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Sample records for commune health stations

  1. The use of reproductive healthcare at commune health stations in a changing health system in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With health sector reform in Vietnam moving towards greater pluralism, commune health stations (CHSs) have been subject to growing competition from private health services and increasing numbers of patients bypassing CHSs for higher-level health facilities. This study describes the pattern of reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP) service utilization among women at CHSs and other health facilities, and explores socio-demographic determinants of RH service utilization at the CHS level. Methods This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thua Thien Hue and Vinh Long provinces, using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Questionnaire-based interviews with 978 ever-married women at reproductive age provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, current use of FP methods, history of RH service use, and the health facility attended for their most recent services. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify socio-demographic determinants of their use of CHS RH services. Results Eighty nine percent of ever-married women reported current use of birth control with 49% choosing intra-uterine device (IUD). Eighty nine percent of pregnant women attended facility-based antenatal care (ANC) with 62% having at least 3 check-ups during their latest pregnancy. Ninety one percent of mothers had their last delivery in a health facility. Seventy-one percent of respondents used CHS for IUD insertion, 55% for antenatal check-ups, and 77% gynecological examination. District and provincial/central hospitals dominated the provision of delivery service, used by 57% of mothers for their latest delivery. The percentage of women opting for private ANC services was reported at 35%, though the use of private delivery services was low (11%). Women who were farmers, earning a lower income, having more than 2 children, and living in a rural area were more likely than others to use ANC, delivery, and/or gynecological check-up services

  2. Costing of commune health station visits for provider payment reform in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Özaltın, Annette; Cashin, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Expanding effective coverage in Vietnam will require better use of available resources and placing higher priority on primary care. The way providers are currently paid does not give priority to primary care and does not reflect the costs of delivering services. This paper aims to estimate the unit costs of primary care visits at commune health stations (CHS) in selected areas in Vietnam. Seventy-six CHS from two provinces in northern Vietnam were studied. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the CHS using the top-down costing using the step-down cost accounting technique in order to estimate the full cost of delivering services. On average, the cost of one outpatient visit in mountainous, rural and urban CHSs was VND 49,521 (US$2.40), VND 41,375 (US$2.01) and VND 39,794 (US$1.93), respectively. Personnel costs accounted for the highest share of total costs followed by medicines. The share of operating costs was minimal. On average, CHSs recover 18.9% of their total cost for an outpatient visit from social insurance payments or fees that can be charged patients. The results provide valuable information for policy-makers as they revise the provider payment methods to better reflect the costs of services and give greater priority to primary care. PMID:25136962

  3. Costing of commune health station visits for provider payment reform in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Özaltın, Annette; Cashin, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Expanding effective coverage in Vietnam will require better use of available resources and placing higher priority on primary care. The way providers are currently paid does not give priority to primary care and does not reflect the costs of delivering services. This paper aims to estimate the unit costs of primary care visits at commune health stations (CHS) in selected areas in Vietnam. Seventy-six CHS from two provinces in northern Vietnam were studied. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the CHS using the top-down costing using the step-down cost accounting technique in order to estimate the full cost of delivering services. On average, the cost of one outpatient visit in mountainous, rural and urban CHSs was VND 49,521 (US$2.40), VND 41,375 (US$2.01) and VND 39,794 (US$1.93), respectively. Personnel costs accounted for the highest share of total costs followed by medicines. The share of operating costs was minimal. On average, CHSs recover 18.9% of their total cost for an outpatient visit from social insurance payments or fees that can be charged patients. The results provide valuable information for policy-makers as they revise the provider payment methods to better reflect the costs of services and give greater priority to primary care.

  4. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees) that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor). The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP) services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF) model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs). Methods The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS) clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1) clinic-reported client volume; 2) the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3) self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Results CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05). Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use increased by 20% from

  5. Going green: Metro Health starts health commune.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Taking on a total rebranding and environmentally friendly overhaul, Metro Health looks forward as it moves into a new facility. Incorporating green building details, Metro is managing environmental impact to improve its future in its Grand Rapids, MI, community. PMID:18161444

  6. The Provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health Education to Children in a Remote Mountainous Commune in Rural Vietnam: An Exploratory Study of Parents' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Fisher, Jane R. W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of parents in a remote mountainous commune in Vietnam about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education for their children. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 parents of eight-year-old children and key informants including a principal, a teacher and staff of the Youth…

  7. Effect of Health Expenses on Household Capabilities and Resource Allocation in a Rural Commune in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Thuy; Khuat, Oanh Thi Hai; Ma, Shuangge; Pham, Duc Cuong; Khuat, Giang Thi Hong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    Background Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP) and other health expenses have typically characterized them as “catastrophic” in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household “flourishing” in terms of “basic capabilities.” Methods and Findings We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. Conclusions The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden. PMID:23077612

  8. Health maintenance on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Medical support for extended manned missions aboard such spacecraft as the NASA Space Shuttle must encompass prevention, diagnosis, and therapy capabilities in the preflight and postflight as well as actual mission phases. An evaluation is presently made of the technological and management challenges that must be met in order to furnish an adequate inflight health care delivery system that possesses adequate inflight health care, real-time environmental monitoring, physiological countermeasures, and medical rescue/recovery facilities for ill or injured crew members.

  9. Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

  10. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  11. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  12. The tourism resources and possibilities using of its for development of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Structural part of the resources of the tourism potential of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów was studied in this paper. In the study, the attractiveness of tourism resources of the communes was assessed based on 48 features grouped into four divisions: sightseeing assets, recreational and special assets, tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. A field survey (listing, query) and a quantitative evaluation of tourist resources, carried out by means of a multidimensional comparative analysis, indicated an appreciable difference in features between the commune of Nałęczów and commune of Wojciechów. The tourist attractiveness index determined for the commune of Nałęczów was 0.695, almost twice as high as the index for the commune of Wojciechów (0.349). In the light of carrying out of investigations, the tourist attractiveness of the commune of Nałęczów results primarily from its environmental (mineral springs, unique flora) and cultural assets (historic monuments) as well as recreational assets (bioclimate, forest complexes, ravines; more than half of the commune's territory is within the Kazimierz Landscape Park) and special assets (angling). The tourism potential of the commune of Wojciechów is primarily determined by its recreational assets (diverse land relief) and special assets (hunting). The commune of Nałęczów is superior with regard to tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. Owing to the diversity of tourist assets, different degrees of tourist infrastructure development and varying quality of the natural environment, various forms of tourism exist in the two communes, i.e. educational tourism (environmental, geotourism, ecotourism, cultural and festival tourism), recreational tourism (agritourism), adventure tourism (walking, cycling, skiing and cross-country skiing) as well as health tourism (health, spa and wellness tourism).

  13. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  14. NUTRITIONAL STUDIES OF DEVELOPMENT IN SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE

    PubMed Central

    Niederpruem, Donald J.; Hobbs, Hudner; Henry, Lyle

    1964-01-01

    Niederpruem, Donald J. (Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis), Hudner Hobbs, and Lyle Henry. Nutritional studies of development in Schizophyllum commune. J. Bacteriol. 88:1721–1729. 1964.—Individual carbon and nitrogen sources which sustain dikaryotic fruiting in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune were determined. Combination studies indicated that certain poor substrates were inhibitory; these included acetate, citrate, KNO2, and l-lysine. Homokaryotic (haploid) fruiting was promoted by dilute culture medium. Both developmental systems were arrested by respiratory CO2. Elevated temperature (e.g., 30 C) essentially completely blocked homokaryotic fruiting of S. commune. Images PMID:14240962

  15. A health maintenance facility for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, R. D.; Doarn, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a health care facility to be built and used on an orbiting space station in low Earth orbit. This facility, called the health maintenance facility, is based on and modeled after isolated terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of Space Station Freedom. This paper presents the capabilities of the health maintenance facility. As Freedom is constructed over the next decade there will be an increase in activities, both construction and scientific. The health maintenance facility will evolve with this process until it is a mature, complete, stand-alone health care facility that establishes a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As our experience in space continues to grow so will the commitment to providing health care.

  16. A health maintenance facility for space station freedom.

    PubMed

    Billica, R D; Doarn, C R

    1991-10-01

    We describe a health care facility to be built and used on an orbiting space station in low Earth orbit. This facility, called the health maintenance facility, is based on and modeled after isolated terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of Space Station Freedom. This paper presents the capabilities of the health maintenance facility. As Freedom is constructed over the next decade there will be an increase in activities, both construction and scientific. The health maintenance facility will evolve with this process until it is a mature, complete, stand-alone health care facility that establishes a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As our experience in space continues to grow so will the commitment to providing health care.

  17. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  18. Preparing a health care delivery system for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Station is viewed as the beginning of man's permanent presence in space. This paper presents the guidelines being developed by NASA's medical community in preparing a quality, permanent health care delivery system for Space Station. The guidelines will be driven by unique Space Station requirements such as mission duration, crew size, orbit altitude and inclination, EVA frequency and rescue capability. The approach will emphasize developing a health care system that is modular and flexible. It will also incorporate NASA's requirements for growth capability, commonality, maintainability, and advanced technology development. Goals include preventing unnecessary rescue attempts, as well as maintaining the health and safety of the crew. Proper planning will determine the levels of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment necessary to achieve these goals.

  19. Health hazards among workers in power stations. Comparative study between natural gas and mazout stations.

    PubMed

    Shoumad, A E; Mohamed, M R; Abd El-Karem, A H; El-Monairy, W M

    1998-01-01

    This study was done on 65 workers working in power station I (Shoubra El-Kheima) where they are exposed to natural gas and mazout, 74 workers in power station II (El-Gharb) where there is mazout exposure only and 74 individuals acting as controls. All these individuals were admitted to a questionnaire, examined clinically and they were investigated to assess their respiratory, liver and kidney function tests. This is in addition to a complete blood picture. Air pollution inside these stations was assessed. The study aimed at determining the pollutants inside and outside the stations and to investigate the health hazards of the workers exposed to these pollutants. It aimed also to see if it is important and urgent to replace the mazout by natural gas as a fuel in these power stations. The results showed that by-products of mazout have bad effect on the environment. When mazout is used alone as a fuel, it has an adverse effect on the respiratory system and the liver. There is a need for a prospective study to assess the causal relationship between mazout by-products and health hazards before taking the decision of replacing mazout by natural gas. PMID:17217025

  20. Service functions of private community health stations in China: A comparison analysis with government-sponsored community health stations.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wanli; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fang; Chai, Yun; Xu, Hancheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Bin; Jin, Jianqiang; Lu, Zuxun

    2012-04-01

    In China, with the restructuring of health care system moving forward, private community health facilities have been playing a complementary but increasingly important role in providing public health and basic medical care services in urban areas. However, only limited evidence is available concerning the service functions of private community health facilities in China. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of private community health stations (PCHSs) to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy-making and practice in the development of urban community health services systems. A total of 818 PCHSs and 4320 government-sponsored community health stations (GCHSs) located in 28 cities of China were investigated in 2008. The percentages of stations that provided health services and the annual workload per community health worker (CHW) were compared between the two types of institutions. The results showed that the percentages of PCHSs providing public health services were significantly higher than those of GCHSs (P<0.05); but no significant differences were found in the percentages of basic medical services providing between PCHSs and GCHSs (P>0.05). The annual workloads of all the public health services and basic medical services per CHW in PCHSs were lighter than those in GCHSs (P<0.05), except for resident health records establishment and health education materials distribution (P>0.05). At present, the GCHSs are still the mainstream in urban China, which will last for a long period in future. However, our findings showed that the annual workloads of CHWs in PCHSs were no heavier than those in GCHSs, and the PCHSs were willing to provide public health services. In view of current inadequacy of health resources in China, it is feasible to further develop PCHSs under the guidance of the government, given that PCHSs can perform the basic functions of community health services, which is useful for the formation of public-private partnerships (PPP

  1. Focus on coal power station installations and population health.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Marco; Masedu, Francesco; Tiberti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence. PMID:21952157

  2. A health care system for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Life science will be one of the pacing technologies for long duration manned spaceflight. The ability to effectively deliver state-of-the-art inflight medical care will have a major impact on crew health and mission success. The future Space Station crews will participate in missions of extended duration with limited capability for emergency return. This factor alone places great responsibility on program designers to ensure the health, safety, and well-being of the crews. The Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) under development at the Johnson Space Center is described.

  3. Development of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Health System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.

  4. [Health Station, a product of combining the ideas of public health with the modern Chinese national conditions].

    PubMed

    Li, Y C

    2016-05-01

    The Health Station was a local health organization founded by the pioneers of the public health in modern China under the national conditions of "poverty, ignorance, illness and selfishness" , being the result of combining the ideas of public health with the Chinese national conditions of modern times. Though this organization appeared in backward modern China, it was advanced all over the world. John Grant was the planner of the Peiping First Health Station, whereas Li Ting'an, its builder.

  5. [Health Station, a product of combining the ideas of public health with the modern Chinese national conditions].

    PubMed

    Li, Y C

    2016-05-01

    The Health Station was a local health organization founded by the pioneers of the public health in modern China under the national conditions of "poverty, ignorance, illness and selfishness" , being the result of combining the ideas of public health with the Chinese national conditions of modern times. Though this organization appeared in backward modern China, it was advanced all over the world. John Grant was the planner of the Peiping First Health Station, whereas Li Ting'an, its builder. PMID:27485870

  6. Validation of the CSI health station 6K blood pressure kiosk.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Iain L O; Adams, John Q; Gore, Mark; Sullivan, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Established in 1978, Computerized Screening Inc. (CSI) is the manufacturer of medical kiosks that combine non-invasive & invasive preventive health-screening technology and services in the U.S. The centerpiece of CSl's health complement is the CSI Health Station, one-stop health information and screening using patented technology. The CSI Health Station (Model 6K) represents the corporation's evolution from its self-administered automated blood pressure monitors (Model 3K). CSI Health Stations also offer touch screen activated heart rate testing, patented, seated weight measurement and fitness evaluations plus other non-invasive features like BMI, resting metabolic rate, spirometry, pulse oximetry and customized health risk assessments or triage guidelines. Invasive testing such as urine analysis, cholesterol, and glucose is also accommodated in an attended setting. In addition, CSI Health Stations feature comprehensive, one-stop availability of health information, with access to a drug encyclopedia and an extensive library of health education videos, and information on local health providers and services. It also is web enabled and supports secure website access direct from the kiosk. The purpose of this study was to determine, using current standards from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), whether or not the CSI 6K could accurately and reproducibly measure blood pressure in an ambulatory population in comparison to manual auscultation.

  7. Bioconversion of cinnamic acid derivatives by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Yoshifumi; Tsujiyama, Sho-ichi; Ueno, Masayoshi

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the production of useful phenols from plant resources, we examined the metabolism of cinnamic acid derivatives by a wood-rotting fungus, Schizophyllum commune. Four cinnamic acid derivatives (cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids) were tested as substrates. Two main reactions, reduction and cleavage of the side chain, were observed. Reduction of the side chain was confirmed in cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid metabolism. The side chain cleavage occurred in p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid metabolism but the initial reactions of these acids differed. Sinapic acid was not metabolized by S. commune. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde accumulation was observed in the culture to which p-coumaric acid was added. This suggests that S. commune is a useful agent for transforming p-coumaric acid into p-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  8. Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

  9. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P < 0.01) as compared to the control subjects. Conclusions: The effects of prolonged exposure to EMRs from mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health. PMID:27011934

  10. A case of Schizophyllum commune sinusitis following unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Toya, Takashi; Shinohara, Akihito; Tatsuno, Keita; Seo, Sachiko; Nannya, Yasuhito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Makimura, Koichi; Moriya, Kyoji; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2013-08-01

    Schizophyllum commune is a globally distributed basidiomycete fungus that is known as a rare cause of sinusitis, for which no prompt treatment has been established. We describe the first report of S. commune sinusitis following unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Thirteen days after transplantation, a 23-year-old female developed maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis. The sinusitis was antimicrobial-resistant, and the sinus aspirate culture revealed white wooly mold, which was identified as S. commune by nucleotide sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous administration of liposomal amphotericin B for 2 months, followed by oral voriconazole. This report suggests the effectiveness of liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole for S. commune infection in immunocompromised patients. Given the difficulty in distinguishing S. commune infection from aspergillosis by standard culture methods, the incidence of S. commune infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be underestimated. Nucleotide sequencing may be useful in the diagnosis of S. commune infection.

  11. Psychiatric components of a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1987-01-01

    The operational psychiatric requirements for a comprehensive Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on a permanently manned Space Station are examined. Consideration is given to the psychological health maintenance program designed for the diagnosis of mental distress in astronauts during flight and for prevention of mental breakdown. The types of mental disorders that can possibly affect the astronauts in flight are discussed, including various organic, psychotic, and affective mental disorders, as well as anxiety, adjustment, and somatoform/dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to therapeutic considerations for psychiatric operations on Space Station, such as restraints, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, and psychosocial support.

  12. The distribution of all French communes: A composite parametric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderín-Ojeda, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of the size of all French settlements (communes) from 1962 to 2012 is examined by means of a three-parameter composite Lognormal-Pareto distribution. This model is based on a Lognormal density up to an unknown threshold value and a Pareto density thereafter. Recent findings have shown that the untruncated settlement size data is in excellent agreement with the Lognormal distribution in the lower and central parts of the empirical distribution, but it follows a power law in the upper tail. For that reason, this probabilistic family, that nests both models, seems appropriate to describe urban agglomeration in France. The outcomes of this paper reveal that for the early periods (1962-1975) the upper quartile of the commune size data adheres closely to a power law distribution, whereas for later periods (2006-2012) most of the city size dynamics is explained by a Lognormal model.

  13. An assessment of clinical chemical sensing technology for potential use in space station health maintenance facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Health Maintenance Facility is currently under development for space station application which will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on Earth. This final report addresses the study of alternate means of diagnosis and evaluation of impaired tissue perfusion in a microgravity environment. Chemical data variables related to the dysfunction and the sensors required to measure these variables are reviewed. A technology survey outlines the ability of existing systems to meet these requirements. How the candidate sensing system was subjected to rigorous testing is explored to determine its suitability. Recommendations for follow-on activities are included that would make the commercial system more appropriate for space station applications.

  14. Hydrocarbon Release During Fuel Storage and Transfer at Gas Stations: Environmental and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Mora, Bernat Adria; Ni, Jian; Rule, Ana M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-12-01

    At gas stations, fuel is stored and transferred between tanker trucks, storage tanks, and vehicle tanks. During both storage and transfer, a small fraction of unburned fuel is typically released to the environment unless pollution prevention technology is used. While the fraction may be small, the cumulative release can be substantial because of the large quantities of fuel sold. The cumulative release of unburned fuel is a public health concern because gas stations are widely distributed in residential areas and because fuel contains toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. We review the pathways through which gasoline is chronically released to atmospheric, aqueous, and subsurface environments, and how these releases may adversely affect human health. Adoption of suitable pollution prevention technology should not only be based on equipment and maintenance cost but also on energy- and health care-saving benefits. PMID:26435043

  15. Hydrocarbon Release During Fuel Storage and Transfer at Gas Stations: Environmental and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Mora, Bernat Adria; Ni, Jian; Rule, Ana M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-12-01

    At gas stations, fuel is stored and transferred between tanker trucks, storage tanks, and vehicle tanks. During both storage and transfer, a small fraction of unburned fuel is typically released to the environment unless pollution prevention technology is used. While the fraction may be small, the cumulative release can be substantial because of the large quantities of fuel sold. The cumulative release of unburned fuel is a public health concern because gas stations are widely distributed in residential areas and because fuel contains toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. We review the pathways through which gasoline is chronically released to atmospheric, aqueous, and subsurface environments, and how these releases may adversely affect human health. Adoption of suitable pollution prevention technology should not only be based on equipment and maintenance cost but also on energy- and health care-saving benefits.

  16. Investigating health information needs of community radio stations and applying the World Wide Web to disseminate audio products.

    PubMed

    Snyders, Janus; van Wyk, Elmarie; van Zyl, Hendra

    2010-01-01

    The Web and Media Technologies Platform (WMTP) of the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) conducted a pilot project amongst community radio stations in South Africa. Based on previous research done in Africa WMTP investigated the following research question: How reliable is the content of health information broadcast by community radio stations? The main objectives of the project were to determine the 1) intervals of health slots on community radio stations, 2) sources used by community radio stations for health slots, 3) type of audio products needed for health slots, and 4) to develop a user friendly Web site in response to the stations' needs for easy access to audio material on health information.

  17. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically. PMID:27659065

  18. Space Station Freedom CHeCS overview. [Crew Health Care System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joey B.

    1990-01-01

    The current status, progress, and future plans for development of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) for the International Space Station Freedom are presented. Essential operational biomedical support requirements for the astronauts, including medical care, environmental habitat monitoring, and countermeasures for the potentially maladaptive physiological effects of space flight will be provided by the CHeCS. Three integral parts will make up the system: a health maintenance facility, an environmental health system, and the exercise countermeasures facility. Details of each of the major systems and their subsystems are presented.

  19. A Case of Sinusitis Caused by Schizophyllum Commune and Bacteria in Acute Myelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiuyun; Liang, Yuying; Zeng, Lijun; Chen, Shuiping

    2015-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune infections have been rarely reported. Here we reported a rare case of sinusitis in an acute myelocytic leukemia patient, who was co-infected by Escherichia coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and basidiomycetous fungi (Schizophyllum commune) in sinuses. Considering the in vitro and in vivo anti-fungal activity of voriconazole, it might be a good option to treat Schizophyllum commune infections when antifungal susceptibility testing is not available. When severe side effects occur, amphotericin B or itraconazole might be subsequent choice.

  20. Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks—Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

  1. Feruloyl esterases from Schizophyllum commune to treat food industry side-streams.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-11-01

    Agro-industrial side-streams are abundant and renewable resources of hydroxycinnamic acids with potential applications as antioxidants and preservatives in the food, health, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) from Schizophyllum commune were functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris with extracellular activities of 6000UL(-1). The recombinant enzymes, ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2, released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet pectin. Overnight incubation of coffee pulp released caffeic (>60%), ferulic (>80%) and p-coumaric acid (100%) indicating applicability for the valorization of food processing wastes and enhanced biomass degradation. Based on substrate specificity profiling and the release of diferulates from destarched wheat bran, the recombinant FAEs were characterized as type D FAEs. ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2 preferably hydrolyzed feruloylated saccharides with ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues and showed an unprecedented ability to hydrolyze benzoic acid esters.

