXPRESS Rack enables quick, simple integration of multiple payloads aboard the ISS. The system is comprised of elements that remain on the ISS, as well as elements that travel back and forth between the ISS and Earth via the Space Shuttle.

  10. Space station - Technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA manned space station program's systems technology effort involves the development of novel techniques that will reduce the scope of tasks neeeded for design, development, testing and evaluation of the hardware. Operations technology efforts encompass analyses that will define those techniques best able to improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of space station functions. The technology objective for data management calls for a fault-tolerant, distributed, expandable and adaptable, as well as repairable and user-friendly, flight data management system that employs state-of-the-art hardware and software. The space station's power system includes the largest element, a 'solar blanket', and the heaviest component, the batteries, of all the subsystems. A thermal management system for the power system is of paramount importance. Attention is also given to the exacting demands of attitude control and stabilization and a regenerative life support system of the requisite capacity and reliability.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-28

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-01

    This photograph depicts the International Space Station's (ISS) Joint Airlock Module undergoing exhaustive structural and systems testing in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) prior to shipment to the Kennedy Space Center. The Airlock includes two sections. The larger equipment lock, on the left, will store spacesuits and associated gear and the narrower crewlock is on the right, from which the astronauts will exit into space for extravehicular activity. The airlock is 18 feet long and has a mass of about 13,500 pounds. It was launched to the station aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-104 mission) on July 12, 2001. The MSFC is playing a primary role in NASA's development, manufacturing, and operations of the ISS.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-01

    The Joint Airlock Module for the International Space Station (ISS) awaits shipment to the Kennedy Space Center in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Airlock includes two sections. The larger equipment lock on the left is where crews will change into and out of their spacesuits for extravehicular activities, and store spacesuits, batteries, power tools, and other supplies. The narrower crewlock from which the astronauts will exit into space for extravehicular activities, is on the right. The airlock is 18 feet long and has a mass of about 13,500 pounds. It was launched to the station aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-104 mission) on July 12, 2001. The MSFC is playing a primary role in NASA's development, manufacturing, and operations of the ISS.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-01

    This image shows the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, for the International Space Station (ISS) undergoing final construction in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. Delivered and installed by the STS-112 mission, the S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-20

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after separating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistic Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-09

    The STS-117 crew patch symbolizes the continued construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and our ongoing human presence in space. The ISS is shown orbiting high above the Earth. Gold is used to highlight the portion of the ISS that will be installed by the STS-117 crew. It consists of the second starboard truss section, S3 and S4, and a set of solar arrays. The names of the STS-117 crew are located above and below the orbiting outpost. The two gold astronaut office symbols, emanating from the 117 at the bottom of the patch, represent the concerted efforts of the shuttle and station programs toward the completion of the station. The orbiter and unfurled banner of red, white, and blue represent our Nation and renewed patriotism as we continue to explore the universe.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-13

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist, Dave Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, was anchored on the foot restraint of the Canadarm2 as he participated in the second session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Williams was Rick Mastracchio (out of frame). During the 6 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two removed a faulty control moment gyroscope (CMG-3) and installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss. The failed CMG will remain in its temporary stowage location on the exterior of the station until it is returned to Earth on a later Shuttle mission. The new gyroscope is one of four CMGs that are used to control the orbital attitude of the station.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-13

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Rick Mastracchio participated in the second session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Mastracchio was Canadian Space Agency representative Dave Williams (out of frame). During the 6 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two removed a faulty control moment gyroscope (CMG-3) and installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss. The failed CMG will remain in its temporary stowage location on the exterior of the station until it is returned to Earth on a later Shuttle mission. The new gyroscope is one of four CMGs that are used to control the orbital attitude of the station.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-13

    Hovering in space some 240 miles above the blue and white Earth, STS-110 astronaut M.E. Morin participates in his first ever and second of four scheduled space walks for the STS-110 mission. He is seen toting one of the S0 (S-Zero) keel pins which were removed from their functional position on the truss and attached on the truss' exterior for long term stowage. The 43-foot-long, 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the International Space Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The mission completed the installations and preparations of the S0 truss and the Mobile Transporter within four space walks. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  3. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-10

