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Sample records for communicate comparative effectiveness

  1. Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  2. Comparative efficacy of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) versus a speech-generating device: effects on social-communicative skills and speech development.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Miriam C; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) were compared in a study with a multiple baseline, alternating treatment design. The effectiveness of these methods in increasing social-communicative behavior and natural speech production were assessed with three elementary school-aged children with severe autism who demonstrated extremely limited functional communication skills. Results for social-communicative behavior were mixed for all participants in both treatment conditions. Relatively little difference was observed between PECS and SGD conditions. Although findings were inconclusive, data patterns suggest that Phase II of the PECS training protocol is conducive to encouraging social-communicative behavior. Data for speech outcomes did not reveal any increases across participants, and no differences between treatment conditions were observed.

  3. Communication: comparing ab initio methods of obtaining effective U parameters for closed-shell materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuang; Carter, Emily A

    2014-03-28

    The density functional theory (DFT)+U method is an efficient and effective way to calculate the ground-state properties of strongly correlated transition metal compounds, with the effective U parameters typically determined empirically. Two ab initio methods have been developed to compute the U parameter based on either constrained DFT (CDFT) or unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) theory. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of both methods in typical open-shell materials such as FeO and NiO. In this Communication we report numerical instability issues that arise for the CDFT method when applied to closed-shell transition metals, by using ZnO and Cu2O as examples. By contrast, the UHF method behaves much more robustly for both closed- and open-shell materials, making it more suitable for treating closed-shell transition metals, as well as main group elements. PMID:24697417

  4. Communication: Comparing ab initio methods of obtaining effective U parameters for closed-shell materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuang; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-03-01

    The density functional theory (DFT)+U method is an efficient and effective way to calculate the ground-state properties of strongly correlated transition metal compounds, with the effective U parameters typically determined empirically. Two ab initio methods have been developed to compute the U parameter based on either constrained DFT (CDFT) or unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) theory. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of both methods in typical open-shell materials such as FeO and NiO. In this Communication we report numerical instability issues that arise for the CDFT method when applied to closed-shell transition metals, by using ZnO and Cu2O as examples. By contrast, the UHF method behaves much more robustly for both closed- and open-shell materials, making it more suitable for treating closed-shell transition metals, as well as main group elements.

  5. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally.

  6. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally. PMID:17148103

  7. A Comparative Study on Perceived Effects of Communication Networks in Acquiring International Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    A study was designed to test the hypothesis that different communication stages between nations--primitive, traditional, modern, and neomodern--provide important variables for explaining differences in pre-adults' conception of war in different countries. Although the two samples used in the study were drawn from two cultures which fall into the…

  8. Comparative cardiac effects of three hepatobiliary radiopharmacologicals in the dog: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Shani, J.; Sarel, O.; Rogel, S.; Weininger, J.; Lubin, E.

    1982-04-01

    Three hepatobiliary agents with an acetanilide-imidoacetic-acid moiety resembling that in lidocaine were investigated for their possible effects on contractility and conductivity in the heart and on arterial pressure and aortic blood flow. This was done in the light of lidocaine's numerous cardiac side effects. HIDA, BIDA, and DIPA, each with traces of decayed /sup 99m/Tc, were injected i.v. into anesthetized dogs with an A-V block, and their effects on the above parameters were followed until control levels were reestablished. Whereas lidocaine raises the diastolic threshold and prolongs the refractory period, the three agents tested do not prolong myocardial conductivity. Both HIDA and BIDA have an effect similar to that of lidocaine, but DIPA has no effect on the latter two parameters. Moreover, whereas lidocaine depressed myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and blood flow, HIDA has a less prominent effect on these parameters, and neither BIDA nor DIPA has any such effect. It is concluded that even though the effect of HIDA on the heart is milder than that of lidocaine, the effects of both BIDA and DIPA are even less pronounced, and they are less likely to cause cardiac side effects when similar doses are administered during nuclear medicine procedures.

  9. Comparative cardiac effects of three hepatobiliary radiopharmacologicals in the dog: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Shani, J.; Rogel, S.; Weininger, J.; Lubin, E.

    1982-04-01

    Three hepatobiliary agents with an acetanilide-imidoacetic-acid moiety resembling that in lidocaine were investigated for their possible effects on contractility and conductivity in the heart and on arterial pressure and aortic blood flow. This was done in the light of lidocaine's numerous cardiac side effects. HIDA, BIDA, and DIPA, each with traces of decayed Tc-99m, were injected i.v. into anesthetized dogs with an A-V block, and their effects on the above parameters were followed until control levels were reestablished. Wheras lidocaine raises the diastolic threshold and prolongs the refractory period, the three agents tested do not prolong myocardial conductivity. Both HIDA and BIDA have an effect similar to that of lidocaine, but DIPA has no effect on the latter two parameters. Moreover, whereas lidocaine depresses myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and blood flow, HIDA has a less prominent effect on these parameters, and neither BIDA nor DIPA has any such effect. It is concluded that even though the effect of HIDA on the heart is milder than that of lidocaine, the effects of both BIDA and DIPA are even less pronounced, and they are less likely to cause cardiac side effects when similar doses are administered during nuclear medicine procedures.

  10. Comparative Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a Speech-Generating Device: Effects on Requesting Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam C.; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    An experimental, single-subject research study investigated the comparative efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Results demonstrated increases in requesting…

  11. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  12. Communicating tobacco product harm: Compared to what?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Annette R; Suls, Jerry M; Klein, William M P

    2016-01-01

    With the expansion of tobacco product options, a better understanding is needed of how information about the known and unknown risks of products is communicated to the public. Engaging in comparative processes is an common way for people to understand novel products, but the referent of comparison matters and can influence perceptions and behavior. This paper builds awareness of research from other disciplines, including decision science, marketing, and psychology, which can help inform research and tobacco control efforts.

  13. The Effect of Communication Skills Training by Video Feedback Method on Clinical Skills of Interns of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Compared to Didactic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Managheb, S. E.; Zamani, A.; Shams, B.; Farajzadegan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effective communication is essential to the practice of high-quality medicine. There are methodological challenges in communication skills training. This study was performed in order to assess the educational benefits of communication skills training by video feedback method versus traditional formats such as lectures on clinical…

  14. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  15. Alleviating Communication Apprehension through Rational Emotive Therapy: A Comparative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.; Dodd, Carley H.

    Albert Ellis's Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), which assumes that a person can change an emotional disturbance by discovering and disputing the irrational ideas giving rise to that emotion, has been used effectively in treating public speaking anxiety. To compare RET with other treatments for communication apprehension, 52 high communication…

  16. Communication and Affect: A Comparative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

    These seven original essays by noted behavioral scientists were prepared for a symposium held at Eridale College (University of Toronto), and concern the causes, functions, and dysfunctions of human affective communication. The empirical findings and theoretical statements in the essays provide a framework for development of a psychological…

  17. [The placebo effects of good communication].

    PubMed

    van Vliet, L M; van Dulmen, S; Mistiaen, P; Bensing, J M

    2016-01-01

    - Good communication is important for patients and can elicit placebo effects: true psychobiological effects not attributable to the medical-technical intervention.- It is, however, often unclear which communication behaviours influence specific patient outcomes.- In this article we present insights into the potential effect of specific communication, via specific mechanisms, on specific patient outcomes, including patients' perception of pain.- A recent systematic review and additional literature demonstrate that (a) manipulating patients' expectations, (b) demonstrating empathy, and (c) providing procedural information, might influence patient outcomes.- These placebo effects probably occur via (a) neurobiological responses comparable to the effects of pain medication, (b) reduction of anxiety and stress, and PMID:27484421

  18. The effects of two EFL (English as a foreign language) teaching approaches studied by the cotwin control method: a comparative study of the communicative and the grammatical approaches.

    PubMed

    Ando, J

    1992-01-01

    The present study compared two different types of English-language teaching approaches, the grammatical approach (GA) and the communicative approach (CA), by the cotwin control method. This study has two purposes: to study the effects of teaching approaches and to estimate genetic influences upon learning aptitudes. Seven pairs of identical twins (MZ) and 4 pairs of fraternal twins (DZ) participated in the experiment along with 68 other nontwin fifth graders. Each cotwin was assigned to the GA and CA respectively and received 20 hours of lessons over a 10-day period. The behavioral similarities between MZ cotwins were statistically and descriptively depicted. No major effect of either teaching approach was noted, but the genetic influence upon individual differences of learning achievement was obvious. Furthermore, an interesting interaction between the teaching approaches and intelligence was found, that is, that the GA capitalises on and CA compensates for intelligence. This interactional pattern could be interpreted as an example of genotype-environment interaction. The relationship between genetic factors and learning aptitudes is discussed.

  19. Comparing Effects in Regular Practice of E-Communication and Web-Based Self-Management Support Among Breast Cancer Patients: Preliminary Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Børøsund, Elin; Cvancarova, Milada; Moore, Shirley M; Ekstedt, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Background While Web-based interventions have been shown to assist a wide range of patients successfully in managing their illness, few studies have examined the relative contribution of different Web-based components to improve outcomes. Further efficacy trials are needed to test the effects of Web support when offered as a part of routine care. Objective Our aim was to compare in regular care the effects of (1) an Internet-based patient provider communication service (IPPC), (2) WebChoice, a Web-based illness management system for breast cancer patients (IPPC included), and (3) usual care on symptom distress, anxiety, depression, (primary outcomes), and self-efficacy (secondary outcome). This study reports preliminary findings from 6 months’ follow-up data in a 12-month trial. Methods We recruited 167 patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer and undergoing treatment from three Norwegian hospitals. The nurse-administered IPPC allowed patients to send secure e-messages to and receive e-messages from health care personnel at the hospital where they were treated. In addition to the IPPC, WebChoice contains components for symptom monitoring, tailored information and self-management support, a diary, and communication with other patients. A total of 20 care providers (11 nurses, 6 physicians, and 3 social workers) were trained to answer questions from patients. Outcomes were measured with questionnaires at study entry and at study months 2, 4, and 6. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were fitted to compare effects on outcomes over time. Results Patients were randomly assigned to the WebChoice group (n=64), the IPPC group (n=45), or the usual care group (n=58). Response rates to questionnaires were 73.7% (123/167) at 2 months, 65.9 (110/167) at 4 months, and 62.3% (104/167) at 6 months. Attrition was similar in all study groups. Among those with access to WebChoice, 64% (41/64) logged on more than once and 39% (25/64) sent e-messages to care providers

  20. State Synergies and Disease Surveillance: Creating an Electronic Health Data Communication Model for Cancer Reporting and Comparative Effectiveness Research in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Reams, Christopher; Powell, Mallory; Edwards, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This case study describes the collaboration between a state public health department, a major research university, and a health extension service funded as part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act to establish an interoperable health information system for disease surveillance through electronic reporting of systemic therapy data from numerous oncology practices in Kentucky. The experience of the Kentucky cancer surveillance system can help local and state entities achieve greater effectiveness in designing communication efforts to increase usage of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information exchanges (HIEs), help eligible clinicians meet these new standards in patient care, and conduct disease surveillance in a learning health system. Innovation: We document and assess the statewide efforts of early health information technology (HIT) adopters in Kentucky to facilitate the nation’s first electronic transmission of a clinical document architecture (CDA) from a physician office to a state cancer surveillance registry in November 2012. Successful transmission of the CDA not only represented a landmark for technology innovators, informaticists, and clinicians, but it also set in motion a new communication mechanism by which state and federal agencies can capture and trade vital cancer statistics in a way that is safe, secure, and timely. The corresponding impact this has on cancer surveillance and comparative effective research is immense. With guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR), the Kentucky Health Information Exchange (KHIE), and the Kentucky Regional Extension Center (KREC) have moved one step further in transforming the interoperable health environment for improved disease surveillance. Credibility: This case study describes the efforts of established and reputable agencies, including the KCR, the state department of health

  1. Communication and the ADA (Effective Communication and Accessibility).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD.

    This brief fact sheet addresses the following concerns about effective communication and accessibility under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): requirements under the ADA for achieving effective communication (e.g., provision of necessary auxiliary communication aids and services); identification of necessary communication aids and…

  2. Communicating more effectively.

    PubMed

    Kline, C; Leedy, J A; Riedemann, G

    1991-01-01

    Communicating is something people take for granted. But some organizations have still not learned that information should not be a closely guarded commodity, but something to be shared freely. To be productive, employees must know the organization's goals and constraints. Managers must develop an early warning system so little problems do not grow into big ones. They must be able to assess their employees' morale and prevent personality problems from getting out of hand. In this issue, we asked some top communicators for their tips on promoting better information exchange. PMID:10116384

  3. Effects of alternative communication on the communicative effectiveness of an individual with a progressive language disorder.

    PubMed

    Pattee, Cynthia; Von Berg, Shelley; Ghezzi, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of two different modes of communication on the communicative output of an individual who is no longer able to communicate verbally, presenting with a primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The two treatment approaches included training the patient with a text-to-speech alternative communication device and with American sign language. An alternating treatment design was used to compare two communicative approaches (an alternative communication device and American sign language) on the subject's communicative effectiveness. Communicative effectiveness was measured in terms of number of words, correct information units and percentage correct information units, using a protocol that was adapted to quantify the output generated by the alternative communication device and American sign language. Increases across all three measures resulted for both the alternative communication device and American sign language. The clinical implications are explored, and the results add to existing studies regarding treatment possibilities using alternative communication for individuals who present with a progressive speech and language disorder, without concomitant cognitive deficits. PMID:16609327

  4. Effects of alternative communication on the communicative effectiveness of an individual with a progressive language disorder.

    PubMed

    Pattee, Cynthia; Von Berg, Shelley; Ghezzi, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of two different modes of communication on the communicative output of an individual who is no longer able to communicate verbally, presenting with a primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The two treatment approaches included training the patient with a text-to-speech alternative communication device and with American sign language. An alternating treatment design was used to compare two communicative approaches (an alternative communication device and American sign language) on the subject's communicative effectiveness. Communicative effectiveness was measured in terms of number of words, correct information units and percentage correct information units, using a protocol that was adapted to quantify the output generated by the alternative communication device and American sign language. Increases across all three measures resulted for both the alternative communication device and American sign language. The clinical implications are explored, and the results add to existing studies regarding treatment possibilities using alternative communication for individuals who present with a progressive speech and language disorder, without concomitant cognitive deficits.

  5. Linguistic Communication: A Comparative Field Study. Esperanto Document 46A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piron, Claude

    This paper explores the various options available for dealing with the demands and costs of communication in a world of many languages. Globalization has increased the demand for language services necessary to accomplish effective communication. It is argued that the day is not far off when the complications, costs, and inequalities of language…

  6. Comparing Audio and Video Data for Rating Communication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Video recording has become increasingly popular in nursing research, adding rich nonverbal, contextual, and behavioral information. However, benefits of video over audio data have not been well established. We compared communication ratings of audio versus video data using the Emotional Tone Rating Scale. Twenty raters watched video clips of nursing care and rated staff communication on 12 descriptors that reflect dimensions of person-centered and controlling communication. Another group rated audio-only versions of the same clips. Interrater consistency was high within each group with ICC (2,1) for audio = .91, and video = .94. Interrater consistency for both groups combined was also high with ICC (2,1) for audio and video = .95. Communication ratings using audio and video data were highly correlated. The value of video being superior to audio recorded data should be evaluated in designing studies evaluating nursing care. PMID:23579475

  7. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  8. Using Comparative Risk Surveys in Environmental Communication Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Travis

    2006-01-01

    Using student-generated comparative risk surveys in environmental communication pedagogy has been helpful in achieving specified learning objectives: to describe (1) the influence of socioeconomic, political, and scientific factors in the social construction of environmental problems; (2) the role risk perception plays in defining environmental…

  9. Measurement in comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Chubak, Jessica; Rutter, Carolyn M; Kamineni, Aruna; Johnson, Eric A; Stout, Natasha K; Weiss, Noel S; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Doubeni, Chyke A; Buist, Diana S M

    2013-05-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) on preventive services can shape policy and help patients, their providers, and public health practitioners select regimens and programs for disease prevention. Patients and providers need information about the relative effectiveness of various regimens they may choose. Decision makers need information about the relative effectiveness of various programs to offer or recommend. The goal of this paper is to define and differentiate measures of relative effectiveness of regimens and programs for disease prevention. Cancer screening is used to demonstrate how these measures differ in an example of two hypothetical screening regimens and programs. Conceptually and algebraically defined measures of relative regimen and program effectiveness also are presented. The measures evaluate preventive services that range from individual tests through organized, population-wide prevention programs. Examples illustrate how effective screening regimens may not result in effective screening programs and how measures can vary across subgroups and settings. Both regimen and program relative effectiveness measures assess benefits of prevention services in real-world settings, but each addresses different scientific and policy questions. As the body of CER grows, a common lexicon for various measures of relative effectiveness becomes increasingly important to facilitate communication and shared understanding among researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and policymakers.

  10. Effectively executing a comprehensive marketing communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Piccirilli, Ami; Cundiff, Lee; Britt, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Marketers are under increasing scrutiny from their management to demonstrate accountability for the resources they receive. Three models are presented to help marketers execute their customer communication activities more effectively. Benefits of using the "Identification of Strategic Communication Elements," "Business Communication" and "Communications Management Process" models include (1) more effective upfront strategic and tactical planning, (2) ensuring key communication principles are addressed, (3) easier communication program communication, (4) provides a framework for program evaluation and market research and (5) increases the creative thinking marketers need when addressing the major marketing challenges. The ultimate benefit is the greater likelihood of more positive marketing results. PMID:19042530

  11. Effectively executing a comprehensive marketing communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Piccirilli, Ami; Cundiff, Lee; Britt, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Marketers are under increasing scrutiny from their management to demonstrate accountability for the resources they receive. Three models are presented to help marketers execute their customer communication activities more effectively. Benefits of using the "Identification of Strategic Communication Elements," "Business Communication" and "Communications Management Process" models include (1) more effective upfront strategic and tactical planning, (2) ensuring key communication principles are addressed, (3) easier communication program communication, (4) provides a framework for program evaluation and market research and (5) increases the creative thinking marketers need when addressing the major marketing challenges. The ultimate benefit is the greater likelihood of more positive marketing results.

  12. Effective communication skills in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Bramhall, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction.

  13. Effective communication skills in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Bramhall, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:25467362

  14. Effective Communication. Life Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a five-unit course in effective communication that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's five instructional units cover these topics: understanding communication, improving communication,…

  15. Developing Effective Interpersonal Communication and Discussion Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Featheringham, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of the content specialty--from accounting to information systems to finance--employers view effective communication as critical to an individual's success in today's competitive workplace. Most business degree programs require a business communication course to help students develop communication skills needed both in getting a job and…

  16. Counselor Effectiveness Through Radio Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…

  17. Effective communication and teamwork promotes patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gluyas, Heather

    2015-08-01

    Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care.

  18. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  19. Shared identity is key to effective communication.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Wright, Ruth G; Willingham, Joanne; Reynolds, Katherine J; Haslam, S Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The ability to communicate with others is one of the most important human social functions, yet communication is not always investigated from a social perspective. This research examined the role that shared social identity plays in communication effectiveness using a minimal group paradigm. In two experiments, participants constructed a model using instructions that were said to be created by an ingroup or an outgroup member. Participants made models of objectively better quality when working from communications ostensibly created by an ingroup member (Experiments 1 and 2). However, this effect was attenuated when participants were made aware of a shared superordinate identity that included both the ingroup and the outgroup (Experiment 2). These findings point to the importance of shared social identity for effective communication and provide novel insights into the social psychology of communication.

  20. Effective Advocacy and Communication with Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Counseling Association, Office of Public Policy and Information, Alexandria, VA.

    This pamphlet attempts to make communicating with legislators easy. Each section includes a brief paragraph and several bullet points that present techniques or advice for simplifying communication. It begins with "Rules for Effective Advocacy," which presents a core set of basic advocacy principles, followed by "What Makes Politicians Tick?" and…

  1. Visual Communication: Its Process and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    The process and effects of visual communication are examined in this paper. The first section, "Visual Literacy," discusses the need for a visual literacy involving an understanding of the instruments, materials, and techniques of visual communication media; it then presents and discusses a model illustrating factors involved in the visual…

  2. Cultural Effects and Uses of Communication Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The communication satellite already has developed a mature technology. It carries a substantial part of the world's long range communication, and is now useable for special cultural and educational purposes. Major cultural effects come from its contribution to increasing enormously the flow of information in the world. It will increase human…

  3. Patient–Provider Communication Differs for Black Compared to White HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Somnath; Korthuis, P. Todd; Sharp, Victoria; Cohn, Jonathon; Wilson, Ira B.; Eggly, Susan; Cooper, Lisa A.; Roter, Debra; Sankar, Andrea; Moore, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Poor patient–provider interactions may play a role in explaining racial disparities in the quality and outcomes of HIV care in the United States. We analyzed 354 patient–provider encounters coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System across four HIV care sites in the United States to explore possible racial differences in patient–provider communication. Providers were more verbally dominant in conversations with black as compared to white patients. This was largely due to black patients’ talking less than white patients. There was no association between race and other measures of communication. Black and white patients rated their providers’ communication similarly. Efforts to more effectively engage patients in the medical dialogue may lead to improved patient–provider relationships, self-management, and outcomes among black people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:20066486

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Blind and Sighted Children's Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Maryon M.

    1984-01-01

    No significant differences were found between abilities of two groups of 33 blind and 33 sighted five- through 12-year-old children, matched for age, sex, and IQ, to detect communication-relevant characteristics (CRC) of listeners and construct messages adapted to the characteristics. (Author)

  5. Comparative Analysis of Human Communication Networks in Selected Formal Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farace, Richard V.; Johnson, Jerome David

    This paper briefly describes the organization of a "data bank" containing research on communication networks, specifies the kinds of information compiled about various network properties, discusses some specific results of the work done to date, and presents some general conclusions about the overall project and its potential advantages to…

  6. Comparing communication systems for individuals with developmental disabilities: a review of single-case research studies.

    PubMed

    Gevarter, Cindy; O'Reilly, Mark F; Rojeski, Laura; Sammarco, Nicolette; Lang, Russell; Lancioni, Giulio E; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2013-12-01

    Studies that have compared different communication systems for individuals with developmental disabilities were systematically reviewed in an effort to provide information useful for clinical decision making and directions for future research. Specifically, 28 studies that compared (a) non-electronic picture systems to speech generating devices, (b) aided AAC (e.g. picture exchange systems and SGDs) to unaided AAC systems (manual sign), or (c) AAC to speech-language interventions were included in this review. Dependent variables forming the basis for comparison included: (a) effectiveness (e.g. acquisition of systems and/or rate of use), (b) efficiency or rate of skill acquisition (c) participants' preference for systems, (d) occurrence of vocalizations and problem behavior, and (e) generalization across communication partners, settings, and time (i.e. maintenance). Results suggest that clear and consistent differences between communication systems are rare, precluding definitive statements regarding a universal best approach for all people with developmental disabilities. Instead, findings of this review support the consideration of an individual's existing skills, goals and preferences as part of the process of selecting an approach to communication.

  7. Effective written communication in biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Rugh, K S; Hahn, A W

    1996-01-01

    The written word is the biomedical scientist's most important and most enduring communication tool. Nevertheless, the development of writing skills receives little attention in most scientific disciplines and the ability to conduct research is often viewed as more important than the ability to communicate the results of that research. Consequently, many scientists lack the writing skills necessary to effectively convey essential aspects of their research. In this paper, we will discuss the importance of good writing skills, give examples of common mistakes that are made in biomedical science writing and offer suggestions on how to improve written communication. PMID:8672681

  8. Developing Effective Communications about Extreme Weather Risks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruine de Bruin, W.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the general public often face complex decisions about the risks that they face, including those associated with extreme weather and climate change adaptation. Scientific experts may be asked to develop communications with the goal of improving people's understanding of weather and climate risks, and informing people's decisions about how to protect against these risks. Unfortunately, scientific experts' communication efforts may fail if they lack information about what people need or want to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people prefer use to describe relevant concepts. This presentation provides general principles for developing effective risk communication materials that aim for widespread dissemination, such as brochures and websites. After a brief review of the social science evidence on how to design effective risk communication materials, examples will focus on communications about extreme weather events and climate change. Specifically, data will be presented from ongoing projects on flood risk perception, public preparedness for heat waves, and public perceptions of climate change. The presentation will end with specific recommendations about how to improve recipients' understanding about risks and inform decisions. These recommendations should be useful to scientific experts who aim to communicate about extreme weather, climate change, or other risks.

  9. Construction of a Communication Audit: An Examination of Communication Systems and Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brent D., Ed.; Greenbaum, Howard H., Ed.

    Abstracts of 12 papers concerning the effectiveness of various communication systems are printed here. Subjects of the papers are: the appraisal of organizational communication systems, and evaluation of ECCO analysis as a communication audit methodology, assessment of attitude and opinion change effects of the communication audit, organizational…

  10. Atmospheric propagation effects relevant to optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. The effects of clear air turbulence are reviewed as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study. Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in relation to optical deep space communications to an earth based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

  11. Atmospheric Propagation Effects Relevant to Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. This article reviews the effects of clear-air turbulence as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study, Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in resolution to optical deep-space communications to an earth-based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness Research in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials represent the gold standard for comparative effective research (CER), a number of additional methods are available when randomized controlled trials are lacking or inconclusive because of the limitations of such trials. In addition to more relevant, efficient, and generalizable trials, there is a need for additional approaches utilizing rigorous methodology while fully recognizing their inherent limitations. CER is an important construct for defining and summarizing evidence on effectiveness and safety and comparing the value of competing strategies so that patients, providers, and policymakers can be offered appropriate recommendations for optimal patient care. Nevertheless, methodological as well as political and social challenges for CER remain. CER requires constant and sophisticated methodological oversight of study design and analysis similar to that required for randomized trials to reduce the potential for bias. At the same time, if appropriately conducted, CER offers an opportunity to identify the most effective and safe approach to patient care. Despite rising and unsustainable increases in health care costs, an even greater challenge to the implementation of CER arises from the social and political environment questioning the very motives and goals of CER. Oncologists and oncology professional societies are uniquely positioned to provide informed clinical and methodological expertise to steer the appropriate application of CER toward critical discussions related to health care costs, cost-effectiveness, and the comparative value of the available options for appropriate care of patients with cancer. PMID:23697601

  13. Effective Communication with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  14. Replacing the Tin Can: Creating an Effective Electronic Communication Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Susan M.; Dutt-Doner, Karen M.

    Electronic communication tools may have more in common with the old communication game where tin cans were connected by a string than with traditional classroom communication. The charge is to find ways to make the communication more like, and possibly better, than effective classroom communication. Creating a firm foundation for successful…

  15. Determinants of Effective Communication among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anvari, Roya; Atiyaye, Dauda Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between effective communication and transferring information. In the present correlational study, a cross-sectional research design was employed, and data were collected using a questionnaire-based survey. 46 students were chosen based on random sampling and questionnaires were distributed among…

  16. Effective Communication in Adolescent Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azima, Fern J.

    This paper defines a useful strategy for therapists working with adolescents which includes: (1) a general model of the group leader's responsibilities and (2) a cataloguing of some of the specific impediments for both adolescent peers and the therapist that prevent effective communication. The goal of the group therapy is to identify the specific…

  17. Effective Communication for Academic Chairs. SUNY Series in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Mark, III, Ed.; Stacks, Don W.