  2. Functional and Comparative Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation by Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; Lee, Hanbyul; Park, Hongjae; Brewer, Heather M.; Carver, Akiko; Copeland, Alex; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Purvine, Samuel O.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Tegelaar, Martin; Tritt, Andrew; Baker, Scott; Choi, In-Geol; Lugones, Luis G.; Wosten, Han A. B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    The Basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune is a wood-decaying fungus and is used as a model system to study lignocellulose degradation. Version 3.0 of the genome assembly filled 269 of 316 sequence gaps and added 680 kb of sequence. This new assembly was reannotated using RNAseq transcriptomics data, and this resulted in 3110 (24percent) more genes. Two additional S. commune strains with different wood-decaying properties were sequenced, from Tattone (France) and Loenen (The Netherlands). Sequence comparison shows remarkably high sequence diversity between the strains. The overall SNP rate of > 100 SNPs/kb is among the highest rates of within-species polymorphisms in Basidiomycetes. Some well-described proteins like hydrophobins and transcription factors have less than 70percent sequence identity among the strains. Some chromosomes are better conserved than others and in some cases large parts of chromosomes are missing from one or more strains. Gene expression on glucose, cellulose and wood was analyzed in two S. commune strains. Overall, gene expression correlated between the two strains, but there were some notable exceptions. Of particular interest are CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) that are regulated in different ways in the different strains. In both strains the transcription factor Fsp1 was strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose and wood, when compared to glucose. Over-expression of Fsp1 using a constitutive promoter resulted in higher cellulose and xylose-degrading enzyme activity, which suggests that Fsp1 is involved in regulating CAZyme gene expression. Two CAZyme genes (of family GH61 and GH11) were shown to be strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose, compared to glucose. Proteomics on the secreted proteins in the growth medium confirmed this. A promoter analysis revealed the shortest active promoters for these two genes, as well as putative transcription factor binding sites.

  3. Cyclohexanone derivatives with cytotoxicity from the fungus Penicillium commune.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-zhi; Ren, Jin-wei; Tang, Jin-shan; Liu, Xing-zhong; Che, Yong-sheng; Yao, Xin-sheng

    2013-06-01

    Four new cyclohexanone derivatives (2-5) and one known analog, (-)-Palitantin (1) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Penicillium commune, a fungal strain of low-temperature habitats. The structures of 2-5 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of 2 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, whereas that 3-5 were deduced via the CD data. Cytotoxicities of 2-5 against five human carcinoma cell lines (Hela, A549, MCF7, HCT116, T24) were evaluated.

  4. From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a democratic…

  5. Reorganization of Elementary Educational System and Commutation of Children to Collective Commune Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palonka, Krystyna Maria

    Between 1973-1979, the elementary educational system in rural areas of Poland has been reorganized into a system of collective commune schools; students commute or are bused to the schools. Since September 1973, 944 new collective commune schools have been set up. A study of the data indicates that the process of setting up collective commune…

  6. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  7. Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

    2010-09-01

    Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta). II. Clonal integration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.; Schiele, E.M.; Damberg, D.T. )

    1990-12-01

    Polytrichum commune is a perennial moss that grows by rhizomatous production of interconnected shoots. It possesses a well-developed internal system of food-conducting tissue. Liquid scintillation determinations following pulse-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} treatment of a single shoot in rhizomatously connected groups indicate that tagged photoassimilates are transported into: (1) newly developing stems during the early growing season; (2) shared rhizomes (with an increase observed in rhizome allocation toward the end of the year, as well as a year-end percentage increase in starch reserves); and (3) mature neighboring shoots. Over the course of the growing season, photoassimilate export from pulse-labeled shoots ranges between 12.9% and 21.4% of total tagged. The amount of export is significantly influenced by defoliation, shading, stem tip removal, and 50 ppm indole-3-acetic acid treatments performed on rhizomatously connected neighbor shoots. Physiological integration within P. commune can be inferred from these results. Control is exerted by endogenous hormones or by changes in the activity of sources and sinks.

  9. The Russian experience in medical care and health maintenance of the International Space Station crews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, V. V.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-02-01

    The main purpose of the medical support system aboard International Space Station (ISS) is crew health maintenance and high level of work capability assurance prior to during and after in space flights. In the present communication the Russian point of view dealing with the problems and achievements in this branch is presented. An overview on medical operations during flight and after finalization of the space missions based on Russian data of crew health and environment state monitoring, as well as data on the inflight countermeasures (prophylaxis) jointly with data on operational problems that are specific to ISS is presented. The report summarizes results of the medical examination of Russian members of the ISS and taxi crews during and after visits to the ISS.

  10. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  11. Prognostics and health management (PHM) for astronauts: a collaboration project on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexandre; Fink, Wolfgang; Hess, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Long-duration missions bring numerous risks that must be understood and mitigated in order to keep astronauts healthy, rather than treat a diagnosed health disorder. Having a limited medical support from mission control center on space exploration missions, crew members need a personal health-tracking tool to predict and assess his/her health risks if no preventive measures are taken. This paper refines a concept employing technologies from Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) for systems, namely real-time health monitoring and condition-based health maintenance with predictive diagnostics capabilities. Mapping particular PHM-based solutions to some Human Health and Performance (HH&P) technology candidates, namely by NASA designation, the Autonomous Medical Decision technology and the Integrated Biomedical Informatics technology, this conceptual paper emphasize key points that make the concept different from that of both current conventional medicine and telemedicine including space medicine. The primary benefit of the technologies development for the HH&P domain is the ability to successfully achieve affordable human space missions to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and beyond. Space missions on the International Space Station (ISS) program directly contribute to the knowledge base and advancements in the HH&P domain, thanks to continued operations on the ISS, a unique human-tended test platform and the only test bed within the space environment. The concept is to be validated on the ISS, the only "test bed" on which to prepare for future manned exploration missions. The paper authors believe that early self-diagnostic coupled with autonomous identification of proper preventive responses on negative trends are critical in order to keep astronauts healthy.

  12. [Lifestyle and health status of homeless people around Shibuya Station, Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, S; Minowa, M

    1999-09-01

    The number of homeless people in Tokyo is estimated to be 3,200-3,300. While studies on the health status of homeless people, including illness, injury and deaths have been previously reported, most of these reports concern the homeless who resided in housing facilities for the homeless or who admitted to hospitals. We undertook a comparison of lifestyle and health status between homeless people and people who live in houses (as a control group). Health status was also analyzed for differences among homeless people. Subjects were asked by questionnaire regarding their age, the length of being homeless, former and present employment, sleeping condition, food, whether they have friends or not, the amount of smoking per day, and Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF36). As objective findings, measurement of blood pressure and blood testing were also performed. Fifty-three homeless people, 49 male, 4 female, average age 52, from the areas around Shibuya station and Yoyogi park, were enrolled. While 98% of the homeless people had previous employment, 73% were not working when the study was performed. Compared with control group, the homeless had fewer meals per day, fewer friends, excessive smoking, greater history of gastro-duodenal ulcer and injury, greater limitation due to physical problems, and higher general mental health as measured by SF36. The diastolic blood pressure of the homeless was higher than that of the control. The blood testing showed higher white blood cell counts and platelet counts. It was suggested that changes in the social structures were largely influential in causing life, and that access to health care was limited because of financial and social barriers. Further studies with more samples, survey of social volunteers involved in care of homeless and qualitative data would be necessary to find and develop better support system for the homeless.

  13. Ergonomics work stations decreases the health impairment and saves electrical energy at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sudiajeng, Lilik; Adiputra, Nyoman; Leibbrandt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to assess the positive effect of the ergonomics work station on the health impairment and electrical energy usage at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia. Woodworking workshops are dangerous, particularly when they are used improperly. Workers are exposed to health hazards that cause health impairment and inefficiencies in their work conditions. A preliminary study at a woodworking workshop at the Bali State Polytechnic showed that the work station was not suitable to body size of the participants and caused awkward postures. In addition, there was also an inappropriate physical work environment. Both inappropriate work station and physical work environment caused participants to be less active and motivated. This paper reports on an experimental study into the effects of an ergonomic intervention at this workshop. The participants were 2 groups of male students with 10 participants in each group. The first group performed the task with the original work station as a control group, while the second group performed the task with the new work station. The study found a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05) both for the health impairment and the electrical energy usage. The ergonomics intervention on the work station decreased the working heart rate (16.7%), the total score of musculoskeletal disorders (17.3%), and the total score of psychological fatigue (21.5%). Furthermore, it also decreased the electrical energy usage (38.7%). This shows that an ergonomics intervention on work station decreased the health impairment and saved electrical energy usage. It also protected the workers from woodworking hazards and allowed participants to perform their tasks in healthy, safe, convenient and efficient work conditions.

  14. Evaluation of prototype air/fluid separator for Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Smith, Maureen; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype air/fluid separator suction apparatus proposed as a possible design for use with the Health Maintenance Facility aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) was evaluated. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed for this purpose. The flights followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. A protocol was prepared to evaluate the prototype device in several regulator modes (or suction force), using three fluids of varying viscosity, and using either continuous or intermittent suction. It was felt that a matrixed approach would best approximate the range of utilization anticipated for medical suction on SSF. The protocols were performed in one-gravity in a lab setting to familiarize the team with procedures and techniques. Identical steps were performed aboard the KC-135 during parabolic flight.

  15. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  16. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range. PMID:26287229

  17. Feruloyl esterases from Schizophyllum commune to treat food industry side-streams.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-11-01

    Agro-industrial side-streams are abundant and renewable resources of hydroxycinnamic acids with potential applications as antioxidants and preservatives in the food, health, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) from Schizophyllum commune were functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris with extracellular activities of 6000UL(-1). The recombinant enzymes, ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2, released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet pectin. Overnight incubation of coffee pulp released caffeic (>60%), ferulic (>80%) and p-coumaric acid (100%) indicating applicability for the valorization of food processing wastes and enhanced biomass degradation. Based on substrate specificity profiling and the release of diferulates from destarched wheat bran, the recombinant FAEs were characterized as type D FAEs. ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2 preferably hydrolyzed feruloylated saccharides with ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues and showed an unprecedented ability to hydrolyze benzoic acid esters. PMID:27566510

  18. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.

    PubMed

    Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities.

  19. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.

    PubMed

    Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities. PMID:23879082

  20. Operational behavioral health and performance resources for international space station crews and families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.; Vander Ark, Stephen T.

    2005-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Section (BHP) at NASA Johnson Space Center provides direct and indirect psychological services to the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts and their families. Beginning with the NASA-Mir Program, services available to the crews and families have gradually expanded as experience is gained in long-duration flight. Enhancements to the overall BHP program have been shaped by crewmembers' personal preferences, family requests, specific events during the missions, programmatic requirements, and other lessons learned. The BHP program focuses its work on four areas: operational psychology, behavioral medicine, human-to-system interface, and sleep and circadian. Within these areas of focus are psychological and psychiatric screening for astronaut selection as well as many resources that are available to the crewmembers, families, and other groups such as crew surgeon and various levels of management within NASA. Services include: preflight, in flight, and postflight preparation; training and support; resources from a Family Support Office; in-flight monitoring; clinical care for astronauts and their families; and expertise in the workload and work/rest scheduling of crews on the ISS. Each of the four operational areas is summarized, as are future directions for the BHP program.

  1. Accumulation of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Terrestrial Cyanobacteria Nostoc commune

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight 134Cs and 607,000 Bq kg−1 dry weight 137Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil. PMID:24256969

  2. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  3. The relations between the school and the commune in New China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kexiao, Lei

    1980-09-01

    There are close relationships between rural schools and communes. In fulltime primary and middle schools, emphasis is placed on the teaching and learning of scientific and cultural knowledge, but the principle of combining education with productive labour is also consistently followed and work-and-study programmes are actively carried out. The agricultural middle schools and agro-technical schools, basing their curricula on a work-and-study system, are directly governed by the communes and train agro-technical personnel for them. The communes provide various resources and facilities for schools. The present situation in the field of rural education is that secondary education is being structurally reformed and primary education popularized. After the overthrow of the `gang of four', difficulties in education still exist, but the situation is promising and its future is bright.

  4. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W.; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han A.B.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivation of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  5. Isolation and in silico analysis of Fe-superoxide dismutase in the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Kesheri, Minu; Kanchan, Swarna; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-12-15

    Cyanobacteria are known to endure various stress conditions due to the inbuilt potential for oxidative stress alleviation owing to the presence of an array of antioxidants. The present study shows that Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune possesses two antioxidative enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase that jointly cope with environmental stresses prevailing at its natural habitat. Native-PAGE analysis illustrates the presence of a single prominent isoform recognized as Fe-SOD and three distinct isoforms of catalase. The protein sequence of Fe-SOD in N. commune retrieved from NCBI protein sequence database was used for in silico analysis. 3D structure of N. commune was predicted by comparative modeling using MODELLER 9v11. Further, this model was validated for its quality by Ramachandran plot, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA-web which revealed good structure quality of the model. Multiple sequence alignment showed high conservation in N and C-terminal domain regions along with all metal binding positions in Fe-SOD which were also found to be highly conserved in all 28 cyanobacterial species under study, including N. commune. In silico prediction of isoelectric point and molecular weight of Fe-SOD was found to be 5.48 and 22,342.98Da respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that among 28 cyanobacterial species, Fe-SOD in N. commune was the closest evolutionary homolog of Fe-SOD in Nostoc punctiforme as evident by strong bootstrap value. Thus, N. commune may serve as a good biological model for studies related to survival of life under extreme conditions prevailing at the Antarctic region. Moreover cyanobacteria may be exploited for biochemical and biotechnological applications of enzymatic antioxidants.

  6. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  7. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-06

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  8. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  9. Impact of the plant protection practices on the operators' exposure: survey by the communes and ministry of equipment and transport (MET-RW).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the health-related aspects of the surveys (environmental aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of bad practices and a growing awareness of the non-agricultural users with respect to health risks. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major health risks (which endanger the operator and the public). Information, awareness-raising and, especially, training of people therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  10. Crucial role of extracellular polysaccharides in desiccation and freezing tolerance in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Yoshiyuki; Takani, Yayoi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2005-11-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and has a cosmopolitan distribution. In this study, the role of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis in N. commune was examined. Although photosynthetic O2 evolution was not detected in desiccated colonies, the ability of the cells to evolve O2 rapidly recovered after rehydration. The air-dried colonies contained approximately 10% (wt/wt) water, and field-isolated, natural colonies with EPS were highly water absorbent and were rapidly hydrated by atmospheric moisture. The cells embedded in EPS in Nostoc colonies were highly desiccation tolerant, and O2 evolution was not damaged by air drying. Although N. commune was determined to be a mesophilic cyanobacterium, the cells with EPS were heat tolerant in a desiccated state. EPS could be removed from cells by homogenizing colonies with a blender and filtering with coarse filter paper. This treatment to remove EPS did not damage Nostoc cells or their ability to evolve O2, but O2 evolution was significantly damaged by desiccation treatment of the EPS-depleted cells. Similar to the EPS-depleted cells, the laboratory culture strain KU002 had only small amount of EPS and was highly sensitive to desiccation. In the EPS-depleted cells, O2 evolution was also sensitive to freeze-thaw treatment. These results strongly suggest that EPS of N. commune is crucial for the stress tolerance of photosynthesis during desiccation and during freezing and thawing.

  11. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  12. An overview of the space medicine program and development of the Health Maintenance Facility for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee

    1988-01-01

    Because the prolonged stay on board the Space Station will increase the risk of possible inflight medical problems from that on Skylab missions, the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) planned for the Space Station is much more sophisticated than the small clinics of the Skylab missions. The development of the HMF is directed by the consideration of three primary factors: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of injuries and illnesses that may occur in flight. The major components of the HMF include the clinical laboratory, pharmacy, imaging system, critical-care system, patient-restraint system, data-management system, exercise system, surgical system, electrophysiologic-monitoring system, introvenous-fluid system, dental system, and hyperbaric-treatment-support system.

  13. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory, we selected terrestrial mosses with different life forms: the orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. Metal concentrations were determined in both species growing together at sites situated at various distances approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 km from polluters. MARS analysis evaluated different tendencies of both species for Cd, Co and Pb accumulation depending on the distance from the emitter. In P. schreberi, the concentration of these metals diminished relatively rapidly with an increasing distance from the emitter up to 3000 m and then stabilised. For P. commune, a steady decrease could be observed with increasing the distance up to 6000 m. PCCA ordination explained that both species from the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant were correlated with the highest Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb as well as Mn and Ni concentrations in their tissues. The mosses from sites closest to both power plants were correlated with the highest Cd and Zn concentrations. P. commune contained significantly higher Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations compared to P. schreberi. This may be caused by the lamellae found in the leaves of P. commune which increase the surface area of the possible aerial absorption of contaminants. Soil may also be an additional source of metals, and it affects the uptake in endohydric P. commune more than in ectohydric P. schreberi. However, the precise explanation of these relations needs further investigation.

  14. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory, we selected terrestrial mosses with different life forms: the orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. Metal concentrations were determined in both species growing together at sites situated at various distances approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 km from polluters. MARS analysis evaluated different tendencies of both species for Cd, Co and Pb accumulation depending on the distance from the emitter. In P. schreberi, the concentration of these metals diminished relatively rapidly with an increasing distance from the emitter up to 3000 m and then stabilised. For P. commune, a steady decrease could be observed with increasing the distance up to 6000 m. PCCA ordination explained that both species from the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant were correlated with the highest Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb as well as Mn and Ni concentrations in their tissues. The mosses from sites closest to both power plants were correlated with the highest Cd and Zn concentrations. P. commune contained significantly higher Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations compared to P. schreberi. This may be caused by the lamellae found in the leaves of P. commune which increase the surface area of the possible aerial absorption of contaminants. Soil may also be an additional source of metals, and it affects the uptake in endohydric P. commune more than in ectohydric P. schreberi. However, the precise explanation of these relations needs further investigation. PMID:26910826

  15. Application of a quantitative histological health index for Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Mondon, Julie A

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative Histological Health Index (HHI) was applied to Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii) using gill, liver, spleen, kidney and gonad to assess the impact of wastewater effluent from Davis Station, East Antarctica. A total of 120 fish were collected from 6 sites in the Prydz Bay region of East Antarctica at varying distances from the wastewater outfall. The HHI revealed a greater severity of alteration in fish at the wastewater outfall, which decreased stepwise with distance. Gill and liver displayed the greatest severity of alteration in fish occurring in close proximity to the wastewater outfall, showing severe and pronounced alteration respectively. Findings of the HHI add to a growing weight of evidence indicating that the current level of wastewater treatment at Davis Station is insufficient to prevent impact to the surrounding environment. The HHI for T. bernacchii developed in this study is recommended as a useful risk assessment tool for assessing in situ, sub-lethal impacts from station-derived contamination in coastal regions throughout Antarctica.

  16. In-flight demonstration of the Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility fluid therapy system (E300/E05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will provide medical care for crew members for up to 10 days. An integral part of the required medical care consists of providing intravenous infusion of fluids, electrolyte solutions, and nutrients to sustain an ill or injured crew member. In terrestrial health care facilities, intravenous solutions are normally stored in large quantities. However, due to the station's weight and volume constraints, an adequate supply of the required solutions cannot be carried onboard SSF. By formulating medical fluids onboard from concentrates and station water as needed, the Fluid Therapy System (FTS) eliminates weight and volume concerns regarding intravenous fluids. The first full-system demonstration of FTS is continuous microgravity will be conducted in Spacelab-Japan (SL-J). The FTS evaluation consists of two functional objectives and an in-flight demonstration of intravenous administration of fluids. The first is to make and store sterile water and IV solutions onboard the spacecraft. If intravenous fluids are to be produced in SSF, successful sterilization of water and reconstituting of IV solutions must be achieved. The second objective is to repeat the verification of the FTS infusion pump, which had been performed in Spacelab Life Sciences - 1 (SLS-1). during SLS-1, the FTS IV pump was operated in continuous microgravity for the first time. The pump functioned successfully, and valuable knowledge on its performance in continuous microgravity was obtained. Finally, the technique of starting an IF in microgravity will be demonstrated. The IV technique requires modifications in microgravity, such as use of restraints for equipment and crew members involved.

  17. Health assessment for Naval Undersea Warfare Station, Keyport, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WA1170023419. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The Naval Undersea Warfare Station Site (NUW) has been proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List. Preliminary on-site sampling results from the Keyport Landfill have identified chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury, and phthalates. Shellfish sampled from the intertidal flats identified various phthalates. Preliminary soil and sediment sampling results from the Van Meter Road area identified arsenic (16 ppm), cadmium (2 ppm), chromium (69 ppm), lead(36 ppm), and mercury (100 ppb). Preliminary sediment-sampling results from Liberty Bay identified lead (8 to 160 ppm), mercury (40 to 190 ppb), cadmium (130 to 970 ppb), and chromium (21 to 43 ppm). In addition, heavy metals were identified in shellfish. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances.

  18. Analysis of the sexual development-promoting region of Schizophyllum commune TRP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kikuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Tazuke, Kazuyuki; Maki, Yoshinori; Yoshiura, Yumi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Kurosawa, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of sexual development of basidiomycetous mushrooms from mating to fruit body formation. Sequencing analysis showed the TRP1 gene of basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encoded an enzyme with three catalytic regions of GAT (glutamine amidotransferase), IGPS (indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase), and PRAI (5-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase); among these three regions, the trp1 mutant (Trp(-)) had a missense mutation (L→F) of a 338th amino acid residue of the TRP1 protein within the IGPS region. To investigate the function of IGPS region related to sexual development, dikaryons with high, usual, and no expression of the IGPS region of TRP1 gene were made. The dikaryotic mycelia with high expression of the IGPS formed mature fruit bodies earlier than those with usual and no expression of the IGPS. These results showed that the IGPS region in TRP1 gene promoted sexual development of S. commune. PMID:27296855

  19. Analysis of the sexual development-promoting region of Schizophyllum commune TRP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kikuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Tazuke, Kazuyuki; Maki, Yoshinori; Yoshiura, Yumi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Kurosawa, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of sexual development of basidiomycetous mushrooms from mating to fruit body formation. Sequencing analysis showed the TRP1 gene of basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encoded an enzyme with three catalytic regions of GAT (glutamine amidotransferase), IGPS (indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase), and PRAI (5-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase); among these three regions, the trp1 mutant (Trp(-)) had a missense mutation (L→F) of a 338th amino acid residue of the TRP1 protein within the IGPS region. To investigate the function of IGPS region related to sexual development, dikaryons with high, usual, and no expression of the IGPS region of TRP1 gene were made. The dikaryotic mycelia with high expression of the IGPS formed mature fruit bodies earlier than those with usual and no expression of the IGPS. These results showed that the IGPS region in TRP1 gene promoted sexual development of S. commune.