    STS-102 mission astronauts James S. Voss and James D. Weatherbee share a congratulatory handshake as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery successfully docks with the International Space Station (ISS). Photographed from left to right are: Astronauts Susan J. Helms, mission specialist; James S. Voss, Expedition 2 crew member; James D. Weatherbee, mission commander; Andrew S.W. Thomas, mission specialist; and nearly out of frame is James M. Kelley, Pilot. Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as ISS' moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-18

    Astronaut Patrick G. Forrester works with the the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) during extravehicular activity (EVA). MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  6. Solar power station

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.

    1982-11-30

    Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

  7. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-03

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  9. Space Station design integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the top Program level design integration process which involves the integration of a US Space Station manned base that consists of both US and international Elements. It explains the form and function of the Program Requirements Review (PRR), which certifies that the program is ready for preliminary design, the Program Design Review (PDR), which certifies the program is ready to start the detail design, and the Critical Design Review (CDR), which certifies that the program is completing a design that meets the Program objectives. The paper also discusses experience, status to date, and plans for continued system integration through manufacturing, testing and final verification of the Space Station system performance.

  10. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's digital concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-09-16

    The setting sun and the thin blue airglow line at Earth's horizon was captured by the International Space Station's (ISS) Expedition Three crewmembers with a digital camera. Some of the Station's components are silhouetted in the foreground. The crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission, on August 10, 2001, replacing the Expedition Two crew. After marning the orbiting ISS for 128 consecutive days, the three returned to Earth on December 17, 2001, aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-05

    Back dropped by the blackness of space and Earth's horizon is the International Space Station (ISS) as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation. The latest configuration of the ISS includes the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony, and the P6 truss segment installed over 11 days of cooperative work onboard the shuttle and station by the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 4:32 a.m. (CST) on Nov. 5, 2007.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-17

    This view of the International Space Station, back dropped against the blackness of space, was taken shortly after the Space Shuttle Atlantis undocked from the orbital outpost at 7:50 a.m. CDT during the STS-115 mission. The unlinking completed after six days, two hours and two minutes of joint operations of the installation of the P3/P4 truss. The new 17 ton truss included batteries, electronics, a giant rotating joint, and sported a second pair of 240-foot solar wings. The new solar arrays will eventually double the onboard power of the Station when their electrical systems are brought online during the next shuttle flight, STS-116.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut James Voss, flight engineer of Expedition Two, performs a task at a work station in the International Space Station (ISS) Destiny Laboratory, or U.S. Laboratory, as Astronaut Scott Horowitz, STS-105 mission commander, floats through the hatchway leading to the Unity node. After spending five months aboard the orbital outpost, the ISS Expedition Two crew was replaced by Expedition Three and returned to Earth aboard the STS-105 Space Shuttle Discovery on August 22, 2001. The Orbiter Discovery was launched from the Kennedy Space Center on August 10, 2001.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-05

    Back dropped by the blueness of Earth is the International Space Station (ISS) as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation. The latest configuration of the ISS includes the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony, and the P6 truss segment installed over 11 days of cooperative work onboard the shuttle and station by the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 4:32 a.m. (CST) on Nov. 5, 2007.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida and the Bahamas. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating in the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-24

    This is a Space Shuttle STS-100 mission onboard photograph. Astronaut Scott Parazynski totes a Direct Current Switching Unit while anchored on the end of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm. The RMS is in the process of moving Parazynski to the exterior of the Destiny laboratory (right foreground), where he will secure the spare unit, a critical part of the station's electrical system, to the stowage platform in case future crews will need it. Also in the photograph are the Italian-built Raffaello multipurpose Logistics Module (center) and the new Canadarm2 (lower right) or Space Station Remote Manipulator System.

  19. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  20. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.