    This book presents 11 contributed papers which examine communication aspects of the department chair position in academia. It is noted that most academic department chairs are not trained in management skills, including communication strategies. After an introductory chapter by Christopher H. Spicer and Ann Q. Staton, the following papers are…

  18. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  19. Organizational Communication Styles of Filipino and Malaysian Administrators: A Comparative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellingsworth, Huber W.; Rosario-Braid, Florangel Z.

    A study compared the communication styles of Filipino and Malaysian administrators of public and private organizations devoted to information, education, and communication about family planning and population control. Sixty-nine administrators were interviewed in the two countries. Results indicated that there was no overall preference for either…

  20. Natural hazard communication : effectiveness and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presta, A.; Sole, A.; de Luca, G.

    2009-04-01

    Scientific, technological and methodological knowledge regarding the risks caused by natural events are in continuous evolution. A careful analysis of the communication and information, practiced by administrations and institutions involved in the decision-making processes, show a peculiar difference between the quality of the theoretical-operating level and the effectiveness of communication systems of the risk obtained. This is the level which involves directly citizens and institutions and needs, therefore, an efficacious and shared system whose aim is to inform the whole community, in a simple and clear way, during the different phases correlated to the environmental risk. The hypotesis is, in fact, to create a distinct typology of message, corresponding to each phase: • prevention of the risk > sensitization > information. If the potential risk is imminent or changes into real emergency, it is necessary to plan a communication aimed at supporting a very fast alarm to the community. • anticipation of the risk > pre-alert > information • imminence of the risk > alert > alarm • post-event /risk > information > precept and rules. The lack of a uniform and coerent planning process, both on the linguistic field (the typology of the message, iconic and verbal) and technical (the typology of supports) it is clear analysing the reference scenario in Italy. This involves the creation of deeply discordant systems which don't communicate the different typologies of risk efficaciously during distinct moments. To come to a systemic vision of the problem we proceed to collect and to obtain documentation about the "alarm" and communication systems existing in Italy nowadays. So we will have a classification of the different typologies about natural risk and communication systems related to them. The aim of this research is to propose a rationalization and a standard coding of signals. The logical conclusion of this course can be the creation of a national

  1. Training Scientists to be Effective Communicators: AAAS Communicating Science Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendes, L.; Lohwater, T.

    2012-12-01

    "Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers" is a workshop program developed by AAAS to provide guidance and practice for scientists and engineers in communicating about science with public audiences. The program was launched at the 2008 AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston and has since provided 24 workshops for more than 1,500 scientist and engineer attendees at universities, science society meetings, and government agency labs around the United States. Each interactive workshop targets scientists and engineers specifically and has included content such as message development, defining audience, identifying opportunities for engaging the public, and practice with public presentations and cameras. The workshop format allows for collaborative learning through small-group discussion, resource sharing, and participation in critique of other participants' presentations. Continuous monitoring of the program includes on-site and online surveys and evaluation. On an assessment of workshops from 2008-2010, attendees reported that knowledge gained from the workshop helped in crafting messages about their scientific work for use in communicating with public audiences, and approximately 80 percent of respondents reported participation in communication with a public audience after attending the workshop. Through workshop content and feedback of participating scientists, this presentation will highlight some best practices and resources for scientists who want to take a proactive role in science communication.

  2. Teaching Specific Requests: A Comparative Analysis on Skill Acquisition and Preference Using Two Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Modalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Gloria; And Others

    This study investigated whether a person with profound mental retardation could effectively learn specific requests using two different communication modes, both including the same set of graphic symbols. It also sought to compare whether the participant showed a preference for one modality over the other and to determine whether the participant…

  3. Shared language:Towards more effective communication.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive.

  4. Shared language:Towards more effective communication.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive. PMID:23422948

  5. Critical incidents: effective communication and documentation.

    PubMed

    Carelock, J; Innerarity, S

    2001-02-01

    Critical incidents can be defined at sentinel events, critical patient care issues, or any patient event outside the normal parameters of care. Nurses are central to maintaining the standard of care for patients in these situations. Miscommunication, including inadequate communication and illegible or incomplete documentation, forms a basis for many clinical and interpersonal problems in nursing practice. This practical article discusses expectations, both professional and legal, for avoiding and/or managing critical incidents. Suggestions for assessment parameters to report are included in table format, which the nurse can 'clip and use' as a reminder of data to have prepared before calling and/or presenting the problem. Steps are proposed for a logical, organized plan to help the nurse communicate more effectively. Recommendations for essentials of documentation regarding the verbal interaction and orders received are also presented. PMID:11852951

  6. The Effect of Communication Apprehension and Situation on Communication Strategy Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Myron W.; King, Stephen W.

    1980-01-01

    Examines students' perceptions of the probable use of certain persuasive strategies in a given situation in relation to students' level of communication apprehension. Data confirms the impact of situation on strategy selection but fails to demonstrate the effect of communication apprehension or an interaction between communication apprehension and…

  7. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  8. The Effect of Covert Modeling on Communication Apprehension, Communication Confidence, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimocks, Mittie J.; Bromley, Patricia L.; Parsons, Theron E.; Enright, Corinne S.; Gates, Elizabeth A.

    This study examined the effect of covert modeling on communication apprehension, public speaking anxiety, and communication competence. Students identified as highly communication apprehensive received covert modeling, a technique in which one first observes a model doing a behavior, then visualizes oneself performing the behavior and obtaining a…

  9. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  10. Emotional and Interactional Prosody across Animal Communication Systems: A Comparative Approach to the Emergence of Language

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Across a wide range of animal taxa, prosodic modulation of the voice can express emotional information and is used to coordinate vocal interactions between multiple individuals. Within a comparative approach to animal communication systems, I hypothesize that the ability for emotional and interactional prosody (EIP) paved the way for the evolution of linguistic prosody – and perhaps also of music, continuing to play a vital role in the acquisition of language. In support of this hypothesis, I review three research fields: (i) empirical studies on the adaptive value of EIP in non-human primates, mammals, songbirds, anurans, and insects; (ii) the beneficial effects of EIP in scaffolding language learning and social development in human infants; (iii) the cognitive relationship between linguistic prosody and the ability for music, which has often been identified as the evolutionary precursor of language. PMID:27733835

  11. Effects of therapists nonverbal communication on rated skill and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sherer, M; Rogers, R W

    1980-07-01

    A therapist's nonverbal behavior may communicate emotion and feelings toward a client. Thus, skilled utilization of appropriate nonverbal cues should facilitate many nonbehavioral therapies. A 2 X 2 X 2 factorial experiment investigated the therapy-facilitating effects of three theoretical dimensions of nonverbal communication: Immediacy, potency or status, and responsivity. A reenacted client-centered therapy session was videotaped. Verbal content was held constant, but all combinations of the three nonverbal dimensions were portrayed. A total of 118 male and female nonparticipant observers rated the therapist's interpersonal skills (empathy, warmth, and genuineness) and effectiveness. The results disclosed that the nonverbal cues of immediacy (close therapist-client distance and eye contact) significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. Thus, the study demonstrated that a therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuiness, and effectiveness. These findings were interpreted in terms of the therapist's nonverbal cues communicating liking and acceptance of the client.

  12. Effects of therapists nonverbal communication on rated skill and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sherer, M; Rogers, R W

    1980-07-01

    A therapist's nonverbal behavior may communicate emotion and feelings toward a client. Thus, skilled utilization of appropriate nonverbal cues should facilitate many nonbehavioral therapies. A 2 X 2 X 2 factorial experiment investigated the therapy-facilitating effects of three theoretical dimensions of nonverbal communication: Immediacy, potency or status, and responsivity. A reenacted client-centered therapy session was videotaped. Verbal content was held constant, but all combinations of the three nonverbal dimensions were portrayed. A total of 118 male and female nonparticipant observers rated the therapist's interpersonal skills (empathy, warmth, and genuineness) and effectiveness. The results disclosed that the nonverbal cues of immediacy (close therapist-client distance and eye contact) significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. Thus, the study demonstrated that a therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuiness, and effectiveness. These findings were interpreted in terms of the therapist's nonverbal cues communicating liking and acceptance of the client. PMID:7410567

  13. Gender-Specific Nonverbal Communication: Impact for Speaker Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Lori

    1995-01-01

    A literature review notes how gender expectations lead to nonverbal communication differences in such behaviors as smiling, eye contact, kinesics, proximics, and decoding. The importance of the effective use of nonverbal communication in human resource development is emphasized. (SK)

  14. Comparative effectiveness in esophagogastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Knab, Lawrence M; Belotte, Jim; Munshi, Hidayatullah G; Bentrem, David J

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) continues to have a dismal prognosis, with the incidence of esophageal cancer increasing in the United States. Although radical resection was initially the primary treatment for this disease process, systemic chemotherapy and radiation have been shown to play a role in prolonging survival in most patient populations. This chapter explores the evidence that guides treatment for esophageal and GEJ cancer today. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy were introduced as treatment modalities for esophageal and GEJ cancers when it became evident that surgical therapy alone provided poor long-term survival rates. A variety of treatment strategies have been explored including preoperative (neoadjuvant) and postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy, with and without radiation. The evidence suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy provides better outcomes compared to surgery alone for esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancers. Studies indicate a trend towards improved survival when neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is compared to chemotherapy alone. When patients have undergone resection with node-positive disease without receiving neoadjuvant therapy, some form of adjuvant treatment is recommended. This chapter also explores the surgical management of esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancers including the extent of the gastric lymph node dissection. It also includes a discussion about adherence to national guidelines in terms of gastric cancer treatment and esophageal and gastric lymph node examinations.

  15. The Social Effects of Communication Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhamer, Herbert, Ed.; Westrum, Ronald

    The principal technological developments that underlie the communication revolution, especially the transistor and the computer, are reviewed in a nontechnical way. A number of devices and communication subsystems, such as cable television, ultramicrofiche, and communication satellites, that make use of these developments are then described,…

  16. Revealing the Effectivenesses of Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the history of communication strategy and highlight the importance of strategic competence. It provides the histories and characterizations of communication strategy. Besides, it presents from which perspectives these definitions of communication strategies were developed. Various earlier and latter…

  17. Effects of AAC interventions on communication and language for young children with complex communication needs.

    PubMed

    Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2010-01-01

    Children with complex communication needs (CCN) who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) are at considerable risk in many aspects of their development: (a) functional communication skills, (b) speech development, (c) language development, (d) cognitive/conceptual development, (e) literacy development, (f) social participation, (g) access to education, and (h) overall quality of life. Early intervention is critical to address these areas and provide successful and functional outcomes. AAC offers the potential to enhance communication, language, and learning for children with significant communication disabilities. This paper provides an overview of the effects of AAC interventions on communication, behavior, language, and speech outcomes for young children with CCN for pediatricians and other medical and rehabilitation professionals. Future research directions to maximize the communication development of young children with CCN are also discussed. PMID:21791864

  18. How Effective Is Communication Training For Aircraft Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.

  19. Use effective communication channels. Health education.

    PubMed

    Hubley, J

    1988-03-01

    This article describes different ways of communicating health education. Individual and group counseling are the most effective ways of changing people's behavior. It is a method by which, it could relieve anxieties, and offer better ways that explain information and help people make decisions on sexual and risk behavior subjects. Drawings, cartoons, visual aids and magazines could be of help in discussions. In the discussion of sensitive and embarrassing topics, it is much better for the use of traditional drama, storytelling, puppets etc. Leaflets and poster use are useful in the back up on counseling and health education programs. Establishing a health education regarding the struggle on AIDS takes time and effort, and it is best that counselors or educators are able to share their experiences and evaluate limited programs on this matter.

  20. Enhancing Motivation in Online Courses with Mobile Communication Tool Support: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiprasurt, Chantorn; Esichaikul, Vatcharaporn

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies have helped establish new channels of communication among learners and instructors, potentially providing greater access to course information, and promoting easier access to course activities and learner motivation in online learning environments. The paper compares motivation between groups of learners being taught through an…

  1. A Comparative Study of Information and Communications Technology Policy in Primary Education in Two Small Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Kay

    2006-01-01

    Research into small island states emerged during the period of decolonisation with comparative case studies making a valuable contribution. This study was undertaken to evaluate information and communications technology (ICT) policies in primary education in Malta and Jamaica and to consider the influence of small island status on policy and its…

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of a communication board training program.

    PubMed

    Calculator, S; Luchko, C D

    1983-05-01

    This study introduces a technique for systemically observing the consequences of various aspects of treatment on the communicative effectiveness of nonspeaking persons using communication boards in natural settings. The case study of Kay, a 24-year-old nonspeaking woman residing in a nursing home, is presented. Three major factors were found to operate cumulatively in increasing Kay's overall communicative effectiveness: 1) revising the design of her original communication board; 2) training her to functionally use her new board to meet her daily communicative needs; and then 3) introducing interaction strategies to her listeners through an inservice training program. Highlights of Kay's and her staff's programs are discussed.

  3. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  4. Quantitative tools for comparing animal communication systems: information theory applied to bottlenose dolphin whistle repertoires.

    PubMed

    McCOWAN; Hanser; Doyle

    1999-02-01

    Comparative analysis of nonhuman animal communication systems and their complexity, particularly in comparison to human language, has been generally hampered by both a lack of sufficiently extensive data sets and appropriate analytic tools. Information theory measures provide an important quantitative tool for examining and comparing communication systems across species. In this paper we use the original application of information theory, that of statistical examination of a communication system's structure and organization. As an example of the utility of information theory to the analysis of animal communication systems, we applied a series of information theory statistics to a statistically categorized set of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus, whistle vocalizations. First, we use the first-order entropic relation in a Zipf-type diagram (Zipf 1949 Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort) to illustrate the application of temporal statistics as comparative indicators of repertoire complexity, and as possible predictive indicators of acquisition/learning in animal vocal repertoires. Second, we illustrate the need for more extensive temporal data sets when examining the higher entropic orders, indicative of higher levels of internal informational structure, of such vocalizations, which could begin to allow the statistical reconstruction of repertoire organization. Third, we propose using 'communication capacity' as a measure of the degree of temporal structure and complexity of statistical correlation, represented by the values of entropic order, as an objective tool for interspecies comparison of communication complexity. In doing so, we introduce a new comparative measure, the slope of Shannon entropies, and illustrate how it potentially can be used to compare the organizational complexity of vocal repertoires across a diversity of species. Finally, we illustrate the nature and predictive application of these higher-order entropies using a preliminary

  5. Undergraduate Students As Effective Climate Change Communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. The program is in its third year. More than 75 students participated in a guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Three Colleges were involved in the program: Engineering, Education, and Science.

  6. Spelling: A Fundamental Skill for Effective Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the importance of effective written communication to the successful management of business enterprises. Examines the significance of correct spelling and the development of spelling competence. (CT)

  7. Comparing communication technology on Chinese, English, and Spanish diabetes web sites.

    PubMed Central

    Michea, Yanko F.; Pancheri, Karen; Gong, Yang; Bernstam, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    Technological and cultural factors influence access to health information on the web in multifarious ways. We evaluated structural differences and availability of communication services on the web in three diverse language and cultural groups: Chinese, English, and Spanish. A total of 382 web sites were analyzed: 144 were English language sites (38%), 129 were Chinese language sites (34%), and 108 were Spanish language sites (28%). We did not find technical differences in the number of outgoing links per domain or the total availability of communication services between the three groups. There were differences in the distribution of available services between Chinese and English sites. In the Chinese sites, there were more communication services between consumers and health experts. Our results suggest that the health-related web presence of these three cultural groups is technologically comparable, but reflects differences that may be attributable to cultural factors. PMID:12463879

  8. Understanding Decision-Making, Communication Rules, and Communication Satisfaction as Culture: Implications for Organizational Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela

    A study of decision making processes and communication rules, in a corporate setting undergoing change as a result of organizational ineffectiveness, examined whether (1) decisions about formal communication reporting systems were linked to management assumptions about technical creativity/effectiveness, (2) assumptions about…

  9. Comparing Thin Slices of Verbal Communication Behavior of Varying Number and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie; Eggly, Susan; Foster, Tanina; Albrecht, Terrance; Brogan, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of thin slices to characterize the verbal communication behavior of counselors and patients engaged in Motivational Interviewing sessions relative to fully coded sessions. Methods Four thin slice samples that varied in number (four versus six slices) and duration (one- versus two-minutes) were extracted from a previously coded dataset. In the parent study, an observational code scheme was used to characterize specific counselor and patient verbal communication behaviors. For the current study, we compared the frequency of communication codes and the correlations among the full dataset and each thin slice sample. Results Both the proportion of communication codes and strength of the correlation demonstrated the highest degree of accuracy when a greater number (i.e., six versus four) and duration (i.e., two- versus one-minute) of slices were extracted. Conclusion These results suggest that thin slice sampling may be a useful and accurate strategy to reduce coding burden when coding specific verbal communication behaviors within clinical encounters. Practice Implications We suggest researchers interested in using thin slice sampling in their own work conduct preliminary research to determine the number and duration of thin slices required to accurately characterize the behaviors of interest. PMID:25441095

  10. Communication Planning for Effective Nutrition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.

    Primary health and nutrition have been linked with communication in a variety of well-publicized projects. This partnership between communication and nutrition was made necessary by the confrontation between an expanded demand for services and limited resources for meeting the demand. Senior officials have a substantial role to play in seeing that…

  11. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  12. Effectively Communicating Science to Extension Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of "framing" within the context of relevant communication and psychological research and considers its potential applicability to Extension science communication. Examples of research-based support for the framing of scientific issues are presented, along with a literature-based discussion of the…

  13. Effective communication: a powerful risk management tool.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F

    1993-01-01

    Physicians can employ communication techniques to improve patient diagnoses, outcomes, and satisfaction and ultimately to decrease their risk of malpractice suit. The skills outlined in this article form the basis of the Miles Program for Physician-Patient Communication of which the author is a participant.

  14. Evaluating Administrative Effectiveness through Communications Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Frank L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study to develop a communications research technique that can produce information suitable for analysis about the management of public institutions, particularly in higher education, from readily available sources, in this case, newspapers. (JMF)

  15. Communication Effectiveness of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Laura J.; Beukelman, David R.; Pattee, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among speech intelligibility and communication effectiveness as rated by speakers and their listeners. Participants completed procedures to measure (a) speech intelligibility, (b) self-perceptions of communication effectiveness, and (c) listener (spouse or family member) perceptions of…

  16. Effective Interpersonal Communication: A Practical Guide to Improve Your Life.

    PubMed

    Vertino, Kathleen A

    2014-09-30

    Use of effective interpersonal communication strategies by nurses in both personal and professional settings, may reduce stress, promote wellness, and therefore, improve overall quality of life. This article briefly explores the concept of interpersonal communication as it relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs; describes personal variables and the interaction of internal and external variables that can impact communication; and discusses possible causes and consequences of ineffective communication. Drawing on both the literature and experiences as a longtime provider of care in the mental health field, the author offers multiple practical strategies, with specific examples of possible responses for effective communication. Recommendations in this article are intended for nurses to consider as they seek healthy communication strategies that may be useful in both their personal and professional lives.

  17. Effects of Videotaped Role Playing on Nurses' Therapeutic Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Kay F.; Kroth, Jerome A.

    1976-01-01

    Research determining the effectiveness of videotape recorded (VTR) role playing as a teaching technique was conducted on nurses attending continuing education classes in verbal and nonverbal therapeutic communication skills. VTR appears to be an effective technique. (LH)

  18. TV Viewing Compared to Book Reading and Toy Playing Reduces Responsive Maternal Communication with Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Rasmussen, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the amount and style of maternal communication with toddlers and preschoolers while mother-child pairs watched TV, read books, and played with toys. We found that mother-child communication was less frequent and less verbally responsive when dyads viewed TV compared with when they read books, and in many cases, when they played…

  19. The development of pointing perception in infancy: effects of communicative signals on covert shifts of attention.

    PubMed

    Daum, Moritz M; Ulber, Julia; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication with respect to infants' perception of pointing gestures. Infants were presented with still images of pointing hands (cue) in combination with an acoustic stimulus. The communicative content of this acoustic stimulus was varied from being human and communicative to artificial. Saccadic reaction times (SRTs) from the cue to a peripheral target were measured as an indicator of the modulation of covert attention. A significant cueing effect (facilitated SRTs for congruent compared with incongruent trials) was only present in a condition with additional communicative and referential speech. In addition, the size of the cueing effect increased the more human and communicative the acoustic stimulus was. This indicates a beneficial effect of verbal communication on the perception of nonverbal communicative pointing gestures, emphasizing the important role of verbal communication in facilitating social understanding across domains. These findings additionally suggest that human and communicative (ostensive) signals are not qualitatively different from other less social signals but just quantitatively the most attention grabbing among a number of other signals. PMID:23356522

  20. The development of pointing perception in infancy: effects of communicative signals on covert shifts of attention.

    PubMed

    Daum, Moritz M; Ulber, Julia; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication with respect to infants' perception of pointing gestures. Infants were presented with still images of pointing hands (cue) in combination with an acoustic stimulus. The communicative content of this acoustic stimulus was varied from being human and communicative to artificial. Saccadic reaction times (SRTs) from the cue to a peripheral target were measured as an indicator of the modulation of covert attention. A significant cueing effect (facilitated SRTs for congruent compared with incongruent trials) was only present in a condition with additional communicative and referential speech. In addition, the size of the cueing effect increased the more human and communicative the acoustic stimulus was. This indicates a beneficial effect of verbal communication on the perception of nonverbal communicative pointing gestures, emphasizing the important role of verbal communication in facilitating social understanding across domains. These findings additionally suggest that human and communicative (ostensive) signals are not qualitatively different from other less social signals but just quantitatively the most attention grabbing among a number of other signals.

  1. Are pharmaceutical marketing decisions calibrated to communications effects?

    PubMed

    Cavusgil, Erin; Calantone, Roger

    2011-10-01

    Marketing managers continually struggle with how to maximize the effects of an integrated marketing communications strategy. The growing number of available communication outlets, as well as highly varying competitive landscapes, adds further complexity to this challenge. This empirical study examines the differential impact within a pharmaceutical market therapeutic category where both "push" and "pull" communication strategies operate on consumers and gatekeepers alike, in an atmosphere of unrelenting product innovation and broad competition. Furthermore, we explore how two contingency variables-(a) the competitive landscape, and (b) the product's length of time on the market-interact with these communication efforts and affect brand and category sales.

  2. Are pharmaceutical marketing decisions calibrated to communications effects?

    PubMed

    Cavusgil, Erin; Calantone, Roger

    2011-10-01

    Marketing managers continually struggle with how to maximize the effects of an integrated marketing communications strategy. The growing number of available communication outlets, as well as highly varying competitive landscapes, adds further complexity to this challenge. This empirical study examines the differential impact within a pharmaceutical market therapeutic category where both "push" and "pull" communication strategies operate on consumers and gatekeepers alike, in an atmosphere of unrelenting product innovation and broad competition. Furthermore, we explore how two contingency variables-(a) the competitive landscape, and (b) the product's length of time on the market-interact with these communication efforts and affect brand and category sales. PMID:22054028

  3. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training. Communication deficit at baseline, post-intervention (week 14), and at 1 month follow up were evaluated. Exercise group showed significant reduction in communication deficit compared to control group. Moreover, reduction in communication deficit in the exercise group at one month follow up remained unchanged compared to post-intervention time. We concluded that teaching Karate techniques to children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their communication deficit. PMID:26577688

  4. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training. Communication deficit at baseline, post-intervention (week 14), and at 1 month follow up were evaluated. Exercise group showed significant reduction in communication deficit compared to control group. Moreover, reduction in communication deficit in the exercise group at one month follow up remained unchanged compared to post-intervention time. We concluded that teaching Karate techniques to children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their communication deficit.

  5. Communicating Effectively with Non-Indian Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuelito, Jeannie; Johnson, Martha

    This paper provides Indian parents of children with disabilities with information from the Education for Parents of Indian Children with Special Needs Project concerning communication between Indian parents and non-Indian service providers. Five basic strategies for effective communication are reviewed: (1) when you do not understand, ask for…

  6. The Relationship of Cultural Similarity, Communication Effectiveness and Uncertainty Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koester, Jolene; Olebe, Margaret

    To investigate the relationship of cultural similarity/dissimilarity, communication effectiveness, and communication variables associated with uncertainty reduction theory, a study examined two groups of students--a multinational group living on an "international floor" in a dormitory at a state university and an unrelated group of U.S. students…

  7. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    1983-01-01

    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  8. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…

  9. An Activity for Teaching the Effects of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; King, Eden B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a novel teaching activity that allows students in diversity, leadership, and communication courses to observe the powerful effects of nonverbal communication. The nonverbal experiences female leaders may encounter as they rise through the ranks of organizations are simulated and consequences discussed. Two student volunteers…

  10. Perceptions of Women's Communication Skills Related to Managerial Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman-Fink, Cynthia

    In a study designed to document empirically perceptions about women managers' communication skills and training needs, 101 managers (53 females and 48 males) responded to two open-ended questions: (1) From your observation and experience, what specific communication skills do women possess that might help promote their managerial effectiveness?…

  11. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  12. The Significance of Congruent Communication in Effective Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dave F.

    2005-01-01

    Effective communication is the basis of developing an environment of mutual respect between students and teachers. The more congruent the communication is between students and teachers, the more likely students are to become willing participants in the learning process, and the more likely it is that the teacher can maintain a comfortable…

  13. Exploring Effective Communication for Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Eric John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…

  14. The Effectiveness of a Patient Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Harue J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports data from three consecutive classes of first- year optometry students at the Southern California College of Optometry, who were tested preceding and following completion of a patient communication course. Findings indicated that students improved their ability to respond to patients and were better able to discriminate among various levels…

  15. Teaching Communicative Effectiveness to Life Long Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Gordon

    Faculty from the Department of Speech at Mexico State University set out to design a course in interpersonal and public communication for lifelong learners that would be relevant and appeal to both older adults and younger traditional-aged students working toward certification as a gerontological care provider. The course was designed to teach…

  16. Workplace Communication: The Effect of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanetic, Sally A.; Jeffery, Christopher J.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in men's and women's communication styles affect their interactions with each other. Organizations must be flexible enough to recognize situations in which traditional male values of competition may be most functional and those in which more collaborative, female strategies are more appropriate. Personnel training can help ensure that…

  17. Effective Communication: Faculty and Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This guide offers guidance to college instructors about working with students who have communication-related disabilities including speech, language, hearing, emotional, or medical disorders. It offers some general accommodation strategies including a statement in the syllabus encouraging students to discuss any special needs with you, ask the…

  18. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  19. Effective Language for Communicating Children's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for America's Children, Washington, DC.