  20. Characterization and biological activities of extracellular melanin produced by Schizophyllum commune (Fries).

    PubMed

    Arun, G; Eyini, M; Gunasekaran, P

    2015-06-01

    Melanins are enigmatic pigments produced by a wide variety of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Here, we have isolated and characterized extracellular melanin from mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune. The extracellular dark pigment produced by the broth culture of S. commune, after 21 days of incubation was recovered by hot acid-alkali treatment. The melanin nature of the pigment was characterized by biochemical tests and further, confirmed by UV, IR, EPR, NMR and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra. Extracellular melanin, at 100 μg/ml, showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens and antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii and T. rubrum. At a concentration of 50 μg/ml, melanin showed high free radical scavenging activity of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) indicating its antioxidant potential. It showed concentration dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line (HEP-2). This study has demonstrated characterization of melanin from basidiomycetes mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune and its applications.

  1. Provision of water by halite deliquescence for Nostoc commune biofilms under Mars relevant surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by findings of new mineral related water sources for organisms under extremely dry conditions on Earth we studied in an interdisciplinary approach the water sorption behaviour of halite, soil component and terrestrial Nostoc commune biofilm under Mars relevant environmental conditions. Physicochemical methods served for the determination of water sorption equilibrium data and survival of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilm samples with different water contents was assured by recultivation. Deliquescence of halite provides liquid water at temperatures <273 K and may serve as water source on Mars during the morning stabilized by the CO2 atmosphere for a few hours. The protecting biofilm of N. commune is rather hygroscopic and tends to store water at lower humidity values. Survival tests showed that a large proportion of the Alphaproteobacteria dominated microbiota associated to N. commune is very desiccation tolerant and water uptake from saturated NaCl solutions (either by direct uptake of brine or adsorption of humidity) did not enhance recultivability in long-time desiccated samples. Still, a minor part can grow under highly saline conditions. However, the salinity level, although unfavourable for the host organism, might be for parts of the heterotrophic microbiota no serious hindrance for growing in salty Mars-like environments.

  2. Evolutive and structural characterization of Nostoc commune iron-superoxide dismutase that is fit for modification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Lu, M; Li, J-Y; Qin, Y; Gong, X-G

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has extensive clinical applications for protecting organisms from toxic oxidation. In this study, the integrated iron-superoxide dismutase gene (fe-sod) coding sequence of Nostoc commune stain CHEN was cloned from genomic DNA and compared to sods from other reported algae. These analyses of immunology and phylogenetics indicated that this Fe-SOD is considerably homologous with SODs from lower prokaryotes (Fe-SOD or Mn-SOD) but not those from higher animals (Cu/Zn-SOD). In addition, the N. commune Fe-SOD shows 67 to 93% protein sequence identity to 10 other algal Fe-SODs (or Mn-SODs) and 69 to 93% gene sequence identity. Rare nonsynonymous substitutions imply that algal SODs are being subjected to strong natural selection. Interestingly, the N. commune Fe-SOD enzyme molecule has a compact active center that is highly conserved (38.1% of residues are absolutely conserved), and 2 loose ends localized outside the molecule and inclined to mutate (only 11.5% of residues are absolutely conserved). Based on associative analyses of evolution, structure, and function, this special phenomenon is attributed to function-dependent evolution through negative natural selection. Under strong natural selection, although the mutation is random on the gene level, the exterior region is inclined to mutate on the protein level owing to more nonsynonymous substitutions in the exterior region, which demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of modifying Fe-SOD on its ends to overcome its disadvantages in clinical applications. PMID:23096686

  3. Transcription factor genes of Schizophyllum commune involved in regulation of mushroom formation.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Robin A; de Jong, Jan F; de Bekker, Charissa; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms represent the most conspicuous structures of fungi. Their development is being studied in the model basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. The genome of S. commune contains 472 genes encoding predicted transcription factors. Of these, fst3 and fst4 were shown to inhibit and induce mushroom development respectively. Here, we inactivated five additional transcription factor genes. This resulted in absence of mushroom development (in the case of deletion of bri1 and hom2), in arrested development at the stage of aggregate formation (in the case of c2h2) and in the formation of more but smaller mushrooms (in the case of hom1 and gat1). Moreover, strains in which hom2 and bri1 were inactivated formed symmetrical colonies instead of irregular colonies like the wild type. A genome-wide expression analysis identified several gene classes that were differentially expressed in the strains in which either hom2 or fst4 was inactivated. Among the genes that were downregulated in these strains were c2h2 and hom1. Based on these results, a regulatory model of mushroom development in S. commune is proposed. This model most likely also applies to other mushroom-forming fungi and will serve as a basis to understand mushroom formation in nature and to enable and improve commercial mushroom production.

  4. A Global Analysis of CYP51 Diversity and Azole Sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Patrick C; Stefansson, Tryggvi S; Fountaine, James; Richina, Veronica; McDonald, Bruce A

    2016-04-01

    CYP51 encodes the target site of the azole class of fungicides widely used in plant protection. Some ascomycete pathogens carry two CYP51 paralogs called CYP51A and CYP51B. A recent analysis of CYP51 sequences in 14 European isolates of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium commune revealed three CYP51 paralogs, CYP51A, CYP51B, and a pseudogene called CYP51A-p. The same analysis showed that CYP51A exhibits a presence/absence polymorphism, with lower sensitivity to azole fungicides associated with the presence of a functional CYP51A. We analyzed a global collection of nearly 400 R. commune isolates to determine if these findings could be extended beyond Europe. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that CYP51A played a key role in the emergence of azole resistance globally and provide new evidence that the CYP51A gene in R. commune has further evolved, presumably in response to azole exposure. We also present evidence for recent long-distance movement of evolved CYP51A alleles, highlighting the risk associated with movement of fungicide resistance alleles among international trading partners.

  5. Space Medicine: Shuttle - Space Station Crew Health and Safety Challenges for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation combines some views of the shuttle take off, and the shuttle and space station on orbit, and some views of the underwater astronaut training , with a general discussion of Space Medicine. It begins with a discussion of the some of the physiological issues of space flight. These include: Space Motion Sickness (SMS), Cardiovascular, Neurovestibular, Musculoskeletal, and Behavioral/Psycho-social. There is also discussion of the space environment and the issues that are posed including: Radiation, Toxic products and propellants, Habitability, Atmosphere, and Medical events. Included also is a discussion of the systems and crew training. There are also artists views of the Constellation vehicles, the planned lunar base, and extended lunar settlement. There are also slides showing the size of earth in perspective to the other planets, and the sun and the sun in perspective to other stars. There is also a discussion of the in-flight changes that occur in neural feedback that produces postural imbalance and loss of coordination after return.

  6. Assessing Medical Students' Awareness of and Sensitivity to Diverse Health Beliefs Using a Standardized Patient Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lynne S.; White, Casey B.; Alexander, Gwen L.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Grum, Cyril M.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed students' competence in addressing the health beliefs and cultural concerns of a standardized patient, an African American woman with diabetes, during a clinical interview. Found that minority students displayed greater competence in addressing the patient's concerns about altering culturally-based dietary behaviors; white students…

  7. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λmax, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  8. Characterization of the chemical diversity of glycosylated mycosporine-like amino acids in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Iwamuro, Yoshiaki; Chinaka, Satoshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally unique glycosylated MAAs are found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In this study, we examined two genotypes of N.commune colonies with different water extract UV-absorption spectra. We found structurally distinct MAAs in each genotype. The water extract from genotype A showed a UV-absorbing spectrum with an absorption maximum at 335nm. The extract contained the following compounds: 7-O-(β-arabinopyranosyl)-porphyra-334 (478Da), pentose-bound shinorine (464Da), hexose-bound porphyra-334 (508Da) and porphyra-334 (346Da). The water extract from genotype B showed a characteristic UV-absorbing spectrum with double absorption maxima at 312 and 340nm. The extract contained hybrid MAAs (1050Da and 880Da) with two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen linked to 2-O-(β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside. A novel 273-Da MAA with an absorption maximum at 310nm was also identified in genotype B. The MAA consisted of a 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one linked to a γ-aminobutyric acid chain. These MAAs had potent radical scavenging activities in vitro and the results confirmed that the MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune. The two genotypes of N. commune exclusively produced their own characteristic glycosylated MAAs, which supports that MAA composition could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the classification of N. commune.

  9. How woman and child health work is promoted in our county.

    PubMed

    1976-05-01

    In Holung County, Kirin, China, by means of revolutionary criticism and reviewing the ongoing struggle since the establishment of woman and child health centers, the significance of Chairman Mao's directive, "in medical and health work, put the stress on the rural areas", was enhanced. The direction and the objective of work in woman and child health became clarified. To meet the needs of the rural areas, ideological revolutionization of medical and health workers is imperative. The Branch Party Committee of the Woman and Child Health Center frequently organize to study the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Chairman Mao. With local women and child health workers, staff study to raise their consciousness. The staff of 7 of the Center work in the production teams or brigades throughout the year, propagating Party policies, investigating and studying problems. They train health workers and provide technical advice in the effort to promote woman and child health service in the area. The county Woman and Child Health Center was established in 1953 when there were only 3 midwives in the whole county. Since the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, a contingent of health workers and barefoot doctors has been developed and consolidated. Currently, each production team had 1-2 health workers and 1 midwife. Each production brigade has a cooperative medical service station and a woman and child health section with 2-3 barefoot doctors and 1-2 health care workers. In general, each commune has 1-2 medical doctors and, birth planning and woman and child health counseling station. Work essentially includes the following items. First and foremost is ideological work. Every possible opportunity is taken to educate woman and child health workers to raise their consciousness of the idoelogical and political line. Next comes training of the woman and child health personnel. Modern midwifery has been popularized in the county since 1955. At the end of 1974, 59.8% of the children of 1

  10. Health assessment for Brunswick Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Cumberland County, Maine, Region 1. CERCLIS No. ME8170022018. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Brunswick Naval Air Station (BWK) Site is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the National Priorities List. The site is located in Brunswick (Cumberland County), Maine, and encompasses 7 waste areas within a 2-mile radius occupying 15 acres. Five of the seven sites were used to dispose various acids, caustics, and asbestos wastes. Preliminary on-site sampling results have identified various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals in groundwater. The site-related contaminants include: Chloroform, trichloroethylene, bis 2 ethylhexylphalate, lead, chromium, and mercury. On-site surface water contaminants identified include: total organics, chloroform, and chromium. Off-site surface water sampling results identified cadmium and mercury. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances through direct contact and ingestion of contaminated groundwater, surface water, sediment and soil. Access to the waste areas inside the base should be restricted, if not already.

  11. A favorable clinical effect of an expectorant in allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Haruki; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Wakuda, Kazushige; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Endo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old Japanese woman with wet cough and dyspnea was diagnosed with pneumonia at a clinic. Antibiotics did not improve her symptoms; therefore, she was referred to our hospital one month after symptom onset. Chest radiograph findings revealed complete collapse of the left lung. Bronchoscopy showed white mucus plug in the left main bronchus, which could not be removed. She was initially treated with bromhexine. Subsequently, culture results of the mucus plug specimen obtained during bronchoscopy yielded Schizophyllum commune. After three weeks, improvement of the collapsed lung was observed on chest radiograph. PMID:27489762

  12. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune Isolates from a Conifer Nursery.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jane E; Kim, Mee-Sook; James, Robert L; Dumroese, R Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and colony morphology are not correlated. Forty-one isolates of Fusarium spp., morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum, were collected from nursery samples (soils, healthy seedlings, and diseased seedlings). These isolates were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and DNA sequencing of nuclear rDNA (internal transcribed spacer including 5.8S rDNA), mitochon-drial rDNA (small subunit [mtSSU]), and nuclear translation elongation factor 1-alpha. Each isolate had a unique AFLP phenotype. Out of 121 loci, 111 (92%) were polymorphic; 30 alleles were unique to only highly virulent isolates and 33 alleles were unique to only isolates nonpathogenic on conifers. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from all three regions and the combined data set showed that all highly virulent isolates clearly separated into a common clade that contained F. commune, which was recently distinguished from its sister taxon, F. oxysporum. Interestingly, all but one of the nonpathogenic isolates grouped into a common clade and were genetically similar to F. oxysporum. The AFLP cladograms had similar topologies when compared with the DNA-based phylograms. Although all tested isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum based on currently available monographs, some morphological traits can be plastic and unreliable for identification of Fusarium spp. We consider the highly virulent isolates to be F. commune based on strong genetic evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence that shows F. commune is a cause of Fusarium disease (root rot and dampingoff) on Douglas-fir seedlings. Furthermore

  13. Schizophillum commune causing sinusitis with nasal polyposis in the sub-Himalayan region: first case report and review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Santwana; Gupta, Poonam; Singh, Digvijay; Kanga, Anil; Mohindroo, N K; Jhobta, Anupam

    2014-02-01

    Schizophillum commune is an environmental fungus rarely causing human infections of diverse nature. Sinusitis occurs in immunocompromised persons and seldom in healthy subjects. Though easily isolated, the lack of awareness of its virulence is a bottleneck in the diagnosis of this infection. We report the first case of S. commune sinusitis with nasal polyps in an immunocompetent male from the sub-Himalayan region. The computerized tomography scan findings established the clinical diagnosis, and causative agent was confirmed as S. commune. A white, woolly mold with septate, hyaline hyphae and characteristic spicules but unclamped connections suggested a monokaryotic isolate. Patient was treated successfully with fiberoptic endoscopic sinus surgery, and no antifungal therapy was instituted. There was no recurrence at review after 1 year. PMID:24318775

  14. Production of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase by schizophyllum commune grown on a cellulose-peptone medium

    SciTech Connect

    Desrochers, M.; Jurasek, L.; Paice, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    The carboxymethylcellulase activity in a S. commune culture containing optimal amounts of cellulose and peptone was 52.4 units/ml at pH approximately 5 and temperature 30 degrees. Enzymatic activities of the optimized S. commune culture filtrate were 1.32 and 26.5 units/ml for filter paper cellulase and cellobiase respectively, at 50 degrees. Other enzymatic activities at 30 degrees were: avicelase 0.02, cellobiase 17.9, p-nitrophenyl-beta-glucosidase 12.5, and xylanase 203.0 units/ml. The S. commune enzyme complex with its high cellobiase and low avicelase activities appears to be complementary to the enzyme complex of Trichoderma reesei. Thus, a mixed fungal culture filtrate may be best for cellulose saccharification.

  15. [Health assessments of a military company stationed on the Maroni River in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Lial, J P

    1999-01-01

    Over a 5 month period (October 1996 to February 1997), a rotating company of 146 servicemen belonging to the Navy Airborne 6th Regiment were assigned along the Maroni River in French Guyana. During this mission, the medical personnel treated 387 local residents. Etiologies comprised 51 malaria attacks including 46 involving Plasmodium falciparum and 4 rattlesnake envenomations. The most common cause of consultation by military personnel was mycotic and staphylococcal skin infections, but 5 cases involving poor acclimatization were treated during the hot and dry season. Seven malaria attacks involving Plasmodium falciparum including 2 that were severe occurred despite prophylaxis using chloroquine-proguanil. Treatment with halofantrine was successful in all but one case which required combined chemotherapy using quinine and doxycycline. Five cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were observed in subjects involved in jungle training. No case of HIV infection was detected upon returning home since most personnel either followed the recommendation to abstain from sex (51 p. 100) or used a condom (90 p. 100 of personnel who had sexual relations). These data illustrate the health risks for mainland French nationals in the region of the Maroni River and underline the need for preventive measures and education.

  16. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 82-093-1453, Southwest Power Station City Utilities, Springfield, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Aw, T.C.

    1984-04-01

    In response to a request from the Safety Department of City Utilities to evaluate employee exposures to coal and other dusts and fumes at the Southwest Power Facility (SIC-4911), Springfield, Missouri a visit was made to the site. All personal coal dust, fly ash, crystalline silica (14808607), nitrogen-dioxide (10102440), nitric-oxide (10102439), and sulfuric-acid (7664939) samples were below the lowest current criterion level. Four of eight personal sulfur-dioxide (7446095) samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended criterion of 1.3mg/cu m. Medical evaluation resulted in the identification of three workers with chronic bronchitis each of whom smoked cigarettes, eight workers with pulmonary function test abnormalities indicating obstructive airways disease, and two workers with features of restrictive lung disease. One chest X-ray was consistent with pneumoconiosis. The authors conclude that a health hazard existed for employees exposed to sulfur-dioxide and noise. A potential hazard also existed for employee exposure to heat stress in certain locations in the facility. The authors recommend improvements in the respiratory protection program, use of personal protective equipment, and initiation of an employee training program and environmental monitoring by management.

  17. Women's health care and the workplace in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Elder, P; Hsia, L

    1986-01-01

    Health care is provided through the workplace in the People's Republic of China through settings such as factories in the cities and commune health stations in rural areas. A special emphasis is placed on the protection of women workers through 4 critical periods: menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and lactation. These periods are considered to pose greater health risks to women. Factories provide specially designed rooms with spray baths and supplies for women during the menstrual period, and the woman's menstrual period is recorded on a health record kept in the factory health service. Permission to marry must be given by the supervisor of the workplace and a premarital examinaton is required to rule out heriditary diseases. Permisson must also be obtained to have a child. Pregnant women workers receive food supplements and are allowed to do lighter work. Care is taken to protect pregnant workers from insecticides or other harmful substances. After delivery, a leave of 56-70 days with full pay is granted. Couples with 1-child certificates may have extended leave up to 1 year with 70% pay. Breastfeeding mothers are allowed 1/2 hour breads twice day to nurse their infants. Day care and nursery facilities are available in factories and communes. The 1-child policy has extended the family planning period to close to 30 years, making it imperative that contraceptive technology and information be available to the masses. In general, rural women tend to choose the IUD; those who do not want more children opt for sterilization; and urban couples select the pill, injectables, and condoms. Health care for women in the workplaces is an effective means of implementing official population control policies. It is suggested that the approach of using nursing personnel at the local level for providing primary health care could be implemented in other countries to reduce rising health care costs. PMID:3641883

  18. Abundance and diversity of Schizophyllum commune spore clouds in the Caribbean detected by selective sampling.

    PubMed

    James, T Y; Vilgalys, R

    2001-02-01

    Selective spore trapping and molecular genotyping methods were employed to examine potential long-distance gene flow among Caribbean populations of the common mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Spore-trap samples from five locations were analysed using restriction fragment polymorphisms of five enzymatically amplified gene regions. Successful trappings suggested S. commune spores to be abundant in the air, with an estimated sedimentation rate of approximately 18 spores/m2/h. High levels of genetic diversity characterized the spore-trap samples, with as many as 12 alleles observed at a single locus (chitin synthase) over all samples. In addition, spore-trap samples showed significant among sample heterogeneity including geographical population substructure. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer displayed the greatest allele frequency differences among samples, clearly separating the samples into those possessing only a South American-type allele and those segregating for both North and South American-type alleles. The molecular variation provided no clear evidence for dispersal over large, aquatic barriers within the Caribbean region, and instead suggested that spore-trapping experiments are primarily reflective of the local, established population.

  19. Penicillium commune metabolic profile as a promising source of antipathogenic natural products.

    PubMed

    Diblasi, Lorena; Arrighi, Federico; Silva, Julio; Bardón, Alicia; Cartagena, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium is an important genus of ascomycetous fungi in the environment and in food and drug production. This paper aims to investigate statins and antipathogenic natural products from a Penicillium commune environmental isolate. Fractions (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were obtained from an ethyl acetate extract. Direct insertion probe/electron ionisation/ion trap detection mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS) identified lovastatin (1) in F1, while GC-MS showed that 3-isobutylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione (2) was the main constituent of F2 (49.34%). F4 presented 3 (16.38%) as an analogue of 2 and their known structures were similar to that of an autoinducer-signal. F1 produced a significant decrease in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, which is the main cause of bacterial pathogenicity. F2 and F4 were effective against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, but when F2 was associated with oxacillin, it showed an important activity against both bacteria. These novel results suggest that P. commune INTA1 is a new source of promising antipathogenic products.

  20. Health status of workers of a thermal power station exposed for prolonged periods to arsenic and other elements from fuel.

    PubMed

    Buchancová, J; Klimentová, G; Knizková, M; Mesko, D; Gáliková, E; Kubík, J; Fabianová, E; Jakubis, M

    1998-02-01

    The Nováky Power Station (NPS) has been using since 1953 as fuel coal with a high content of As and with a low content of other metals. This involves a constant risk for the workers as well as pollution of the surroundings. The authors described 16 cases of chronic As intoxication in NPS workers after 22.3 +/- 8.4 years of exposure (especially stokers, maintenance workers, boiler cleaners). Among clinical symptoms prevailed sensory and motor polyneuropathy (13 cases), pseudoneurasthenic syndrome (10 cases), toxic encephalopathy (6 cases) and nasal septum perforation (2 cases). After 1989 the intoxications with As did not occur any more due to technical measures and health protection of the workers. The authors present a review of actual results of clinical, haematological and biochemical investigations and tests for metals (AAS methods) in biological materials of workers at risk in NPS (n = 70), exposed on average for 11.9 +/- 0.5 years, of average age 35.91 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and compared the results to a matched control group of blood donors not exposed to metals (n = 29). In NPS workers significantly lower Hb values, higher serum creatinine, higher serum beta 2-microglobulin, higher As content in hair as well as higher serum Mn and Pb concentrations compared with the C-group were found. The exposed group had significantly lower serum Se concentrations (0.64 +/- 0.025 mumol/l (mean +/- SE) compared to Se levels of persons from an adjacent district. The authors stress the necessity of individual evaluation of the metal concentrations in relation to clinical findings. With prolonged exposure the situation can become more urgent not only because of chronic poisoning but also because of the cancerogenic effects of these elements on the human organism.

  1. Health status of workers of a thermal power station exposed for prolonged periods to arsenic and other elements from fuel.

    PubMed

    Buchancová, J; Klimentová, G; Knizková, M; Mesko, D; Gáliková, E; Kubík, J; Fabianová, E; Jakubis, M

    1998-02-01

    The Nováky Power Station (NPS) has been using since 1953 as fuel coal with a high content of As and with a low content of other metals. This involves a constant risk for the workers as well as pollution of the surroundings. The authors described 16 cases of chronic As intoxication in NPS workers after 22.3 +/- 8.4 years of exposure (especially stokers, maintenance workers, boiler cleaners). Among clinical symptoms prevailed sensory and motor polyneuropathy (13 cases), pseudoneurasthenic syndrome (10 cases), toxic encephalopathy (6 cases) and nasal septum perforation (2 cases). After 1989 the intoxications with As did not occur any more due to technical measures and health protection of the workers. The authors present a review of actual results of clinical, haematological and biochemical investigations and tests for metals (AAS methods) in biological materials of workers at risk in NPS (n = 70), exposed on average for 11.9 +/- 0.5 years, of average age 35.91 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and compared the results to a matched control group of blood donors not exposed to metals (n = 29). In NPS workers significantly lower Hb values, higher serum creatinine, higher serum beta 2-microglobulin, higher As content in hair as well as higher serum Mn and Pb concentrations compared with the C-group were found. The exposed group had significantly lower serum Se concentrations (0.64 +/- 0.025 mumol/l (mean +/- SE) compared to Se levels of persons from an adjacent district. The authors stress the necessity of individual evaluation of the metal concentrations in relation to clinical findings. With prolonged exposure the situation can become more urgent not only because of chronic poisoning but also because of the cancerogenic effects of these elements on the human organism. PMID:9524739

  2. Protecting Astronaut Health at First Entry into Vehicles Visiting the international Space Station: Insights from Whole-Module Offgas Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    NASA has accumulated considerable experience in offgas testing of whole modules prior to their docking with the International Space Station (ISS). Since 1998, the Space Toxicology Office has performed offgas testing of the Lab module, both MPLM modules, US Airlock, Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, ATV1, HTV1, and three commercial vehicles. The goal of these tests is twofold: first, to protect the crew from adverse health effects of accumulated volatile pollutants when they first enter the module on orbit, and secondly, to determine the additional pollutant load that the ISS air revitalization systems must handle. In order to predict the amount of accumulated pollutants, the module is sealed for at least 1/5th the worst-case time interval that could occur between the last clean air purge and final hatch closure on the ground and the crew's first entry on orbit. This time can range from a few days to a few months. Typically, triplicate samples are taken at pre-planned times throughout the test. Samples are then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the rate of accumulation of pollutants is then extrapolated over time. The analytical values are indexed against 7-day spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) to provide a prediction of the total toxicity value (T-value) at the time of first entry. This T-value and the toxicological effects of specific pollutants that contribute most to the overall toxicity are then used to guide first entry operations. Finally, results are compared to first entry samples collected on orbit to determine the predictive ability of the ground-based offgas test.

  3. Back to the garden: communes, the environment, and antiurban pastoralism at the end of the sixties.

    PubMed

    Conn, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the complicated relationship among hippie communes, the environmental movement, and New Left and Black Power militants in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In those relationships lie the roots of the divide that separated environmental issues on one hand and urban issues on the other during the 1970s and beyond. This essay examines how the fight between militants and back-to-the-land communards and environmentalists, between what we might call urban progressives and antiurban progressives, was staged as a fight between those who cared about the issues of the city and those who turned their backs on them. In this way, this essay locates the city more centrally in politics of the era.

  4. A novel expansin protein from the white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Herrera, Omar Eduardo; Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Sánchez-Carbente, María del Rayo; Iracheta-Cárdenas, María Magdalena; Arévalo-Niño, Katiushka; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    A novel expansin protein (ScExlx1) was found, cloned and expressed from the Basidiomycete fungus Schizophylum commune. This protein showed the canonical features of plant expansins. ScExlx1 showed the ability to form "bubbles" in cotton fibers, reduce the size of avicel particles and enhance reducing sugar liberation from cotton fibers pretreated with the protein and then treated with cellulases. ScExlx1 was able to bind cellulose, birchwood xylan and chitin and this property was not affected by different sodium chloride concentrations. A novel property of ScExlx1 is its capacity to enhance reducing sugars (N-acetyl glucosamine) liberation from pretreated chitin and further added with chitinase, which has not been reported for any expansin or expansin-like protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bona fide fungal expansin found in a basidiomycete and we could express the bioactive protein in Pichia pastoris.

  5. Acceptability and use of portable drinking water and hand washing stations in health care facilities and their impact on patient hygiene practices, Western kenya.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sarah D; Otieno, Ronald; Ayers, Tracy L; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Quick, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at 200 rural HCFs lacking a reliable water supply in western Kenya. We performed a survey at baseline and a follow-up evaluation at 15 months to assess the impact of the intervention at a random sample of 40 HCFs and 391 households nearest to these HCFs. From baseline to follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of dispensaries with access to HWSs with soap (42% vs. 77%, p<0.01) and access to safe drinking water (6% vs. 55%, p<0.01). Female heads of household in the HCF catchment area exhibited statistically significant increases from baseline to follow-up in the ability to state target times for hand washing (10% vs. 35%, p<0.01), perform all four hand washing steps correctly (32% vs. 43%, p = 0.01), and report treatment of stored drinking water using any method (73% vs. 92%, p<0.01); the percentage of households with detectable free residual chlorine in stored drinking water did not change (6%, vs. 8%, p = 0.14). The installation of low-cost, low-maintenance, locally-available, portable hand washing and drinking water stations in rural HCFs without access to 24-hour piped water helped assure that health workers had a place to wash their hands and provide safe drinking water. This HCF intervention may have also contributed to the improvement of hand hygiene and reported safe drinking water behaviors among households nearest to HCFs.

  6. Acceptability and Use of Portable Drinking Water and Hand Washing Stations in Health Care Facilities and Their Impact on Patient Hygiene Practices, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Ronald; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H.

    2015-01-01

    Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at 200 rural HCFs lacking a reliable water supply in western Kenya. We performed a survey at baseline and a follow-up evaluation at 15 months to assess the impact of the intervention at a random sample of 40 HCFs and 391 households nearest to these HCFs. From baseline to follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of dispensaries with access to HWSs with soap (42% vs. 77%, p<0.01) and access to safe drinking water (6% vs. 55%, p<0.01). Female heads of household in the HCF catchment area exhibited statistically significant increases from baseline to follow-up in the ability to state target times for hand washing (10% vs. 35%, p<0.01), perform all four hand washing steps correctly (32% vs. 43%, p = 0.01), and report treatment of stored drinking water using any method (73% vs. 92%, p<0.01); the percentage of households with detectable free residual chlorine in stored drinking water did not change (6%, vs. 8%, p = 0.14). The installation of low-cost, low-maintenance, locally-available, portable hand washing and drinking water stations in rural HCFs without access to 24-hour piped water helped assure that health workers had a place to wash their hands and provide safe drinking water. This HCF intervention may have also contributed to the improvement of hand hygiene and reported safe drinking water behaviors among households nearest to HCFs. PMID:25961293

  7. Acceptability and use of portable drinking water and hand washing stations in health care facilities and their impact on patient hygiene practices, Western kenya.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sarah D; Otieno, Ronald; Ayers, Tracy L; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Quick, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at 200 rural HCFs lacking a reliable water supply in western Kenya. We performed a survey at baseline and a follow-up evaluation at 15 months to assess the impact of the intervention at a random sample of 40 HCFs and 391 households nearest to these HCFs. From baseline to follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of dispensaries with access to HWSs with soap (42% vs. 77%, p<0.01) and access to safe drinking water (6% vs. 55%, p<0.01). Female heads of household in the HCF catchment area exhibited statistically significant increases from baseline to follow-up in the ability to state target times for hand washing (10% vs. 35%, p<0.01), perform all four hand washing steps correctly (32% vs. 43%, p = 0.01), and report treatment of stored drinking water using any method (73% vs. 92%, p<0.01); the percentage of households with detectable free residual chlorine in stored drinking water did not change (6%, vs. 8%, p = 0.14). The installation of low-cost, low-maintenance, locally-available, portable hand washing and drinking water stations in rural HCFs without access to 24-hour piped water helped assure that health workers had a place to wash their hands and provide safe drinking water. This HCF intervention may have also contributed to the improvement of hand hygiene and reported safe drinking water behaviors among households nearest to HCFs. PMID:25961293

  8. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  9. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  10. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  11. Cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in Fusarium commune transcriptome and functional characterization of three identified xylanases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhong; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-06-01

    Specific enzymes from plant-pathogenic microbes demonstrate high effectiveness for natural lignocellulosic biomass degradation and utilization. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes of Fusarium species have not been investigated comprehensively, however. In this study we compared cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes of classical fungal enzyme producers with those of Fusarium species. The results indicated that Fusarium species are robust cellulose and hemicellulose degraders. Wheat bran, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan-based growth media induced a broad spectrum of lignocellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium commune. Prediction of the cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in the F. commune transcriptome using peptide pattern recognition revealed 147 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and six genes encoding lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (AA9 and AA11), including all relevant cellulose decomposing enzymes (GH3, GH5, GH6, GH7, GH9, GH45 and AA9), and abundant hemicellulases. We further applied peptide pattern recognition to reveal nine and seven subfamilies of GH10 and GH11 family enzymes, respectively. The uncharacterized XYL10A, XYL10B and XYL11 enzymes of F. commune were classified, respectively, into GH10 subfamily 1, subfamily 3 and GH11 subfamily 1. These xylanases were successfully expressed in the PichiaPink™ system with the following properties: the purified recombinant XYL10A had interesting high specific activity; XYL10B was active at alkaline conditions with both endo-1,4-β-d-xylanase and β-xylosidase activities; and XYL11 was a true xylanase characterized by high substrate specificity. These results indicate that F. commune with genetic modification is a promising source of enzymes for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  13. Effect of nutrition improvement project on morbidity from infectious diseases in preschool children in Vietnam: comparison with control commune.

    PubMed

    English, R M; Badcock, J C; Giay, T; Ngu, T; Waters, A M; Bennett, S A

    1997-11-01

    A nutrition program based on home garden food production and nutrition education for mothers of young children was associated with significant reductions in morbidity from acute respiratory infection and diarrheal disease in preschool children in Viet Nam's Vinh Phu province. The nutrition program was implemented in Khai Xuan commune during 1991-93; Ching Cong commune, which did not receive the intervention, served as the control community. In Khai Xuan, the incidence of respiratory infections among children under 6 years of age decreased from 49.5% to 11.2% during the study period, while that of diarrheal disease dropped from 18.3% to 5.1%. The nutrition project was also associated with significant declines in severe pneumonia. No changes in morbidity occurred in the control commune. The intervention resulted in significantly higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, energy, protein, vitamin A, and iron by project children compared with controls. It is recommended that nutrition improvement be adopted as an infectious disease control strategy in international and national development programs, especially those in countries where respiratory and diarrheal infections are the major cause of child morbidity and mortality. PMID:9374884

  14. Attention must be paid to the protection of agricultural ecological environment while developing rural commune and brigade-run industries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yaru

    1983-01-01

    This article proposes that attention must be paid to the protection of agricultural ecology while developing rural commune and brigade-run industries in China. Great amounts of pesticides are applied in the process of agricultural production which destroy the natural ecological balance, lower the quality of agricultural, livestock and aquatic products and contaminate them. When agricultural environment is polluted, different pollutants go through various channels, directly or through the food chain, and may enter the human body. Over 200 electroplating plants of different sizes have been set up in 10 suburban counties of Shanghai, with more than 3 million tons of effluents discharged yearly, and over half of which is discharged into the agricultural environment without any treatment. Commune and brigade-run kilns, small-scale phosphate fertilizer plants and smelteries are operated indiscriminately regardless of farming seasons, discharging great amounts of toxic gas and smoke. Some small-scale fertilizer plants use waste acid containing trichloroethanol (or trichloroacetic acid) from chemical plants, thus contaminating crops and seedlings. It is proposed that rural commune and brigade-run enterprises can lower pollution through the policy of ''first planting, second breeding, third processing and fourth service''.

  15. Evaluation of prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) pack for use by the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) Pack which was developed for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). This pack will enable the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) to have ready access to advanced life support supplies and equipment for time critical responses to any situation within the Space Station Freedom. The objectives are: (1) to evaluate the design of the pack; and (2) to collect comments for revision to the design of the pack. The in-flight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic test flight to simulate weightlessness are presented.

  16. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 93-1062-2558, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Martin Lake Steam Electric Station, Tatum, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, R.; Moss, C.E.; Reh, C.M.; Ragab, M.

    1996-01-01

    In response to a request from workers at the Texas Utilities Electric Company (SIC-4911), Martin Lake Steam Electric Station in Tatum, Texas, the incidence of neurologic symptoms and exposure to electromagnetic fields and organophosphates were investigated. Workers reported neurological symptoms, including memory loss, dizziness and fatigue. A site visit to the station revealed electromagnetic field levels below the current occupational standard of 10 gauss. The use of an organophosphate containing fire resistant hydraulic fluid, Fyrquel-EH (1330785), was reported by employees. A significant correlation was identified between memory of past symptoms indicative of acute organophosphate exposure after working with Fyrquel-EH and current symptoms; however, blood cholinesterase levels were all within the normal range and no relevant neurologic abnormalities were noted on neurological examinations. The authors conclude that a hazard existed from the use of Fyrquel-EH. The authors recommend measures for the safe handling of organophosphate compounds.

  17. Novel small molecule 11β-HSD1 inhibitor from the endophytic fungus Penicillium commune

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiguang; Chen, Xintao; Tong, Qingyi; Zhu, Hucheng; He, Yan; Lei, Liang; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Jianping; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Two new phenone derivatives penicophenones A (1) and B (2), a new cyclic tetrapeptide penicopeptide A (3), and five known compounds were isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium commune, an endophytic fungus derived from Vitis vinifera. Compounds 1–3 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were determined by comparing its ECD with related molecules and modified Marfey’s analysis, respectively. Penicophenone A (1) possesses a rare benzannulated 6,6-spiroketal moiety, which is a new member of the unusual structural class with peniphenone A as the representative. Compound 3 exhibited significant inhibition activities against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in vitro and showed strong binding affinity to 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compound 3 treatments decreased the lipid droplet accumulation associate with the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 expression in differentiate-induced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the molecular docking demonstrated that compound 3 coordinated in the active site of 11β-HSD1 is essential for the ability of diminishing the enzyme activity. PMID:27194583

  18. Are PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR Genes Involved in Mediating Resistance to Rhynchosporium commune in Barley?

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Stephan; Hanemann, Anja; Sharma, Shailendra; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Günther; Röder, Marion S.

    2016-01-01

    A family of putative PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR (PEI) genes, which were detected in the genomic region co-segregating with the resistance gene Rrs2 against scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune in barley, were characterized and tested for their possible involvement in mediating resistance to the pathogen by complementation and overexpression analysis. The sequences of the respective genes were derived from two BAC contigs originating from the susceptible cultivar ‘Morex’. For the genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3, HvPEI4 and HvPEI6, specific haplotypes for 18 resistant and 23 susceptible cultivars were detected after PCR-amplification and haplotype-specific CAPS-markers were developed. None of the tested candidate genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3 and HvPEI4 alone conferred a high resistance level in transgenic over-expression plants, though an improvement of the resistance level was observed especially with OE-lines for gene HvPEI4. These results do not confirm but also do not exclude an involvement of the PEI gene family in the response to the pathogen. A candidate for the resistance gene Rrs2 could not be identified yet. It is possible that Rrs2 is a PEI gene or another type of gene which has not been detected in the susceptible cultivar ‘Morex’ or the full resistance reaction requires the presence of several PEI genes. PMID:26937960

  19. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-15

    A carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the γ-class has been cloned, purified and characterized from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The enzyme showed a good catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction (hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and a proton) with the following kinetic parameters, kcat of 9.5×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/KM of 8.3×10(7)M(-1)s(-1), being the γ-CA with the highest catalytic activity described so far. A range of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and one sulfamate were investigated as inhibitors of the new enzyme, denominated here NcoCA. The best NcoCA inhibitors were some sulfonylated sulfanilamide derivatives possessing elongated molecules, aminobenzolamide, acetazolamide, benzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and topiramate, which showed inhibition constants in the range of 40.3-92.3nM. As 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) and γ-CAs are closely associated in carboxysomes of cyanobacteria for enhancing the affinity of RubisCO for CO2 and the efficiency of photosynthesis, investigation of this new enzyme and its affinity for modulators of its activity may bring new insights in these crucial processes. PMID:25773015

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune as affected by ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Du, Bin; Zeng, Huansong; Yang, Yuedong; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound treatment was applied to modify the physicochemical properties of an exopolysaccharide from mycelial culture of Schizophyllum commune. Molecular weight (MW) degradation, viscosity and anti-inflammatory property of ultrasonic treated polysaccharide were optimized with response surface methodology. The best ultrasonic parameters were obtained with a three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design. The optimized conditions for efficient anti-inflammatory activity are initial concentration at 0.4%, ultrasonic power at 600W, and duration of ultrasonic irradiation for 9min. Under these conditions, the nitric oxide inhibition rate was 95±0.03% which agreed closely with the predicted value (96%). Average MW of polysaccharide decreased after ultrasonic treatments. The viscosity of degraded polysaccharide dropped compared with native polysaccharide. The anti-inflammatory activity was improved by ultrasound treatment. The results suggested that ultrasound treatment is an effective approach to decrease the MW of polysaccharide with high anti-inflammatory activity. Ultrasonic treatment is a viable modification technology for high MW polymer materials. PMID:27189700

  1. [From "morbus democraticus" to passionate idealism. Different reactions of French alienists after the Commune of Paris].

    PubMed

    Caire, M

    1990-04-01

    Literary and medical works published immediately after the fall of the Commune of Paris purport an analysis which deserves a critical reading: the study of the influence that alcoholism and the federate movement had on each other, easily naïve and not without excess, stamped with obviously reactionary emotions, appears as historically and scientifically questionable as the proposals towards an interpretation of the event in terms of mental pathology. The search of cases of insanity among the rebels, the idea that their acts could only express some kind of phrenopathic disorder opens the debate on the very existence of some morbid types such as Falret's and Pottier's "reasoning, inexhaustible and proselyte lunatics", the "many characters with fanciful projects, including reformists of the human race, and various utopists" that Morel includes in his classification of hereditary insanity, Serieux's and Capgras "idealists concerned with justice" found amongst delusions related to altruistic claims, Dide's and Guiraud's "idealistic passions, social reformers, anarchists" appear to us as very outdated classifications, on the border of the psychiatric field.

  2. Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C, and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (QST) was significantly higher at 22°C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (GST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18°C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as QST was significantly lower than GST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58–0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143

  3. A Novel Expansin Protein from the White-Rot Fungus Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Carbente, María del Rayo; Iracheta-Cárdenas, María Magdalena; Arévalo-Niño, Katiushka; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    A novel expansin protein (ScExlx1) was found, cloned and expressed from the Basidiomycete fungus Schizophylum commune. This protein showed the canonical features of plant expansins. ScExlx1 showed the ability to form “bubbles” in cotton fibers, reduce the size of avicel particles and enhance reducing sugar liberation from cotton fibers pretreated with the protein and then treated with cellulases. ScExlx1 was able to bind cellulose, birchwood xylan and chitin and this property was not affected by different sodium chloride concentrations. A novel property of ScExlx1 is its capacity to enhance reducing sugars (N-acetyl glucosamine) liberation from pretreated chitin and further added with chitinase, which has not been reported for any expansin or expansin-like protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bona fide fungal expansin found in a basidiomycete and we could express the bioactive protein in Pichia pastoris. PMID:25803865

  4. [Marital violence, a social and public health problem: a study in a police station in the state of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Lamoglia, Cláudia Valéria Abdala; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2009-01-01

    This article presents data of an investigation for drawing the profile of men and women involved in domestic violence taken from reports made at a police station in a small city in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 1997 and 2001. Data were crossed with the speeches of the couples at the police station. The article highlights the importance of this issue for public health, confirmed both in the feminist literature and in health studies. The results show that cultural determinants have an important influence on the construction of the roles of males and females, legitimating the power of the man over the woman and turning men violent when they cannot control the situation. More than half of the reports of women (53%) was due to corporal injuries, the rest were threats and attempted murder (39%), and psychological abuse (8%) through insults and defamation. The article presents information about the profile, professional status, color and race of aggressors and victims. It is concluded that, despite the feminist movement and other achievements, domestic violence continues reproducing and investments are necessary for understanding, reporting and overcoming the problem and changing behavior patterns.

  5. Transcriptome and Functional Analysis of Mating in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Susann; Freihorst, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Jung, Elke-Martina; Senftleben, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we undertook a functional characterization and transcriptome analysis that enabled a comprehensive study of the mating type loci of the mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Induced expression of both the bar2 receptor and the bap2(2) pheromone gene within 6 to 12 h after mates' contact was demonstrated by quantitative real-time PCR. Similar temporal expression patterns were confirmed for the allelic bbr1 receptor and bbp1 pheromone-encoding genes by Northern hybridization. Interestingly, the fusion of clamp connections to the subterminal cell was delayed in mating interactions in which one of the compatible partners expressed the bar2 receptor with a truncated C terminus. This developmental delay allowed the visualization of a green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labeled truncated receptor at the cell periphery, consistent with a localization in the plasma membrane of unfused pseudoclamps. This finding does not support hypotheses envisioning a receptor localization to the nuclear membrane facilitating recognition between the two different nuclei present in each dikaryotic cell. Rather, Gfp fluorescence observed in such pseudoclamps indicated a role of receptor-pheromone interaction in clamp fusion. Transcriptome changes associated with mating interactions were analyzed in order to identify a role for pheromone-receptor interactions. We detected a total of 89 genes that were transcriptionally regulated in a mating type locus A-dependent manner, employing a cutoff of 5-fold changes in transcript abundance. Upregulation in cell cycle-related genes and downregulation of genes involved in metabolism were seen with this set of experiments. In contrast, mating type locus B-dependent transcriptome changes were observed in 208 genes, with a specific impact on genes related to cell wall and membrane metabolism, stress response, and the redox status of the cell. PMID:22210832

  6. Isolation and purification of an axenic diazotrophic drought-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, from natural cyanobacterial crusts and its utilization for field research on soils polluted with radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Jun; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nishi, Yasuaki

    2012-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation and drought tolerance confer the ability to grow on dry land, and some terrestrial cyanobacteria exhibit these properties. These cyanobacteria were isolated in an axenic form from Nostoc commune clusters and other sources by modifying the method used to isolate the nitrogen-fixing and drought-tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. HK-01. Of these cyanobacteria, N. commune, which is difficult to isolate and purify, uses polysaccharides to maintain water, nitrogen fertilizers for nitrogen fixation, and can live in extreme environments because of desiccation tolerance. In this study, we examined the use of N. commune as biosoil for space agriculture and possible absorption of radioisotopes ((134)Cs, (137)Cs). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.