    Maintaining that only by integrating communications into program planning and policy can Kids Count grantees and other child advocates achieve their goals, this document presents four studies examining the ways in which the media currently frame children's issues, the consequences of those frames, and possibilities for reframing media depictions…

  20. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  1. The cost-effectiveness of health communication programs: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Paul; Wheeler, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    While a considerable body of evidence has emerged supporting the effectiveness of communication programs in augmenting health, only a very small subset of studies has examined also whether these programs are cost-effective, that is, whether they achieve greater health gains for available financial resources than alternative interventions. In this article, we examine the available literature on the cost-effectiveness of health behavior change communication programs, focusing on communication interventions involving mass media, and, to a lesser extent, community mobilization and interpersonal communication or counseling. Our objective is to identify the state of past and current research efforts of the cost-effectiveness of behavior change communication programs. This review makes three principal conclusions. First, the analysis of the cost-effectiveness of health communication programs commonly has not been performed. Second, the studies reviewed here have utilized a considerable diversity of methods and have reflected varying levels of quality and adherence to standard cost-effectiveness methodologies. This leads to problems of transparency, comparability, and generalizability. Third, while the available studies generally are indicative of the cost-effectiveness of communication interventions relative to alternatives, the evidence base clearly needs to be expanded by additional rigorous cost-effectiveness analyses.

  2. Communicating Effectively About Organ Donation: A Randomized Trial of a Behavioral Communication Intervention to Improve Discussions About Donation

    PubMed Central

    Siminoff, Laura A.; Traino, Heather M.; Genderson, Maureen Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Background Families’ refusal to authorize solid organ donation contributes to the organ deficit in the United States. The importance of communication to reducing refusal to requests for solid organ donation at the bedside and thus increasing the supply of transplantable organs cannot be overstated. This research compares 2 versions of an innovative communication skills training program for organ procurement organization request staff, Communicating Effectively About Donation (CEaD), designed to improve the quantity and quality of organ donation discussions with family decision makers of deceased patients. Methods We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of the CEaD intervention, comparing an online only version of the training (CEaD1) with the online version bolstered with in-person practice and feedback (CEaD2). Survey and interview data were collected from 1603 family decision makers and 273 requesters to assess the impact of both versions of the CEaD on requesters’ communication skills and behaviors; the rate of family authorization to solid organ donation was obtained from administrative data provided by 9 organ procurement organizations. Results Results revealed higher rates of authorization for requesters with less tenure (78% to 89%, P < 0.03) for both versions; however, CEaD1 also increased authorization rates for requesters with 3 or more years of experience (89% to 92%, P < 0.03). Both conditions resulted in an improvement in overall communication quality. Conclusions We conclude that the CEaD was effective in improving requesters’ communication skills, rates of family authorization to organ donation, and the overall quality of the donation experience. PMID:26146659

  3. Adolescent Weight Control: An Intervention Targeting Parent Communication and Modeling Compared With Minimal Parental Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Wendy; Sato, Amy; Kuhl, Elizabeth; Rancourt, Diana; Oster, Danielle; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adolescent weight control interventions demonstrate variable findings, with inconsistent data regarding the appropriate role for parents. The current study examined the efficacy of a standard adolescent behavioral weight control (BWC) intervention that also targeted parent–adolescent communication and parental modeling of healthy behaviors (Standard Behavioral Treatment + Enhanced Parenting; SBT + EP) compared with a standard BWC intervention (SBT). Methods 49 obese adolescents (M age = 15.10; SD = 1.33; 76% female; 67.3% non-Hispanic White) and a caregiver were randomly assigned to SBT or SBT + EP. Adolescent and caregiver weight and height, parental modeling, and weight-related communication were obtained at baseline and end of the 16-week intervention. Results Significant decreases in adolescent weight and increases in parental self-monitoring were observed across both conditions. Analyses of covariance revealed a trend for greater reduction in weight and negative maternal commentary among SBT condition participants. Conclusions Contrary to hypotheses, targeting parent–adolescent communication and parental modeling did not lead to better outcomes in adolescent weight control. PMID:25294840

  4. I can see, hear, and smell your fear: comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R; Smeets, Monique A M

    2014-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued here was therefore: How significant is an olfactory fear signal in the broader context of audiovisual input that either confirms or contradicts olfactory information? To test this, we manipulated olfactory (fear, no fear) and audiovisual (fear, no fear) information and demonstrated that olfactory fear signals were as potent as audiovisual fear signals in eliciting a fearful facial expression. Irrespective of confirmatory or contradictory audiovisual information, olfactory fear signals produced by senders induced fear in receivers outside of conscious access. These findings run counter to traditional views that emotions are communicated exclusively via visual and linguistic channels.

  5. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed.

  6. The pragmatist's guide to comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amitabh; Jena, Anupam B; Skinner, Jonathan S

    2011-01-01

    Following an acrimonious health care reform debate involving charges of "death panels," in 2010, Congress explicitly forbade the use of cost-effectiveness analysis in government programs of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In this context, comparative effectiveness research emerged as an alternative strategy to understand better what works in health care. Put simply, comparative effectiveness research compares the efficacy of two or more diagnostic tests, treatments, or health care delivery methods without any explicit consideration of costs. To economists, the omission of costs from an assessment might seem nonsensical, but we argue that comparative effectiveness research still holds promise. First, it sidesteps one problem facing cost-effectiveness analysis--the widespread political resistance to the idea of using prices in health care. Second, there is little or no evidence on comparative effectiveness for a vast array of treatments: for example, we don't know whether proton-beam therapy, a very expensive treatment for prostate cancer (which requires building a cyclotron and a facility the size of a football field) offers any advantage over conventional approaches. Most drug studies compare new drugs to placebos, rather than "head-to-head" with other drugs on the market, leaving a vacuum as to which drug works best. Finally, the comparative effectiveness research can prove a useful first step even in the absence of cost information if it provides key estimates of treatment effects. After all, such effects are typically expensive to determine and require years or even decades of data. Costs are much easier to measure, and can be appended at a later date as financial Armageddon draws closer.

  7. Comparing Effects of Different Cinematic Visualization Strategies on Viewer Comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhala, Arnav; Young, R. Michael

    Computational storytelling systems have mainly focused on the construction and evaluation of textual discourse for communicating stories. Few intelligent camera systems have been built in 3D environments for effective visual communication of stories. The evaluation of effectiveness of these systems, if any, has focused mainly on the run-time performance of the camera placement algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic cognitive-based evaluation methodology to compare effects of different cinematic visualization strategies on viewer comprehension of stories. In particular, an evaluation of automatically generated visualizations from Darshak, a cinematic planning system, against different hand-generated visualization strategies is presented. The methodology used in the empirical evaluation is based on QUEST, a cognitive framework for question-answering in the context of stories, that provides validated predictors for measuring story coherence in readers. Data collected from viewers, who watch the same story renedered with three different visualization strategies, is compared with QUEST's predictor metrics. Initial data analysis establishes significant effect on choice of visualization strategy on story comprehension. It further shows a significant effect of visualization strategy selected by Darshak on viewers' measured story coherence.

  8. Netiquette: The Rules of the Road for Effective Internet Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnaly, Gene

    1997-01-01

    Presents guidelines for effective Internet communication. Discusses rules for creating e-mail messages; posting messages to online discussion groups and newsgroups; and using initialism and "emoticons." Presents a glossary of common Internet terms. (AEF)

  9. Attentive Listening Is the Key to Effective Oral Business Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    The author states that effective listening is vital to oral communications in business and a leading contributor to good human relations. He lists major barriers to listening comprehension as distractions, preconceptions, dullness, note-taking, and fatigue. (MF)

  10. Effective Interaction: Communicating with and about People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Disabilities in the Workplace ODEP - Office of Disability Employment Policy Disability Employment Policy Resources by Topic Choose a Disability ... Effective Interaction: Communicating With and About People with Disabilities in the Workplace As children, we are curious — ...

  11. Comparing Learning Gains: Audio Versus Text-based Instructor Communication in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Dominique

    Though blended course audio feedback has been associated with several measures of course satisfaction at the postsecondary and graduate levels compared to text feedback, it may take longer to prepare and positive results are largely unverified in K-12 literature. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the time investment and learning impact of audio communications with 228 secondary students in a blended online learning biology unit at a central Florida public high school. A short, individualized audio message regarding the student's progress was given to each student in the audio group; similar text-based messages were given to each student in the text-based group on the same schedule; a control got no feedback. A pretest and posttest were employed to measure learning gains in the three groups. To compare the learning gains in two types of feedback with each other and to no feedback, a controlled, randomized, experimental design was implemented. In addition, the creation and posting of audio and text feedback communications were timed in order to assess whether audio feedback took longer to produce than text only feedback. While audio feedback communications did take longer to create and post, there was no difference between learning gains as measured by posttest scores when student received audio, text-based, or no feedback. Future studies using a similar randomized, controlled experimental design are recommended to verify these results and test whether the trend holds in a broader range of subjects, over different time frames, and using a variety of assessment types to measure student learning.

  12. The silent healer: the role of communication in placebo effects.

    PubMed

    Bensing, Jozien M; Verheul, William

    2010-09-01

    Placebo effects have an ambiguous reputation, as they are associated with sham treatment and deceit on the one hand and as interesting phenomena, which might be clinically relevant on the other. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that placebo effects are relevant and can be used as an effective part of many treatments by using communication targeting placebo effect mechanisms. We examined the history of placebos and the placebo effect, addressing common misconceptions and disentangling ambiguities. We then reviewed whether the placebo effect can be robustly shown in the current literature, and zoomed in on the plausible mechanisms (conditioning, expectancies and affect manipulation) through which the placebo effect might be produced. Observing the link with the doctor-patient communication literature, and pleading for a better integration of the two research traditions we conclude by setting out a research agenda for testing the role of communication in placebo effects.

  13. Effects of Communication Partner Instruction on the Communication of Individuals using AAC: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; Murza, Kimberly A; Malani, Melissa D; Binger, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) partner instruction intervention literature to determine (a) the overall effects of partner interventions on the communication of individuals using AAC, and (b) any possible moderating variables relating to participant, intervention, or outcome characteristics. Seventeen single-case experimental design studies (53 participants) met the inclusion criteria and were advanced to the full coding and analysis phase of the investigation. Descriptive analyses and effect size estimations using the Improvement Rate Difference (IRD) metric were conducted. Overall, communication partner interventions were found to be highly effective across a range of participants using AAC, intervention approaches, and outcome measure characteristics, with more evidence available for participants less than 12 years of age, most of whom had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or intellectual/developmental disability. Aided AAC modeling, expectant delay, and open-ended question asking were the most frequently targeted communication partner interaction skills. Providing a descriptive overview, instructor modeling, guided practice, and role plays were the most frequently incorporated communication partner intervention activities within the included studies. PMID:26059542

  14. Technical Communication Internship Requirements in the Academic Economy: How We Compare among Ourselves and across Other Applied Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Gerald J.; Seible, Marcea K.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study of internship requirements in technical communication programs compared with three established professions and one emerging profession that have certification or licensing requirements for practitioners. The study addresses three questions about technical communication internship programs: 1) Are internships offered as…

  15. Developing Tools and Techniques to Increase Communication Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Linda A.; Peterson, Doug

    1997-01-01

    The Public Affairs Office (PAO) of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for communicating current JSC Space Program activities as well as goals and objectives to the American Public. As part of the 1996 Strategic Communications Plan, a review of PAO' s current communication procedures was conducted. The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellow performed research activities to support this effort by reviewing current research concerning NASA/JSC's customers' perceptions and interests, developing communications tools which enable PAO to more effectively inform JSC customers about the Space Program, and proposing a process for developing and using consistent messages throughout PAO. Note that this research does not attempt to change or influence customer perceptions or interests but, instead, incorporates current customer interests into PAO's communication process.

  16. Environmental effects of information and communications technologies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric

    2011-11-16

    The digital revolution affects the environment on several levels. Most directly, information and communications technology (ICT) has environmental impacts through the manufacturing, operation and disposal of devices and network equipment, but it also provides ways to mitigate energy use, for example through smart buildings and teleworking. At a broader system level, ICTs influence economic growth and bring about technological and societal change. Managing the direct impacts of ICTs is more complex than just producing efficient devices, owing to the energetically expensive manufacturing process, and the increasing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account.

  17. Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James

    2010-01-01

    NASA s communication work for the UAS Command and Control area will build upon work currently being conducted under NASA Recovery Act funds. Communication portions of UAS NextGen ConOps, Stateof- the-Art assessment, and Gap Analysis. Preliminary simulations for UAS CNPC link scalability assessment. Surrogate UAS aircraft upgrades. This work will also leverage FY10 in-guide funding for communication link model development. UAS are currently managed through exceptions and are operating using DoD frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Instrument/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for Safety and Regularity of Flight. No radio-frequency (RF) spectrum has been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) specifically for UAS command and control links, for either LOS or Beyond LOS (BLOS) communication.

  18. Health communications: nursing education for increased visibility and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, M

    2000-01-01

    The media play an influential role in American society. The challenge for health professionals, including nurses, is to translate and transmit complex health information for the public through many channels. Although nurses are trained to be effective communicators in practice, a recent study demonstrates that nurses are virtually invisible in the media. This lack of visibility limits nursing's ability to communicate important health information, impedes nursing's ability to define its role and contributions in the health care delivery system, and restricts nursing's ability to advocate for health policy. One option to improve nurses' ability to communicate effectively in all media venues is to integrate health communications content into nursing programs, which would provide nurses with the opportunity to develop advanced communication skills, media expertise, and new strategies for educating the public. Health communications programs exist in several colleges and universities, but not within nursing programs. Because nursing curricula are in a period of transition as changes in the health care environment are accommodated, health communications courses could be integrated into nursing programs as elective courses, graduate certificate programs, or a field of graduate study. Without creative educational strategies, nursing will remain invisible to the public and ineffective in its ability to influence the health care environment.

  19. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  20. Effective communication: the key to career success and great leadership.

    PubMed

    Michelman, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Good communication is the key to educating, creating, and negotiating with others, and is especially important for security professionals whose jobs involve dealing with an employee having problems, negotiating with another department to get something we need, educating our bosses about hardening our targets or trying to de-escalate a family or patient who is upset or out of control, the author points out. Developing your own communication style, based on your understanding of what is involved in effective communications, will stand you in good stead in succeeding as a leader and advancing your career, she says.

  1. [The paradoxical effect of persuasive communication in health education sessions].

    PubMed

    Piperini, Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the communication dynamics leading to the adoption of new attitudes and cognitions in health education sessions. We examined the verbal interactions at work in persuasive communication in 16 health education sessions. The study found that the medical expertise of the educator and the initial level of commitment of the participants had a positive effect on adherence to recommendations. However, persuasive communication in health education sessions appears to involve a paradoxical process in which criticism of the message can go hand in hand with the expression of an intention to implement new risk-reducing behaviors.

  2. Effective communications strategies: engaging the media, policymakers, and the public.

    PubMed

    Blake, Allison; Bonk, Kathy; Heimpel, Daniel; Wright, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Too often, strategic communication is too little, or comes too late, when involved with a child fatality or serious injury. This article explores the challenges arising from negative publicity around child safety issues and the opportunities for communications strategies that employ a proactive public health approach to engaging media, policymakers, and the public. The authors provide a case study and review methods by which child welfare agencies across the nation are building public engagement and support for improved outcomes in child safety while protecting legitimate confidentiality requirements. Finally, the piece articulates the rationale for agency investments in the resources necessary to develop and implement an effective communications plan. PMID:24199331

  3. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.

  4. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol

    2016-07-01

    ionosphere using IRI-Plas-G software. One of the outstanding features of IONOLAB-RAY is the opportunity of Global Ionospheric Map-Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC) assimilation. This feature enables more realistic representation of ionosphere, especially for the times when ionosphere deviates from the generalized models, such as during geomagnetic storms. This feature is critical to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals under ionospheric storm conditions. In this study TURKSAT satellite data is used to compare the results of IONOLAB-RAY and evaluate the effect of ionosphere. TURKSAT is one of the world's leading companies providing all sorts of satellite communications through the satellites of TURKSAT as well as the other satellites. Providing services for voice, data, internet, TV, and radio broadcasting through the satellites across a wide area extending from Europe to Asia. The latest satellite of TURKSAT, namely Turksat 4B was launched on October 2015, before that various versions of TURKSAT satellites are launched since 1994. In the future enlargement of broadcasting area towards equatorial region is aimed, where the ionospheric anomalies and storms are highly expected. In the future this study can be applied to the satellite signals in equatorial regions and effects of ionosphere especially under storm conditions can be discussed. This study is supported by TUBITAK 114E541, 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  5. Physician-patient argumentation and communication, comparing Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and American sociolinguistics.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Francisco Javier Uribe; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the application of theories of argumentation and communication to the field of medicine. Based on a literature review, the authors compare Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and the work of Todd and Fisher, derived from American sociolinguistics. These approaches were selected because they belong to the pragmatic field of language. The main results were: pragma-dialectics characterizes medical reasoning more comprehensively, highlighting specific elements of the three disciplines of argumentation: dialectics, rhetoric, and logic; Toulmin's model helps substantiate the declaration of diagnostic and therapeutic hypotheses, and as part of an interpretive medicine, approximates the pragma-dialectical approach by including dialectical elements in the process of formulating arguments; Fisher and Todd's approach allows characterizing, from a pragmatic analysis of speech acts, the degree of symmetry/asymmetry in the doctor-patient relationship, while arguing the possibility of negotiating treatment alternatives. PMID:26872234

  6. Physician-patient argumentation and communication, comparing Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and American sociolinguistics.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Francisco Javier Uribe; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the application of theories of argumentation and communication to the field of medicine. Based on a literature review, the authors compare Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and the work of Todd and Fisher, derived from American sociolinguistics. These approaches were selected because they belong to the pragmatic field of language. The main results were: pragma-dialectics characterizes medical reasoning more comprehensively, highlighting specific elements of the three disciplines of argumentation: dialectics, rhetoric, and logic; Toulmin's model helps substantiate the declaration of diagnostic and therapeutic hypotheses, and as part of an interpretive medicine, approximates the pragma-dialectical approach by including dialectical elements in the process of formulating arguments; Fisher and Todd's approach allows characterizing, from a pragmatic analysis of speech acts, the degree of symmetry/asymmetry in the doctor-patient relationship, while arguing the possibility of negotiating treatment alternatives.

  7. Effective communication skills are the key to good cancer care.

    PubMed

    Fallowfield, L; Jenkins, V

    1999-10-01

    Communication within oncology is a core clinical skill but one in which few oncologists or specialist cancer nurses have received much formal training. Inadequate communication may cause much distress for patients and their families, who often want considerably more information than is usually provided. Many patients leave consultations unsure about the diagnosis and prognosis, confused about the meaning of--and need for--further diagnostic tests, unclear about the management plan and uncertain about the true therapeutic intent of treatment. Additionally, communication difficulties may impede the recruitment of patients to clinical trials, delaying the introduction of efficacious new treatments into clinics. Lack of effective communication between specialists and departments can also cause confusion and a loss of confidence amongst the team. Oncologists themselves acknowledge that insufficient training in communication and management skills is a major factor contributing to their own stress, lack of job satisfaction and emotional burnout. Consequently, over the past few years there have been several initiatives aimed at improving basic communication skills training for healthcare professionals in the cancer field. In this paper, some of the issues that influence communication within an oncology setting, and ultimately affect patient care, are discussed. PMID:10673967

  8. The Effect of Communication Strategy Training on the Development of EFL Learners' Strategic Competence and Oral Communicative Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of communication strategy instruction on EFL students' oral communicative ability and their strategic competence. In a 14-week English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course (English Use II) based on Communicative Language Teaching approach, 80 learners were divided into two groups. The strategy training group (n = 44)…

  9. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Effects of Voice Output Communication Aids on the Communicative Interactions of Students with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepis, Maureen M.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a project that examined the acquisition and use of voice output communication aids in naturally occurring routines by four young children (ages 3-5) with autism. The effects of naturalistic teaching and the use of voice output communication aids (VOCAs) on communicative behaviors of the participants as well as…

  10. A Comparative Study of the Present and Ideal Roles of Communication Directors in Selected Business Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatshat, Hussein M.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the role of communication directors involved in internal communication activities in business organizations. Indicates that directors perform a variety of roles ranging from journalistic to advisory/support work. Proposes a functional role involved in determining major policies for communications systems. (JMF)

  11. Ideas for Effective Communication of Statistical Results

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-03-01

    Effective presentation of statistical results to those with less statistical training, including managers and decision-makers requires planning, anticipation and thoughtful delivery. Here are several recommendations for effectively presenting statistical results.

  12. Ocean environmental effects on walrus communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, Samuel L.

    between ambient noise level and source level was identified. The Lombard effect, the increase in source level in response to an increase in noise level has not previously been identified in any pinniped species. In both datasets, an increase of approximately 5 dB in source level was found for an increase in 10 dB of noise level. A propagation experiment was conducted to measure the transmission of an impulsive acoustic signal, similar to a walrus knock, from an underwater source through ice and into air. Peak to peak pressure measured in air was approximately 2,500 times lower than pressure measured in water separated by two meters of shorefast ice. The results from this experiment were used to verify the adequacy of a wavenumber integration acoustic propagation model for determining transmission loss in this multi-media environment. Propagation model environments were generated from historical ice thickness and oceanographic data. Modeled received signals were compared with walrus audiometric data to determine what factors impact signal detectability with source level, ice thickness, and range having the greatest impact. The findings of this work suggest that the underwater vocalizations of males making breeding vocalizations are received by females hauled out on ice at audible levels when the females are within a few hundred meters of the males. As the signals exceed the levels estimated to be perceived, these signals may play a role in mate selection by the females. If climate change affects the ice conditions, water depth, and bathymetry where walrus congregate for breeding, mate selection and therefore offspring fitness may be impacted.

  13. Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Wilson, K.; Sue, M. K.; Harcke, L. J.; Wilhelm, M.; Chen, C.-C.; Lesh, J.; Feria, Y.; Rascoe, D.; Lansing, F.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a study on telecommunication systems for a hypothetical mission to Mars. The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the benefits that microwave-X-band (8.4 GHz) and Ka-band (32 GHz) - and optical communications technologies a afford to future missions. The telecommunication systems were required to return data after launch and in orbit at 2.7 AU with daily data volumes of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 Gbits (Gb). Spacecraft terminals capable of delivering each of the three data volumes were proposed and characterized in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost. The estimated parameters for X-band, Ka-band, and optical frequencies are compared and presented here. For all cases, the optical light terminal exhibits about 60 percent of the mass of the corresponding radio frequency (RF) subsystem. Power consumption is comparable for all three technologies at a 0.1 Gb/day data volume, but the power required at either Ka-band or optical is less than half of the X-band requirement at 10 Gb/day. These benefits can be obtained only with a suitable investment in reception facilities for Ka-band or optical frequencies.

  14. The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosén, Annelie; Lekander, Mats; Jensen, Karin; Sachs, Lisbeth; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Enblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral) about the expected treatment outcome affected (i) participants' expectations and (ii) short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n = 243, mean age of 42) were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0–100 millimeters) were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p = 0.002). There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p = 0.022). Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials. PMID:26981138

  15. The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Annelie; Lekander, Mats; Jensen, Karin; Sachs, Lisbeth; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Enblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral) about the expected treatment outcome affected (i) participants' expectations and (ii) short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n = 243, mean age of 42) were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0-100 millimeters) were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p = 0.002). There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p = 0.022). Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials. PMID:26981138

  16. Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.

  17. Effective Nurse Communication With Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Bob C; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Rutten, Guy E H M; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    2015-08-01

    Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to nurse-patient communication and to review potentially effective communication methods. Important communication barriers are lack of skills and self-efficacy, possibly because nurses work in a context where they have to perform biomedical examinations and then perform patient-centered counseling from a biopsychosocial approach. Training in patient-centered counseling does not seem helpful in overcoming this paradox. Rather, patient-centeredness should be regarded as a basic condition for counseling, whereby nurses and patients seek to cooperate and share responsibility based on trust. Nurses may be more successful when incorporating behavior change counseling based on psychological principles of self-regulation, for example, goal setting, incremental performance accomplishments, and action planning.

  18. The effects of hands-free communication device systems: communication changes in hospital organizations

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joshua E; Ash, Joan S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects that hands-free communication device (HCD) systems have on healthcare organizations from multiple user perspectives. Design This exploratory qualitative study recruited 26 subjects from multiple departments in two research sites located in Portland, Oregon: an academic medical center and a community hospital. Interview and observation data were gathered January through March, 2007. Measurements Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Because this study was exploratory, data were coded and patterns identified until overall themes ‘emerged’. Results Five themes arose: (1) Communication access—the perception that HCD systems provide fast and efficient communication that supports workflow; (2) Control—social and technical considerations associated with use of an HCD system; (3) Training—processes that should be used to improve use of the HCD system; (4) Organizational change—changes to organizational design and behavior caused by HCD system implementation; and (5) Environment and infrastructure—HCD system use within the context of physical workspaces. Conclusion HCD systems improve communication access but users experience challenges integrating the system into workflow. Effective HCD use depends on how well organizations train users, adapt to changes brought about by HCD systems, and integrate HCD systems into physical surroundings. PMID:20064808

  19. The "Mozart Effect II" and Other Communication/Learning Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring the development of Communication and Learning Aids in all venues, particularly the effect of music on learning, several different tracks were followed. The therapeutic use of music is for relaxation and stress reduction, which apparently helps the body to access and discharge deeply locked-in material. The Mozart Effect track which…

  20. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  1. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants' motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants' actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual's level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27247671

  3. [The comparative study on parent-adolescent communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family].