  7. Impact of a hygiene curriculum and the installation of simple handwashing and drinking water stations in rural Kenyan primary schools on student health and hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal K; Harris, Julie R; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

    2012-10-01

    School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half ("intervention schools"). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention.

  8. CHeCS (Crew Health Care Systems): International Space Station (ISS) Medical Hardware Catalog. Version 10.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  9. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  10. Biochemical constituents of a wild strain of Schizophyllum commune isolated from Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve (ABR), India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Arpita Mani; Tiwary, Bhupendra N

    2013-08-01

    A wild strain of Schizophyllum commune (MTCC 9670) isolated from Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve of Central India was evaluated for the production of bioactive compounds. The chemical constituents of wild and in vitro grown cultures were compared. Under optimized conditions, different organic and aqueous extracts from mycelia and fruiting bodies were used to extract chemical components from the cultures grown in vitro. The gas chromatography combined wih mass spectrometry analysis of extracts identified two phenolic compounds, namely Phenyl benzoate (C13H10O2) and 4-(phenyl methoxy) phenol (C13H12O2) in the ethanolic extract of in vitro grown fruiting bodies and one antibacterial compound Pyrrolo (1, 2-a) piperazine-3, 6-dione (C7H10O2N2) in the methanolic extract of mycelia. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the gallic acid and L-ascorbic acid were identifiable antioxidant components in the extracts possessing high free radical scavenging activity. The findings suggest that the wild strain of S. commune may serve as the source of novel bioactive compounds with effective antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  11. On the right track. The integrated IEC campaign succeeds in recruiting many acceptors in a fishing commune.

    PubMed

    Hata, K

    1995-01-01

    The Population and Family Planning Committee of Quangnam Danang Province's integrated information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign promotes late marriage, having two children, and spacing births from 3 to 5 years. The total fertility rate (TFR) in the province is 3.4. One urgent priority of the committee is to tackle poverty by reducing the rapid rate of natural population increase in rural areas. Xa Cam Ha is a poor, rice-producing commune of population 11,114 in which family planning used to be widely unaccepted among families. TFR in the commune is now slightly less than 3. The steady promotion of the Population and Family Planning Program has encouraged couples to accept and practice family planning such that the rate of natural increase fell from 2.0% in 1985 to 1.8% in 1994. Financial incentives are also offered to family planning acceptors; poor acceptors are eligible for loans from the People's Committee to start income-generating activities. More and more couples are accepting family planning.

  12. Purification and Biochemical Analysis of the Cytoplasmic Membrane from the Desiccation-Tolerant Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584

    PubMed Central

    Olie, Jaap J.; Potts, Malcolm

    1986-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 was isolated free of thylakoids and phycobiliprotein-membrane complexes by flotation centrifugation. Purified membranes had a buoyant density of 1.07 g cm−3 and were bright orange. Twelve major proteins were detected in the membrane, and of these, the most abundant had molecular masses of 83, 71, 68, 51, and 46 kilodaltons. The ester-linked fatty acids of the methanol fraction contained 16:0, 18:0, 18:1ω9c, 20:0, and 20:3ω3 with no traces of hydroxy fatty acids. Compound 20:3ω3 represented 56.8% of the total fatty acid methyl esters, a feature which distinguishes the cell membrane of N. commune UTEX 584 from those of all other cyanobacteria which have been characterized to date. Fatty acid 18:3 was not detected. Carotenoids were analyzed by highperformance liquid chromatography. The cytoplasmic membrane contained β-carotene and echinenone as the dominant carotenoids and lacked chlorophyll a and pheophytin a. Whole cells contained β-carotene and echinenone, and lesser amounts of zeaxanthin and (3R)-cryptoxanthin. Images PMID:16347165

  13. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Brunsch, Melanie; Schubert, Daniela; Gube, Matthias; Ring, Christiane; Hanisch, Lisa; Linde, Jörg; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes) was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing.

  14. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Gube, Matthias; Ring, Christiane; Hanisch, Lisa; Linde, Jörg; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes) was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing. PMID:26284622

  15. Statistical optimization of the medium composition by response surface methodology to enhance schizophyllan production by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbing; Zhou, Pengpeng; Yu, Longjiang

    2011-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) involving central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the fermentation medium for the cell growth and schizophllan production by Schizophyllum commune CGMCC 5.113 in submerged culture at pH 6.5 and 26 degrees C. The four variables involved in this study were glucose, yeast extract, ammonium nitrate, and magnesium sulfate. The statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied, glucose and yeast extract had a highly significant effect on schizophyllan production. The optimal medium for schizophyllan production calculated from the regression model of RSM was as follows: glucose, 18 g/l; yeast extract, 0.5 g/l; NH4NO3, 0.48 g/l; and MgSO4, 0.05 g/l, with a predicted maximum schizophyllan production of 11.74 g/l. These predicted values were experimentally validated. The excellent correlation between predicted and measured values justifies the validity of the response model. The results of bioreactor fermentation also show that the optimized medium enhanced schizophyllan production (12.80 g/l) by S. commune in a 5-1 fermenter. PMID:21630592

  16. Smart Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel - Integrated Structural Health Monitoring System to Meet Space Exploration and International Space Station Mission Assurance Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Nichols, Charles; Waller, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are no integrated NDE methods for baselining and monitoring defect levels in fleet for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) or related fracture critical composites, or for performing life-cycle maintenance inspections either in a traditional remove-and-inspect mode or in a more modern in situ inspection structural health monitoring (SHM) mode. Implicit in SHM and autonomous inspection is the existence of quantitative accept-reject criteria. To be effective, these criteria must correlate with levels of damage known to cause composite failure. Furthermore, implicit in SHM is the existence of effective remote sensing hardware and automated techniques and algorithms for interpretation of SHM data. SHM of facture critical composite structures, especially high pressure COPVs, is critical to the success of nearly every future NASA space exploration program as well as life extension of the International Space Station. It has been clearly stated that future NASA missions may not be successful without SHM [1]. Otherwise, crews will be busy addressing subsystem health issues and not focusing on the real NASA mission

  17. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent...

  18. Deactivation of photosynthetic activities is triggered by loss of a small amount of water in a desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Manabu; Yamakawa, Ruriko; Nishio, Junko; Yamaji, Takaharu; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    2004-07-01

    Changes in photosynthetic activities under hypertonic conditions were studied in a terrestrial, highly desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, and in some desiccation-sensitive cyanobacteria. The amounts of water sustained in the colony matrix outside the N. commune cells and the cellular solute concentration were estimated by measuring the water potential, and the solute concentration was supposed to correspond to around 0.22 M sorbitol. Incubation of the colonies in 0.8 M sorbitol solution inhibited the energy transfer from the phycobilisome (PBS) anchor to PSII core complexes. At higher sorbitol concentrations, light energy absorbed by PSI, PSII, and PBS was dissipated to heat. PSI and cyclic electron flow around PSI was also deactivated by hypertonic treatment. Fv/Fm and (Fm'-F)/Fm' values started to decrease at 0.6 and 0.3 M sorbitol and reached zero at 1.0 and 0.8 M, respectively. Decreases in these two fluorescence parameters corresponded to the decreases in PSII fluorescence (F695) and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, respectively. The intensity of delayed light emission started to decrease at 1.0 M sorbitol and became negligible at 4.0 M. Comparing these changes in N. commune with those in desiccation-sensitive species, we found that N. commune cells actively deactivates photosynthetic systems on sensing water loss. PMID:15295070

  19. The potential and realistic hazards after a solar-driven chemical treatment of benzene using a health risk assessment at a gas station site in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hyoung; Chang, Soon-Woong

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential use for ex situ remediation, a solar-driven, photocatalyzed reactor system was constructed and applied for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene using selected advanced oxidation processes (AOP) processes, such as H(2)O(2)/solar light, TiO(2) slurry/solar light and immobilized TiO(2)/solar light. However; to date, there have been few attempts to characterize the potential impact of residual levels of benzene on human health after treatment. Some papers have focused on the application of treatment methods of benzene, but most have not considered the effects of realistic hazards and human health. Therefore, potential and realistic hazards of benzene to human health were investigated at a gas station site using a risk-based assessment approach. Among the different remediation actions, the solar light/TiO(2) slurry/H(2)O(2) system (Action 5) showed higher removal efficiency than the solar light/TiO(2) slurry (Action 3) and the solar light/immobilized TiO(2) (Action 2) systems for the treatment of benzene. The Action 5 remediation method achieved 98% degradation, and lead to a substantial increase in the removal of benzene due to the synergetic effect of TiO(2) with the oxidant, H(2)O(2). Also, using the realistic and potential hazard assessment instead of the point estimation of concentration after benzene treatment, the total health risk exceeded the target risk value (1 x 10(-6)). However, the 95th percentile target cancer risk, found using a probabilistic analysis (Monte Carlo method), was around 1 x 10(-6), indicating a low potential carcinogenic risk. Therefore, it was concluded that no adverse health risk was unlikely to be posed if the Action 5 system, which included the addition of TiO(2) and H(2)O(2), or if an increased reaction time was applied. In addition, continuous efforts and proper actions must be taken on the "Soil and Groundwater Remediation Action" based on the risk assessment in Korea.

  20. The tourism potential of the commune Janów Podlaski and its evaluation of tourism appeal as compared to the administrative district of Biała Podlaska (Lublin voivodeship)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Chmielewska, Anna Beata

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis has been to evaluate tourism appeal of the commune of Janów Podlaski, as compared to the other communes in the administrative district of Biała Podlaska, and to analyse the recreational potential of the natural environment within the commune and it's present day infrastructure for tourism industry. For evaluation of the tourism attractiveness of the commune, based on comparative analysis, the method of synthetic measures was applied. The commune of Janów Podlaski belongs to one of the most attractive areas for tourists in the administrative district of Biała Podlaska. The attractiveness of the commune is associated with the Bug river, which flows across high-value landscapes and possess many ecological assets. Development of water tourism, however, is hindered by the fact that the Bug forms part of Poland's state border and it's water is rather polluted. Walking tourism in the commune of Janów Podlaski is encouraged owing to a well-developed and properly sing-posted networks of trails. The accommodation facilities are not evenly distributed as most of the rooms for tourists can be found in Janów Podlaski.

  1. Active Fe-Containing Superoxide Dismutase and Abundant sodF mRNA in Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) after Years of Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Shirkey, Breanne; Kovarcik, Don Paul; Wright, Deborah J.; Wilmoth, Gabriel; Prickett, Todd F.; Helm, Richard F.; Gregory, Eugene M.; Potts, Malcolm

    2000-01-01

    Active Fe-superoxide dismutase (SodF) was the third most abundant soluble protein in cells of Nostoc commune CHEN/1986 after prolonged (13 years) storage in the desiccated state. Upon rehydration, Fe-containing superoxide disumutase (Fe-SOD) was released and the activity was distributed between rehydrating cells and the extracellular fluid. The 21-kDa Fe-SOD polypeptide was purified, the N terminus was sequenced, and the data were used to isolate sodF from the clonal isolate N. commune DRH1. sodF encodes an open reading frame of 200 codons and is expressed as a monocistronic transcript (of approximately 750 bases) from a region of the genome which includes genes involved in nucleic acid synthesis and repair, including dipyrimidine photolyase (phr) and cytidylate monophosphate kinase (panC). sodF mRNA was abundant and stable in cells after long-term desiccation. Upon rehydration of desiccated cells, there was a turnover of sodF mRNA within 15 min and then a rise in the mRNA pool to control levels (quantity of sodF mRNA in cells in late logarithmic phase of growth) over approximately 24 h. The extensive extracellular polysaccharide (glycan) of N. commune DRH1 generated superoxide radicals upon exposure to UV-A or -B irradiation, and these were scavenged by SOD. Despite demonstrated roles for the glycan in the desiccation tolerance of N. commune, it may in fact be a significant source of damaging free radicals in vivo. It is proposed that the high levels of SodF in N. commune, and release of the enzyme from dried cells upon rehydration, counter the effects of oxidative stress imposed by multiple cycles of desiccation and rehydration during UV-A or -B irradiation in situ. PMID:10613879

  2. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  3. Chemical profile of the secondary metabolites produced by a deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium commune SD-118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhuo; Li, Xiaoming; Meng, Li; Li, Chunshun; Gao, Shushan; Huang, Caiguo; Wang, Bingui

    2012-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from Penicillium commune SD-118, a fungus obtained from a deep-sea sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of a known antibacterial compound, xanthocillin X ( 1), and 14 other known compounds comprising three steroids ( 2-4), two ceramides ( 5 and 6), six aromatic compounds ( 7-12), and three alkaloids ( 13-15). Xanthocillin X ( 1) was isolated for the first time from a marine fungus. In the bioassay, xanthocillin X ( 1) displayed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HepG2, H460, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Meleagrin ( 15) exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report of the cytotoxicity of xanthocillin X ( 1).

  4. Immobilized lipase from Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 for the production of fatty acids methyl esters from cyanobacterial oil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyoti; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Madan; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Novel lipase from model mushroom Schizophyllum commune strain ISTL04 produced by solid state fermentation of Leucaena leucocephala seeds, was immobilized onto Celite for enzymatic FAMEs production from cyanobacterial endolith Leptolyngbya ISTCY101. The isolate showed vigorous growth and produced remarkable lipase activity of 146.5 U g(-1) dry solid substrate, without any external lipase inducer. Single-factor experiments were carried out to study the effects of various reaction parameters on the FAMEs yield. The best conditions for enzymatic transesterification as revealed by the results were: 1:3 oil to methanol molar ratio, added at 3h intervals, 12% water content, 1581.5 U g(-1) immobilized lipase, temperature 45 °C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum FAMEs yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase was able to produce >90% of the relative FAMEs yield after four repeated transesterification cycles. This immobilized lipase exhibited potential for application in biodiesel industry. PMID:25670399

  5. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  6. Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bich, Tran Huu; Quang, La Ngoc; Thanh Ha, Le Thi; Duc Hanh, Tran Thi; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Background Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. Objective The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension) between flood affected and non-affected households. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected) from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. Results The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. Conclusions For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding), flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis. PMID:21866222

  7. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section 35.1... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such...

  8. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such instructions... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section...

  9. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such instructions... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section...

  10. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such instructions... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section...

  11. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such instructions... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section...

  12. Psychological distress of residents in Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Koji; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Nakashima, Kanami; Orita, Makiko; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kumagai, Atsushi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Background To shed light on the mental health of evacuees after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), we evaluate the results of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS) of the residents at Kawauchi village in Fukushima, which is located less than 30 km from the FDNPS. Methods We conducted the cross-sectional study within the framework of the FHMS. Exposure values were “anorexia,” “subjective feelings about health,” “feelings about sleep satisfaction,” and “bereavement caused by the disaster,” confounding variables were “age” and “sex,” and outcome variables were “K6 points.” We collected data from the FHMS, and employed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist Stressor-Specific Version (PCL-S) to carry out the research. A total of 13 or greater was the cut-off for identifying serious mental illness using the K6 scale. The study subjects included residents (n = 542) of over 30 years of age from Kawauchi village, and data were used from the period of January 1, 2012 to October 31, 2012. Results A total of 474 residents (87.5%) scored less than 13 points in the K6 and 68 (12.6%) scored 13 points or more. The proportion of elderly residents (over 65 years old) among people with K6 score above the cut-off was higher than that among people with K6 score below the cut-off (44.1 vs 31.0%, p < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of residents with anorexia and mental illness among people with K6 score above the cut-off was higher than among people with K6 score below the cut-off (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The amount of residents who scored 44 points or more in the PCL-S among people with K6 score above the cut-off was also considerably higher than among people with K6 score below the cut-off (79.4 vs 12.9%, p < 0.001). Interestingly, the proportion of residents who scored more than among people with K6 score above the cut-off and the among

  13. Psychological distress of residents in Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Koji; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Nakashima, Kanami; Orita, Makiko; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kumagai, Atsushi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Background To shed light on the mental health of evacuees after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), we evaluate the results of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS) of the residents at Kawauchi village in Fukushima, which is located less than 30 km from the FDNPS. Methods We conducted the cross-sectional study within the framework of the FHMS. Exposure values were “anorexia,” “subjective feelings about health,” “feelings about sleep satisfaction,” and “bereavement caused by the disaster,” confounding variables were “age” and “sex,” and outcome variables were “K6 points.” We collected data from the FHMS, and employed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist Stressor-Specific Version (PCL-S) to carry out the research. A total of 13 or greater was the cut-off for identifying serious mental illness using the K6 scale. The study subjects included residents (n = 542) of over 30 years of age from Kawauchi village, and data were used from the period of January 1, 2012 to October 31, 2012. Results A total of 474 residents (87.5%) scored less than 13 points in the K6 and 68 (12.6%) scored 13 points or more. The proportion of elderly residents (over 65 years old) among people with K6 score above the cut-off was higher than that among people with K6 score below the cut-off (44.1 vs 31.0%, p < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of residents with anorexia and mental illness among people with K6 score above the cut-off was higher than among people with K6 score below the cut-off (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The amount of residents who scored 44 points or more in the PCL-S among people with K6 score above the cut-off was also considerably higher than among people with K6 score below the cut-off (79.4 vs 12.9%, p < 0.001). Interestingly, the proportion of residents who scored more than among people with K6 score above the cut-off and the among

  14. Identification of alg3 in the mushroom-forming fungus Schizophyllum commune and analysis of the Δalg3 knockout mutant.

    PubMed

    Berends, Elsa; Lehle, Ludwig; Henquet, Maurice; Hesselink, Thamara; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G; Bosch, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Alg3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzes the mannosyl transfer from Man-P-Dol to Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol resulting in the formation of Man(6)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol, which is then further processed to the final precursor oligosaccharide Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) for N-glycosylation of proteins. Here, we identified the alg3 gene of the mushroom-forming fungus Schizophyllum commune by homology search. Its function was confirmed by the complementation of the Δalg3 strain of S. cerevisiae. Inactivation of alg3 in S. commune resulted in the production of predominantly Man(3)GlcNAc(2) protein-linked N-glycans. No impact on growth nor a developmental phenotype due to the deletion was observed. This provides a first step toward engineering of a homogeneous, humanized N-glycosylation pattern for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins in mushrooms.

  15. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  16. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  17. Phenolic acids isolated from the fungus Schizophyllum commune exert analgesic activity by inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui-Min; Wang, Gan; Liu, Ya-Ping; Rong, Ming-Qiang; Shen, Chuan-Bin; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to search for compounds with analgesic activity from the Schizophyllum commune (SC), which is widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushroom world. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), tosilica gel column chromatography, sephadex LH 20, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify compounds from SC. Structural analysis of the isolated compounds was based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effects of these compounds on voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels were evaluated using patch clamp. The analgesic activity of these compounds was tested in two types of mouse pain models induced by noxious chemicals. Five phenolic acids identified from SC extracts in the present study included vanillic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, o-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid, 3-hydroxy-5-methybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They inhibited the activity of both tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) and tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) NaV channels. All the compounds showed low selectivity on NaV channel subtypes. After intraperitoneal injection, three compounds of these compounds exerted analgesic activity in mice. In conclusion, phenolic acids identified in SC demonstrated analgesic activity, facilitating the mechanistic studies of SC in the treatment of neurasthenia. PMID:27667511

  18. Hydrophobins Sc3 and Sc4 gene expression in mounds, fruiting bodies and vegetative hyphae of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutami; Robertson, Deborah L; Leonard, Thomas J

    2008-03-01

    An abnormal growth form called mound has been hypothesized to be a neoplasm in the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune. An alternative hypothesis is that mounds represent some unusual developmental form in the fruiting body morphogenetic pathway. Hydrophobin proteins have been found in fruiting bodies where they line the surface of gas exchange pores and function to keep the pores hydrophobic. To further determine possible relationships between mounds and fruiting bodies, mound tissue was examined for gas exchange pores and the presence of hydrophobins. Cryoscanning electron microscopic images revealed the presence of channels in mound tissue and presumptive hydrophobin rodlets similar to the air channels in fruiting bodies. Hydrophobin gene expression was also measured in mound tissue using quantitative real-time PCR and showed both monokaryotic and dikaryotic mound tissue exhibited high expression of the dikaryotic specific Sc4 hydrophobin gene. In contrast, Sc4 hydrophobin expression was barely detectable in monokaryotic fruiting bodies. The expression of Sc4 hydrophobin genes in mounds suggests mound development uses this aspect of the dikaryotic fruiting developmental pathway.

  19. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of nostocionone isolated from Nostoc commune Vauch and its derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Yuji; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the primary pathogenic agent responsible for acne vulgaris on the skin and hair follicles. Overgrowth of this bacterium inhibits growth and promotes follicular inflammation, with an associated increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. P. acnes has therefore been considered the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-P. acnes and anti-inflammatory properties of 6 compounds isolated from Nostoc commune. One of these compounds, nostocionone (Nost), and one of its derivatives, NostD3 [(1E,4E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one], significantly inhibited P. acnes growth. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Nost and NostD3 on heat-killed (hk) P. acnes-induced inflammation in macrophages. Both Nost and NostD3 suppressed hk P. acnes-induced nitric oxide (NO) production through the suppression of inducible NO synthase expression, following inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B. Taken together, our findings suggested that both Nost and NostD3 were promising agents for the treatment of acne vulgaris, and that NostD3 showed higher efficacy than Nost. PMID:24699048

  20. Evaluation of Three Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Van; Nguyen, Hoang; Tho, Le Huu; Minh, Truong Tan; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Green, Mackenzie S.; Kaljee, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    With an increase in sexual activity among young adults in Vietnam and associated risks, there is a need for evidence-based sexual health interventions. This evaluation of three sexual health programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was conducted in 12 communes in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District. Inclusion criteria included unmarried youth 15–20 years residing in selected communes. Communes were randomly allocated to an intervention, and participants were randomly selected within each commune. The intervention programs included Vietnamese Focus on Kids (VFOK), the gender-based program Exploring the World of Adolescents (EWA), and EWA plus parental and health provider education (EWA+). Programs were delivered over a ten-week period in the communities by locally trained facilitators. The gender-based EWA program with parental involvement (EWA+) compared to VFOK showed significantly greater increase in knowledge. EWA+ in comparison to VFOK also showed significant decrease at immediate postintervention for intention to have sex. Sustained changes are observed in all three interventions for self-efficacy condom use, self-efficacy abstinence, response efficacy for condoms, extrinsic rewards, and perceived vulnerability for HIV. These findings suggest that theory-based community programs contribute to sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual risk among Vietnamese adolescents. PMID:22666565

  1. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  2. 30 CFR 56.14103 - Operators stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment... operators' stations of self-propelled mobile equipment, the windows shall be made of safety glass...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14103 - Operators stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment... operators' stations of self-propelled mobile equipment, the windows shall be made of safety glass...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14103 - Operators stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment... operators' stations of self-propelled mobile equipment, the windows shall be made of safety glass...