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Shin, H S

    1990-12-31

    and to listen attentively to and respond to them, and so to increase their satisfaction for their parents. In conclusion, it seems that delinquent behavior is the outcome caused by dysfunctional communication between the parents and the child because of severe generation gap at adolescence period when the child needs communication with their parents. Therefore, it seems that the delinquent adolescent is the scape-goat of the family. Finally, it seems that more effective method to solve juvenile delinquents increasing day by day, is the family therapy that all family members participate than the individual therapy. PMID:2287168

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of STEMI Regionalization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Concannon, Thomas W.; Kent, David M.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Griffith, John L.; Cohen, Joshua; Beshansky, Joni R.; Wong, John B.; Aversano, Thomas; Selker, Harry P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is more effective on average than fibrinolytic therapy (FT) in the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Yet most U.S. hospitals are not equipped for PCI and FT is still widely used. This study evaluated the comparative effectiveness of STEMI regionalization strategies to increase the use of PCI against standard emergency transport and care. METHODS AND RESULTS We estimated incremental treatment costs and quality-adjusted life expectancies of 2,000 patients with STEMI who received PCI or FT in simulations of emergency care in a regional hospital system. To increase access to PCI across the system, we compared a base case strategy to 12 hospital-based strategies of building new PCI labs or extending the hours of existing labs, and one emergency medical services (EMS)-based strategy of transporting all patients with STEMI to existing PCI-capable hospitals. The base case resulted in 609 (569, 647) patients getting PCI. Hospital-based strategies increased the number of patients receiving PCI, the costs of care, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved, and were cost effective under a variety of conditions. An EMS-based strategy of transporting every patient to an existing PCI facility was less costly and more effective than all hospital expansion options. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that new construction and staffing of PCI labs may not be warranted if an EMS strategy is both available and feasible. PMID:20664025

  5. Teamwork and communication: an effective approach to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Sandhya; Santos, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Teamwork and communication failures are leading causes of patient safety incidents in health care. Though health care providers must work in teams, they are not well-trained in teamwork and communication skills. Health care faces the problems of differences in communication styles, communication failures and poor teamwork. There is enough evidence in the literature to show that communication failure is detrimental to patient safety. It is estimated that 80% of serious medical errors worldwide take place because of miscommunication between medical providers. NUH recognizes that effective communication and teamwork are essential in the delivery of high quality safe patient care, especially in a complex organization. NUH is a good example, where there is a rich mix of nationalities and races, in staff and in patients, and there is a rapidly expanding care environment. NUH had to overcome these challenges by adopting a multi-pronged approach. The trials and tribulations of NUH in this journey were worthwhile as the patient safety climate survey scores improved over the years.

  6. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  7. Improving outpatient safety through effective electronic communication: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Sawhney, Mona K; Wilson, Lindsey; Sittig, Dean F; Esquivel, Adol; Watford, Monica; Davis, Traber; Espadas, Donna; Singh, Hardeep

    2009-01-01

    Background Health information technology and electronic medical records (EMRs) are potentially powerful systems-based interventions to facilitate diagnosis and treatment because they ensure the delivery of key new findings and other health related information to the practitioner. However, effective communication involves more than just information transfer; despite a state of the art EMR system, communication breakdowns can still occur. [1-3] In this project, we will adapt a model developed by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) to understand and improve the relationship between work systems and processes of care involved with electronic communication in EMRs. We plan to study three communication activities in the Veterans Health Administration's (VA) EMR: electronic communication of abnormal imaging and laboratory test results via automated notifications (i.e., alerts); electronic referral requests; and provider-to-pharmacy communication via computerized provider order entry (CPOE). Aim Our specific aim is to propose a protocol to evaluate the systems and processes affecting outcomes of electronic communication in the computerized patient record system (related to diagnostic test results, electronic referral requests, and CPOE prescriptions) using a human factors engineering approach, and hence guide the development of interventions for work system redesign. Design This research will consist of multiple qualitative methods of task analysis to identify potential sources of error related to diagnostic test result alerts, electronic referral requests, and CPOE; this will be followed by a series of focus groups to identify barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving the electronic communication system. Transcripts from all task analyses and focus groups will be analyzed using methods adapted from grounded theory and content analysis. PMID:19781075

  8. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  9. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  10. Comparative angioprotective effects of magnesium compounds.

    PubMed

    Kharitonova, Maria; Iezhitsa, Igor; Zheltova, Anastasia; Ozerov, Alexander; Spasov, Alexander; Skalny, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is implicated in the development of numerous disorders of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, the data regarding the efficacy of different magnesium compounds in the correction of impaired functions due to low magnesium intake are often fragmentary and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the most bioavailable Mg compounds (Mg l-aspartate, Mg N-acetyltaurate, Mg chloride, Mg sulphate and Mg oxybutyrate) on systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in rats fed a low Mg diet for 74 days. A low Mg diet decreased the Mg concentration in the plasma and erythrocytes, which was accompanied by a reduced concentration of eNOs and increased levels of endothelin-1 level in the serum and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. These effects increased the concentration of proinflammatory molecules, such as VCAM-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP, indicating the development of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The increased total NO level, which estimated from the sum of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the serum, may also be considered to be a proinflammatory marker. Two weeks of Mg supplementation partially or fully normalised the ability of the vascular wall to effect adequate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and reversed the levels of most endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory markers (except CRP) to the mean values of the control group. Mg sulphate had the smallest effect on the endothelin-1, TNF-α and VCAM-1 levels. Mg N-acetyltaurate was significantly more effective in restoring the level of eNOS compared to all other studied compounds, except for Mg oxybutyrate. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that all Mg compounds equally alleviate endothelial dysfunction and inflammation caused by Mg deficiency. Mg sulphate tended to be the least effective compound.

  11. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media…

  12. Some Communication Effects of Charity Advertising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of advertising exposure to a variety of cognitive and affective variables in a nonprofit charity campaign. The study also tested the transactional model of advertising effects, which combines exposure, motivations, and gratifications for viewing. A sample of 350 adults was randomly selected and…

  13. Interpersonal Effects of a Suicidal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowgell, Virginia G.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates in a controlled setting effects of a suicide threat. Produced greater self-rated anxiety and tension, greater physiological arousal, and an increase in the likelihood that the subject would talk to the stimulus person about suicide, death, or dying. (Author)

  14. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  15. Commentary: Will academia embrace comparative effectiveness research?

    PubMed

    Lauer, Michael S

    2011-06-01

    In recent medical history, a number of therapies that were widely adopted based on observational data or pathophysiological constructs turned out to be useless or even harmful when tested in randomized comparative effectiveness trials. These therapies not only harmed patients but also did a disservice to the practical education of medical students, residents, and fellows. These trainees effectively learned that it is acceptable to implement practices even in the absence of high-quality evidence, and so they may not have learned how to analyze the quality of evidence. In this issue of Academic Medicine, seven groups address critical aspects of the intersection between comparative effectiveness research (CER) and academic medicine. Their topics include the need at academic health centers for cultural shifts, for addressing conflicts of interest, for exploiting academic talent and electronic information resources, for interacting well with policy makers, for incorporating economic evaluations, for incorporating tests of educational methods, for developing multidisciplinary models, and for integrating CER into "predictive health." This commentary argues that academia must embrace CER by insisting on the highest levels of evidence, by viewing all clinical interactions as opportunities for scientific advancement, by setting an example for policy makers and colleagues working in nonacademic settings, and by engaging all physicians in the clinical research enterprise. PMID:21613887

  16. The Effects of Print Comparative Political Advertising on Political Decision-Making and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkleton, Bruce E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines intended and unintended effects of print comparative political advertising on political decision making, voting preferences, and situational election involvement among a sample of communication and business undergraduate students. Suggests that comparative advertising reduces targeted-candidate voting preferences while avoiding most forms…

  17. The Effects of Hands Free Communication Devices on Clinical Communication: Balancing Communication Access Needs with User Control

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joshua E.; Ash, Joan S.

    2008-01-01

    Hands Free Communication Device (HFCD) systems are a relatively new information and communication technology. HFCD systems enable clinicians to directly contact and communicate with one another using wearable, voice-controlled badges that are VoIP-based (voice-over IP) and are linked to one another over a wireless local area network (WLAN). This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory, multiple perspectives approach to understand how the use of HFCDs affected communication in the hospitals that implemented them. The study generated five themes revolving around HFCDs’ impact on communication. This paper specifically focuses on two of those themes: Communication Access and Control. PMID:18999046

  18. Intercultural communication between patients and health care providers: an exploration of intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural sensitivity, stress, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ulrey, K L; Amason, P

    2001-01-01

    Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication. PMID:11771806

  19. Comparing Discussion and Lecture Pedagogy When Teaching Oral Communication in Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Yao

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, oral communication skills are increasingly important for business graduates who will start their careers. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discover the best method to help business students enhance their oral communication skills during their college years. This research also helps professors to make their…

  20. Essays in Comparative Popular Culture: Coffee, Comics, and Communication. Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Hidetoshi

    Based on papers presented at the East-West Communication Institute conferences and seminars in Hawaii between 1973 and 1975, these five essays focus on intercultural communication, emphasizing that popular culture existed with great diversity for centuries before modern media and that popular cultures have importance and impact on the everyday…

  1. Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-12-07

    A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer’s diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer’s propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer’s axis. The corresponding swimmer’s diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed.

  2. The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

  3. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  4. Effective Communication with Cultural Heritage Using Virtual Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffat, R. M.; Nofal, E. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cultural heritage is neither static nor stable. There is a need to explore ways for effectively communicating with cultural heritage to tourists and society at large, in an age of immediacy, a time of multiple realities and to multi-cultural tourists. It is vital to consider cultural heritage as a creative and relational process where places and communities are constantly remade through creative performance. The paper introduces virtual technologies as an approach to attain effective communication with cultural heritage. This approach emphasizes the importance of "user, content and context" in guiding the production of virtual heritage, as opposed to technology being the sole motivator. It addresses how these three issues in virtual heritage need to be transformed from merely representing quantitative data towards cultural information using the proposed effective communication triangle through representing meaningful relationships between cultural heritage elements, users and context. The paper offers a focused articulation of a proposed computational platform of "interactive, personalized and contextual-based navigation" with Egyptian heritage monuments as a one step forward towards achieving effective communication with Egyptian cultural heritage.

  5. The Effects of Group Longevity on Project Communication and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ralph

    1982-01-01

    Research on 50 project groups in a large corporation's research and development facility examined the effect of group longevity and project characteristics on internal and external communication and project performance. Results indicate that projects became increasingly isolated, adversely affecting technical performance the longer project members…

  6. Terminology Revisited: Effective Communications for the Agricultural Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA, particularly on small farms. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information as effectively as possible. Many...

  7. Structured Communication: Effects on Teaching Efficacy of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Don W.; Roberts, T. Grady; Murphy, Tim H.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching efficacy beliefs of agricultural science student teachers during field experiences may affect the number of student teachers entering the profession. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects implementing structured communication between cooperating teachers and student teachers would have on student teachers' self-perceived…

  8. Toward a Standard of Communication Training Effectiveness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Matthew D.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    Communication training efforts in American business have increased steadily for the past several years. While this increase may be viewed as positive from several vantage points, it has not been matched by an increase in any systematic application of evaluation measures. Effective evaluation should take place at various levels. D. L. Kirkpatrick…

  9. Learning the Intricacies of Effective Communication through Game Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    As many teachers of communication come to realize, students often operate under the misconception that the effective use of language consists primarily of memorizing and applying the rules and regulations of grammar. Even worse, some students believe that they must inherit a talent for language and that without a genetic predisposition, they can…

  10. Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

    PubMed

    Futter, Martyn N; Högbom, Lars; Valinia, Salar; Sponseller, Ryan A; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle.

  11. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Davison, Jeannie; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Recent research on communication and performance in airline flight crews has led to a concept of shared mental models that is associated with effective, efficient team coordination in problem solving and decision making situations. Elements that characterize efficient communication have been identified. This research, however, was based strictly on US crews. More recent studies supported by NASA have identified cultural factors that influence communication among team members who vary in their status and roles. Research is just beginning to identify commonalities and culturally distinct strategies for accomplishing joint tasks. ASRS incident reports have been analyzed to identify language barriers in flight that have safety consequences. Implications of these concepts and findings for multi-cultural command and control will be explored.

  12. Effective Strategies to Communicate Modeling with Project Regulators and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, C.; Moser, K.; Bratton, W.

    2008-12-01

    Modeling is commonly used to support environmental project decision making. A notable example of the role of groundwater flow, fate, and transport modeling is to support the CERCLA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Modeling within an RI/FS is often used to evaluate new sampling locations, or to support evaluation of potential groundwater remedial technologies. Modeling used in these efforts ranges from simple to complex, and often must fit within a variety of state and federal regulations. Project stakeholder understanding and familiarity with model tools and application ranges broadly. Effective communication of the purpose, expected outcomes, strengths, limitations, and uncertainties of modeling efforts with regulators and project stakeholders is critical to successfully support project needs. Effective communication begins prior to the implementation of modeling efforts and should continue throughout the lifecycle of the modeling project. Communication efforts should include regular project workshops to keep stakeholders apprised of modeling progress. Regular communication throughout the modeling lifecycle provides a more technically and cost effective final product due to consideration of stakeholder concerns throughout the modeling effort through information exchange and negotiation, rather than at the end of the project, when it is often too late in the process or too expensive to change course and meet project milestones.

  13. Focus on Communicating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to communicate effectively using descriptive words and comparative statements are described. Two task cards involving descriptions of experiments investigating air pressure are included. (MT)

  14. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often

  15. Comparative effectiveness research and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D

    2010-12-01

    As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided.

  16. Communication Skills in Dental Students: New Data Regarding Retention and Generalization of Training Effects.

    PubMed

    Broder, Hillary L; Janal, Malvin; Mitnick, Danielle M; Rodriguez, Jasmine Y; Sischo, Lacey

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that a communications program using patient instructors (PIs) facilitates data-gathering and interpersonal skills of third-year dental students. The aim of this study was to address the question of whether those skills are retained into the students' fourth year and generalized from the classroom to the clinic. In the formative training phase, three cohorts of D3 students (N=1,038) at one dental school received instruction regarding effective patient-doctor communication; interviewed three PIs and received PI feedback; and participated in a reflective seminar with a behavioral science instructor. In the follow-up competency phase, fourth-year students performed two new patient interviews in the clinic that were observed and evaluated by clinical dental faculty members trained in communications. Mean scores on a standardized communications rating scale and data-gathering assessment were compared over training and follow-up sessions and between cohorts with a linear mixed model. The analysis showed that the third-year students' mean communication and data-gathering scores increased with each additional encounter with a PI (p<0.05) and that communication scores were not only maintained but increased during the fourth-year follow-up competency evaluations (p<0.05). Based on changes in the communications curriculum, prior instruction facilitated the students' clinical communication performance at baseline (p<0.05). This study suggests that the current Clinical Communications program improved students' data-gathering and interpersonal skills. Those skills were maintained and generalized through completion of the D4 students' summative competency performance in a clinical setting.

  17. Involvement, Discrepancy, and Order of Presentation Effects on Attitude Change, Communication Displacement, and Communicator Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yontef, Gary M.; White, Glenn M.

    Male subjects holding extreme positions on an aggressive-submissive continuum were trichotomized into involvement levels and received an aggressive communication and a submissive communication in one of two orders. The 144 subjects estimated each communicator's position, judged each communicator on Semantic Differential scales, and then…

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis for health communication programs.

    PubMed

    Guilkey, David K; Hutchinson, Paul; Lance, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes methods for analyzing the cost-effectiveness of health communication programs, focusing in particular on estimating program effectiveness with econometric methods that address experimental and quasi-experimental designs (and their absence), national or subnational program coverage, and endogenously targeting of programs. Experimental designs provide a gold standard for assessing effectiveness but are seldom feasible for large-scale health communication programs. Even in the absence of such designs, however, fairly simple methods can be used to examine intermediate objectives, such as program reach, which in turn can be linked to program costs to estimate cost effectiveness. When moving beyond program reach to behavioral or other outcome measures, such as contraceptive use or fertility, or when faced with full-coverage national programs, more elaborate data and methods are required. We discuss data requirements and assumptions necessary in each case, focusing on single-equation multiple regression models, structural equations models, and fixed effects estimators for use with longitudinal data, and then describing how cost information can be incorporated into econometric models so as to get measures of the cost-effectiveness of communication interventions.

  19. Analysis of variance of communication latencies in anesthesia: comparing means of multiple log-normal distributions.

    PubMed

    Ledolter, Johannes; Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-10-01

    Anesthesiologists rely on communication over periods of minutes. The analysis of latencies between when messages are sent and responses obtained is an essential component of practical and regulatory assessment of clinical and managerial decision-support systems. Latency data including times for anesthesia providers to respond to messages have moderate (> n = 20) sample sizes, large coefficients of variation (e.g., 0.60 to 2.50), and heterogeneous coefficients of variation among groups. Highly inaccurate results are obtained both by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the time scale or by performing it in the log scale and then taking the exponential of the result. To overcome these difficulties, one can perform calculation of P values and confidence intervals for mean latencies based on log-normal distributions using generalized pivotal methods. In addition, fixed-effects 2-way ANOVAs can be extended to the comparison of means of log-normal distributions. Pivotal inference does not assume that the coefficients of variation of the studied log-normal distributions are the same, and can be used to assess the proportional effects of 2 factors and their interaction. Latency data can also include a human behavioral component (e.g., complete other activity first), resulting in a bimodal distribution in the log-domain (i.e., a mixture of distributions). An ANOVA can be performed on a homogeneous segment of the data, followed by a single group analysis applied to all or portions of the data using a robust method, insensitive to the probability distribution.

  20. How Women Are Faring as the Dust Settles: The Effect of Gender on Journalism/Mass Communication Evaluations in a Communication Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueck, Therese L.; And Others

    A study examined the difference and effects of sex and sex-role on course evaluations of journalism/mass communication instructors at a midwestern university that had recently consolidated its school of communication and its journalism/mass communication courses. Subjects, students in 18 communication or journalism/mass communication classes…

  1. Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S.; Tomaselli, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms. Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to “ideal” as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the “ideal” dressing may be chosen. Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail. PMID:25126472

  2. Effects of Implementing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Communication Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Carl G.; Mayer, G. Roy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training, using a multiple baseline design on the independent initiations of three adults with developmental disabilities and severe communication deficits. All participants increased their independent initiations, although at different levels of…

  3. Effective Communication and File-I/O Bandwidth Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A E; Rabenseifner, R

    2001-05-02

    We describe the design and MPI implementation of two benchmarks created to characterize the balanced system performance of high-performance clusters and supercomputers: b{_}eff, the communication-specific benchmark examines the parallel message passing performance of a system, and b{_}eff{_}io, which characterizes the effective 1/0 bandwidth. Both benchmarks have two goals: (a) to get a detailed insight into the Performance strengths and weaknesses of different parallel communication and I/O patterns, and based on this, (b) to obtain a single bandwidth number that characterizes the average performance of the system namely communication and 1/0 bandwidth. Both benchmarks use a time driven approach and loop over a variety of communication and access patterns to characterize a system in an automated fashion. Results of the two benchmarks are given for several systems including IBM SPs, Cray T3E, NEC SX-5, and Hitachi SR 8000. After a redesign of b{_}eff{_}io, I/O bandwidth results for several compute partition sizes are achieved in an appropriate time for rapid benchmarking.

  4. Comparative sporicidal effects of liquid chemical agents.

    PubMed Central

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    1996-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, cupric ascorbate (plus a sublethal amount of hydrogen peroxide), sodium hypochlorite, and phenol to inactivate Bacillus subtilis spores under various conditions. Each chemical agent was distinctly affected by pH, storage time after activation, dilution, and temperature. Only three of the preparations (hypochlorite, peracetic acid, and cupric ascorbate) studied here inactivated more than 99.9% of the spore load after a 30-min incubation at 20 degrees C at concentrations generally used to decontaminate medical devices. Under similar conditions, glutaraldehyde inactivated approximately 90%, and hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, and phenol produced little killing of spores in suspension. By kinetic analysis at different temperatures, we calculated the rate of spore inactivation (k) and the activation energy of spore killing (delta E) for each chemical agent. Rates of spore inactivation had a similar delta E value of approximately 20 kcal/mol (ca.83.68 kJ/mol) for every substance tested. The variation among k values allowed a quantitative comparison of liquid germicidal agents. PMID:8593054

  5. Effects of noise and workload on a communication task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrell, D. H., II

    1985-05-01

    Communication is of vital importance in the cockpit today. It is essential for pilots to be able to understand the messages sent to them. A major requirement of any aircraft voice communication system is the ability to deliver intelligible speech. In a loose sense, intelligibility may be defined as the understanding of spoken words (Webster, 1979). Several language factors affect intelligibility including vocabulary size, word frequency (familiarity) effects, number of response alternatives, number of syllables, phonetic elements and context (Webster, 1972). Other external considerations include equipment or design features and environment (Webster and Allen, 1972). With such a wide range of sources of influence, it is easy to understand the need for a reliable intelligibility test. One such test found to be particularly useful in studying the effects of aircraft noise has been the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT).

  6. [Neurogenic communication disorders: how effective are relaxation therapy and acupuncture?].

    PubMed

    Ptok, M

    2008-12-01

    Not only neurologists but also ENT-physicians and phoniatricians have to prescribe speech and language therapy for patients with communication disorders. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained increasing popularity among patients. Many studies have investigated these procedures and positive effects on certain physical e. g., chronic pain and anxiety disorders could be validated. Unfortunately only few empirical investigations have targeted the use of CAM to treat neurogenic disorders of communication or cognition. In this review we provide an overview over general therapeutical principals of two widely used approaches, relaxation therapy and acupuncture. Then we survey the literature and summarize existent research literature regarding the effects of the treatment of neurogenic disorders including dementia.

  7. Evaluation methodology for comparing memory and communication of analytic processes in visual analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric D; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Provenance tools can help capture and represent the history of analytic processes. In addition to supporting analytic performance, provenance tools can be used to support memory of the process and communication of the steps to others. Objective evaluation methods are needed to evaluate how well provenance tools support analyst s memory and communication of analytic processes. In this paper, we present several methods for the evaluation of process memory, and we discuss the advantages and limitations of each. We discuss methods for determining a baseline process for comparison, and we describe various methods that can be used to elicit process recall, step ordering, and time estimations. Additionally, we discuss methods for conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses of process memory. By organizing possible memory evaluation methods and providing a meta-analysis of the potential benefits and drawbacks of different approaches, this paper can inform study design and encourage objective evaluation of process memory and communication.

  8. Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Ralph, Timothy C.; Fuentes, Ivette; Jennewein, Thomas; Razavi, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the consequences of space-time being curved on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore adding additional noise to the channel for the transmission of information. The effects could be measured with current technology.

  9. Methods of alleviation of ionospheric scintillation effects on digital communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The degradation of the performance of digital communication systems because of ionospheric scintillation effects can be reduced either by diversity techniques or by coding. The effectiveness of traditional space-diversity, frequency-diversity and time-diversity techniques is reviewed and design considerations isolated. Time-diversity signaling is then treated as an extremely simple form of coding. More advanced coding methods, such as diffuse threshold decoding and burst-trapping decoding, which appear attractive in combatting scintillation effects are discussed and design considerations noted. Finally, adaptive coding techniques appropriate when the general state of the channel is known are discussed.

  10. Ethical pitfalls in neonatal comparative effectiveness trials.

    PubMed

    Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine has been embraced wholeheartedly, and rightly so, as the best approach for reducing clinical uncertainty and ensuring that patients receive treatment and care that are efficacious (i.e. they work) and effective (i.e. they work in real life). High-quality evidence comes from high-quality clinical research. It would hence be reasonable to assume that these two would form a closely integrated partnership. Alas, this is not yet the case. So many uncertainties in medical care relate to treatments and practices already widely in use. In neonatal medicine, for example, some of us use protein-carbohydrate fortification of human milk and some of us do not, some of us stop enteral feeds during blood transfusions whereas some of us do not, some of us reach for dopamine when blood pressure falls while some of us use dobutamine. For our patients, these uncertainties represent a lottery, the throw of the dice that determines whether they receive the treatment advocated by Dr. A or Dr. B. They deserve better than this. Randomization is considered the gold standard approach to eliminating the clinician bias that very often dominates the choice of treatments. Randomization reduces the influence on outcomes of confounding by unknown factors, and ensures that every patient has a fair and equal chance of receiving the best possible treatment when this is, in fact, not known. In an ideal world, every medical uncertainty would be addressed in this way. The evaluation of treatments that are in accepted use has been termed 'comparative effectiveness research', i.e. the comparison of existing healthcare interventions to determine which works best, for whom and under which circumstances. Recently a long-standing uncertainty, the optimum saturation target for preterm babies receiving oxygen was put to the test of randomization. The accepted standard-of-care saturation range of 85-95% has been used for a considerable time and its use is intended to avoid both levels of

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  12. Comparing the NRC and the Faculty Hiring Network Methods of Ranking Doctoral Programs in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, George A.; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examines the relationship between measures (R-scores, S-scores, faculty productivity) utilized in the recently published National Research Council NRC report and communication doctoral programs' centrality in the faculty-hiring network. Correlations among the network indicators and the NRC ratings were generally moderate and…

  13. Information and Communication Technology in the International Business Classroom: Comparing Faculty and Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deusen, Cheryl A.; Jones, Gordon; Mueller, Carolyn B.; Ricks, David A.; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

    2004-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is revolutionizing traditional educational methods in university contexts and changing the process of how educators do their jobs. However, research offers conflicting views regarding the benefits of ICT in the classroom. To better understand the various advantages and disadvantages of…

  14. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication.

  15. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication. PMID:27179915

  16. Investigating effects of communications modulation technique on targeting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Eusebio, Gerald; Huling, Edward

    2006-05-01

    One of the key challenges facing the global war on terrorism (GWOT) and urban operations is the increased need for rapid and diverse information from distributed sources. For users to get adequate information on target types and movements, they would need reliable data. In order to facilitate reliable computational intelligence, we seek to explore the communication modulation tradeoffs affecting information distribution and accumulation. In this analysis, we explore the modulation techniques of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), and statistical time-division multiple access (TDMA) as a function of the bit error rate and jitter that affect targeting performance. In the analysis, we simulate a Link 16 with a simple bandpass frequency shift keying (PSK) technique using different Signal-to-Noise ratios. The communications transfer delay and accuracy tradeoffs are assessed as to the effects incurred in targeting performance.

  17. The effect of social marketing communication on safe driving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lin, Wan-Chen; Lo, Jyue-Yu

    2011-12-01

    Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed. PMID:22420109

  18. The effect of social marketing communication on safe driving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lin, Wan-Chen; Lo, Jyue-Yu

    2011-12-01

    Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed.

  19. A comparative analysis of communication about sex, health and sexual health in India and South Africa: Implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Helen; Wood, Kate

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of modes of dialogue, non-verbal communication and embodied action relating to sex and health in two contrasting countries-India and South Africa-which have the world's two most heavily HIV-affected populations (in terms of numbers of people living with HIV). Drawing on material derived from multiple studies, including ethnographic and other forms of qualitative and multi-disciplinary research, the paper identifies commonalities as well as differences in communication relating to sex and sexual health in these diverse settings. The paper considers: first, how and by whom sex is and is not talked about, in public discourse and private conversation; second, how sexual intention and desire are communicated through indirect, non-verbal means in everyday life; and third, how references to sexuality and the sexual body re-enter within a more explicit set of indigenous discourses about health (rather than 'sexual health' per se), such as semen loss in India and womb 'dirtiness' in South Africa. The concluding section reflects on the implications of a comparative analysis such as this for current policy emphases on the importance of promoting verbal communication skills as part of 'life skills' for HIV prevention. PMID:16864220

  20. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  1. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. Methods This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed

  2. The BigCAT: A Normative and Comparative Investigation of the Communication Attitude of Nonstuttering and Stuttering Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to provide normative and comparative data for the BigCAT, the adult form of the Communication Attitude Test, a sub-test of the Behavior Assessment Battery. The BigCAT, a 35-item self-report test of speech-associated attitude was administered to 96 adults who stutter (PWS) and 216 adults who do not (PWNS). The…

  3. Commentary: improving the quality and effectiveness of IUHPE communications: work plan 2007--2010.

    PubMed

    Perry, Martha W; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2008-06-01

    The article presents the work plan of the IUHPE Communications portfolio during the present term of the Vice-President for communications in the IUHPE Board of Trustees (2007-10). The plan has been put together after a comprehensive review of the existing IUHPE communications areas. The result is a plan that aims to provide overarching support for the development of the organisation. In the plan, existing IUHPE communication tools are strengthened to respond better to today's communications' aims and objectives; while new tools are designed to make an impact through all communications' channels. The quality and effectiveness of these tools will contribute to shape a sustainable communications strategy and priorities.

  4. The effectiveness of the installation of a mobile voice communication system in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Eisuke; Fujiki, Tadayoshi; Nakakuni, Hideaki; Sullivan, Corbet Vernon

    2006-04-01

    In large hospitals, collaborative clinical practice is currently emphasized, with members of various departments expected to work as a team. The importance of accurate communication among the team members is of utmost importance. To improve such communication, the introduction of mobile voice communication systems has received much attention in Japan. Shimane University Hospital also introduced a Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) for doctors. In the traditional setting, much time was wasted searching for doctors through multiple calls on fixed-line telephones. In order to measure the effectiveness of our system, the change in the number of calls made on fixed-line telephones before and after PHS installation was compared. The total number of calls was reduced by more than 35%, and the number of calls to the wards on weekdays was reduced by half. Mobile telecommunication systems with small output power, such as PHS, are known to cause little interference with medical devices which makes it possible to use mobile voice communication safely in hospitals. The improvement in communication by this systems resulted in an improvement in labor efficiency.

  5. Effect of the vegetarian diet on non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo

    2014-01-30

    A vegetarian diet generally includes plenty of vegetables and fruits, which are rich in phytochemicals, antioxidants, fiber, magnesium, vitamins C and E, Fe³⁺, folic acid and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and is low in cholesterol, total fat and saturated fatty acid, sodium, Fe²⁺, zinc, vitamin A, B₁₂ and D, and especially n-3 PUFA. Mortality from all-cause, ischemic heart disease, and circulatory and cerebrovascular diseases was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivorous populations. Compared with omnivores, the incidence of cancer and type 2 diabetes was also significantly lower in vegetarians. However, vegetarians have a number of increased risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as increased plasma homocysteine, mean platelet volume and platelet aggregability compared with omnivores, which are associated with low intake of vitamin B₁₂ and n-3 PUFA. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for vegetarians to carefully design their diet, specifically focusing on increasing their intake of vitamin B₁₂ and n-3 PUFA to further reduce already low mortality and morbidity from non-communicable diseases.

  6. The effect of communication and implicit associations on consuming insects: An experiment in Denmark and Italy.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Fabio; La Barbera, Francesco; Kolle, Susanne; Amato, Mario; Del Giudice, Teresa; Grunert, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    It has been widely noted that the introduction of insects in Westerns' diet might be a promising path towards a more sustainable food consumption. However, Westerns' are almost disgusted and sceptical about the eating of insects. In the current paper we report the results of an experiment conducted in two European countries-Denmark and Italy-different for food culture and familiarity with the topic of eating insects. We investigated the possibility to foster people's willingness to eat insect-based food through communication, also comparing messages based on individual vs. societal benefits of the eating of insects. Communication proved to be effective on intention and behaviour, and the societal message appeared to be more robust over time. The communication effect is significant across nation, gender, and previous knowledge about the topic. In addition, we investigated the impact of non-conscious negative associations with insects on the choice to eat vs. not eat insect-based food. Implicit attitudes proved to be a powerful factor in relation to behaviour, yet they did not impede the effectiveness of communication. PMID:26855371

  7. The effect of communication and implicit associations on consuming insects: An experiment in Denmark and Italy.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Fabio; La Barbera, Francesco; Kolle, Susanne; Amato, Mario; Del Giudice, Teresa; Grunert, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    It has been widely noted that the introduction of insects in Westerns' diet might be a promising path towards a more sustainable food consumption. However, Westerns' are almost disgusted and sceptical about the eating of insects. In the current paper we report the results of an experiment conducted in two European countries-Denmark and Italy-different for food culture and familiarity with the topic of eating insects. We investigated the possibility to foster people's willingness to eat insect-based food through communication, also comparing messages based on individual vs. societal benefits of the eating of insects. Communication proved to be effective on intention and behaviour, and the societal message appeared to be more robust over time. The communication effect is significant across nation, gender, and previous knowledge about the topic. In addition, we investigated the impact of non-conscious negative associations with insects on the choice to eat vs. not eat insect-based food. Implicit attitudes proved to be a powerful factor in relation to behaviour, yet they did not impede the effectiveness of communication.

  8. Comparing Sexuality Communication Among Offspring of Teen Parents and Adult Parents: a Different Role for Extended Family

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Allison J.; Richer, Amanda M.; Erkut, Sumru

    2016-01-01

    This brief report examined teenagers’ sexuality communication with their parents and extended families. It compared who teens of early parents (those who had children when they were adolescents) and teens of later parents (those who were adults when they had children) talk to about sex. Eighth grade students (N=1281) in 24 schools completed survey items about their communication about sex. Structural equation modeling was used to predict communication profiles, while adjusting for the nesting of students within schools. After controlling for teens’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, grades, parent/guardian closeness, and social desirability of survey responses, as well as family status and median family income, results showed that teens of early (teen) parents were more likely than teens of later (adult) parents to talk with both parents and extended family about sex and less likely than later parents to talk only with parents. These findings indicate that realities of teen sexuality communication for teens of early parents may extend beyond a parent-teen model to include extended family. Extended family involvement in educational outreach is a potential untapped resource to support sexual health for teens of early parents. PMID:27499816

  9. Quasi-Experiment Study on Effectiveness Evaluation of Health Communication Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study examined differences in doctor-patient relationships according to the health communication strategies during cases of medical malpractices occurred at primary medical institution. A total of 116 subjects aged in their 20s-50s was sampled. The first medical malpractice scenario chosen was the medical malpractice case most frequently registered at the Korean Medical Association Mutual Aid and the second scenario was associated with materials and devices as the cause of malpractice. Four types of crisis communication strategy messages were utilized, consisting of denial, denial + ingratiation, apology, and apology + ingratiation. Subjects were classified into four research groups by crisis communication strategy to measure levels of trust, control mutuality, commitment, and satisfaction, before and after the occurrence of medical malpractice and application of communication strategies. The findings of this study revealed that the apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, showed a smaller difference before and after the application of communication strategies in all variables of trust (F = 8.080, F = 5.768), control mutuality (F = 8.824, F = 9.081), commitment (F = 9.815, F = 8.301), and satisfaction (F = 8.723, F = 5.638). Further, a significant interaction effect was shown between variables. The apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, was effective in the improvement of doctor-patient relationships in both Scenarios I and II. For Scenario I, the apology strategy without ingratiation boosted commitment and satisfaction, but for Scenario II, utilizing the apology strategy with ingratiation boosted the effectiveness of trust and commitment. PMID:27365998

  10. Quasi-Experiment Study on Effectiveness Evaluation of Health Communication Strategies.

    PubMed

    Song, Dae Jong; Choi, Jae Wook; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Min Soo; Moon, Jiwon Monica

    2016-07-01

    This experimental study examined differences in doctor-patient relationships according to the health communication strategies during cases of medical malpractices occurred at primary medical institution. A total of 116 subjects aged in their 20s-50s was sampled. The first medical malpractice scenario chosen was the medical malpractice case most frequently registered at the Korean Medical Association Mutual Aid and the second scenario was associated with materials and devices as the cause of malpractice. Four types of crisis communication strategy messages were utilized, consisting of denial, denial + ingratiation, apology, and apology + ingratiation. Subjects were classified into four research groups by crisis communication strategy to measure levels of trust, control mutuality, commitment, and satisfaction, before and after the occurrence of medical malpractice and application of communication strategies. The findings of this study revealed that the apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, showed a smaller difference before and after the application of communication strategies in all variables of trust (F = 8.080, F = 5.768), control mutuality (F = 8.824, F = 9.081), commitment (F = 9.815, F = 8.301), and satisfaction (F = 8.723, F = 5.638). Further, a significant interaction effect was shown between variables. The apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, was effective in the improvement of doctor-patient relationships in both Scenarios I and II. For Scenario I, the apology strategy without ingratiation boosted commitment and satisfaction, but for Scenario II, utilizing the apology strategy with ingratiation boosted the effectiveness of trust and commitment. PMID:27365998

  11. Quasi-Experiment Study on Effectiveness Evaluation of Health Communication Strategies.

    PubMed

    Song, Dae Jong; Choi, Jae Wook; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Min Soo; Moon, Jiwon Monica

    2016-07-01

    This experimental study examined differences in doctor-patient relationships according to the health communication strategies during cases of medical malpractices occurred at primary medical institution. A total of 116 subjects aged in their 20s-50s was sampled. The first medical malpractice scenario chosen was the medical malpractice case most frequently registered at the Korean Medical Association Mutual Aid and the second scenario was associated with materials and devices as the cause of malpractice. Four types of crisis communication strategy messages were utilized, consisting of denial, denial + ingratiation, apology, and apology + ingratiation. Subjects were classified into four research groups by crisis communication strategy to measure levels of trust, control mutuality, commitment, and satisfaction, before and after the occurrence of medical malpractice and application of communication strategies. The findings of this study revealed that the apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, showed a smaller difference before and after the application of communication strategies in all variables of trust (F = 8.080, F = 5.768), control mutuality (F = 8.824, F = 9.081), commitment (F = 9.815, F = 8.301), and satisfaction (F = 8.723, F = 5.638). Further, a significant interaction effect was shown between variables. The apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, was effective in the improvement of doctor-patient relationships in both Scenarios I and II. For Scenario I, the apology strategy without ingratiation boosted commitment and satisfaction, but for Scenario II, utilizing the apology strategy with ingratiation boosted the effectiveness of trust and commitment.

  12. The effect of pause time upon the communicative interactions of young people who use augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Hilary; Sutherland, Dean; McAuliffe, Megan

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of variation in partner-initiated pause time on the expressive communication of young people who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Eight participants aged 8;11-20;08 years (mean 16;02 years) participated in the study. Three pause time conditions (2, 10, and 45 seconds) were trialled during a scripted shared storybook reading task. A total of 27 turn opportunities were provided for participants during the task. Participant interactions were analysed for the percentage of responses made to a turn opportunity, mean length of utterance in words (MLU), percentage of assertive conversational acts made, and the modes of communication used. Findings indicated that participants were more likely to respond to a turn opportunity when their communication partner provided a longer pause time. Additionally, a longer pause time resulted in longer MLUs. Participants did not use more assertive conversational acts and continued to use a variety of communication modes when provided with a longer pause time. Results indicate that increasing pause time is an effective strategy to support the development of expressive communication for young people who use AAC. This suggests the need for professionals providing AAC services to encourage communication partners to provide extended pauses during interactions. PMID:21888558

  13. The effect of pause time upon the communicative interactions of young people who use augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Hilary; Sutherland, Dean; McAuliffe, Megan

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of variation in partner-initiated pause time on the expressive communication of young people who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Eight participants aged 8;11-20;08 years (mean 16;02 years) participated in the study. Three pause time conditions (2, 10, and 45 seconds) were trialled during a scripted shared storybook reading task. A total of 27 turn opportunities were provided for participants during the task. Participant interactions were analysed for the percentage of responses made to a turn opportunity, mean length of utterance in words (MLU), percentage of assertive conversational acts made, and the modes of communication used. Findings indicated that participants were more likely to respond to a turn opportunity when their communication partner provided a longer pause time. Additionally, a longer pause time resulted in longer MLUs. Participants did not use more assertive conversational acts and continued to use a variety of communication modes when provided with a longer pause time. Results indicate that increasing pause time is an effective strategy to support the development of expressive communication for young people who use AAC. This suggests the need for professionals providing AAC services to encourage communication partners to provide extended pauses during interactions.

  14. Effect of attenuation models on communication system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Fred I.

    1995-01-01

    The atmosphere has a significant impact on the design of a global communication system operating at 20 GHz. The system under consideration has a total atmospheric link attenuation budget that is less than 6 dB. For this relatively small link margin, rain, cloud, and molecular attenuation have to be taken into account. For an assessment of system performance on a global basis, attenuation models are utilized. There is concern whether current models can adequately describe the atmospheric effects such that a system planner can properly allocate his resources for superior overall system performance. The atmospheric attenuation as predicted by models will be examined.

  15. Effect of digital scrambling on satellite communication links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessouky, K.

    1985-01-01

    Digital data scrambling has been considered for communication systems using NRZ symbol formats. The purpose is to increase the number of transitions in the data to improve the performance of the symbol synchronizer. This is accomplished without expanding the bandwidth but at the expense of increasing the data bit error rate (BER). Models for the scramblers/descramblers of practical interest are presented together with the appropriate link model. The effects of scrambling on the performance of coded and uncoded links are studied. The results are illustrated by application to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) links. Conclusions regarding the usefulness of scrambling are also given.

  16. Effects of Therapist's Nonverbal Communication on Rated Skill and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Mark; Rogers, Ronald W.

    1980-01-01

    Nonverbal cues of immediacy significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. A therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuineness, and effectiveness. (Author)

  17. Improving interprofessional collaboration: The effect of training in nonviolent communication.

    PubMed

    Museux, Anne-Claire; Dumont, Serge; Careau, Emmanuelle; Milot, Élise

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the effects of nonviolent communication (NVC) training on the interprofessional collaboration (IPC) of two health and social services sector care teams. The study was conducted in 2013 with two interprofessional teams (N = 9) using a mixed method research design to measure the effects of the training. Individual IPC competency was measured using the Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter tool, and group competency using the Observed Interprofessional Collaboration tool. A focus group was held to collect participant perceptions of what they learned in the training. Results revealed improvements in individual competency in client/family-centered collaboration and role clarification. Improvements in group competency were also found with respect to teams' ability to develop a shared plan of action. Data suggests that participants accepted and adopted training content. After the training, they appeared better able to identify the effects of spontaneous communication, more understanding of the mechanisms of empathy, and in a better position to foster collective leadership. PMID:27116417

  18. Communicating Effectively About Clinical Trials With African American Communities: A Comparison of African American and White Information Sources and Needs.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Andrea; Bergeron, Caroline D; Zheng, Yue; Friedman, Daniela B; Kim, Sei-Hill; Foster, Caroline B

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trial (CT) participation is low among African Americans (AAs). To better communicate with AAs about the importance of CTs, the purpose of this study was to explore the communication sources and perceived effective communication channels and strategies through which the general public, AAs, and White individuals receive CT information. A quantitative telephone survey was conducted with AAs and Whites in one Southern state (N = 511). The measures assessed CT sources of information, perceived effectiveness of communication channels and strategies, CT understanding, and CT participation. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to compare responses overall and by race. AAs reported being exposed to more CT information than Whites. AAs received CT information most often through television, social media, and doctors compared to Whites. Perceived effectiveness of communication strategies and channels varied by race. AAs preferred simple and easy-to-understand CT information distributed through faith-based organizations. Whites preferred to receive CT information through a trustworthy source (e.g., doctor). There were no significant differences between AAs and Whites in their perceived effectiveness of media sources (e.g., Internet). Recommendations are provided to help health promotion practitioners and CT recruiters tailor information and communicate it effectively to potential AA and White CT participants. PMID:26715695

  19. The effect of sung speech on socio-communicative responsiveness in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arkoprovo; Sharda, Megha; Menon, Soumini; Arora, Iti; Kansal, Nayantara; Arora, Kavita; Singh, Nandini C.

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of music-based interventions for improving social functioning in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). While this evidence lends some support in favor of using song over spoken directives in facilitating engagement and receptive intervention in ASD, there has been little research that has investigated the efficacy of such stimuli on socio-communicative responsiveness measures. Here, we present preliminary results from a pilot study which tested whether sung instruction, as compared to spoken directives, could elicit greater number of socio-communicative behaviors in young children with ASD. Using an adapted single-subject design, three children between the ages of 3 and 4 years, participated in a programme consisting of 18 sessions, of which 9 were delivered with spoken directives and 9 with sung. Sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for three play activities—block matching, picture matching and clay play. All sessions were video-recorded for post-hoc observational coding of three behavioral metrics which included performance, frequency of social gesture and eye contact. Analysis of the videos by two independent raters indicated increased socio-communicative responsiveness in terms of frequency of social gesture as well as eye contact during sung compared to spoken conditions, across all participants. Our findings suggest that sung directives may play a useful role in engaging children with ASD and also serve as an effective interventional medium to enhance socio-communicative responsiveness. PMID:26578923

  20. Effects of unwanted feedback on synchronized chaotic optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Ma, Dong

    2006-04-01

    The effects of unwanted external optical feedback on synchronized chaotic optical communication systems are studied numerically. We consider an open-loop configuration consisting of a transmitter laser with double external optical feedbacks and a receiver laser with optical injection from the transmitter laser. First, including the effects of unwanted optical feedback, the synchronization performances of both the complete synchronization and the generalized synchronization are examined. Then the encoding and decoding performances of the generalized synchronization and the effects of the introduced feedback are investigated, respectively. Finally, we study the control of the unwanted feedback on the dynamics of the transmitter laser and briefly discuss the system security when the transmitter laser is driven to operate in a steady state or periodic oscillation state by the additional feedback.

  1. Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiqing; Chatterjee, Samir

    With rapid advances in information and communication technology, computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies are utilizing multiple IT platforms such as email, websites, cell-phones/PDAs, social networking sites, and gaming environments. However, no studies have compared the effectiveness of a persuasive system using such alternative channels and various persuasive techniques. Moreover, how affective computing impacts the effectiveness of persuasive systems is not clear. This study proposes (1) persuasive technology channels in combination with persuasive strategies will have different persuasive effectiveness; (2) Adding positive emotion to a message that leads to a better overall user experience could increase persuasive effectiveness. The affective computing or emotion information was added to the experiment using emoticons. The initial results of a pilot study show that computer-mediated communication channels along with various persuasive strategies can affect the persuasive effectiveness to varying degrees. These results also shows that adding a positive emoticon to a message leads to a better user experience which increases the overall persuasive effectiveness of a system.

  2. The politics of comparative effectiveness research: lessons from recent history.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Corinna; Gusmano, Michael K; Oliver, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Efforts to support and use comparative effectiveness research (CER), some more successful than others, have been promulgated at various times over the last forty years. Following a resurgence of interest in CER, recent health care reforms provided substantial support to strengthen its role in US health care. While CER has generally captured bipartisan support, detractors have raised concerns that it will be used to ration services and heighten government control over health care. Such concerns almost derailed the initiative during passage of the health care reform legislation and are still present today. Given recent investments in CER and the debates surrounding its development, the time is ripe to reflect on past efforts to introduce CER in the United States. This article examines previous initiatives, highlighting their prescribed role in US health care, the reasons for their success or failure, and the political lessons learned. Current CER initiatives have corrected for many of the pitfalls experienced by previous efforts. However, past experiences point to a number of issues that must still be addressed to ensure the long-term success and sustainability of CER, including adopting realistic aims about its impact, demonstrating the impact of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and communicating the benefits of CER, and maintaining strong political and stakeholder support.

  3. The politics of comparative effectiveness research: lessons from recent history.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Corinna; Gusmano, Michael K; Oliver, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Efforts to support and use comparative effectiveness research (CER), some more successful than others, have been promulgated at various times over the last forty years. Following a resurgence of interest in CER, recent health care reforms provided substantial support to strengthen its role in US health care. While CER has generally captured bipartisan support, detractors have raised concerns that it will be used to ration services and heighten government control over health care. Such concerns almost derailed the initiative during passage of the health care reform legislation and are still present today. Given recent investments in CER and the debates surrounding its development, the time is ripe to reflect on past efforts to introduce CER in the United States. This article examines previous initiatives, highlighting their prescribed role in US health care, the reasons for their success or failure, and the political lessons learned. Current CER initiatives have corrected for many of the pitfalls experienced by previous efforts. However, past experiences point to a number of issues that must still be addressed to ensure the long-term success and sustainability of CER, including adopting realistic aims about its impact, demonstrating the impact of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and communicating the benefits of CER, and maintaining strong political and stakeholder support. PMID:24193612

  4. Effect of action-oriented communication training on nurses' communication self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Raica, Dagmar A

    2009-01-01

    Miscommunication poses a significant threat to the safety of hospitalized patients, but nurses often lack the communication confidence (self-efficacy) needed to represent their views regarding patient situations. Findings of this study suggest training programs are needed to help nurses develop confident, assertive communication skills. PMID:20088187

  5. Effective Physician-Nurse Communication: A Patient Safety Essential for Labor & Delivery

    PubMed Central

    LYNDON, Audrey; ZLATNIK, Marya G.; WACHTER, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Effective communication is a hallmark of safe patient care. Challenges to effective interprofessional communication in maternity care include differing professional perspectives on clinical management, steep hierarchies, and lack of administrative support for change. In this paper we review principles of high reliability as they apply to communication in clinical care, and discuss principles of effective communication and conflict management in maternity care. Effective clinical communication is respectful, clear, direct, and explicit. We use a clinical scenario to illustrate a historical style of nurse-physician communication, and then demonstrate how communication can be improved to promote trust and patient safety. Consistent execution of successful communications requires excellent listening skills, superb administrative support, and collective commitment to move past traditional hierarchy and professional stereotyping. PMID:21640970

  6. Volcanic hazard communication using maps: an evaluation of their effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2007-11-01

    Hazard maps are considered essential tools in the communication of volcanic risk between scientists, the local authorities and the public. This study investigates the efficacy of such maps for the volcanic island of Montserrat in the West Indies using both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Normal plan view maps, which have been used on the island over the last 10 years of the crisis, are evaluated against specially produced three-dimensional (3D) maps and perspective photographs. Thirty-two demographically representative respondents of mixed backgrounds, sex, education and location were interviewed and asked to complete a range of tasks and identification on the maps and photographs. The overall results show that ordinary people have problems interpreting their environment as a mapped representation. We found respondents’ ability to locate and orientate themselves as well as convey information relating to volcanic hazards was improved when using aerial photographs rather than traditional plan view contour maps. There was a slight improvement in the use of the 3D maps, especially in terms of topographic recognition. However, the most striking increase in effectiveness was found with the perspective photographs, which enabled people to identify features and their orientation much more readily. For Montserrat it appears that well labelled aerial and perspective photographs are the most effective geo-spatial method of communicating volcanic risks.

  7. Using the Psychology of Language to Effectively Communicate Actionable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.

  8. Comparing Open and Guided Inquiry Activities in an Informal Physics Program To Promote Agency, Communication, and Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Rosemary Philomena

    In this thesis, we investigate an informal after-school science program. We examine two inquiry curricula used in this program; one more guided and the other more open. We have developed new methods to analyze middle school children's scientific notebooks, and we measure how the children exhibit agency, how the children communicate, and the mechanistic reasoning children use. We compare the two curricula and find that the children exhibit more agency in the open curriculum, write and draw more in the open curriculum, demonstrate a wide variety of scientific communication, and use more varied types of mechanistic reasoning in the open curriculum. These aspects can be linked to science identity, and we conclude that the more open curriculum supports the development of positive science identity.

  9. Treating Chronic Pain with Opioids: Comparing Effectiveness and Cost

    MedlinePlus

    Treating Chronic Pain with Opioids: Comparing Effectiveness and Cost What are opioids? Opioids are very strong prescription ... using opioids. We compared the effectiveness, safety, and cost of different opioids. We chose these as Consumer ...

  10. Health Communications: Nursing Education for Increased Visibility and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Mary

    2000-01-01

    To improve the visibility of nurses in mass media, health communications content should be integrated into nursing education. Nurses equipped with advanced communication skills, media expertise and teaching strategies can empower the profession to influence the health care environment. (SK)

  11. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  12. Molecular communication: modeling noise effects on information rate.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael John; Suda, Tatsuya; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Molecular communication is a new paradigm for communication between biological nanomachines over a nano- and microscale range. As biological nanomachines (or nanomachines in short) are too small and simple to communicate through traditional communication mechanisms (e.g., through sending and receiving of radio or infrared signals), molecular communication provides a mechanism for a nanomachine (i.e., a sender) to communicate information by propagating molecules (i.e., information molecules) that represent the information to a nanomachine (i.e., a receiver). This paper describes the design of an in vitro molecular communication system and evaluates various approaches to maximize the probability of information molecules reaching a receiver(s) and the rate of information reaching the receiver(s). The approaches considered in this paper include propagating information molecules (diffusion or directional transport along protein filaments), removing excessive information molecules (natural decay or receiver removal of excessive information molecules), and encoding and decoding approaches (redundant information molecules to represent information and to decode information). Two types of molecular communication systems are considered: a unicast system in which a sender communicates with a single receiver and a broadcast system in which a sender communicates with multiple receivers. Through exploring tradeoffs among the various approaches on the two types of molecular communication systems, this paper identifies promising approaches and shows the feasibility of an in vitro molecular communication system.

  13. Effect Size Measures for Mediation Models: Quantitative Strategies for Communicating Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Kelley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The statistical analysis of mediation effects has become an indispensable tool for helping scientists investigate processes thought to be causal. Yet, in spite of many recent advances in the estimation and testing of mediation effects, little attention has been given to methods for communicating effect size and the practical importance of those…

  14. Cost effective optical coupling for polymer optical fiber communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrappan, Jayakrishnan; Zhang, Jing; Mohan, Ramkumar V.; Gomez, Philbert Oliver; Aung, Than Aye; Xiao, Yongfei; Ramana, Pamidighantam V.; Lau, John Hon Shing; Kwong, Dim Lee

    2008-02-01

    Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) optical modules are gaining momentum due to their applications in short distance communications. POFs offer more flexibility for plug and play applications and provide cost advantages. They also offer significant weight advantage in automotive and avionic networks. One of the most interesting field of application is home networking. Low cost optical components are required, since cost is a major concern in local and home networks. In this publication, a fast and easy to install, low cost solution for efficient light coupling in and out of Step Index- POF is explored. The efficient coupling of light from a large core POF to a small area detector is the major challenge faced. We simulated direct coupling, lens coupling and bend losses for step index POF using ZEMAX R optical simulation software. Simulations show that a lensed fiber tip particularly at the receiver side improves the coupling efficiency. The design is optimized for 85% coupling efficiency and explored the low cost fabrication method to implement it in the system level. The two methods followed for lens fabrication is described here in detail. The fabricated fiber lenses are characterized using a beam analyzer. The fabrication process was reiterated to optimize the lens performance. It is observed that, the fabricated lenses converge the POF output spot size by one fourth, there by enabling a higher coupling efficiency. This low cost method proves to be highly efficient and effective optical coupling scheme in POF communications.