  5. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  6. Crew health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    Crew health concerns for Space Station Freedom are numerous due to medical hazards from isolation and confinement, internal and external environments, zero gravity effects, occupational exposures, and possible endogenous medical events. The operational crew health program will evolve from existing programs and from life sciences investigations aboard Space Station Freedom to include medical monitoring and certification, medical intervention, health maintenance and countermeasures, psychosocial support, and environmental health monitoring. The knowledge and experience gained regarding crew health issues and needs aboard Space Station Freedom will be used not only to verify requirements and programs for long duration space flight, but also in planning and preparation for Lunar and Mars exploration and colonization.

  7. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that space station planning at NASA began when NASA was created in 1958. However, the initiation of the program for a lunar landing delayed the implementation of plans for a space station. The utility of a space station was finally demonstrated with Skylab, which was launched in 1972. In May 1982, the Space Station Task Force was established to provide focus and direction for space station planning activities. The present paper provides a description of the planning activities, giving particular attention to the power system. The initial space station will be required to supply 75 kW of continuous electrical power, 60 kW for the customer and 15 kW for space station needs. Possible alternative energy sources for the space station include solar planar or concentrator arrays of either silicon or gallium arsenide.

  8. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  9. Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

  10. Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is being designed and developed with user requirements being used to shape the configuration. Plans include accommodation provisions for a wide variety of attached payloads including the Earth sciences research activities which are the focus of this conference. The station program is even beginning some preliminary payload manifesting which involves planning for accommodation of payload during the station's assembly flights. Potential payload organizations should be aware of the station's plans for payload accommodations so as to guide their own payload activities for future space station use.

  11. The letters of Alix Joffroy (1844-1908), a medical intern at Lariboisière's Hospital at the time of the Commune of Paris.

    PubMed

    Tiberghien, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Since opening in 1848, Lariboisière's Hospital was strongly associated with the history of Paris and especially with the terrible days of the siege of Paris and the fights of the Commune. On the day after the surrender, Alix Joffroy wrote his first letter to his mother. He described the events as he experienced them, expressing his feelings about the causes of this political and military disaster and his experience there as an intern. Some weeks after the defeat of France by the Prussians, humbled Parisians attacked governmental troops. From March to May 1871 an improvised insurrectionary movement, The Commune of Paris, had taken power in the capital During the Bloody Week from 21 to 28 May 1871; this movement was suppressed by the Versaillaise Army. In his second letter, Joffroy related with great realism the tooth and nail fighting at the barricades and then the savage repression by the Army of the Communards around Lariboisière's Hospital. Two letters preciously preserved by Alix Joffroy's descendants give this man's unique direct account of a tragic period of the 19th century.

  12. Jumeaux conjoints au niveau d’une omphalocèle commune avec extrophie cloacale et ambigüité sexuelle

    PubMed Central

    Boujoual, Majdouline; Madani, Hamid; Benhaddou, Housain; Belahcen, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Les jumeaux conjoints sont considérés comme étant une complication rare et grave des grossesses monozygotes. Le diagnostic anténatal permet de définir avec précision les structures communes, de rechercher une anomalie congénitale associée, d'organiser l´accouchement et la prise en charge néonatale. Nous présentons un cas rare de jumeaux conjoints dont la fusion se situait au niveau d'une omphalocèle commune associée à une extrophie cloacale, ambiguïté sexuelle et pieds bots. Le diagnostic a été méconnu pendant la grossesse, ce qui a engendré une dystocie lors de l'accouchement. L'issue a été fatale malgré une tentative de séparation et des mesures de réanimation. Ce cas illustre la difficulté liée d'une part à la méconnaissance du diagnostic, d'autre part au caractère urgent de la césarienne et de la séparation chirurgicale. PMID:25170387

  13. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  14. Health hazard evaluation report No. HHE-80-233-793, Davis Bessie Nuclear Power Station, Toledo Edison Company, United Engineers and Contractors Company (UE and C), Oak Harbor, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, J.; Hartle, R.

    1981-01-01

    Personal air samples were analyzed and employees were given medical evaluations at Davis Bessie Nuclear Power Station (SIC-4911) in Oak Harbor, Ohio. Requests for evaluation were made by a union representative of the United Engineers and Contractors and a union representative of employees of Toledo Edison Company, working on site at the power station, to evaluate employee skin and scalp problems due to exposure to ceramic wood fibers. Preliminary surveys were conducted on September 24 and 25, 1980 and a follow-up survey was performed on October 16, 1980. Environmental evaluation consisted of gravimetric analyses of personal air samples for airborne ceramic wool fibers. A total of 400 production and maintenance workers and varying numbers of construction workers were exposed to the fibers during installation of insulation which was completed at the time of the survey. The three personal air samples showed no accumulation of particulates and fibers detected were nonrespirable. Medical evaluations were conducted in 52 workers and scalp scrapings were obtained from 43 workers. Thirty seven workers had histories suggestive of irritant dermatitis of the scalp; 24 workers had physical findings consistent with the diagnosis. Of the 43 scalp samples, 18 were contaminated with organisms of the gut, perineum, skin or respiratory tract. Dermatitis was directly related to the history of dust exposure. The authors conclude that a potential health hazard exists for employees from exposure to ceramic wool fiber. Recommendations include provision of handwashing facilities and protective clothing for employees, and installation of an impermeable covering for the ceramic wool fiber.

  15. Space station, 1959 to . .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  16. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  17. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  18. Station Crew Celebrates Christmas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

  19. Space station dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reg

    1990-01-01

    Structural dynamic characteristics and responses of the Space Station due to the natural and induced environment are discussed. Problems that are peculiar to the Space Station are also discussed. These factors lead to an overall acceleration environment that users may expect. This acceleration environment can be considered as a loading, as well as a disturbance environment.

  20. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  1. Space station executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

  2. Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

  3. Science on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Plans for space science activities on the International Space Station are reviewed from a NASA perspective. The present Station reference configuration is based on a dual-keel core unit (one habitation module and three laboratory modules supplied by NASA, ESA, and Japan) and provides for five attached systems (with up to four payloads each to be exposed to space) and several free-flying platforms (both polar orbiters and coorbiters). Particular attention is given to the space science aspects of the primary Station objectives defined by NASA (servicing and repair, platforms, pressurized modules, and attached payloads). Also discussed are the work of the Task Force on Scientific Uses of Space Station, the need for operational flexibility, the value of a continuous manned presence for experimental science, and the skills needed from the Station crew.

  4. Translocation of mercury from substrate to fruit bodies of Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata on oat flakes.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Jiří; Švec, Karel; Kolihová, Dana; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-03-01

    The cultivation and fructification of 15 saprotrophic and wood-rotting fungal strains were tested on three various semi-natural medium. The formation of fruit bodies was observed for Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata in the frame of 1-2 months. Mercury translocation from the substrate to the fruit bodies was then followed in oat flakes medium. Translocation was followed for treatments of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20ppm Hg in the substrate. All four fungi formed fruit bodies in almost all replicates. The fruit body yield varied from 0.5 to 15.3g dry weight. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2.99 was found for P. cubensis at 1.25ppm Hg. The BCF decreased with increasing Hg concentration in the substrate: 2.49, 0, 2.38, 1.71 and 1.82 for P. stipticus; 3.00, 2.78, 2.48, 1.81 and 2.15 for P. cubensis; 2.47, 1.81, 1.78, 1.07 and 0.96 for S. commune; and 1.96, 1.84, 1.21, 1.71 and 0.96 for S. rugosoannulata. The Hg contents in the fruit bodies reflected the Hg contents in the substrate; the highest contents in the fruit bodies were found in P. cubensis (43.08±7.36ppm Hg) and P. stipticus (36.42±3.39ppm).

  5. Translocation of mercury from substrate to fruit bodies of Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata on oat flakes.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Jiří; Švec, Karel; Kolihová, Dana; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-03-01

    The cultivation and fructification of 15 saprotrophic and wood-rotting fungal strains were tested on three various semi-natural medium. The formation of fruit bodies was observed for Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata in the frame of 1-2 months. Mercury translocation from the substrate to the fruit bodies was then followed in oat flakes medium. Translocation was followed for treatments of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20ppm Hg in the substrate. All four fungi formed fruit bodies in almost all replicates. The fruit body yield varied from 0.5 to 15.3g dry weight. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2.99 was found for P. cubensis at 1.25ppm Hg. The BCF decreased with increasing Hg concentration in the substrate: 2.49, 0, 2.38, 1.71 and 1.82 for P. stipticus; 3.00, 2.78, 2.48, 1.81 and 2.15 for P. cubensis; 2.47, 1.81, 1.78, 1.07 and 0.96 for S. commune; and 1.96, 1.84, 1.21, 1.71 and 0.96 for S. rugosoannulata. The Hg contents in the fruit bodies reflected the Hg contents in the substrate; the highest contents in the fruit bodies were found in P. cubensis (43.08±7.36ppm Hg) and P. stipticus (36.42±3.39ppm). PMID:26706395

  6. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  7. 4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ON RIGHT. NOTE TUNNEL IN BACKGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Harpers Ferry Station, Potomac Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  9. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  10. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  11. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  12. Temporal dynamics of dairy health and production in rural smallholder communities in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Kanameda, M; Tachibana, S; Ogawa, T; Dang, T T S; Pfeiffer, D U

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this field study was to describe the temporal pattern of dairy cattle health and production and associated risk factors in rural small-holder communities in northern Vietnam, one of the target areas of the government's dairy development programme. A total of 99 dairy farms (11 per commune) were recruited from 9 of 32 communes in Ba Vi District, Ha Tay Province, using random two-stage cluster sampling. All dairy cattle present on the selected farms were included. After the initial questionnaire survey was conducted, farms were visited to collect follow-up information at 3-monthly intervals over a period of one year. The results suggest that offtake as well as mortality are important productivity indices because farmers sell or slaughter dairy cattle that are in poor health at low prices during summer months. Changes in relation to the farming operation suggest that for the farmers adopting dairy production it has become one of the main agricultural activities.

  13. Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Kate

    1980-01-01

    Indians have the lowest life expectancy of any group in the US; the general state of Indian health lags 25 years behind the rest of the population. Article discusses problems of health delivery systems, alternative approaches to health care, and some of the most pressing health problems. (DS)

  14. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  15. The Space Station Chronicles

    NASA Video Gallery

    As early as the nineteenth century, writers and artists and scientists around the world began to publish their visions of a crewed outpost in space. Learn about the history of space stations, from ...

  16. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  17. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  18. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  19. Station Commander Praises AMS

    NASA Video Gallery

    When asked what's the most important International Space Station experiment, Commander Chris Hadfield names the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2, a state-of-the-art particle physics detector that coul...

  20. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  1. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  2. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  3. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  4. Overview of space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, Claude C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Space Station program for workshop participants is given. Covered here are overall program guidelines, international involvement, the present baseline configuration, and development plans for the coming year.

  5. Destination Station Atlanta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Destination Station was recently in Atlanta from April 15 through April 21. During the week, NASA visited schools, hospitals, museums, and the city’s well known Atlanta Science Tavern Meet Up gro...

  6. Space Station galley design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  7. Space station proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In his State of the Union address on January 25, President Ronald Reagan announced that he was directing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to “develop a permanently manned space station, and to do it within a decade.”Included in the NASA budget proposal sent to Congress the following week was $150 million for the station. This is the first request of many; expected costs will total roughly $8 billion by the early 1990's.

  8. Space station task force perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, C.

    1984-01-01

    Space station planning quidelines; architecture; functions; preliminary mission data base; scope for international and commercial participation; schedules; servicing capability; technology development; and space station program interfaces are discussed.

  9. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  10. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  11. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted, every...

  12. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  13. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  14. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  15. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted, every...

  16. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  19. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  20. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  2. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  3. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  4. The Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  5. Space power demonstration stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    NASA major planning decisions from 1955 to date are summarized and new concepts connected with the advent of the Space Transportation Systems (STS) are set forth. The future Shuttle utilizations are considered, from 'manned booster' function for space transportation to such operations as deployment of modules and stations and assembly of large structures in space. The permanent occupancy of space will be a major goal of the space systems development in the 1980's with the following main phases: (1) achievement of easy access to earth orbit by means of the Shuttle and Spacelab; (2) achievement of permanent occupancy (Space Stations); (3) self-sufficiency of man in space. New techniques of space operation will become possible, using much larger, complicated satellites and simplified ground stations. Orbital assembly of large stations, using a permanent base in orbit, will enable practical utilization of space systems for everyday needs. Particular attention is given to the space solar power concept, involving the location in space of large satellite systems. Results of the studies on Manned Orbital Systems Concept (MOSC) and some future possibilities of Space Stations are analyzed.

  6. ILRS Station Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  7. Space station communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccia, C. L.

    1983-10-01

    A concise history of the various types of communications that have been used in low-earth-orbit vehicles and form the basis of the various types of communications and communication requirements that can be realized in space-station developments over the next decade is presented. The Space Shuttle can be assumed to be a prototype space station in the tradition of Apollo and Spacelab. Shuttle operations require earth-to-ground support communications, EVA communications, internal communications, and communications to and from other spacecraft (TDRS) and free-flying vehicles for experiments (SPAS-01). These basic communication requirements will expand to the point where the man-computer alliance in the space station will transform the station into a space communications and computer center capable of providing data processing and storage in association with ground-based distributed processing along the growing terrestrial ISDN global digital highway. The space station will also provide unique means to obtain data and information from one part of the earth or space and transport them to another point on earth.

  8. Liquid measurement station design

    SciTech Connect

    Duplantis, S.

    1995-12-01

    A liquid measurement station is a designed and engineered package of valves, pipe, instrumentation, flow meters and wiring, configured to produce accurate measurement data in the delivery of a product in a process unit or in a custody transfer between a buyer and seller. A liquid measurement station could be as simple as a manually operated single meter run or as complex as a multi-meter run tanker loading facility with a multi-tasking control/computer system. Liquid measurement stations are found in all areas of the hydrocarbon industry from the oil well to the refinery. Typical areas where, measurement stations are implemented are pump stations feeding pipelines, pipeline distribution terminals, loading terminals for storage facilities and loading terminals for tanker transports. The importance of good measurement system design is quite obvious since the measurement of the product is normally major factor in the proper operation and control of a process or is needed for the accurate accounting and selling of a product. In both cases, the accuracy of the measurement will directly affect the income and revenues of a company.

  9. Operational medicine in Space Station era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furukawa, S.; Buchanan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Medical considerations for long duration manned space missions are examined. The requirements and hardware for medical operations on the Space Station are diagrammatically presented. The physiological and psychological changes that have been observed during space flights are discussed. Crew health maintenance and medical care in the Space Station environment require earth-based and in flight continuity. It is also necessary to identify the appropriate zero-G therapeutic methods for treating a patient. Techniques for transferring patients in orbit and to earth are studied. Considerations are given to control and life support systems and data management for medical operations.

  10. Telerobot for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a multiple arm dexterous manipulation system, will aid in the assembly, maintenance, and servicing of the space station. Fundamental ideas and basic conceptual designs for a shuttle-based telerobot system have been produced. Recent space station studies provide additional concepts that should aid in the accomplishment of mission requirements. Currently, the FTS is in contractual source selection for a Phase B preliminary design. At the same time, design requirements are being developed through a series of robotic assessment tasks being performed at NASA and commercial installations. A number of the requirements for remote operation on the space station, necessary to supplement extravehicular activity (EVA), will be met by the FTS. Finally, technology developed for telerobotics will advance the state of the art of remote operating systems, enhance operator productivity, and prove instrumental in the evolution of an adaptive, intelligent autonomous robot.

  11. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  12. 30 CFR 56.4502 - Battery-charging stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....4502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... stations shall be ventilated with a sufficient volume of air to prevent the accumulation of hydrogen...

  13. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  14. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  15. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  16. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  17. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A.; Snow, Daniel D.; Rogers, Douglas G.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ~70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water-extractable fractions of NO and SP. Four-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 0, 2.5% or 5% of NO and SP (wt/wt) for 6 months. For both genders, BGA-rich diets did not induce noticeable abnormality in weight gain and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations except a significant increase in plasma ALT levels by 2.5% NO supplementation in male mice at 6 month. Histopathological analysis of livers, however, indicated that BGA did not cause significant liver damage compared with controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that NO and SP are free of MC and the long-term dietary supplementation of up to 5% of the BGA may be consumed without evident toxic side-effects. PMID:21473896

  18. Dragon Departs the Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew used the Canadarm2 robotic arm to demate the SpaceX Dragon cargo vehicle from the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony node at 4:07 a.m. EDT on Thursday. It was relea...

  19. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  20. Space Station Final Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  1. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  3. Space Station Energy Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A general schematic for a space station power system is described. The major items of interest in the power system are the solar array, transfer devices, energy storage, and conversion equipment. Each item will have losses associated with it and must be utilized in any sizing study, and can be used as a checklist for itemizing the various system components.

  4. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  5. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  6. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Mock-up of Manned Space Laboratory. 'Two Langley engineers test an experimental air lock between an arriving spacecraft and a space station portal in January 1964.' : Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 299.

  7. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'William N. Gardner, head of the MORL Studies Office, explains the interior design of the space station at the 1964 NASA inspection.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 300.

  8. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'A Langley engineer takes a walk-in simulated zero gravity around a mock-up of a full-scale, 24-foot-diameter space station.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 282.

  9. Space Station structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-04-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  10. Space Station structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  11. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  12. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  13. GPS Monitor Station Upgrade Program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Craig, Dwin M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the measurements made by the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor stations is to measure the continuous pseudo-range of all the passing GPS satellites. The pseudo-range contains GPS and monitor station clock errors as well as GPS satellite navigation errors. Currently the time at the GPS monitor station is obtained from the GPS constellation and has an inherent inaccuracy as a result. Improved timing accuracy at the GPS monitoring stations will improve GPS performance. The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing hardware and software for the GPS monitor station upgrade program to improve the monitor station clock accuracy. This upgrade will allow a method independent of the GPS satellite constellation of measuring and correcting monitor station time to US Naval Observatory (USNO) time. THe hardware consists of a high performance atomic cesium frequency standard (CFS) and a computer which is used to ensemble the CFS with the two CFS's currently located at the monitor station by use of a dual-mixer system. The dual-mixer system achieves phase measurements between the high-performance CFS and the existing monitor station CFS's to within 400 femtoseconds. Time transfer between USNO and a given monitor station is achieved via a two way satellite time transfer modem. The computer at the monitor station disciplines the CFS based on a comparison of one pulse per second sent from the master site at USNO. The monitor station computer is also used to perform housekeeping functions, as well as recording the health status of all three CFS's. This information is sent to the USNO through the time transfer modem. Laboratory time synchronization results in the sub nanosecond range have been observed and the ability to maintain the monitor station CFS frequency to within 3.0 x 10 (sup minus 14) of the master site at USNO.

  14. Levels at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Operational procedures at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations include periodic leveling checks to ensure that gages are accurately set to the established gage datum. Differential leveling techniques are used to determine elevations for reference marks, reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The techniques presented in this manual provide guidance on instruments and methods that ensure gaging-station levels are run to both a high precision and accuracy. Levels are run at gaging stations whenever differences in gage readings are unresolved, stations may have been damaged, or according to a pre-determined frequency. Engineer's levels, both optical levels and electronic digital levels, are commonly used for gaging-station levels. Collimation tests should be run at least once a week for any week that levels are run, and the absolute value of the collimation error cannot exceed 0.003 foot/100 feet (ft). An acceptable set of gaging-station levels consists of a minimum of two foresights, each from a different instrument height, taken on at least two independent reference marks, all reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The initial instrument height is determined from another independent reference mark, known as the origin, or base reference mark. The absolute value of the closure error of a leveling circuit must be less than or equal to ft, where n is the total number of instrument setups, and may not exceed |0.015| ft regardless of the number of instrument setups. Closure error for a leveling circuit is distributed by instrument setup and adjusted elevations are determined. Side shots in a level circuit are assessed by examining the differences between the adjusted first and second elevations for each objective point in the circuit. The absolute value of these differences must be less than or equal to 0.005 ft. Final elevations for objective points are determined by averaging the valid adjusted first and second elevations. If final elevations

  15. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part IV. Television Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This fourth part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers television stations. Two sections are provided: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the other indexed by…

  16. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  17. Space Station Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor); Mays, C. R. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the panel summaries presented in the following areas: systems/operations technology; crew and life support; EVA; crew and life support: ECLSS; attitude, control, and stabilization; human capabilities; auxillary propulsion; fluid management; communications; structures and mechanisms; data management; power; and thermal control. The objective of the workshop was to aid the Space Station Technology Steering Committee in defining and implementing a technology development program to support the establishment of a permanent human presence in space. This compilation will provide the participants and their organizations with the information presented at this workshop in a referenceable format. This information will establish a stepping stone for users of space station technology to develop new technology and plan future tasks.

  18. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  19. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  20. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  1. Station Tour: Cupola and Leonardo

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams continues the tour of the International Space Station with a look at the station's observation deck, the cupola, as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Dev...

  2. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    'North American selected this space station design in 1962 for final systems analysis. Incorporating all the advantages of a wheel configuration, it had rigid cylindrical modules arranged in a hexagonal shape with three rigid telescoping spokes. This configuration eliminated the need for exposed flexible fabric.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 284.

  3. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  4. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  5. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  6. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  7. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  8. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kevin J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of new planning methodologies which will evolve to serve the Space Station Freedom program; these planning processes will focus on the complex task of effectively managing the resources provided by the Space Station Freedom and will be made available to the diverse international community of space station users in support of their ongoing investigative activities.