  15. Effective communication: perception of two anti-smoking advertisements.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A; McEwen, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents part of a survey which investigated people's response to different approaches to health education campaigns. The main objective of the original study was to find out whether the respondents preferred a fear-inducing campaign or a positive image advertising. Two anti-smoking advertisement produced by the Health Education Board for Scotland (HEBS), one using a fear appeal and the other, using a positive image were examined. A sample of 394 subjects in three age groups took part in the study and they were interviewed by means of a questionnaire. A high proportion in each group, including smokers indicated that they preferred the fear-inducing campaign. To investigate why people prefer this type of image, respondents were asked to explain their reasons. It was found that effective communication requires: (1) reality, (2) clear cut message, (3) simplicity, and (4) thought provoking nature and impact of the message. In addition, with regard to the advertising appeals it was found that both positive image and negative image campaigns could be used to attract attention and consequently communicate with the target population. Finally, the findings of this study in the light of psychosocial theories are discussed, and the Preference Model is proposed as providing a better understanding of the process behind people's preferences.

  16. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak—potentially, the largest of its kind—as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises. PMID:26512988

  17. Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty's Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Email Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…

  18. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  19. Protective Effects of Parent-College Student Communication during the First Semester of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Meg L.; Morgan, Nicole; Abar, Caitlin; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that parents maintain influence as their adolescents transition into college. Advances in communication technology make frequent communication between parents and college students easy and affordable. This study examines the protective effect of parent-college student communication on student drinking behaviors,…

  20. Effective Communication Training Interventions for Paid Carers Supporting Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Seonaid; Melville, Craig A.; Jones, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Carer communication skills contribute to the well being of individuals with learning disabilities. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of communication training interventions, and there is a lack of robust measures of outcome. A communication self-efficacy measure relevant to carers supporting adults with learning disabilities was…

  1. The Effectiveness of the "Picture Exchange Communication System" with Nonspeaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Julia B.; Beck, Ann R.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Hickey, Katherine; Kosuwan, Kullaya; Thompson, James R.

    2006-01-01

    "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training was implemented with 5 nonspeaking adults with mental retardation who were not currently using any type of functional communication system. A modified ABAB, single-subject design was used to assess the effectiveness of PECS in enhancing the functional communication skills of these…

  2. Review and Synthesis: Criteria for the Evaluation of Organizational Communication Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farace, Richard V.; And Others

    Twenty-one criteria for assessing communication effectiveness in organizations provide the basis for discussion in this document. Grouped under the general heading of communication rules, the criteria are described according to five categories: structure, messages, media, communicator, and potpourri (factors that affect the decision making of…

  3. The Relative Effects of Explicit Correction and Recasts on Two Target Structures via Two Communication Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Yucel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of negative feedback type (i.e., explicit correction vs. recasts), communication mode (i.e., face-to-face communication vs. synchronous computer-mediated communication), and target structure salience (i.e., salient vs. nonsalient) on the acquisition of two Turkish morphemes. Forty-eight native speakers of…

  4. Willingness to Communicate in Iranian EFL Learners: The Effect of Class Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaei, Zeinab Moradi; Zadeh, Ahmad Moin; Ketabi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Willingness to communicate can be considered as one of the important factors in modern language pedagogy which put emphasis on meaningful communication. The present study investigated the effect of class size on the Iranian EFL students' willingness to communicate among three different class sizes. The researcher collected the data through…

  5. The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

  6. Comparing communicative competence in child and chimp: the pragmatics of repetition.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, P M; Savage-Rumbaugh, E S

    1993-02-01

    Through an analysis of chimpanzee-human discourse, we show that two Pan troglodytes chimpanzees and two Pan paniscus chimpanzees (bonobos) exposed to a humanly devised symbol system use partial or complete repetition of others' symbols, as children do: they do not produce rote imitations, but instead use repetition to fulfil a variety of pragmatic functions in discourse. These functions include agreement, request, promise, excitement, and selection from alternatives. In so doing, the chimpanzees demonstrate contingent turn-taking and the use of simple devices for lexical cohesion. In short, they demonstrate conversational competence. Because of the presence of this conversational competence in three sibling species, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans, it is concluded that the potential to express pragmatic functions through repetition was part of the evolutionary history of human language, present in our common ancestor before the phylogenetic divergence of hominids and chimpanzees. In the context of these similarities, two interesting differences appeared: (I) Human children sometimes used repetition to stimulate more talk in their conversational partner; the chimpanzees, in contrast, use repetition exclusively to forward the non-verbal action. This difference may illuminate a unique feature of human linguistic communication, or it may simply reflect a modality difference (visual symbols used by the chimpanzees, speech used by the children) in the symbol systems considered in this research. A second difference seems likely to reflect a true species difference: utterance length. The one- and two-symbol repetitions used by the chimpanzees to fulfil a variety of pragmatic functions were less than half the maximum length found in either the visual symbol combinations addressed to them by their adult human caregivers or the oral repetitions of two-year-old children. This species difference probably reflects the evolution of increased brain size and consequent increased

  7. Effect of the incidence angle to free space optical communication based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lai-xian; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Zheng, Yong-hui; Shan, Cong-miao

    2013-08-01

    Based on the cat-eye effect of optical system, free space optical communication based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector can build communication link rapidly. Compared to classical free space optical communication system, system based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector has great advantages such as building communication link more rapidly, a passive terminal is smaller, lighter and lower power consuming. The incident angle is an important factor of cat-eye effect, so it will affect the retro-reflecting communication link. In this paper, the principle and work flow of free space optical communication based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector were introduced. Then, using the theory of geometric optics, the equivalent model of modulating retro-reflector with incidence angle was presented. The analytical solution of active area and retro-reflected light intensity of cat-eye modulating retro-reflector were given. Noise of PIN photodetector was analyzed, based on which, bit error rate of free space optical communication based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector was presented. Finally, simulations were done to study the effect of incidence angle to the communication. The simulation results show that the incidence angle has little effect on active area and retro-reflected light intensity when the incidence beam is in the active field angle of cat-eye modulating retro-reflector. With certain system and condition, the communication link can rapidly be built when the incidence light beam is in the field angle, and the bit error rate increases greatly with link range. When link range is smaller than 35Km, the bit error rate is less than 10-16.

  8. The Effect of Communication Strategy Training on the Development of EFL Learners' Strategic Competence and Oral Communicative Ability.

    PubMed

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the effect of communication strategy instruction on EFL students' oral communicative ability and their strategic competence. In a 14-week English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course (English Use II) based on Communicative Language Teaching approach, 80 learners were divided into two groups. The strategy training group ([Formula: see text]) received CS training based on a training program designed for the purpose of the present research, whereas the control group ([Formula: see text]) received only the normal communicative course using Click On 3, with no explicit focus on CSs. The communication strategies targeted in the training program included circumlocution (paraphrase), appeal for help, asking for repetition, clarification request, confirmation request, self-repair, and guessing. Pre- and post-test procedures were used to find out the effect of strategy training on language proficiency and CS use. The effect of the training was assessed by three types of data collection: the participants' pre- and post-IELTS speaking test scores, transcription data from the speaking IELTS test, and 'Click On' Exit Test scores. The findings revealed that participants in the strategy training group significantly outperformed the control group in their IELTS speaking test scores. The results of the post-test transcription data also confirmed that the participants in the strategy training group used more CSs, which could be attributed to the CS training program. The findings of the present research have implications for language teachers, and syllabus designers. PMID:25900534

  9. The Effect of Communication Strategy Training on the Development of EFL Learners' Strategic Competence and Oral Communicative Ability.

    PubMed

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the effect of communication strategy instruction on EFL students' oral communicative ability and their strategic competence. In a 14-week English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course (English Use II) based on Communicative Language Teaching approach, 80 learners were divided into two groups. The strategy training group ([Formula: see text]) received CS training based on a training program designed for the purpose of the present research, whereas the control group ([Formula: see text]) received only the normal communicative course using Click On 3, with no explicit focus on CSs. The communication strategies targeted in the training program included circumlocution (paraphrase), appeal for help, asking for repetition, clarification request, confirmation request, self-repair, and guessing. Pre- and post-test procedures were used to find out the effect of strategy training on language proficiency and CS use. The effect of the training was assessed by three types of data collection: the participants' pre- and post-IELTS speaking test scores, transcription data from the speaking IELTS test, and 'Click On' Exit Test scores. The findings revealed that participants in the strategy training group significantly outperformed the control group in their IELTS speaking test scores. The results of the post-test transcription data also confirmed that the participants in the strategy training group used more CSs, which could be attributed to the CS training program. The findings of the present research have implications for language teachers, and syllabus designers.

  10. Technical editing and the effective communication of scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, G.W.; Picologlou, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    Communication of scientific results--whether for professional journals, poster sessions, oral presentations, or the popular press--is an essential part of any scientific investigation. The technical editor plays an important rolein ensuring that scientists express their results correctly and effectively. Technical editing comprises far more than simple proofreading. The editor`s tasks may range from restructuring whole parpagrphs and suggesting improved graphical aids to writing abstracts and preparing first drafts of proposals. The technical editor works closely with scientists to present complex ideas to differentaudiences, including fellow scentists, funding agencies, and the general public. New computer technologyhas also involved the technical editor not only with on-line editing but also with preparing CD ROMs and World Wide Web pages.

  11. Metrics and the effective computational scientist: process, quality and communication.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Eric T

    2012-09-01

    Recent treatments of computational knowledge worker productivity have focused upon the value the discipline brings to drug discovery using positive anecdotes. While this big picture approach provides important validation of the contributions of these knowledge workers, the impact accounts do not provide the granular detail that can help individuals and teams perform better. I suggest balancing the impact-focus with quantitative measures that can inform the development of scientists. Measuring the quality of work, analyzing and improving processes, and the critical evaluation of communication can provide immediate performance feedback. The introduction of quantitative measures can complement the longer term reporting of impacts on drug discovery. These metric data can document effectiveness trends and can provide a stronger foundation for the impact dialogue.

  12. Affirming the Connection: Comparative Findings on Communication Issues from Hospice Patients and Hematology Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The following discussion presents comparative findings from hospice patients and hematology survivors on the topic of talking about dying to significant others within their network of family and friends. The insights have been gathered from an Australian research program that is exploring the notion of spirituality in relation to serious illness.…

  13. The Science of Effectively Communicating about Drought in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gann, T. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Gonzales, J. P.; Matlock, T.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California is having a tremendous impact on the state economy and the daily lives of its citizens. The impact of the drought is also exacerbated by the complexity of water issues in California, and the lack of understanding in the general public about this complexity. Our project has two goals, both focused on the broader issue of increasing the public's understanding of water issues by helping scientists engage more effectively with the public. The first is to use a survey to assess the perceptions of California residents regarding the ongoing drought affecting the state. The first portion of our survey allows our participants to share, in a free response format, their understanding of the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to the problems caused by drought. This allowed us to get some insight into how people view the drought prior to being lead by our questions, and allows us to conduct a detailed linguistic analysis of the text they provide. Next we asked a battery of questions meant to assess our participants' views on issues such as their views of water rights, the commoditization of water, and what role the government (both state and local) should play in managing California's water. The second goal is to use this data to create profiles that can then be used to more effectively communicate with and educate the public. Together, the results will provide new and valuable insights into how views of drought vary across stakeholders, and could inform policies related to water use. The presentation will include discussion of these results, their implications for best practices by science communicators, and potential impact on policy.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Communication Apprehension and Loneliness for Elderly Nursing Home and Non-Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Valerie C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Utilizes the socio-environmental perspective to compare feelings of communication apprehension and perceived loneliness between nursing home and non-nursing home residents. Finds that communication apprehension consistently and significantly predicts perceived loneliness for non-nursing home residents, but fails to predict perceived loneliness for…

  15. The ACTS Flight System - Cost-Effective Advanced Communications Technology. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, W. M., Jr.; Beck, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The multibeam communications package (MCP) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be STS-launched by NASA in 1988 for experimental demonstration of satellite-switched TDMA (at 220 Mbit/sec) and baseband-processor signal routing (at 110 or 27.5 Mbit/sec) is characterized. The developmental history of the ACTS, the program definition, and the spacecraft-bus and MCP parameters are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, block diagrams, and maps of the coverage plan. Advanced features of the MPC include 4.5-dB-noise-figure 30-GHz FET amplifiers and 20-GHz TWTA transmitters which provide either 40-W or 8-W RF output, depending on rain conditions. The technologies being tested in ACTS can give frequency-reuse factors as high as 20, thus greatly expanding the orbit/spectrum resources available for U.S. communications use.

  16. Assessing communications effectiveness in meeting corporate goals of public health organizations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gordon D; Bopp, Kenneth D; Boren, Suzanne Austin

    2005-01-01

    Much evaluation of health communications in public health is considered from a program perspective of smoking cessation, weight reduction, education on sexually transmitted diseases, etc. These studies have advanced the knowledge base of communications theory and evaluation and have contributed to program effectiveness. In program-based evaluation the communications process is structured as part of the program itself. This article extends program-based communications evaluation to view communications from the perspective of the consumer and how effectively public health departments respond to consumer expectations. It develops a conceptual model for evaluating elements of communications such as its importance in defining mission and goals within the community, managing strategic constituencies, and enlisting individuals and groups as customers and co-producers of health. It gives a broader perspective on how communications in public heath organizations are managed and a basis for assessing whether they are being managed effectively.

  17. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles. PMID:22377680

  18. The Geography of Political Communication: Effects of Regional Variations in Campaign Advertising on Citizen Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jaeho

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…

  19. Comparing the Picture Exchange Communication System and the iPad™ for Communication of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Both picture exchange, a low-tech picturebased communication system, and technologybased interventions, such as the iPad™ with communication application, are emerging treatments for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the National Autism Center (2009). Recently, investigations regarding the use of the Apple iPad™ to…

  20. Radiation effects on communication performance of radio frequency identification tags.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuyuki; Meng, Zhaowu; Kikuchi, Hirosumi; Kataoka, Yasuhide; Nakazato, Kazuhisa; Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Saze, Takuya; Hirota, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2010-11-01

    Radioactive materials (sources) are managed by bookkeeping and stocktaking. The radiation protection section staffs should check the sources manually. Annual effective dose concerning stocktaking of them are estimated at some mSv concerning fingers. A radio frequency identification (RFID) tag's absorbed dose is estimated at some dozen Gy. RFID for stocktaking automatically was devised. Radiation effects on the communication performance of RFID tags were investigated by using response times and read ranges as indices. The RFID system was composed of a computer, a detector, and transponders (tag) consisting of an integrated circuit chip and an antenna. The tag is joined to the source for identification. The tags were irradiated at doses between 5 and 5,000 Gy by an x-ray irradiator. The response times and the read ranges were tracked from 40 to 23,200 min after irradiation. Relative read ranges fluctuated between 0.9 and 1.1 in the dose region less than 2,000 Gy, but fluctuated greatly in the dose region beyond 2,000 Gy. Malfunctioning tags appeared from 3,000 Gy, and all tags malfunctioned in the dose region over 4,500 Gy. The threshold dose leading to malfunction was determined to be 2,100 Gy. Time variation of relative read ranges was classified into four patterns. The pattern shifted from pattern 1 to 4 when the dose was increased. The relative read ranges lengthened in pattern 1. The relative read rages were approximately 1.0 in pattern 2. The read ranges tentatively shortened, then recovered in pattern 3. The tags malfunctioned in pattern 4. Once the tags malfunctioned, they never recovered their performance. Radiation enhances or deteriorates communication performance depending on dosage. Tags can spontaneously recover from radiation deterioration. The time variation of the read ranges can be illustrated by enhancement, deterioration, and recovery. The mechanism of four patterns is explained based on the variation of the frequency harmonization strength and

  1. Establishing Effective Communication with External Stakeholders: The Impact of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Kelly Christine Lockhart

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine if communication skills training had an impact on public schools administrators' knowledge and application of communication skills, and their attitude toward school public relations. School administrators from three Tennessee school systems participated in this pretest/posttest quasi-experimental…

  2. [Communicating effectively: neuro-linguistic programming in the psychiatric interview].

    PubMed

    Ducasse, Déborah; Fond, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Neuro-linguistic programming is a set of practices and knowledge which seeks to "model" and then imitate the best communication practices. Applying the key concepts to the care relationship in mental health care helps to improve the quality of the contact, the clarity of the communication and to create an openness to change. PMID:24741829

  3. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  4. The Process and Effects of Mass Communication. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur, Ed.; Roberts, Donald F., Ed.

    Composed of a mixture of old classics, new classics, reports on state of the art in important areas, and speculations about the future, this second edition of the reader in communication research provides an introduction to questions about how communication works and what it does. Papers by prominent researchers and writers in the field comprise…

  5. Effects of media messages on parent-child sexual communication.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Silber Ashley, Olivia; Khan, Munziba

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important reproductive health outcome. Consistent, positive perceptions of communication by parents and children can promote behavioral outcomes such as delaying sexual debut and increasing contraceptive use. The authors investigated whether exposure to messages from the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC), a social marketing campaign to promote increased parent-child sexual communication, led to increased children's self-reports of communication. Also, the authors examined whether PSUNC message exposure increased agreement about communication between parents and their children. In a randomized experimental design, the authors surveyed children of parents exposed and not exposed to PSUNC messages. Parents and children completed online instruments asking matched questions about sexual attitudes, beliefs, and communication. The authors matched 394 parents and children for analysis. They used ordinal logistic regression modeling and kappa statistics. Children of parents exposed to PSUNC messages were more likely to (a) report sexual communication than were those not exposed and (b) agree with their parents about extent and content. Parent-child pairs of the same gender, younger pairs, and non-White pairs were more likely to agree. Overall, PSUNC message exposure appears to have promoted more extensive sexual communication. Future research should examine behavioral mechanisms and message receptivity among subgroups of parents and children.

  6. Evaluating public relations effectiveness in a health care setting. The identification of communication assets and liabilities via a communication audit.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of public relations has experienced tremendous growth and evolution over the past 25 years, especially in the area of medical public relations. The constant changes in health care delivery have often led to increased need for communication with important publics. At the same time, practitioners in all fields of public relations have explored methods of accurately measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs. One such method of evaluation is the communication audit. This paper includes a brief overview of the communication audit concept followed by a case study based on an audit conducted for a small, multicultural non-profit health-care agency. Steps taken to conduct the audit and the methodology used are discussed. An analysis of the data is used to address two research questions regarding the efficacy of the Center's mission and vision. Suggestions for future audits are provided.

  7. Evaluating public relations effectiveness in a health care setting. The identification of communication assets and liabilities via a communication audit.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of public relations has experienced tremendous growth and evolution over the past 25 years, especially in the area of medical public relations. The constant changes in health care delivery have often led to increased need for communication with important publics. At the same time, practitioners in all fields of public relations have explored methods of accurately measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs. One such method of evaluation is the communication audit. This paper includes a brief overview of the communication audit concept followed by a case study based on an audit conducted for a small, multicultural non-profit health-care agency. Steps taken to conduct the audit and the methodology used are discussed. An analysis of the data is used to address two research questions regarding the efficacy of the Center's mission and vision. Suggestions for future audits are provided. PMID:16521672

  8. Comparative analysis of viperidae venoms antibacterial profile: a short communication for proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Bruno L; Santos, Dilvani O; Dos Santos, André Luis; Rodrigues, Carlos R; de Freitas, Cícero C; Cabral, Lúcio M; Castro, Helena C

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infections involving multidrug-resistant strains are one of the ten leading causes of death and an important health problem in need for new antibacterial sources and agents. Herein, we tested and compared four snake venoms (Agkistrodon rhodostoma, Bothrops jararaca, B. atrox and Lachesis muta) against 10 Gram-positive and Gram-negative drug-resistant clinical bacteria strains to identify them as new sources of potential antibacterial molecules. Our data revealed that, as efficient as some antibiotics currently on the market (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 1-32 μg mL(-1)), A. rhodostoma and B. atrox venoms were active against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4.5 μg mL(-1)), while B. jararaca inhibited S. aureus growth (MIC = 13 μg ml(-1)). As genomic and proteomic technologies are improving and developing rapidly, our results suggested that A. rhodostoma, B. atrox and B. jararaca venoms and glands are feasible sources for searching antimicrobial prototypes for future design new antibiotics against drug-resistant clinical bacteria. They also point to an additional perspective to fully identify the pharmacological potential of these venoms by using different techniques. PMID:18955360

  9. Brief communication. Comparative pharmacology of norcocaine in M. mulatta and M. fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M C; Bedford, J A; Kibbe, A H; Sam, J A

    1978-07-01

    Norcocaine was administered intravenously (0.05, 0.5, 5.0 mg/kg) to three chaired unanesthetized male rhesus monkeys and to three chaired male cynomolgus monkeys. Respiration rate, heart rate and rectal temperature were monitored. In the rhesus monkeys tachycardia and hyperventilation resulted. However, similar qualitative and quantitative changes were not observed in the cynomolgus species. There was a statistically significant difference in the response to norcocaine across species. These results indicate that cynomolgus monkeys are either less sensitive or respond differently than rhesus monkeys to some of the pharmacological effects of norcocaine. Furthermore, these data confirm that norcocaine is an active derivative of cocaine in both rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys.

  10. A comparative study on real lab and simulation lab in communication engineering from students' perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Woods, P. C.

    2013-05-01

    Over the years, rapid development in computer technology has engendered simulation-based laboratory (lab) in addition to the traditional hands-on (physical) lab. Many higher education institutions adopt simulation lab, replacing some existing physical lab experiments. The creation of new systems for conducting engineering lab activities has raised concerns among educators on the merits and shortcomings of both physical and simulation labs; at the same time, many arguments have been raised on the differences of both labs. Investigating the effectiveness of both labs is complicated, as there are multiple factors that should be considered. In view of this challenge, a study on students' perspectives on their experience related to key aspects on engineering laboratory exercise was conducted. In this study, the Visual Auditory Read and Kinetic model was utilised to measure the students' cognitive styles. The investigation was done through a survey among participants from Multimedia University, Malaysia. The findings revealed that there are significant differences for most of the aspects in physical and simulation labs.

  11. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  12. Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, Leon D.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

  13. Does mood really influence comparative optimism? Tracking an elusive effect.

    PubMed

    Drace, Sasa; Desrichard, Olivier; Shepperd, James A; Hoorens, Vera

    2009-12-01

    Methodological limitations call into question prior evidence that positive moods are associated with greater comparative optimism. Experiments 1-4 tested if mood affects comparative optimism using a mood manipulation that minimized experimenter demand. While the procedure was successful in inducing mood, we found no evidence for a mood effect on comparative optimism. The absence of a mood effect was not due to participants correcting their judgments in response to a presumed mood bias (Experiments 2, 3 and 4) or to participants proactively regulating their mood (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 5 compared the mood manipulation of Experiments 1-4 with an autobiographical recall procedure. Although the two methods were equally effective in inducing mood, only autobiographical recall influenced participants' comparative optimism. Study 6 provides preliminary evidence that experimenter demand may be responsible for the effects of autobiographical recall on comparative judgments.

  14. Content vs. Product: The Effects of Single Sourcing on the Teaching of Technical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eble, Michelle F.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the effects of single sourcing on the writing process. Provides suggestions for incorporating the teaching of single sourcing into technical communication courses. Concludes that educating students about the process of single sourcing is important if they are to become effective technical communicators in the industry. (SG)

  15. Analyzing Effective Communication in Mathematics Group Work: The Role of Visual Mediators and Technical Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas; Nilsson, Per; Pettersson, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing and designing productive group work and effective communication constitute ongoing research interests in mathematics education. In this article we contribute to this research by using and developing a newly introduced analytical approach for examining effective communication within group work in mathematics education. By using data from…

  16. The Effectiveness of Using Social Communications Networks in Mathematics Teachers' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Hisham Barakat

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to determine the effectiveness of using social communications networks in mathematics teachers' professional development. The main research questions was: what is the effectiveness of using social communications networks in mathematics teachers' professional development. The sub questions were: (1) what are the standards of…

  17. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  18. Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy & Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Haiqing

    2010-01-01

    With rapid advancements in information and communication technologies, computer-mediated communication channels such as email, web, mobile smart-phones with SMS, social networking websites (Facebook), multimedia websites, and OEM devices provide users with multiple technology choices to seek information. However, no study has compared the…

  19. A spiritually based approach to breast cancer awareness: cognitive response analysis of communication effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Lee, Crystal; Wright, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the communication effectiveness of a spiritually based approach to breast cancer early detection education with a secular approach, among African American women, by conducting a cognitive response analysis. A total of 108 women from 6 Alabama churches were randomly assigned by church to receive a spiritually based or secular educational booklet discussing breast cancer early detection. Based on the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981), after reading the booklets participants were asked to complete a thought-listing task, writing down any thoughts they experienced and rating them as positive, negative, or neutral. Two independent coders then used 5 dimensions to code participants' thoughts. Compared with the secular booklet, the spiritually based booklet resulted in significantly more thoughts involving personal connection, self-assessment, and spiritually based responses. These results suggest that a spiritually based approach to breast cancer awareness may be more effective than the secular approach because it caused women to more actively process the message, stimulating central route processing. The incorporation of spiritually based content into church-based breast cancer education could be a promising health communication approach for African American women. PMID:18443989

  20. A spiritually based approach to breast cancer awareness: cognitive response analysis of communication effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Lee, Crystal; Wright, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the communication effectiveness of a spiritually based approach to breast cancer early detection education with a secular approach, among African American women, by conducting a cognitive response analysis. A total of 108 women from 6 Alabama churches were randomly assigned by church to receive a spiritually based or secular educational booklet discussing breast cancer early detection. Based on the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981), after reading the booklets participants were asked to complete a thought-listing task, writing down any thoughts they experienced and rating them as positive, negative, or neutral. Two independent coders then used 5 dimensions to code participants' thoughts. Compared with the secular booklet, the spiritually based booklet resulted in significantly more thoughts involving personal connection, self-assessment, and spiritually based responses. These results suggest that a spiritually based approach to breast cancer awareness may be more effective than the secular approach because it caused women to more actively process the message, stimulating central route processing. The incorporation of spiritually based content into church-based breast cancer education could be a promising health communication approach for African American women.

  1. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

  2. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces.