  9. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  10. Build Your Own Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  11. International Space Station Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at

  12. Hypolipidemic Effect of a Blue-Green Alga (Nostoc commune) Is Attributed to Its Nonlipid Fraction by Decreasing Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Weller, Curtis L; Carr, Timothy P; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that Nostoc commune var. sphaeroids Kützing (NO), a blue-green alga (BGA), exerts a hypolipidemic effect in vivo and its lipid extract regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic effect of NO is attributed to an algal lipid or a delipidated fraction in vivo compared with Spirulina platensis (SP). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93M diet containing 2.5% or 5% of BGA (w/w) or a lipid extract equivalent to 5% of BGA for 4 weeks to measure plasma and liver lipids, hepatic gene expression, intestinal cholesterol absorption, and fecal sterol excretion. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in 2.5% and 5% NO-fed groups, while plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased in the 5% NO group compared with controls. However, neither NO organic extract (NOE) nor SP-fed groups altered plasma lipids. Hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 were induced in 5% NO-fed mice, while there were no significant changes in hepatic lipogenic gene expression between groups. NO, but not NOE and SP groups, significantly decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. When HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with NOE and SP organic extract (SPE), there were marked decreases in protein levels of HMGR, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and fatty acid synthase. In conclusion, the nonlipid fraction of NO exerts TC and TG-lowering effects primarily by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and by increasing hepatic fatty acid oxidation, respectively. PMID:26161942

  13. Wavelength-dependent induction of a mycosporine-like amino acid in a rice-field cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune: role of inhibitors and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Ambasht, Navin K; Sinha, Jiweshwar P; Häder, Donat-P

    2003-02-01

    Wavelength-dependent induction of a mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) was studied in a nitrogen-fixing rice-field cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune. HPLC studies showed the presence of shinorine, a bisubstituted MAA containing both glycine and serine groups and having an absorption maximum at 334 nm. Exposure of cultures to simulated solar radiation in combination with various cut-off filters (WG 280, 295, 305, 320, 335, 345, GG 400, 420, 455, 475, OG 515, 530, 570, RG 645, 665; all Schott filter series) clearly indicated that MAAs were induced by UV-B radiation, while UV-A and PAR had very little effect on MAA induction in this organism. The ratio of the absorption at 334 nm (shinorine) to 665 nm (chlorophyll a) and the derived action spectrum also revealed the induction of MAAs to be UV-B dependent with a prominent peak at 290 nm and a second small peak at 310 nm. Various concentrations (50-300 mM) of NaCl were used to test whether another common stress factor, such as osmotic stress, also induces MAAs, as has been reported for other cyanobacterial species. The results indicate that cells grown at high concentration of NaCl but without UV-B did not show any MAA induction. In order to elucidate the possible photoreceptors, the effects of various inhibitors/quenchers on the induction of MAAs were studied. There was a marked reduction in the amount of MAA when the cells were irradiated with UV-B in the presence of inhibitors of the shikimate pathway (glyphosate, 1 mM), photosynthesis [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, 20 microM], protein synthesis (chloramphenicol, 25 microg ml(-1)), pterin synthesis (N-acetylserotonin, 5 mM, and 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine, 5 mM) and a quencher of the excited state of flavins and pterins (phenylacetic acid, 1 mM).

  14. A bioprocess for the production of phytase from Schizophyllum commune: studies of its optimization, profile of fermentation parameters, characterization and stability.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Denise Naomi Xavier; Piva, Luíza Cesca; Binati, Renato Leal; Rodrigues, Cristine; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Spier, Michele Rigon

    2012-09-01

    Schizophyllum commune produces phytase through solid-state fermentation using different agroindustrial residues. After optimization of phytase production, a maximal level of phytase (113.7 Units/gram of dry substrate) was obtained in wheat bran based medium containing 5% sucrose, 50% humidity, 7.5% of biomass at 33 °C pH 7.0 during 72 h and a 285% improvement in enzyme titre was achieved. Analysis of fermentation parameters profile for phytase production showed the highest productivity (1.466 Units/gram of dry substrate/hour) in 66 h of fermentation. Phytase has an optimal pH of 5.0, an optimal temperature of 50 °C and K (m) and V (max) values of 0.16 mM and 1.85 μmol mL(-1) min(-1), respectively. Phytase activity was stimulated essentially in the presence of K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), acetate and citrate at concentrations of 1 mM. Phytase had the best shelf life when stored at a cooling temperature, maintaining 38% of its initial activity after 112 days of storage, and still presenting enzymatic activity after 125 days of storage. Stability studies of phytase performed in aqueous enzyme extracts showed satisfactory results using polyethyleneglycol 3350, carboxymethylcellulose, methylparaben, mannitol and benzoic acid in concentrations of 0.25, 0.025, 0.025, 0.25, and 0.0025%, respectively. PEG 3350 was shown to be the best stabilizing agent, resulting in 109% of phytase activity from the initial crude extract remaining activity in after 90 days.

  15. Project EGRESS: Earthbound Guaranteed Reentry from Space Station. the Design of an Assured Crew Recovery Vehicle for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Unlike previously designed space-based working environments, the shuttle orbiter servicing the space station will not remain docked the entire time the station is occupied. While an Apollo capsule was permanently available on Skylab, plans for Space Station Freedom call for a shuttle orbiter to be docked at the space station for no more than two weeks four times each year. Consideration of crew safety inspired the design of an Assured Crew Recovery Vehicle (ACRV). A conceptual design of an ACRV was developed. The system allows the escape of one or more crew members from Space Station Freedom in case of emergency. The design of the vehicle addresses propulsion, orbital operations, reentry, landing and recovery, power and communication, and life support. In light of recent modifications in space station design, Project EGRESS (Earthbound Guaranteed ReEntry from Space Station) pays particular attention to its impact on space station operations, interfaces and docking facilities, and maintenance needs. A water-landing medium-lift vehicle was found to best satisfy project goals of simplicity and cost efficiency without sacrificing safety and reliability requirements. One or more seriously injured crew members could be returned to an earth-based health facility with minimal pilot involvement. Since the craft is capable of returning up to five crew members, two such permanently docked vehicles would allow a full evacuation of the space station. The craft could be constructed entirely with available 1990 technology, and launched aboard a shuttle orbiter.

  16. Space Station transition through Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, Harry G., Jr.; Wicks, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    It is appropriate that NASA's Office of Space Science and Application's science management structures and processes that have proven successful on Spacelab be applied and extrapolated to Space Station utilization, wherever practical. Spacelab has many similarities and complementary aspects to Space Station Freedom. An understanding of the similarities and differences between Spacelab and Space Station is necessary in order to understand how to transition from Spacelab to Space Station. These relationships are discussed herein as well as issues which must be dealt with and approaches for transition and evolution from Spacelab to Space Station.

  17. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  18. Developing a virtual nurses' station for community-based nurses.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Joan M; Resick, Lenore K

    2013-01-01

    Nurses who work throughout the community need a nurses' station, just as nurses who work in a hospital. The nurses' station is the area where communication, information sharing, and documentation occur. This article describes how a virtual nurses' station was created using Blackboard technology to meet the needs of nurses who are scattered throughout a geographic area. These nurses work in several urban neighborhoods to conduct the outreach services offered through an academic nurse-managed wellness center to community-dwelling older adults. Results have been positive as the virtual nurses' station provides the nurses an area to exchange data and information, print patient health care information, and access nursing policies. Satisfaction surveys from the nurses give valuable input on the design and use of the virtual nurses' station.

  19. Radio station acceptance of AIDS-related advertising messages.

    PubMed

    Rotfeld, H J; Abernethy, A M

    1991-06-01

    Survey responses were received from the managers of 630 radio stations, who reported which type of AIDS-related commercials or public service announcements they are willing to accept for broadcast. The authors examine whether the public interest can outweigh fear of offending audience segments and discuss ways health education planners can increase acceptance of AIDS-related commercials. For planning a public health campaign, both the number and types of stations that will accept various public health messages are important if the messages are to reach high risk demographic groups. PMID:10111400

  20. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 77.1106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 77.1106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 77.1106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 77.1106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 77.1106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging...

  5. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  6. Designing Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

  7. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  8. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  12. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  13. Proceedings of the Space Station Freedom Clinical Experts Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger P. (Editor); Lloyd, Charles W. (Editor); Doarn, Charles R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility 1990 Clinical Experts Seminar held August 27-29, 1990, at the Nassau Bay Hilton, Houston, Texas. Contained within are the agenda, list of medical consultants, executive summary, individual presentations, and the comments generated from the working groups. Issues include the adequacy of current Health Maintenance Facility for Space Station Freedom; impact of having, or not having, an ACRV or physician on board Space Station Freedom; new and developing technologies, techniques, and medications and their impact on the evolving Space Station Freedom, considerations surrounding x-ray, ultrasound, lab, decontamination, blood transfusion, nutrition, safe-haven, computer/telemedicine; suggestions as to how to train the Crew Medical Officer; and, how the consultant network will interface over the next several years.

  14. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  15. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  16. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  17. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  18. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  19. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  20. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  1. Exobiology experiments for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Griffiths, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    The benefits the Space Station could provide to the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life throughout the universe are described. Space Station experiments relevant to the cosmic evolution of biogenic elements and compounds, prebiotic chemical evolution, early evolution of life, and the evolution of advanced life forms are examined. The application of astronomical and astrometric observations to be obtained from the Space Station to the origin of life research is discussed.

  2. Space station furnace facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  3. Local control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

  4. Green inspection station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chen-Ko; Jacubasch, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    As an effect of globalization, product parts are manufactured more and more in different places. Due to the manufacturing processes, (sub-) products are being transported back and forth and rearranged until they can finally reach the consumer. Not only the environment is increasingly burdened, but also the natural resources are wasted increasingly thoughtless. One reason is certainly because for decades the industry has had only an inflexible concept for the inspection of (sub-) products, which cannot be easily adapted to changes in product layout, for example one robot with one sensor or one rigid structure with a fixed number of sensors for one specific inspection task. This rigid approach is unsuitable for the inspection of variant products. For these reasons, a new concept for 2D and 3D metric and logical quality monitoring with a more accurate, flexible, economical and efficient inspection station has been developed and tested in IOSB.

  5. Solar energy power station

    SciTech Connect

    Assaf, G.; Bronicki, L.Y.

    1983-03-22

    A solar power station has a heat source in the form of the heat storage layer of a solar pond, a heat sink in the form of the wind-mixed layer of the pond covering the halocline interposed between the heat storage layer and the wind-mixed layer, and a power plant associated therewith. The power plant includes a boiler responsive to water from the heat storage layer for vaporizing a working fluid, a prime mover for producing work by extracting heat from vaporized working fluid, and a condenser cooled by water from a cooling pond connected to the solar pond such that only water in the wind-mixed layer is exchanged with the cooling pond. The wind-mixed layer serves to dissipate heat from the condenser and the volume of water in the cooling pond increase the heat absorption capacity of the heat sink.

  6. Integrated microfluidic probe station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, C. M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Anderson, K.; Kabakibo, Y.; Juncker, D.

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution—thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet—and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  7. A heteroglycan from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune modulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion by THP-1 monocytes through phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Astridur; Thorlacius, Gudny Ella; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia; Vikingsson, Arnor; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2014-09-25

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been consumed as food and used in folk medicine since ancient times to alleviate a variety of diseases. Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc have been shown to produce complex exopolysaccharides with antioxidant and antiviral activity. Furthermore, Nostoc sp. are common in cyanolichen symbiosis and lichen polysaccharides are known to have immunomodulating effects. Nc-5-s is a heteroglycan isolated from free-living colonies of Nostoc commune and its structure has been characterized in detail. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Nc-5-s on the inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes and how the effects are mediated. THP-1 monocytes primed with interferon-γ and stimulated with LPS in the presence of Nc-5-s secreted less of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and more of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 than THP-1 monocytes stimulated without Nc-5-s. In contrast, Nc-5-s increased LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-8. Nc-5-s decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt kinase, but did not affect phosphorylation of the p38 kinase, activation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway, nor DNA binding of c-fos. These results show that Nc-5-s has anti-inflammatory effects on IL-6 and IL-10 secretion by THP-1 monocytes, but its effects are pro-inflammatory when it comes to TNF-α and IL-8. Furthermore, they show that the effects of Nc-5-s may be mediated through the ERK1/2 pathway and/or the Akt/phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway and their downstream effectors. The ability of Nc-5-s to decrease IL-6 secretion, increase IL-10 secretion and moderate ERK1/2 activation indicates a potential for its development as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:24877713

  8. Space Station: The next iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Theresa M.

    1995-01-01

    NASA's international space station is nearing the completion stage of its troublesome 10-year design phase. With a revised design and new management team, NASA is tasked to deliver the station on time at a budget acceptable to both Congress and the White House. For the next three years, NASA is using tried-and-tested Russian hardware as the technical centerpiece of the station. The new station configuration consists of eight pressurized modules in which the crew can live and work; a long metal truss to connect the pieces; a robot arm for exterior jobs; a solar power system; and propelling the facility in space.

  9. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  10. Students Learn About Station Robotics

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Robotics Systems Flight Controller Jason Dyer participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at East Stroudsber...

  11. International Space Station Research Racks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

  12. Agricultural Experiment Stations and Branch Stations in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Calvin H.; Atucha, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which formally established and provided a funding mechanism for agricultural experiment stations in each state and territory in the United States. The main purpose of agricultural experiment stations is to conduct agricultural research to meet the needs of the citizens of the United States. The objective of…

  13. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  14. Reusing Railroad Stations. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Railroad stations are a unique American resource that should continue to serve public and private interests even though their original purpose may have passed. Large stations should be considered as prominent civic structures whose redevelopment could offer significant opportunities to influence the future character, economy, and operation of…

  15. Space Station Quarterly, May 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly report discusses the First International Microgravity Laboratory, the building of space station truss structures at the Johnson Space Center, the building of the living and laboratory modules at the Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Lewis Research Center's work on power for the space station. The video includes a segment on the Japanese Experiment Module.

  16. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  17. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  18. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  19. Current NASA space station planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    Design considerations, trials, and actions both taken and necessary in the future which lead to the establishment of a space station by NASA are reviewed. Human performance on board Skylab demonstrated the feasibility and benefits of continuous operation of a space station. The manned orbital systems concept (MOSC) program, keeping in close contact with potential users, resulted in station requirements which included support for 720 day missions, up to four specialists per payload, 8-10 kW power, a 230 x 200 n mi altitude orbit, orbit change capability of 28.5 deg, all attitude orientation, and stability to within 1,100,000 g. Although the concept will not be funded, it provides a guide for incremental growth of a manned station from previously unmanned science platforms. Initiation of hardware development is projected for 1984-85. The agencies, both domestic and international, and missions for which the station will be built, are discussed.

  20. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  1. Canada's role on space station.

    PubMed

    Doetsch, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space.

  2. Space Station lubrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

  3. Skylab: Space Station I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This video shows a number of astronauts describing the importance of man's continued space exploration. Footage shows the interior of Skylab as the crew performs experiments (solar effects, Earth observation), monitors their health, and going about their day-to-day lives.

  4. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210... Broadcast Stations § 73.210 Station classes. (a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including... depend upon the zone in which the station's transmitter is located, or proposed to be located. The...

  5. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  6. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  7. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  8. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  9. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  10. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  11. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  12. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  13. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  14. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  15. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  16. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  17. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  18. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  19. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  20. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  1. The “Health Benefit Basket” in France

    PubMed Central

    Cherilova, Veneta; Paris, Valérie

    2005-01-01

    The French “Health Benefit Basket” is defined principally by positive lists of reimbursed goods and services; however, global budget-financed hospital-delivered services are more implicitly defined. The range of reimbursable curative care services is defined by two coexisting positive lists/fee schedules: the Classification Commune des Actes Médicaux (CCAM) and the Nomenclature Générale des Actes Professionnels (NGAP). The National Union of Health Insurance Funds has been updating these positive lists since August 2004, with the main criterion for inclusion being the proposed procedure’s effectiveness. This is assessed by the newly created High Health authority (replacing the former ANAES). In addition, complementary health insurers are consulted in the inclusion process due to their important role in French healthcare financing. PMID:16267657

  2. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Denham, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analysis and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will indicate changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations, and is an update to the status presented in 20031. Many new modules, and sleep stations have been added to the ISS since that time. In addition, noise mitigation efforts have reduced noise levels in some areas. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS have improved.

  3. Micro Weather Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

  4. Space station propulsion analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, R. M.; Sovey, J. S.; Hannum, N. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the impacts on the weight, volume and power usage of a manned space station and its 90-day resupply for three integrated, auxiliary propulsion subsystems. The study was performed in coordination with activities of the Space Staton Concept Development Group (CDG). The study focused on three space station propulsion high-low thrust options that make use of fluids that will be available on the manned space station. Specific uses of carbon dioxide, water and cryogen boiloff were considered. For each of the options the increase in station hardware mass and volume to accommodate the dual thrust option is offset by the resupply savings, relative to the reference hydrazine system, after one to several resupplies. Over the life of the station the savings in cost of logistics could be substantial. The three options are examples of alternative technology paths that, because of the opportunity they provide for integration with the environmental control life support system (ECLSS) and OTV propellant storage systems, may reduce the scarring which is required on the early station to meet the increasing propulsion requirements of the growth station.

  5. Space station propulsion requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  6. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Station Configuration (Narrated)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Expedition 32 Lead Flight Director Dina Contella during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows the configuration of the space station durin...

  7. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Station Configuration

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Expedition 32 Lead Flight Director Dina Contella during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows the configuration of the space station durin...

  8. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Eichold, Alice (Editor); Heers, Susan (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  9. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  10. Amplitude-dependent station magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzyner, Yael; Ben Horin, Yochai; Steinberg, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Magnitude, a concept first presented by Gutenberg and Richter, adjusts measurements of ground motion for epicentral distance and source depth. Following this principle, the IDC defines the j'th station body wave magnitude for event i as mb(stai,j) = log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i) + V C(Δj,i,hi) , where VC is the Veith-Clawson (VC) correction to compensate for the epicentral distance of the station and the depth of the source. The network magnitude is calculated as the average of station magnitudes. The IDC magnitude estimation is used for event characterization and discrimination and it should be as accurate as possible. Ideally, the network magnitude should be close in value to the station magnitudes. In reality, it is observed that the residuals range between -1 and 1 mu or ±25% of a given mb(neti) value. We show that the residual, mb(neti) -mb(staj,i), depends linearly on log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i), and we correct for this dependence using the following procedure: Calculate a "jackknifed" network magnitude, mbj,n(neti), i.e. an average over all participating stations except station n. Using all measurements at station n, calculate the parameters an, bn of the linear fit of the residual mbj,n(neti) - mb(stan,i to log 10(An,i/Tn,i). For each event i at station n calculate the new station magnitude mbnew(stan,i) = (an + 1)log(An,i/Tn,i) + V C(Δn,i,hi) + bn Calculate the new network magnitude: mbnew(neti) = 1N- ∑ n=1nmbnew(stan,i) The procedure was used on more than two million station-event pairs. Correcting for the station-specific dependence on log amplitude reduces the residuals by roughly a third. We have calculated the spread of the distributions, and compared the original values and those for the corrected magnitudes. The spread is the ratio between the variance of the network magnitudes, and the variance of the residual. Calculations show an increase in the ratio of the variance, meaning that the correction process presented in this document did not lead to loss of variance

  11. Space Station logistics system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    This task investigates logistics requirements and logistics system concepts for the evolutionary Space Station. Requirements for the basic station, crew, user equipment, and free-flying platforms, as requirements for manned exploration initiative elements and crews while at the Space Station. Data is provided which assesses the ability of the Space Freedom logistics carriers to accommodate the logistics loads per year. Also, advanced carrier concepts are defined and assessed against the logistics requirements. The implications on Earth-to-orbit vehicles of accommodating the logistics requirements, using various types of carriers, are assessed on a year by year basis.

  12. Space Station Freedom user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

  13. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  14. Space Station Freedom food management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  15. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) (6) Stations operating pursuant to paging geographic area... digital transmission to ascertain the call sign. Station identification comprises transmission of the call..., a call sign assigned to another station within the same system....

  16. Development of an atmospheric monitoring plan for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    An environmental health monitoring plan for Space Station will ensure crew health during prolonged habitation. The Space Station, Freedom, will operate for extended periods, 90+ days, without resupply. A regenerative, closed loop life support system will be utilized in order to minimize resupply logistics and costs. Overboard disposal of wastes and venting of gases to space will be minimal. All waste material will be treated and recycled. The concentrated wastes will be stabilized and stored for ground disposal. The expected useful life of the station (decades) and the diversity of materials brought aboard for experimental or manufacturing purposes, increases the likelihood of cabin contamination. Processes by which cabin contamination can occur include: biological waste production, material off-gassing, process leakage, accidental containment breach, and accumulation due to poor removal efficiencies of the purification units. An industrial hygiene approach was taken to rationalize monitoring needs and to identify the substances likely to be present, the amount, and their hazard.

  17. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  18. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  19. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  20. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  1. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  2. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-utility stations. 80.107 Section 80.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  3. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  4. Station Tour: Harmony, Tranquility, Unity

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams starts off her tour of the International Space Station with a look at its nodes -- Harmony, Tranquility and Unity -- which include the crew's sleeping quarters...

  5. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station, Sejong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donghyun, Baek; Sangoh, Yi; Hongjong, Oh; Sangchul, Han

    2013-01-01

    The Sejong VLBI station officially joined the IVS as a new Network Station in 2012. This report summarizes the activities of the Sejong station during 2012. The following are the activities at the station: 1) VLBI test observations were carried out with the Tsukuba 34-m antenna of the GSI in Japan. As a result, the Sejong antenna needs to improve its efficiency, which is currently in progress, 2) A survey to connect the VLBI reference point to GNSS and ground marks was conducted, and 3) To see the indirect effects of RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) at this place, we checked the omni-direction (AZ 0? to 360?, EL fixed at 7?) for RFI influence.

  6. Station Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    The reins of the International Space Station were passed from Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum of NASA to his NASA colleague, newly arrived Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank in a ceremony on t...

  7. Space Station Live: Microbiome Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Microbiome experiment Investigator Mark Ott to learn more about this research taking place aboard the International Space Station. The Microbiome e...

  8. Station Commander Sends Holiday Greetings

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank of NASA sends season's greetings to the world and shares his thoughts about being in orbit aboard the space-based laborat...

  9. Students Speak With Station Capcom

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, ISS capcom Hal Getzelman participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Colvin Run Elementary School in Vien...

  10. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  11. New Crewmates Welcomed Aboard Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Engineers Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin join their Expedition 33 crewmates after the hatches between the International Space Station and the Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft opened ...

  12. Space Station robotics planning tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Bridget Mintz

    1992-01-01

    The concepts are described for the set of advanced Space Station Freedom (SSF) robotics planning tools for use in the Space Station Control Center (SSCC). It is also shown how planning for SSF robotics operations is an international process, and baseline concepts are indicated for that process. Current SRMS methods provide the backdrop for this SSF theater of multiple robots, long operating time-space, advanced tools, and international cooperation.