  3. Modeling for intra-body communication with bone effect.

    PubMed

    Pun, S H; Gao, Y M; Mak, P U; Du, M; Vai, M I

    2009-01-01

    Intra-body communication (IBC) is a new, different "wireless" communication technique based on the human tissue. This short range "wireless" communication technology provides an alternative solution to wearable sensors, home health system, telemedicine and implanted devices. The development of the IBC enables the possibilities of providing less complexity and convenient communication methodologies for these devices. By regarding human tissue as communication channel, IBC making use of the conductivities properties of human tissue to send electrical signal from transmitter to receiver. In this paper, the authors proposed a new mathematical model for galvanic coupling type IBC based on a human limb. Starting from the electromagnetic theory, the authors treat human tissue as volume conductor, which is in analogous with the bioelectric phenomena analysis. In order to explain the mechanism of galvanic coupling type technique of IBC, applying the quasi-static approximation, the governing equation can be reduced to Laplace Equation. Finally, the analytical model is evaluated with on-body measurement for testing its performance. The comparison result shows that the developed mathematical model can provide good approximation for galvanic coupling type IBC on human limb under low operating frequencies. PMID:19963722

  4. Placebo Effects and the Ethics of Therapeutic Communication: A Pragmatic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Annoni, Marco; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-03-01

    In this article we explore the ethics of manipulating verbal information for the sake of influencing health outcomes through placebo and nocebo responses. Recent scientific research on placebo and nocebo effects has drawn attention to the ways in which communication by health professionals may modulate the symptoms of patients across an array of highly prevalent conditions such as pain, depression, anxiety, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, and Parkinson's disease. The positive and negative effects of clinicians' communication on patient outcomes pose important ethical issues, which we describe in this article under the label of "the ethics of therapeutic communication" (TC). We begin by reviewing available evidence supporting the claim that doctor-patient communication has therapeutic effects. We then identify in truthfulness, helpfulness, and pragmatism three morally relevant considerations that can guide clinicians in therapeutic communication with their patients. Finally, we examine the ethics of using TC to enhance the effectiveness of proven medical interventions and open-label placebos.

  5. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, James R.; Schell, Charlotte J.; Marino, T; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2004-02-10

    This version of the communication primer comprises two interlocking parts: Pat 1, a practical section, intended to prepare you for public interactions, and Part 2, a theoretical section that provides social and technical bases for the practices recommended in Part 1. The mutual support of practice and theory is very familiar in science and clearly requires a willingness to observe and revise our prior assumptions--in this document, we invoke both. We hope that is offering will represent a step both towards improving practice and maturing the theory of practical science communication.

  6. Effective communication, critical aspects and compositionality in algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olteanu, Lucian

    2014-10-01

    This paper contains a discussion of how the concept of critical aspects and the principle of compositionality can provide a powerful tool to analyse and understand the communications that occur in the classroom. It is grounded in data collected in a longitudinal study. The content chosen is algebra. It is argued that the critical aspects and the principle of compositionality should be considered as a methodological principle that describes how communication in the classroom should be designed. Here, I present the power of using variation theory whose main purpose is to generate an understanding of critical aspects and compositionality in practice.

  7. Polarization effects in optical fiber communication and distributed vibration sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyi

    This thesis includes studies of polarization effects in two main research areas of optical fiber technology: optical fiber communication systems and optical fiber sensors. Polarization of light in optical fiber is sensitive to environmental disturbances. On the negative side, this results in complex measurement processes and errors in communication systems caused by dynamic polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization dependent loss (PDL). On the positive side though, it also results in the possibility of developing a distributed optical fiber vibration sensor. For the purpose of fast polarization measurement for high bit-rate communication systems, a new PDL vector method was proposed based on the equation of motion in Stokes space. It is capable of providing accurate PDL measurements while requiring less measurement steps compared with other available techniques. We had performed a PMD field test, and found the fastest PMD change in submarine fibers under the Caribbean Sea. With long measurement duration (>24h) on one pair of fiber, correlations between polarization effects and tides were reported for the first time. A histogram of the differential group delay (DGD) data and an auto-correlation function of state of polarization (SOP) and DGD were validated by theoretical fittings. The average and fastest drift time for both SOP and DGD was found to be ˜3min and less than 15s, respectively. Polarization effects were then utilized as a sensing parameter to detect and locate external disturbances along the optical fiber. A system based on polarization optical time domain reflectometry (Polarization-OTDR) technique was developed in order to pinpoint the disturbances as well as to give events' frequency information. For the first time, a fully distributed optical fiber vibration sensor has been demonstrated in a 1km fiber link with 10m spatial resolution and 5kHz maximum detectable frequency. Moreover, by our proposed spectrum analysis, multiple simultaneous

  8. Comparative Effects of Stimulant Drugs in Hyperkinetic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith

    The study compared the efficacy, side effects, and safety of magnesium pemoline (Cylert) and destroamphetamine (Dexedrine) as compared with placebo. Subjects were 81 children, ages 6-12 years, who evidenced one or more signs of minimal brain dysfunction, and were referred with major complaints of hyperactivity, short attention span,…

  9. Maximizing the clinical utility of comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Umscheid, C A

    2010-12-01

    Providers, consumers, payers, and policy makers are awash in choices when it comes to medical decision making and need better evidence to inform their decisions. Large federal investments in comparative effectiveness research (CER) aim to fill this need. But how do we ensure the clinical utility of CER? Here, I define comparative effectiveness and clinical utility, outline metrics to evaluate clinical utility, and suggest methods for maximizing the clinical utility of CER for the various stakeholders.

  10. The Complementary Effects of Empathy and Nonverbal Communication Training on Persuasion Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…

  11. School Nurse Communication Effectiveness with Physicians and Satisfaction with School Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkman, Julie E.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined school nurses' communication with community physicians and its relationship to school nurse satisfaction with school health services. A stratified random sample of school nurses in Pennsylvania (N = 615) were surveyed about communication effectiveness with community physicians, satisfaction with school health services for…

  12. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness…

  13. Ambiguity and Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that the literature of group studies is controversial and confusing on the effect of communicative variables on small-group decision making. Postulates that two classes of variables (homogeneity and task) moderate the relationship between group communication and group performance. Advances the ambiguity model to reconcile the contradictory…

  14. Developmental and Communication Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability: The Place Early Intervention for Effective Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…

  15. Characteristics and Communication--Effectiveness of "Fortune 500" Company Corporate Homepages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truell, Allen D.; Zhao, Jensen J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Whitesel, Joel A.

    2005-01-01

    The Internet and its component parts, email and the World Wide Web (Web), have had a tremendous impact on how companies communicate with their various audiences. Thus, the twofold purpose of this study was (a) to determine the characteristics of "Fortune 500" company homepage components and (b) to determine the communication effectiveness of…

  16. Effects of a Classroom-Based Pre-Literacy Intervention for Preschoolers with Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Alyssa R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with communication disorders are often at risk of literacy difficulties, especially students that present with autism and/or speech sound disorders. This quasi-experimental study was designed to examine the effects of a 10-week "hybrid" intervention for preschool students with and without communication disorders in an integrated…

  17. Islamic World View and Global Values vis-a-vis Effective Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Robert C.; Robinson, Brenda M.

    Suggesting that more study and understanding of Islam vis-a-vis the West could open more effective channels in intercultural communication, this paper addresses Islamic world views and values as they undergird the communication process. Although generalizations about Islam are difficult to make, the paper states that Islam is the second largest…

  18. The Effects of Communication Mode on Negotiation of Meaning and Its Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Dogan; Inan, Banu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of communication mode ("i.e.", face to face versus computer mediated communication) on the instances of negotiation of meaning (NofM) and its level of noticing by learners. Sixty-four participants (32 dyads) completed two jigsaw tasks in two different mediums (one in each) and four days after the tasks…

  19. Effectiveness of immediate verbal feedback on trainer behaviour during communication training with individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    van Vonderen, A

    2004-03-01

    The effect of immediate verbal feedback on trainer behaviour during communication training sessions with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) was assessed. Trainers were six undergraduate university students majoring in psychology. The procedure consisted of interrupting the sequence of trials of training by the supervisor and then giving brief corrective feedback. Feedback was focused on the accuracy of the following procedural aspects: (1) entry behaviour; (2) prompt level and order of presenting response prompts; (3) use of reinforcement; (4) pace of presenting trials; and (5) if this occurred, handling trainee's disruptive behaviour during training. Data were collected in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. Results indicated a statistically significant increase of the percentage correct trainer behaviour as compared to the baseline phase. Maintenance of effect of feedback was recorded during post-training and follow-up.

  20. Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura

    The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…

  1. When Are High-Tech Communicators Effective in Parkinson's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Caligari, Marco; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Franchignoni, Franco

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a 63-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease showing loss of intelligibility of speech and severely impaired handwriting, despite undergoing physical and speech therapies. As the patient had sufficient residual motor abilities and adequate cognitive function and motivation, a computer-based communication aid with a software…

  2. Communication Effectiveness of Nurses in Four Relational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, Jacqueline Lowe; Cummings, H. Wayland

    1984-01-01

    Confirmed the findings of earlier research (EJ 252 081) on the importance of listening skills across all nursing relationships. Found, however, that of greater significance was the need for an array of communication skills in the nurse-administrator relationship, including such skills as advising, persuading, managing conflict, etc. (PD)

  3. The Effect of Communicative Impediments on Interpersonal Attachment and Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Nick J.; Barnum, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a theory describing the relationship between factors that increase social isolation and deviance. The theory is examined in the context of virtual visitation. We integrate social exchange, anomie, and strain theories to argue that as communication is impeded between two actors, the less satisfied either will be with the…

  4. Effects of Inferred Motive on Evaluations of Nonaccommodative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasiorek, Jessica; Giles, Howard

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we propose, refine, and test a new model of inferred motive predicting of individuals' reactions to nonaccommodation, defined as communicative behavior that is inappropriately adjusted for participants in an interaction. Inferring a negative motive for others' problematic behavior resulted in significantly less positive evaluations…

  5. Classroom Communication and Teaching Effectiveness: The Foreign-Born Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Joao S.; Sanyal, Rajib N.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a survey of 260 students to examine how they perceive foreign-born instructors (FBIs) revealed a marked preference for native-born instructors by respondents. Because the need to hire FBIs will continue, administrators must focus attention on improving the FBIs' communication and teaching skills. (JOW)

  6. Effective Communication Is "Hitched to Everything in the (Business) Universe"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajicek, John

    2008-01-01

    The author of this article is an English teacher and a certified public accountant at the same time. When he was offered a position teaching business communication in an MBA program, he was delighted to know that he can actually dovetail his two contrasting careers. In this article, the author relates his experiences and the benefits of…

  7. Communication I--Oral. New Paradigm for Effective Workforce Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO. Workplace Literacy Services Center.

    This document contains the student handouts and learning activities of an introductory course in oral communications that was developed by a community college for workers at a St. Louis (Missouri) chemical company. The following items are among those included: ice breaker activity; checklist for self-assessment of ability to handle criticism;…

  8. Breaking the Barrier: Effectively Communicating Nutrition and Health Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchoux, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals can work to correct common misconceptions through nutrition and fitness education and sharing information and resources to provide consistent public messages. The article discusses the impact of the media, food labels, and the Fuel for Fitness program, encouraging teamwork to ensure proper communication of diet and exercise…

  9. Effects of Message Design Logic on the Communication of Intention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Barbara J.; Lambert, Bruce L.

    In producing and comprehending messages, a communicator relies on a "message design logic" embodying an individual's knowledge about how to relate message forms and functions. According to this model, there are three different message design logics: (1) expressive, in which self-expression is the chief function, and affective and idiosyncratic…

  10. Effective Teaching of Business Communications: Responding to Reported Business Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Thomas E.

    Research indicates that skills in listening to and motivating people need to be emphasized more in undergraduate business communication courses. Three theories of motivation--Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McClelland's achievement motive, and Hersberg's motivation-hygiene theory--can introduce students to the systems perspective, an approach…

  11. The Effects of Intercultural Communication on Viewers' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Gayle M.

    Three studies explored the impact of the controversial television docudrama "Death of a Princess" on viewers' attitudes, comprehension, and desire to continue viewing the film. Sixty students in undergraduate communication classes participated in Study I, which measured attitude change induced by the film, relative to the viewers' prior knowledge…

  12. The Effects of Individual Communicator Styles on Perceived Faculty Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimhall, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    The research problem addressed in this study was the lack of trust between faculty-principal, faculty-client, and faculty-colleague in U.S. secondary schools. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between communicator styles and perceptions of trust. Organizational trust theory served as the theoretical foundation. A…

  13. Synchronous-Voice Computer-Mediated Communication: Effects on Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bueno Alastuey, Maria Camino

    2010-01-01

    Communicative competence is the ultimate goal of most learners of a second language and intelligible pronunciation a fundamental part of it. Unfortunately, learners often lack the opportunity to explore how intelligible their speech is for different audiences. Our research investigates whether synchronous-voice computer-mediated communication…

  14. Guidelines A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, James R.; Word, Charlotte J.; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2002-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to help scientists communicate with stakeholders and the public (primarily nonscientists) about fundamental science research. The primary audience for this report is scientists involved in the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the information and insights in the report that are not program-specific should be helpful to scientists in other fundamental science research programs. The report first discusses why scientists should talk to stakeholders and the public, and the challenges associated with discussing the NABIR program. It is observed that communication initiatives can be characterized by three factors: relationships in the social environment, views of what constitutes communication, and accepted forms of communication practices and products. With a focus on informal science communication, recent efforts to gauge public understanding of science and the factors that affect public trust of science institutions are discussed. The social bases for scientist-nonscientist interactions are then examined, including possible sources of distrust and difficulties in transferring discussions of fundamental science from classrooms (where most of the public first learns about science) to public forums. Finally, the report contains specific suggestions for preparing, meeting, and following up on public interactions with stakeholders and the public, including themes common to public discussions of NABIR science and features of scientist-nonscientist interactions observed in interpersonal, small group, and large group interactions between NABIR scientists and stakeholders. A Quick Preparation Guide for Meeting NABIR Stakeholders is provided immediately following the Summary. It condenses some of the information and advice found in the text of the report.

  15. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyard, G.R.; Word, C.J.; Weber, J.R.; Harding, A.K.

    2000-09-27

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  16. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    A Harding; B Metting; C Word; G Bilyard; G Hund; J Amaya; J Weber; S Gajewski; S Underriner; T Peterson

    1998-12-10

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of @oups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides briez usefid models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  17. Using Visualization Science to Evaluate Effective Communication of Climate Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Wolfinger, F.; Lloyd, A.

    2015-12-01

    Indicators are observations or calculations that are used to track social and environmental conditions over time. For a large coupled system such as the economy and environment, the choice of indicators requires a structured process that involves co-production among facilitators, subject-matter experts, decision-makers, and the general public. This co-production is needed in part because such indicators serve a duel role of scientifically tracking change and of communicating to non-scientists important changes and information that may be useful in decision contexts. Because the goal is to communicate and inform decisions it is critical that indicators be understood by non-scientific audiences, which may require different visualization techniques than for scientific audiences. Here we describe a process of rigorously evaluating visual communication efficacy by using a simplified taxonomy of visualization design problems and trade-offs to assess existing and redesigned indicator images. The experimental design is three-part. It involves testing non-scientific audiences' understandability of scientific images found in the literature along with similar information shaped by a partial co-production process that informed the U.S. Global Change Research Program prototype indicators system, released in Spring 2015. These recommendations for physical, natural, and societal indicators of changes and impacts involved input from over 200 subject-matter experts, organized into 13 technical teams. Using results from the first two parts, we then explore visualization design improvements that may increase understandability to non-scientific audiences. We anticipate that this work will highlight important trade-offs in visualization design when moving between audiences that will be of great use to scientists who wish to communicate their results broader audiences.

  18. Information Visualization Techniques for Effective Cross-Discipline Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Ward

    2013-04-01

    Collaboration between research groups in different fields is a common occurrence, but it can often be frustrating due to the absence of a common vocabulary. This lack of a shared context can make expressing important concepts and discussing results difficult. This problem may be further exacerbated when communicating to an audience of laypeople. Without a clear frame of reference, simple concepts are often rendered difficult-to-understand at best, and unintelligible at worst. An easy way to alleviate this confusion is with the use of clear, well-designed visualizations to illustrate an idea, process or conclusion. There exist a number of well-described machine-learning and statistical techniques which can be used to illuminate the information present within complex high-dimensional datasets. Once the information has been separated from the data, clear communication becomes a matter of selecting an appropriate visualization. Ideally, the visualization is information-rich but data-scarce. Anything from a simple bar chart, to a line chart with confidence intervals, to an animated set of 3D point-clouds can be used to render a complex idea as an easily understood image. Several case studies will be presented in this work. In the first study, we will examine how a complex statistical analysis was applied to a high-dimensional dataset, and how the results were succinctly communicated to an audience of microbiologists and chemical engineers. Next, we will examine a technique used to illustrate the concept of the singular value decomposition, as used in the field of computer vision, to a lay audience of undergraduate students from mixed majors. We will then examine a case where a simple animated line plot was used to communicate an approach to signal decomposition, and will finish with a discussion of the tools available to create these visualizations.

  19. Advantages of Parallel Processing and the Effects of Communications Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Wesley M.; Allman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Many computing tasks involve heavy mathematical calculations, or analyzing large amounts of data. These operations can take a long time to complete using only one computer. Networks such as the Internet provide many computers with the ability to communicate with each other. Parallel or distributed computing takes advantage of these networked computers by arranging them to work together on a problem, thereby reducing the time needed to obtain the solution. The drawback to using a network of computers to solve a problem is the time wasted in communicating between the various hosts. The application of distributed computing techniques to a space environment or to use over a satellite network would therefore be limited by the amount of time needed to send data across the network, which would typically take much longer than on a terrestrial network. This experiment shows how much faster a large job can be performed by adding more computers to the task, what role communications time plays in the total execution time, and the impact a long-delay network has on a distributed computing system.

  20. Multipath Effects on High-Frequency Coherent Acoustic Communications in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Su-Uk; Kim, Hyeonsu; Joo, Jongmin; Choi, Jee Woong

    2013-07-01

    Shallow-water acoustic communication channel, referred to as a multipath-limited channel, produces inter-symbol interference that poses a significant obstacle to reliable communication. Accordingly, signal-to-multipath ratio (SMR), rather than signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), becomes an important factor affecting communication performance. However, it is difficult to estimate SMR from measured communication data, especially at higher frequency (>10 kHz) because many arrivals scattered from rough ocean boundaries produce a significant intrapath time spreading, which acts as random noise in communication. In this paper, the energy fraction of the channel impulse response existing in one symbol duration is proposed as a parameter for estimating the quality of shallow-water communication channels. This parameter is compared with the bit-error-rate performance for data acquired in shallow water off the south coast of Korea, where the water depth is 45 m and the bottom consists of sandy clay sediment. The results imply that the energy fraction in one symbol duration may be used as a parameter for describing shallow-water communication channels and applied to the quick decision of a symbol or bit rate in a shallow-water field for reliable underwater communication.

  1. Internationalizing the University Curricula through Communication: A Comparative Analysis among Nation States as Matrix for the Promulgation of Internationalism, through the Theoretical Influence of Communication Rhetors and International Educators, Viewed within the Arena of Political-Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony Lopez

    This paper surveys the current situation of internationalism among the various nation states by a comparative analysis, as matrix, to promulgate the internationalizing process, as a worthwhile goal, within and without the college and university curricula; the theoretical influence and contributions of scholars in communication, international…

  2. Speaker Perceptions of Communicative Effectiveness: Conversational Analysis of Student-Teacher Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan; Jablon, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study examines verbal behavior in student-teacher talk and alignment of perceptions of communication effectiveness. Heightened awareness of conversational patterns is more productive in the learning environment than the rote use of discourse markers.

  3. Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

  4. Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

  5. Depolarization effects on free space laser transceiver communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Frank Stefan; Juranek, Hans Joachim

    1990-07-01

    A technique developed at ESTEC for the measurement and theoretical estimation of optical polarization in the antenna telescopes of space optical communication systems (e.g., the ESA SILEX intersatellite system using 825-nm semiconductor lasers) is described. The design methods used to achieve high channel separation ratios in the SILEX telescopes are recalled; the failure of straightforward measurement techniques in practical ground-based testing is explained; and a solution based on the mathematical relationship between far-field and near-field intensity distributions is outlined. The primary instrument used in this method is a scanning ellipsometer.

  6. An Analysis of the Effects of Functional Communication and a Voice Output Communication Aid for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Melissa L.; Lang, Russell B.; Davis, Tonya N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Functional Communication Training (FCT) and a Voice Output Communication Aid (VOCA) on the challenging behavior and language development of a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder. The participant's mother implemented modified functional analysis (FA) and intervention procedures in…

  7. Effects of Mother-Implemented Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Training on Independent Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ju Hee; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Cannella-Malone, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mother-implemented Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training on the independent communication of three young children with autism spectrum disorders. Three mothers were trained to teach their child PECS Phases 1 through 3B, which they did with high integrity. Moreover, all three children successfully…

  8. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System as a Functional Communication Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Practice-Based Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Kai-Chien

    2008-01-01

    This research synthesis verifies the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for improving the functional communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research synthesis was focused on the degree to which variations in PECS training are associated with variations in functional…

  9. Exploring risk communication - results of a research project focussed on effectiveness evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Mostert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The need for effective science communication and outreach efforts is widely acknowledged in the academic community. In the field of Disaster Risk Reduction, the importance of communication is clearly stressed, e.g. in the newly adopted Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (under the 1st priority of action: understanding disaster risk). Consequently, we see increasing risk communication activities. However, the effectiveness of these activities is rarely evaluated. To address this gap, several research activities were conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "Changes", the results of which we will present and discuss. First, results of a literature review show, among others, that research on effectiveness is mainly focussed on the assessment of users' needs and their ability to understand the content, rather than on the final impact of the risk communication efforts. Moreover, lab-environment research is more often undertaken than assessment of real communication efforts. Second, a comparison between perceptions of risk managers and the general public of risk communication in a French Alps Valley highlighted a gap between the two groups in terms of amount of information needed (who wants more), the important topics to address (what) and the media to use (how). Third, interviews with developers of smartphone applications for disseminating avalanche risk information showed a variety of current practices and the absence of measurements of real their effectiveness. However, our analysis allowed identifying good practices that can be an inspiration for risk communication related to other hazards. Fourth, an exhibition has been set up following a collaborative approached based on stakeholder engagement. Using a pre/post-test design, the immediate impact of the exhibition, which aimed at increasing the risk awareness of the population (Ubaye Valley, France), was measured. The data obtained suggests that visiting the exhibition

  10. The Exposure Advantage: Early Exposure to a Multilingual Environment Promotes Effective Communication.

    PubMed

    Fan, Samantha P; Liberman, Zoe; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2015-07-01

    Early language exposure is essential to developing a formal language system, but may not be sufficient for communicating effectively. To understand a speaker's intention, one must take the speaker's perspective. Multilingual exposure may promote effective communication by enhancing perspective taking. We tested children on a task that required perspective taking to interpret a speaker's intended meaning. Monolingual children failed to interpret the speaker's meaning dramatically more often than both bilingual children and children who were exposed to a multilingual environment but were not bilingual themselves. Children who were merely exposed to a second language performed as well as bilingual children, despite having lower executive-function scores. Thus, the communicative advantages demonstrated by the bilinguals may be social in origin, and not due to enhanced executive control. For millennia, multilingual exposure has been the norm. Our study shows that such an environment may facilitate the development of perspective-taking tools that are critical for effective communication.

  11. The effect of smoke from plastics on digital communications equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.; Chapin, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    Smoke from plastics can cause immediate problems in electrical equipment in the form of shorting and increased leakage currents, as well as long-term corrosion (metal loss). The short-term problems can be especially serious for critical control instrumentation such as that found in nuclear reactors or telecommunications systems. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories are sponsoring a program to determine the modes and probabilities of digital equipment failure during exposure to smoke and up to 24 hours after the exposure. Early tests on computer systems have shown that the most common immediate problems are temporary and are likely to be caused by increased leakage currents. High-voltage circuits are especially vulnerable since the charged particles in smoke are drawn to those surfaces. To study failure probabilities, smoke exposure tests with real-time measurements will be carried out to determine how the electrical properties of the environment are affected by smoke concentration and content. Digital communication cable will be included in the tests because temporary shorts that cannot be detected through dc measurements may cause interruptions in communications between computers. The reaction of the equipment to changed electrical properties of the environment will be modeled. Equipment that can be used for testing and modeling is being solicited.

  12. A design thinking approach to effective vaccine safety communication.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Lea; Michl, Bettina; Rundblad, Gabriella; Trusko, Brett; Schnjakin, Maxim; Meinel, Christoph; Weinberg, Ulrich; Gaedicke, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex and controversial topic of vaccine safety communication warrants innovative, user-centered solutions that would start with gaining mutual respect while taking into account the needs, concerns and underlying motives of patients, parents and physicians. To this end, a non-profit collaborative project was conducted by The Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative, an international think tank aiming to promote vaccine safety research and communication, and the School of Design Thinking in Potsdam, Germany, the first school for innovation in Europe. The revolutionary concept of the Design Thinking approach is to group students in small multi-disciplinary teams. As a result they can generate ground-breaking ideas by combining their expertise and different points of view. The team agreed to address the following design challenge question: "How might we enable physicians to encourage parents and children to prevent infectious diseases?" The current article describes, step-by step, the ideation and innovation process as well as first tangible outcomes of the project. PMID:25859673

  13. Revisioning Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) at the Comparative & International Education Society (CIES): A Five-Year Account (2009-2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has evolved as a key topic and research area at the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) conference. The past five years' CIES conference papers with an ICT component are reviewed for common development trends, opportunities,…

  14. Communication skills.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Deborah

    2015-03-01

    The front-line nurse is responsible for providing direct patient care, patient satisfaction, care coordination, policy, safety, and communication during a 12-hour shift. Every nurse has the opportunity to make a positive impact on patient outcomes through day-to-day advocacy for patients, nurses, and the nursing profession. Communication is a means of advocacy that provides the avenue to which a positive impact can be made. There are multiple barriers to effective communication in the day-to-day communication of the front-line nurse. Interprofessional communication and shared governance models offer ways to improve communication within nursing and within a systems approach. PMID:25680486

  15. Communication skills.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Deborah

    2015-03-01

    The front-line nurse is responsible for providing direct patient care, patient satisfaction, care coordination, policy, safety, and communication during a 12-hour shift. Every nurse has the opportunity to make a positive impact on patient outcomes through day-to-day advocacy for patients, nurses, and the nursing profession. Communication is a means of advocacy that provides the avenue to which a positive impact can be made. There are multiple barriers to effective communication in the day-to-day communication of the front-line nurse. Interprofessional communication and shared governance models offer ways to improve communication within nursing and within a systems approach.

  16. Effective Communication to Aid Collaboration for Digital Collections: A Case Study at Florida Gulf Coast University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandeBurgt, Melissa Minds; Rivera, Kaleena

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication is one of the most important resources for successful outreach efforts. This article addresses the benefits that can emerge from successful communication as well as the negative effects that may stem from ineffective communication. A case study of Florida Gulf Coast University Archives, Special Collections, & Digital…

  17. Comparative effectiveness of flossing and brushing in reducing interproximal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Graves, R C; Disney, J A; Stamm, J W

    1989-05-01

    This study assesses the comparative effectiveness of three types of dental floss and toothbrushing in reducing interproximal bleeding sites, measured by stimulation with wooden interdental cleaners using the interdental bleeding index assessment method. The 119 adult subjects with gingival inflammation were randomly assigned to one of four groups at the beginning of a supervised 2 week clinical trial. The toothbrushing only group achieved a 35% reduction in bleeding sites and the three flossing groups all demonstrated dramatic reductions of about 67%. The three varieties of dental flosses were about equally effective in reducing interproximal bleeding and doubly effective as toothbrushing alone. Compared to probing, the interdental bleeding index method is considered a simplified method of assessing interproximal gingival inflammation.