  13. ANSS Backbone Station Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeds, A.; McNamara, D.; Benz, H.; Gee, L.

    2006-12-01

    In this study we assess the ambient noise levels of the broadband seismic stations within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone network. The backbone consists of stations operated by the USGS as well as several regional network stations operated by universities. We also assess the improved detection capability of the network due to the installation of 13 additional backbone stations and the upgrade of 26 existing stations funded by the Earthscope initiative. This assessment makes use of probability density functions (PDF) of power spectral densities (PSD) (after McNamara and Buland, 2004) computed by a continuous noise monitoring system developed by the USGS- ANSS and the Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). We compute the median and mode of the PDF distribution and rank the stations relative to the Peterson Low noise model (LNM) (Peterson, 1993) for 11 different period bands. The power of the method lies in the fact that there is no need to screen the data for system transients, earthquakes or general data artifacts since they map into a background probability level. Previous studies have shown that most regional stations, instrumented with short period or extended short period instruments, have a higher noise level in all period bands while stations in the US network have lower noise levels at short periods (0.0625-8.0 seconds), high frequencies (8.0- 0.125Hz). The overall network is evaluated with respect to accomplishing the design goals set for the USArray/ANSS backbone project which were intended to increase broadband performance for the national monitoring network.

  14. Internationalization of the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  15. Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawabata, Ryoji; Kurihara, Shinobu; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Jiro; Tanabe, Tadashi; Mukai, Yasuko; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. This report summarizes activities of the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station in 2012. More than 200 sessions were observed with the Tsukuba 32-m and other GSI antennas in accordance with the IVS Master Schedule of 2012. We have started installing the observing facilities that will be fully compliant with VLBI2010 for the first time in Japan.

  16. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  17. STS-131: Discovery Does Backflip at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Commander Alan Poindexter performs a Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver as Discovery approaches the International Space Station for docking, allowing the station crew to photograph the orbiter's heat shield...

  18. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  19. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  20. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  1. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  2. TOR station for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Y.; Arshinova, V. G.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kovalevskii, Valentin K.; Plotnikov, Aleksandr P.; Pokrovskii, Evgenii V.; Rasskazchikova, T. M.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Sklyadneva, Tatyana K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    1997-05-01

    In December 1992 a station for atmospheric observations has been put into operation at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics within the frameworks of the program of ecological monitoring of Siberia. The station provides for acquiring data on gas and aerosol composition of the atmosphere, on meteorological quantities, and the background of gamma radiation. The station operates day and night and the whole year round. All the measurement procedures are fully automated. Readouts from the measuring devices are performed very hour 10 minutes averaged. In addition, synoptic information is also received at the station. Periodically gas chromatographic analysis is being done to determine concentrations of hydrocarbons from the methane row. Occasionally, chemical composition of suspended matter is determined relative to 39 ingredients. The station is located to the north-east of Tomsk, Akademgorodok. Therefore sometimes it measures air mass coming from Tomsk down town area and sometimes the air mass from rural areas. As a result information obtained at this station should be typical for recreation zones around Tomsk.

  3. Space station functional relationships analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

    1988-01-01

    A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

  4. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  5. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  6. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  7. [Development of innovative methods of electromagnetic field evaluation for portable radio-station].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, N B; Perov, S Iu; Bogacheva, E V; Kuster, N

    2013-01-01

    The results of portable radio-station "Radiy-301" electromagnetic fields (EMF) emission measurement and specific absorption rate data evaluation has shown that workers' exposure EMF levels may elevate hygienic norms and hereupon can be health risk factor. Possible way of portable radio-station EMF dosimetry enhancement by means of domestic and international approaches harmonization is considered.

  8. Interceptions of Anthocoridae, Lasiochilidae, and Lyctocoridae at the Miami Plant Inspection Station (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimens of pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)) intercepted at Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services inspection stations and housed at the Miami Inspection Station were examined and identified to species or genus. The 127 specimens were distributed among 14 genera and 26 identified species...

  9. Public health assessment for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (Ault Field and Seaplane Base), Oak Harbor, Island County, Washington, Region 10. Cerclis No. WA5170090059 (ault field), Cerclis No. WA6170090058 (seaplane base). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-28

    Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NAS) is an active U.S. Navy installation 3 miles from the northern end of Whidbey Island. Both Ault Field and Seaplane Base are listed on the National Priorities List and are the principal areas under investigation. The Navy's environmental sampling of waste materials, soil and sediment, soil gas, groundwater, surface water, ambient air, and marine biota at various areas on NAS shows contamination in all media. Contaminants detected include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Groundwater contamination occurs from various sources; however, only monitoring wells are currently affected. On- and off-site drinking water sources are currently not affected, but the investigation to determine the extent of contamination is not complete.

  10. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank

    1992-01-01

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  11. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  12. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    1992-01-01

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  13. The ACTS NASA Ground Station/Master Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, David N.

    1992-01-01

    Two of the major components of the ACTS Ground Segment are the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Master Control Station (MCS), colocated at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Essentially, the NGS provides the communications links by which the MCS performs its various network control and monitoring functions. The NGS also provides telecommunications links capable of transmission/reception of up to approximately 70 Mbit/s of digital telephonic traffic. Operating as a system, the entire complex of equipment is referred to as the NGS/MCS. This paper provides an 'as-built' description of the NGS/MCS as a system.

  14. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  15. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.783 Station identification. (a) Each low power TV and TV translator station not..., whose signal is being rebroadcast, to identify the translator station by transmitting an easily...

  16. 47 CFR 95.1005 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1005 Station identification. An LPRS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1005 Section...

  17. 46 CFR 122.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station bill. 122.514 Section 122.514 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the master on a vessel of more than... regards to the content of a station bill, the duties of the crew, emergency signals, an emergency...

  18. 46 CFR 185.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station bill. 185.514 Section 185.514 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the... requiring more than four crew members at any one time, including the master. (b) The station bill...

  19. 46 CFR 185.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station bill. 185.514 Section 185.514 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the... requiring more than four crew members at any one time, including the master. (b) The station bill...

  20. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station bill. 131.350 Section 131.350 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 131.350 Station bill. (a) The master of each vessel shall post a station bill if the vessel's Certificate of Inspection requires more than four crew members, including the master. (b) The station...

  1. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station bill. 131.350 Section 131.350 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 131.350 Station bill. (a) The master of each vessel shall post a station bill if the vessel's Certificate of Inspection requires more than four crew members, including the master. (b) The station...

  2. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station bill. 131.350 Section 131.350 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 131.350 Station bill. (a) The master of each vessel shall post a station bill if the vessel's Certificate of Inspection requires more than four crew members, including the master. (b) The station...

  3. 46 CFR 122.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station bill. 122.514 Section 122.514 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the master on a vessel of more than... regards to the content of a station bill, the duties of the crew, emergency signals, an emergency...

  4. 46 CFR 122.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station bill. 122.514 Section 122.514 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the master on a vessel of more than... regards to the content of a station bill, the duties of the crew, emergency signals, an emergency...

  5. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station bill. 131.350 Section 131.350 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 131.350 Station bill. (a) The master of each vessel shall post a station bill if the vessel's Certificate of Inspection requires more than four crew members, including the master. (b) The station...

  6. 46 CFR 122.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station bill. 122.514 Section 122.514 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the master on a vessel of more than... regards to the content of a station bill, the duties of the crew, emergency signals, an emergency...

  7. 47 CFR 90.249 - Control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control stations. 90.249 Section 90.249... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.249 Control stations. Control... following: (a) Frequencies for control stations. (1) Control stations may be authorized to operate...

  8. 47 CFR 90.249 - Control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control stations. 90.249 Section 90.249... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.249 Control stations. Control... following: (a) Frequencies for control stations. (1) Control stations may be authorized to operate...

  9. 47 CFR 90.249 - Control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control stations. 90.249 Section 90.249... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.249 Control stations. Control... following: (a) Frequencies for control stations. (1) Control stations may be authorized to operate...

  10. 47 CFR 90.249 - Control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control stations. 90.249 Section 90.249... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.249 Control stations. Control... following: (a) Frequencies for control stations. (1) Control stations may be authorized to operate...

  11. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  12. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  13. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  14. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  15. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  16. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at...

  17. Determination and impact of volatile organics emitted during rush hours in the ambient air around gasoline stations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben-Zen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Sree, Usha; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    2006-09-01

    This study analyzes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air around gasoline stations during rush hours and assesses their impact on human health. Results from this study clearly indicate that methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), toluene, and isobutane are the major VOCs emitted from gasoline stations. Moreover, the concentrations of MTBE and toluene in the ambient air near gasoline stations are remarkably higher than those sampled on surrounding roads, revealing that these compounds are mainly released from gasoline stations. The concentration of VOCs near the gasoline stations without vapor recovery systems are approximately 7.3 times higher than those around the gasoline stations having the recovery systems. An impact on individual health and air quality because of gasoline station emissions was done using Integrated Risk Information System and Industrial Source Complex Short Term model.

  18. Micro Weather Stations for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

  19. Medical care capabilities for Space Station Freedom: A phase approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doarn, C. R.; Lloyd, C. W.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of Congressional mandate Space Station Freedom (SSF) was restructured. This restructuring activity has affected the capabilities for providing medical care on board the station. This presentation addresses the health care facility to be built and used on the orbiting space station. This unit, named the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is based on and modeled after remote, terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of SSF. Beginning with a stabilization and transport phase, HMF will expand to provide the most advanced state of the art therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. This presentation details the capabilities of such a phased HMF. As Freedom takes form over the next decade there will be ever-increasing engineering and scientific developmental activities. The HMF will evolve with this process until it eventually reaches a mature, complete stand-alone health care facility that provides a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As man's experience in space continues to grow so will the ability to provide advanced health care for Earth-orbital and exploratory missions as well.

  20. 30 CFR 57.22225 - Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines). 57.22225 Section 57.22225 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  1. Space Station personal hygiene study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  2. Space Station ECLSS Integration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) contract with NASA MSFC covered the time frame from 9 May 1985 to 31 Dec. 1992. The contract roughly covered the period of Space Station Freedom (SSF) development from early Phase B through Phase C/D Critical Design Review (CDR). During this time, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-Huntsville (formerly McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company) performed an analytical support role to MSFC for the development of analytical math models and engineering trade studies related to the design of the ECLSS for the SSF.

  3. OSSA Space Station waste inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

  4. Space station propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Meng, Phillip R.; Schneider, Steven J.; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: O/H rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the station. Both thrusters will utilize waste fluids as their source of propellant. The O/H rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use stored waste gases from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. This paper presents the results of experimental efforts with O/H and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability.

  5. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a...

  6. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a...

  7. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a...

  8. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a...

  9. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6016 Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must...

  10. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6018 Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service...

  11. Integrating a project monitoring system into a public health network: experiences from Alive & Thrive Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Thanh; Alayon, Silvia; Do, Tran Thanh; Ngan, Tran Thi; Hajeebhoy, Nemat

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available about how to build a monitoring system to measure the output of preventive nutrition interventions, such as counselling on infant and young child feeding. This paper describes the Alive & Thrive Vietnam (A&T) project experience in nesting a large-scale project monitoring system into the existing public health information system (e.g. using the system and resources), and in using monitoring data to strengthen service delivery in 15 provinces with A&T franchises. From January 2012 to April 2014, the 780 A&T franchises provided 1,700,000 counselling contacts (~3/4 by commune franchises). In commune franchises in April 2014, 80% of mothers who were pregnant or with children under two years old had been to the counselling service at least one time, and 87% of clients had been to the service earlier. Monitoring data are used to track the progress of the project, make decisions, provide background for a costing study and advocate for the integration of nutrition counselling indicators into the health information system nationwide. With careful attention to the needs of stakeholders at multiple levels, clear data quality assurance measures and strategic feedback mechanisms, it is feasible to monitor the scale-up of nutrition programmes through the existing routine health information system.

  12. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, alarm audibility, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analyses and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will reveal changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations and is an update to the status presented in 2011. Since this last status report, many payloads (science experiment hardware) have been added and a significant number of quiet ventilation fans have replaced noisier fans in the Russian Segment. Also, noise mitigation efforts are planned to reduce the noise levels of the T2 treadmill and levels in Node 3, in general. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS continue to improve.

  13. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  14. NOAA PMEL Station Chemistry Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Quinn, Patricia

    2008-04-04

    Submicron and supermicron samples are analyzed by ion chromatography for Cl-, NO3-, SO4-2, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca+2. The analysis of MSA-, Br-, and oxalate has been added to some stations. Samples also are analyzed for total mass by gravimetric analysis at 55 +/- 5% RH.

  15. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  16. Computer networking at SLR stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novotny, Antonin

    1993-01-01

    There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

  17. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  18. Automating Space Station operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  19. Space Station reference configuration update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Tom F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reference configuration of the NASA Space Station as of November 1985 is presented in a series of diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables. The configurations for components to be contributed by ESA, Canada, and Japan are included. Brief captions are provided, along with answers to questions raised at the conference.

  20. Space Station Freedom media handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Work underway at NASA to design and develop Space Station Freedom is described in this handbook. The roles, responsibilities, and tasks at NASA are discussed in order to provide information for the media. Ground facilities are described with a look towards future possibilities and requirements. Historical perspectives, international cooperation, and the responsibilities of specific NASA centers are also examined.

  1. Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Williams, R. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included.

  2. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  3. Barrow Meteoroloigcal Station (BMET) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2004-11-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data.

  4. Computer networking at SLR stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Antonin

    1993-06-01

    There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

  5. Space station molecular sieve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

    1986-01-01

    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  6. The Medicina Station Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  7. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  8. International Space Station -- Human Research Facility (HRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Arn Harris Hoover of Lockheed Martin Company demonstrates an engineering mockup of the Human Research Facility (HRF) that will be installed in Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Using facilities similar to research hardware available in laboratories on Earth, the HRF will enable systematic study of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurosensory, pulmonary, radiation, and regulatory physiology to determine biomedical changes resulting from space flight. Research results obtained using this facility are relevant to the health and the performance of the astronaut as well as future exploration of space. Because this is a mockup, the actual flight hardware may vary as desings are refined. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  9. Space station microscopy: Beyond the box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, N. R.; Pierson, Duane L.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Microscopy aboard Space Station Freedom poses many unique challenges for in-flight investigations. Disciplines such as material processing, plant and animal research, human reseach, enviromental monitoring, health care, and biological processing have diverse microscope requirements. The typical microscope not only does not meet the comprehensive needs of these varied users, but also tends to require excessive crew time. To assess user requirements, a comprehensive survey was conducted among investigators with experiments requiring microscopy. The survey examined requirements such as light sources, objectives, stages, focusing systems, eye pieces, video accessories, etc. The results of this survey and the application of an Intelligent Microscope Imaging System (IMIS) may address these demands for efficient microscopy service in space. The proposed IMIS can accommodate multiple users with varied requirements, operate in several modes, reduce crew time needed for experiments, and take maximum advantage of the restrictive data/ instruction transmission environment on Freedom.

  10. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest. PMID:12295801

  11. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  12. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  13. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  14. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  15. Space Station trash removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

  16. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  17. Manned space stations - A perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  18. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  19. Space station protective coating development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Hill, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    A generic list of Space Station surfaces and candidate material types is provided. Environmental exposures and performance requirements for the different Space Station surfaces are listed. Coating materials and the processing required to produce a viable system, and appropriate environmental simulation test facilities are being developed. Mass loss data from the original version of the atomic oxygen test chamber and the improved facility; additional environmental exposures performed on candidate materials; and materials properties measurements on candidate coatings to determine the effects of the exposures are discussed. Methodologies of production, and coating materials, used to produce the large scale demonstration articles are described. The electronic data base developed for the contract is also described. The test chamber to be used for exposure of materials to atomic oxygen was built.

  20. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  1. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) (6) Stations operating pursuant to paging geographic area... digitally, provided that the licensee provides the Commission with information sufficient to decode the..., a call sign assigned to another station within the same system....

  2. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) (6) Stations operating pursuant to paging geographic area... digitally, provided that the licensee provides the Commission with information sufficient to decode the..., a call sign assigned to another station within the same system....

  3. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) (6) Stations operating pursuant to paging geographic area... digitally, provided that the licensee provides the Commission with information sufficient to decode the..., a call sign assigned to another station within the same system....

  4. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) (6) Stations operating pursuant to paging geographic area... digitally, provided that the licensee provides the Commission with information sufficient to decode the..., a call sign assigned to another station within the same system....

  5. Earth Views From the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    In celebration of Earth Day, NASA presents images of Earth captured by cameras aboard the International Space Station. Traveling at an approximate speed of 17,500 miles per hour, the space station ...

  6. 75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Quality NEPA implementing regulations, 40 CFR parts 1500-1508, and the FRA NEPA procedures, 64 FR 28545... transportation facility, to be called the Daniel Patrick Moynihan Station (Moynihan Station). Moynihan...

  7. Space station operations task force summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A companion to the Space Stations Operation Task Force Panels' Reports, this document summarizes all space station program goals, operations, and the characteristics of the expected user community. Strategies for operation and recommendations for implementation are included.

  8. 47 CFR 74.781 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.781 Station records. (a) The licensee of a low power TV, TV translator, or...

  9. 47 CFR 74.781 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.781 Station records. (a) The licensee of a low power TV, TV translator, or...

  10. 47 CFR 74.781 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.781 Station records. (a) The licensee of a low power TV, TV translator, or...

  11. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  12. International space station wire program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    1995-01-01

    Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

  13. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ?0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  14. Fortaleza Station Report for 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Pereira de Lucena, A. Macilio; Sombra da Silva, Adeildo

    2013-01-01

    This is a brief report about the activities carried out at the Fortaleza geodetic VLBI station (ROEN: R´adio Observat´orio Espacial do Nordeste), located in Eus´ebio, CE, Brazil, during the period from January until December 2012. The observing activities were resumed in May after the major maintenance that comprised the azimuth bearing replacement. The total observational experiments consisted of 103 VLBI sessions and continuous GPS monitoring recordings.

  15. Technology assessment of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, V. T.

    1971-01-01

    The social impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, which can be expected from a system of space stations operating over relatively long periods of time in Earth orbit, are examined. The survey is an exercise in technology assessment. It is futuristic in nature. It anticipates technological applications which are still in the planning stage, and many of the conclusions are highly speculative and for this reason controversial.

  16. Crew quarters for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    The only long-term U.S. manned space mission completed has been Skylab, which has similarities as well as differences to the proposed Space Station. With the exception of Skylab missions, there has been a dearth of experience on which to base the design of the individual Space Station Freedom crew quarters. Shuttle missions commonly do not have sleep compartments, only 'sleeping arrangements'. There are provisions made for each crewmember to have a sleep restraint and a sleep liner, which are attached to a bulkhead or a locker. When the Shuttle flights began to have more than one working shift, crew quarters became necessary due to noise and other disturbances caused by crew task-related activities. Shuttle missions that have planned work shifts have incorporated sleep compartments. To assist in gaining more information and insight for the design of the crew quarters for the Space Station Freedom, a survey was given to current crewmembers with flight experience. The results from this survey were compiled and integrated with information from the literature covering space experience, privacy, and human-factors issues.

  17. Optimization of station battery replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  18. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  19. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Buoni, C; Coutant, R; Barnes, R; Slivon, L

    1988-05-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  20. NGPL Louisiana station nears completion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-22

    Construction on a 3,600-hp compressor station on the Louisiana line of Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America near Henry, La., was scheduled for completion later this month. The Louisiana line extends some 205 miles along the Gulf Coast between New Caney, Tex., and the Henry hub area. The new compressor station will be located about 44 miles west of the Henry hub. Work began on the $5.1 million expansion project in Cameron Parish, La., in May following Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) certification. By mid-September, the compressor building, service building, and meter house has been erected, final compressor inspections were under way, and gas piping tie-ins had been completed, according to NGPL. Powered by three 1,200-hp Solar Saturn gas-fired centrifugal engines, the station is designed to increase the capacity of the Louisiana line east of the Stingray pipeline system by up to 220 MMcfd. Current capacity for east bound flows is approximately 900 MMcfd.

  1. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Buoni, C; Coutant, R; Barnes, R; Slivon, L

    1988-05-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs. PMID:11542838

  2. Space station atmospheric monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  3. Demographic characteristics of the environs of Tarapur atomic power station.

    PubMed

    Remedios, G; Sita, K

    1989-01-01

    The authors examine the demographic characteristics of the area surrounding the Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra, India, in order to evaluate the advisability of increasing generation capacity and to understand the impact any accident might have on the region. They conclude that the prevailing wind patterns imply that any accident involving radioactive emissions would have serious implications for the health of the neighboring population. The authors therefore oppose expansion of the facility.

  4. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 80.409 Section 80.409... MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.409 Station logs. (a) General requirements. Logs must be established and properly maintained as follows: (1) The log must be kept in an orderly manner. The log may...

  5. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  6. A Select Survey of Campus Radio Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, H.

    To ascertain the continued need for a campus radio station at 10 watts and to justify a subsequent increase in power, the student radio station at Auburn University (Alabama) conducted surveys of college radio stations, emphasizing facilities in the southeast United States. Some of the findings of the surveys indicated that in the southeast and…

  7. 33 CFR 146.130 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Station bill. 146.130 Section 146... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.130 Station bill. (a) The person in charge of each manned platform shall be responsible for and have prepared a station bill (muster list)....

  8. 33 CFR 146.130 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Station bill. 146.130 Section 146... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.130 Station bill. (a) The person in charge of each manned platform shall be responsible for and have prepared a station bill (muster list)....

  9. 33 CFR 146.130 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Station bill. 146.130 Section 146... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.130 Station bill. (a) The person in charge of each manned platform shall be responsible for and have prepared a station bill (muster list)....

  10. 33 CFR 146.130 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Station bill. 146.130 Section 146... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.130 Station bill. (a) The person in charge of each manned platform shall be responsible for and have prepared a station bill (muster list)....

  11. 33 CFR 146.130 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Station bill. 146.130 Section 146... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.130 Station bill. (a) The person in charge of each manned platform shall be responsible for and have prepared a station bill (muster list)....

  12. 47 CFR 25.206 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station identification. 25.206 Section 25.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.206 Station identification. The requirement to transmit station identification...

  13. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  14. 47 CFR 101.217 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station records. 101.217 Section 101.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.217 Station records. Each licensee of a station subject to...

  15. 47 CFR 101.201 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspection. 101.201 Section 101.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.201 Station inspection. The licensee of each station authorized...

  16. 47 CFR 101.201 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station inspection. 101.201 Section 101.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.201 Station inspection. The licensee of each station authorized...

  17. 47 CFR 101.201 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station inspection. 101.201 Section 101.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.201 Station inspection. The licensee of each station authorized...

  18. 47 CFR 101.201 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station inspection. 101.201 Section 101.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.201 Station inspection. The licensee of each station authorized...

  19. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  20. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...