  18. An Approach to Assess Generalizability in Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Grieve, Richard; Bardsley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Policy makers require estimates of comparative effectiveness that apply to the population of interest, but there has been little research on quantitative approaches to assess and extend the generalizability of randomized controlled trial (RCT)–based evaluations. We illustrate an approach using observational data. Methods. Our example is the Whole Systems Demonstrator (WSD) trial, in which 3230 adults with chronic conditions were assigned to receive telehealth or usual care. First, we used novel placebo tests to assess whether outcomes were similar between the RCT control group and a matched subset of nonparticipants who received usual care. We matched on 65 baseline variables obtained from the electronic medical record. Second, we conducted sensitivity analysis to consider whether the estimates of treatment effectiveness were robust to alternative assumptions about whether “usual care” is defined by the RCT control group or nonparticipants. Thus, we provided alternative estimates of comparative effectiveness by contrasting the outcomes of the RCT telehealth group and matched nonparticipants. Results. For some endpoints, such as the number of outpatient attendances, the placebo tests passed, and the effectiveness estimates were robust to the choice of comparison group. However, for other endpoints, such as emergency admissions, the placebo tests failed and the estimates of treatment effect differed markedly according to whether telehealth patients were compared with RCT controls or matched nonparticipants. Conclusions. The proposed placebo tests indicate those cases when estimates from RCTs do not generalize to routine clinical practice and motivate complementary estimates of comparative effectiveness that use observational data. Future RCTs are recommended to incorporate these placebo tests and the accompanying sensitivity analyses to enhance their relevance to policy making. PMID:25986472

  19. Comparative cardiometabolic effects of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Hwan; Oh, Pyung Chun; Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2013-09-10

    Even with the aggressive reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by statin therapy, a high residual risk of cardiovascular events remains substantially and attracts attention to the need for additional preventive therapies. Therefore, effective reductions of residual risk of cardiovascular disease have emerged as therapeutic targets. Fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids have been introduced to reduce triglycerides and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and have shown anti-atherosclerotic, vascular and metabolic effects. However, some effects are controversial and very recent randomized clinical trials report different results from the earlier ones. In this review, we address the vascular and metabolic effects and the results of recent clinical trials of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. We also compared their effects under modern guideline therapy regarding potential drugs to reduce a residual cardiometabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. The role of culture in effective HIV/AIDS communication by theatre in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Uwah, Chijioke

    2014-01-01

    The need to effectively communicate HIV/AIDS messages in South Africa, given the high prevalence of the pandemic, cannot be overemphasised. Communication scholars have long emphasised the need to recognise adherence to cultural norms of target communities as catalyst for effective HIV/AIDS communication. Unfortunately this call has not been totally heeded by the designers of HIV/AIDS communication instruments. In the case of theatre, research has shown that in South Africa, theatre groups have gone into communities with pre-packaged plays without due cognisance of the cultural norms and beliefs of the target population. This research was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal (the province with the highest prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa). Using a qualitative research methodology this paper investigated the inclusion/non-inclusion of the cultural norms of the target population in the design of the dramatic performance by the theatre group in its HIV/AIDS campaigns. The findings indicate that while the group did try to incorporate aspects of the cultural norms of the target population, it did so at a level that failed to effectively communicate the HIV/AIDS message to its audiences. This paper therefore seeks to show through empirical evidence that the non-inclusion of cultural norms and values of the target population has acted as a stumbling block in the effective communication of HIV/AIDS messages by theatre groups in the country. PMID:24697309

  1. The role of culture in effective HIV/AIDS communication by theatre in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uwah, Chijioke

    2013-01-01

    The need to effectively communicate HIV/AIDS messages in South Africa, given the high prevalence of the pandemic, cannot be overemphasised. Communication scholars have long emphasised the need to recognise adherence to cultural norms of target communities as catalyst for effective HIV/AIDS communication. Unfortunately this call has not been totally heeded by the designers of HIV/AIDS communication instruments. In the case of theatre, research has shown that in South Africa, theatre groups have gone into communities with pre-packaged plays without due cognisance of the cultural norms and beliefs of the target population. This research was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal (the province with the highest prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa). Using a qualitative research methodology this paper investigated the inclusion/non-inclusion of the cultural norms of the target population in the design of the dramatic performance by the theatre group in its HIV/AIDS campaigns. The findings indicate that while the group did try to incorporate aspects of the cultural norms of the target population, it did so at a level that failed to effectively communicate the HIV/AIDS message to its audiences. This paper therefore seeks to show through empirical evidence that the non-inclusion of cultural norms and values of the target population has acted as a stumbling block in the effective communication of HIV/AIDS messages by theatre groups in the country.

  2. The role of culture in effective HIV/AIDS communication by theatre in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uwah, Chijioke

    2013-01-01

    The need to effectively communicate HIV/AIDS messages in South Africa, given the high prevalence of the pandemic, cannot be overemphasised. Communication scholars have long emphasised the need to recognise adherence to cultural norms of target communities as catalyst for effective HIV/AIDS communication. Unfortunately this call has not been totally heeded by the designers of HIV/AIDS communication instruments. In the case of theatre, research has shown that in South Africa, theatre groups have gone into communities with pre-packaged plays without due cognisance of the cultural norms and beliefs of the target population. This research was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal (the province with the highest prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa). Using a qualitative research methodology this paper investigated the inclusion/non-inclusion of the cultural norms of the target population in the design of the dramatic performance by the theatre group in its HIV/AIDS campaigns. The findings indicate that while the group did try to incorporate aspects of the cultural norms of the target population, it did so at a level that failed to effectively communicate the HIV/AIDS message to its audiences. This paper therefore seeks to show through empirical evidence that the non-inclusion of cultural norms and values of the target population has acted as a stumbling block in the effective communication of HIV/AIDS messages by theatre groups in the country. PMID:24697309

  3. Effects of case-based learning on communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Moon-Sook; Park, Hyung-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of case-based learning on communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation in sophomore nursing students. In this prospective, quasi-experimental study, we compared the pretest and post-test scores of an experimental group and a nonequivalent, nonsynchronized control group. Both groups were selected using convenience sampling, and consisted of students enrolled in a health communication course in the fall semesters of 2011 (control group) and 2012 (experimental group) at a nursing college in Suwon, South Korea. The two courses covered the same material, but in 2011 the course was lecture-based, while in 2012, lectures were replaced by case-based learning comprising five authentic cases of patient-nurse communication. At post-test, the case-based learning group showed significantly greater communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation than the lecture-based learning group. This finding suggests that case-based learning is an effective learning and teaching method.

  4. Stereotypes Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  5. How well do ecosystem indicators communicate the effects of anthropogenic eutrophication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; Gilbert, Alison J.; Mee, Laurence D.; Vermaat, Jan E.; Artioli, Yuri; Humborg, Christoph; Wulff, Fred

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication affects the Mediterranean, Black, North and Baltic Seas to various extents. Responses to nutrient loading and methods of monitoring relevant indicators vary regionally, hindering interpretation of ecosystem state changes and preventing a straightforward pan-European assessment of eutrophication symptoms. Here we summarize responses to nutrient enrichment in Europe's seas, comparing existing time-series of selected pelagic (phytoplankton biomass and community composition, turbidity, N:P ratio) and benthic (macro flora and faunal communities, bottom oxygen condition) indicators based on their effectiveness in assessing eutrophication effects. Our results suggest that the Black Sea and Northern Adriatic appear to be recovering from eutrophication due to economic reorganization in the Black Sea catchment and nutrient abatement measures in the case of the Northern Adriatic. The Baltic is most strongly impacted by eutrophication due to its limited exchange and the prevalence of nutrient recycling. Eutrophication in the North Sea is primarily a coastal problem, but may be exacerbated by climatic changes. Indicator interpretation is strongly dependent on sea-specific knowledge of ecosystem characteristics, and no single indicator can be employed to adequately compare eutrophication state between European seas. Communicating eutrophication-related information to policy-makers could be facilitated through the use of consistent indicator selection and monitoring methodologies across European seas. This work is discussed in the context of the European Commission's recently published Marine Strategy Directive.

  6. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  7. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Parrott, W Gerrod

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy) from others. In Study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans) showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts. PMID:27047414

  8. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Parrott, W. Gerrod

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy) from others. In Study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans) showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts. PMID:27047414

  9. A comparative controlled trial comparing the effects of yoga and walking for overweight and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Sharma, Sachin Kr.; Yadav, Arti; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2014-01-01

    Background Walking and yoga have been independently evaluated for weight control; however, there are very few studies comparing the 2 with randomization. Material/Methods The present study compared the effects of 90 minutes/day for 15 days of supervised yoga or supervised walking on: (i) related biochemistry, (ii) anthropometric variables, (iii) body composition, (iv) postural stability, and (v) bilateral hand grip strength in overweight and obese persons. Sixty-eight participants, of whom 5 were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) and 63 were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2; group mean age ±S.D., 36.4±11.2 years; 35 females), were randomized as 2 groups – (i) a yoga group and (ii) a walking group – given the same diet. Results All differences were pre-post changes within each group. Both groups showed a significant (p<0.05; repeated measures ANOVA, post-hoc analyses) decrease in: BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, lean mass, body water, and total cholesterol. The yoga group increased serum leptin (p<0.01) and decreased LDL cholesterol (p<0.05). The walking group decreased serum adiponectin (p<0.05) and triglycerides (p<0.05). Conclusions Both yoga and walking improved anthropometric variables and serum lipid profile in overweight and obese persons. The possible implications are discussed. PMID:24878827

  10. Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…

  11. Comparing Young Adults to Older Adults in E-Cigarette Perceptions and Motivations for Use: Implications for Health Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" is rapidly rising, and is especially prevalent among young adults. A better understanding of e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use is needed to inform health communication and educational efforts. This study aims to explore these aspects of use with a focus on comparing…

  12. The Sound of Silence?: A Comparative Study of the Barriers to Communication Skills Development in Accounting and Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, T.; Joyce, J.; Bramhall, M. D.; Robinson, I. M.; Arquero, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Employers often consider graduates to be unprepared for employment and lacking in vocational skills. A common demand from them is that the curriculum should include "communication skills," as specific skills in their own right and also because of the central role that such skills can play in developing other desirable attributes. Current thinking…

  13. The Comparative Effects of Chloramines on a Range of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Viglierchio, D. R.; Croll, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    Chloramine-T (sodium p-toluene sulfonchloramide) was a good surface sterilant for Ditylenchus dipsaci, however it was somewhat nematicidal. These properties were presumably associated with its properties as an oxidizing chlorine. Other chloramines tested were also toxic. Its possible use as a nematicide is suggested in relation to dosage and phytotoxicity. The comparative effects of chloramines on a wide range of freeliving soil nematodes and freeliving infective larvae of animal parasitic forms are included. PMID:19325651

  14. Reducing disaster risk in rural Arctic communities through effective communication strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Communication is the process of exchanging and relaying vital information that has bearing on the effectiveness of all phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, making it one of the most important activities in disasters. Lack of communication between emergency managers, policy makers, and communities at risk may result in an inability to accurately identify disaster risk, and failure to determine priorities during a hazard event. Specific goals of communication change during the four phases of emergency management. Consequently, the communication strategy changes as well. Communication strategy also depends on a variety of attitudinal and motivational characteristics of the population at risk, as well as socioeconomic, cultural, and geographical features of the disaster-prone region. In May 2013, insufficient communication patterns between federal, state, tribal agencies, and affected communities significantly contributed to delays in the flood response and recovery in several rural villages along the Yukon River in central Alaska. This case study finds that long term dialogue is critical for managing disaster risk and increasing disaster resilience in rural Northern communities. It introduces new ideas and highlights best practices in disaster communication.

  15. The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Maibach, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which mass communication has been used -- or can be used -- to promote beneficial changes in behavior among members of populations. We use an ecological perspective to examine the ways in which mass media interventions can be used to influence public behavior both directly and indirectly. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people directly -- by directly targeting the people burdened by the public health problem of concern and/or the people who influence them -- have a long basis in public health history, and recent reviews have clarified our expectations about what can be expected from such approaches. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people indirectly -- by creating beneficial changes in the places (or environments) in which people live and work -- have equal if not greater potential to promote beneficial changes in population health behaviors, but these are currently less explored options. To have the greatest possible beneficial influence on public behavior with the public health resources available, we recommend that public health program planners assess their opportunities to use media to target both people and places in a manner that complements and extends other investments being made in population health enhancement. PMID:18173391

  16. Cost-effectiveness prospects of picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Hindel, R; Preger, W

    1988-01-01

    PAC (picture archiving and communication) systems are widely discussed and promoted as the organizational solution to digital image management in a radiology department. For approximately two decades digital imaging has increasingly been used for such diagnostic modalities as CT, DSA, MRI, DR (Digital Radiography) and others. PACS are seen as a step toward high technology integration and more efficient management. Although the acquisition of such technology is investment intensive, there are well-founded projections that prolonged operation will prove cost justified. Such justification can only partly be derived from cost reduction through PAC with respect to present department management--the major justification is preparation for future economic pressures which could make survival of a department without modern technology difficult. Especially in the United States the political climate favors 'competitive medicine' and reduced government support. Seen in this context PACS promises to speed the transition of Health Care Services into a business with tight resource management, cost accounting and marketing. The following paper analyzes cost and revenue in a typical larger Radiology Department, projects various scenarios of cost reduction by means of digital technology and concludes with cautious optimism that the investment expenses for a PACS will be justified in the near future by prudent utilization of high technology. PMID:10312445

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Robotically Assisted Compared With Laparoscopic Adnexal Surgery for Benign Gynecologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jason D.; Kostolias, Alessandra; Ananth, Cande V.; Burke, William M.; Tergas, Ana I.; Prendergast, Eri; Ramsey, Scott D.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform a population-based analysis to compare the complications and cost of laparoscopic and robotically assisted adnexal surgery. Methods A nationwide database was utilized to analyze the use and outcomes of robotically assisted adnexal surgery from 2009–2012. Multivariable mixed effects regression models were developed to examine predictors of use of robotic surgery. After propensity score matching, complications and cost were compared between robotically assisted and laparoscopic surgery. Results 87,514 women were identified. From 2009 to 2012, performance of robotic-assisted oophorectomy increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2–3.8%) to 15.0% (95% CI, 14.4–15.6%), while robotically assisted cystectomy rose from 2.4% (95% CI, 2.0–2.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI, 12.2–13.5%). The overall complication rate was 7.1% (95% CI, 4.0–10.2%) for robotically assisted vs. 6.0% (95% CI, 2.9–9.1%) for laparoscopic oophorectomy (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.00–1.45) (P=0.052). Robotic-assisted oophorectomy was associated with a higher rate of intraoperative complications (3.4% vs. 2.1%, OR=1.60; 95% CI, 1.21–2.13). The overall complication rate was 3.7% (95% CI −0.8–8.2%) after robotically assisted versus 2.7% (95% CI, −1.8–7.2%) for laparoscopic cystectomy (OR=1.38; 95% CI, 0.95–1.99). The intraoperative complication rate was higher for robotically assisted cystectomy (2.0% vs. 0.9%, OR=2.40; 95% CI, 1.31–4.38). Compared to laparoscopy, robotically assisted oophorectomy was associated with $2504 (95% CI, $2356–$2652) increased total costs and robotically assisted cystectomy $3310 (95% CI, $3082–$3581) higher costs. Conclusion Use of robotically assisted adnexal surgery increased rapidly. Compared to laparoscopic surgery, robotically assisted adnexal surgery is associated with substantially greater costs and a small, but statistically significant, increase in intraoperative complications. PMID:25437715

  18. Effectiveness of enhanced communication therapy in the first four months after stroke for aphasia and dysarthria: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Anne; Patchick, Emma; Young, Alys; Davies, Linda; Vail, Andy; Long, Andrew F; Watkins, Caroline; Wilkinson, Mo; Pearl, Gill; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon; Tyrrell, Pippa

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of enhanced communication therapy in the first four months after stroke compared with an attention control (unstructured social contact). Design Externally randomised, pragmatic, parallel, superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment. Setting Twelve UK hospital and community stroke services. Participants 170 adults (mean age 70 years) randomised within two weeks of admission to hospital with stroke (December 2006 to January 2010) whom speech and language therapists deemed eligible, and 135 carers. Interventions Enhanced, agreed best practice, communication therapy specific to aphasia or dysarthria, offered by speech and language therapists according to participants’ needs for up to four months, with continuity from hospital to community. Comparison was with similarly resourced social contact (without communication therapy) from employed visitors. Outcome measures Primary outcome was blinded, functional communicative ability at six months on the Therapy Outcome Measure (TOM) activity subscale. Secondary outcomes (unblinded, six months): participants’ perceptions on the Communication Outcomes After Stroke scale (COAST); carers’ perceptions of participants from part of the Carer COAST; carers’ wellbeing on Carers of Older People in Europe Index and quality of life items from Carer COAST; and serious adverse events. Results Therapist and visitor contact both had good uptake from service users. An average 22 contacts (intervention or control) over 13 weeks were accepted by users. Impairment focused therapy was the approach most often used by the speech and language therapists. Visitors most often provided general conversation. In total, 81/85 of the intervention group and 72/85 of the control group completed the primary outcome measure. Both groups improved on the TOM activity subscale. The estimated six months group difference was not statistically significant, with 0.25 (95% CI –0.19 to 0.69) points in favour of

  19. Comparative effectiveness research: does the emperor have clothes?

    PubMed

    Coulter, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    With the recent allocation ofa $1.1 billion "down payment" to fund comparative effectiveness research (CER) from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (generally referred to as the stimulus package) and with $300 million being allocated for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), $400 million for the National Institutes of Health, and $400 million for allocation at the discretion of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and with the National Center for Complementary Alternative Medicine putting out a request for research proposals for Comparative Effectiveness Studies of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, it is safe to say CER has entered a new era. CER solves two historical concerns for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) researchers; first it focuses on effectiveness not efficacy; second it tests holistic approaches to care. Because it allows the providers to give care in any way they choose, it avoids the problem of reductionism inherent in standard random controlled trials. In CER, the provider can continue to practice holistically and to use individualized medicine to treat the patient. However, amid the largely positive responses to this move among researches in CAM, a more critical evaluation might be in order. This article argues that while the move to effectiveness research is a positive move for CAM, CER as currently being talked about and funded may just be a new form of privileging certain forms of evidence at the expense of other equally important and perhaps more relevant evidence. PMID:21717820

  20. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  1. The "saying is repeating" effect: dyadic communication can generate cultural stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Bratanova, Boyka; Kashima, Yoshi

    2014-01-01

    It has been long established that interpersonal communication underpins the existence of cultural stereotypes. However, research has either examined the formation of new or the maintenance of existing stereotypes. In a series of three studies, the present research bridges the gap between these phases by showing that newly formed stereotypes can spread through repeated dyadic communication with others. The stereotypic representation arose due to the audience tuning in to communication to a first audience. Further transmission to two types of subsequent audiences was simulated: a newcomer and an old-timer with an unknown attitude towards the target. A "saying-is-repeating" effect was obtained: the stereotypic representation was invariably transmitted to the newcomer, regardless of whether communicators personally believed in the bias; perceived group-level consensus moderated its transmission to the old-timer. These findings demonstrate that once a stereotypic representation is formed, it is likely to spread in a community and potentially become a cultural stereotype.

  2. The effects of expressivity and flight task on cockpit communication and resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an investigation to develop a methodology for evaluating crew communication behavior on the flight deck and a flight simulator experiment to test the effects of crew member expressivity, as measured by the Personal Attributes Questionnarie, and flight task on crew communication and flight performance are discussed. A methodology for coding and assessing flight crew communication behavior as well as a model for predicting that behavior is advanced. Although not enough crews were found to provide valid statistical tests, the results of the study tend to indicate that crews in which the captain has high expressivity perform better than those whose captain is low in expressivity. There appears to be a strong interaction between captains and first officers along the level of command dimension of communication. The PAQ appears to identify those pilots who offer disagreements and inititate new subjects for discussion.

  3. Effective Communication About the Use of Complementary and Integrative Medicine in Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) is becoming an increasingly popular and visible component of oncology care. Many patients affected by cancer and their family members are looking for informed advice and desire communication with their physicians about CIM use. Patients affected by cancer come to discuss CIM use with intense emotions and are experiencing an existential crisis that cannot be ignored. Effective communication is crucial in establishing trust with these patients and their families. Communication is now recognized as a core clinical skill in medicine, including cancer care, and is important to the delivery of high-quality care. The quality of communication affects patient satisfaction, decision-making, patient distress and well-being, compliance, and even malpractice litigation. The communication process about CIM use requires a very sensitive approach that depends on effective communication skills, such as experience in listening, encouraging hope, and ability to convey empathy and compassion. This process can be divided into two parts: the “how” and the “what”. The “how” relates to the change in clinician attitude, the process of gathering information, addressing patients' unmet needs and emotions, and dealing with uncertainty. The “what” relates to the process of information exchange while assisting patients in decisions about CIM use by using reliable information sources, leading to informed decision-making. PMID:23863085

  4. A Clinical Communication Strategy to Enhance Effectiveness and CAHPS Scores: The ALERT Model

    PubMed Central

    Hardee, James T; Kasper, Ilene K

    2008-01-01

    The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) program is a national annual report that surveys patients and rates health plans on a variety of metrics, including claims processing, customer service, office staff helpfulness, and ability to get needed care. Although physicians may feel they have no immediate control over many aspects of this questionnaire, there is an important area of the survey where they do have direct control: “how well the doctor communicates.” It is well established that effective physician–patient communication has beneficial effects not only on physician and patient satisfaction but also on adherence to medical advice, diagnostic accuracy, and malpractice risk. The creators of the CAHPS survey developed and incorporated four questions seeking to ascertain the patient's impression of the physician's communication skills. These questions assess how well the physician listened carefully to the patient, how often the physician explained things understandably, how often the physician showed respect for what the patient said, and how often the physician spent enough time with the patient. Many excellent clinical communication models exist that touch on aspects of the CAHPS topics, but it behooves physicians to be mindful of the exact survey questions. The ALERT model of communication was developed to facilitate physicians' recall of these measures. By incorporating key verbal and nonverbal communication skills, clinicians can address and improve their scores on this important area of the CAHPS survey. PMID:21331215

  5. The Effects of Home-Based Literacy Activities on the Communication of Students with Severe Speech and Motor Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Amy Swartz; Clark, Denise M.; Skoning, Stacey N.; Wegner, Theresa M.; Muwana, Florence C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using sensory, augmentative, and alternative communication (AAC), and supportive communication strategies on the rate and type of communication used by three students with severe speech and motor impairments (SSMI). Using a multiple baseline across behaviour design with sensory and AAC intervention phases,…

  6. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  7. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Low, Kathy A; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A; Tan, Chin H; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  8. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Low, Kathy A; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A; Tan, Chin H; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors.

  9. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Mark A.; Low, Kathy A.; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A.; Tan, Chin H.; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain’s atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55–87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  10. Comparing scales of environmental effects from gasoline and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca A; McBride, Allen C; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Jeffrey M

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the spatial extent and temporal duration of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol-supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  11. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.; Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; McBride, Allen C.; Johnson, Timothy L.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the spatial extent and temporal duration of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol-supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  12. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of the SNaP™ Wound Care System.

    PubMed

    Hutton, David W; Sheehan, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Diabetic lower extremity wounds cause substantial burden to healthcare systems, costing tens of thousands of dollars per episode. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) devices have been shown to be cost-effective at treating these wounds, but the traditional devices use bulky electrical pumps that require a durable medical equipment rental-based procurement process. The Spiracur SNaP™ Wound Care System is an ultraportable NPWT system that does not use an electric pump and is fully disposable. It has superior healing compared to standard of care with modern dressings and comparable healing to traditional NPWT devices while giving patients greater mobility and giving clinicians a simpler procurement process. We used a mathematical model to analyse the costs of the SNaP™ system and compare them to standard of care and electrically powered NPWT devices. When compared to standard of care, the SNaP™ system saves over $9000 per wound treated and more than doubles the number of patients healed. The SNaP system has similar healing time to powered NPWT devices, but saves $2300 in Medicare payments or $2800 for private payers per wound treated. Our analysis shows that the SNaP™ system could save substantial treatment costs in addition to allowing patients greater freedom and mobility. PMID:21385320

  14. Mechanisms of Mindfulness in Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Daniel C.; Garland, Eric L.; Farb, Norman A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness, an ancient spiritual practice, is becoming an increasingly popular component of communication courses, training individuals to reserve judgment in their dealings with others. However, the effects of mindfulness in communication courses are not well researched. We compared students taking an introductory communication course that…

  15. Effectiveness of a Business Communication Course: Evidence from a Business School in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayathridevi, K. Sri; Deepa, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to show the effectiveness of a business communication course offered in a business school in India. All students who enrolled for the Master of Business Administration program in the school were considered for the study. The study adapted a pretest and posttest approach to find the effectiveness of the course. It also describes the…

  16. The Effect of Structured Techniques on Group Decision Making in the Undergraduate Business Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Joan; Echternacht, Lonnie

    This study sought to determine the effect of four different structured group decision-making techniques in an undergraduate business communication course on the quality of a written assignment and on student reaction to the decision-making technique. The effects of gender, age, and academic intellectual ability were also investigated. The four…

  17. The Effect of the Use of Microcomputers on Writing Ability and Attitude toward Business Communication Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Leonard T.; Bartholome, Lloyd W.

    1987-01-01

    The study compared achievement and attitudes of Utah State University students who experienced two different methods of teaching business communication. The experimental group used microcomputers equipped with word processing, spelling, and grammar packages. Results show no difference in students' writing ability or attitude toward writing as a…

  18. Effective Communication in the Autobiographical Narratives of Two Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Christopher

    For a composition teacher--comparing a passage from his Caucasian grandmother's (May Blossom Gould's) diary with the autobiographical narrative dictated by an African-American student's great-great grandmother (Violet McNeil) to a literate member of her family--racial politics and the privileges afforded by literacy irrevocably separate the two…

  19. Less is more? Think again! A cognitive fluency-based more-less asymmetry in comparative communication.

    PubMed

    Hoorens, Vera; Bruckmüller, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Differences between groups, individuals, or objects can be framed in multiple ways. One can, for instance, say that men generally earn more than women or that women generally earn less than men. Showing that these logically equivalent expressions are not psychologically equivalent, we demonstrate a robust more-less asymmetry in the use of and responses to comparative statements. More specifically, we show that people use "more than" statements more often than "less than" statements (Study 1); like "more than" statements better (Studies 2 and 3), agree more with opinions expressed through "more than" statements (Studies 4 and 5), and are more likely to consider factual "more than" statements to be true (Study 6). Supporting a cognitive fluency explanation, a manipulation that makes people expect disfluency while processing "less than" statements reduces this otherwise robust more-less asymmetry (Study 7). By combining comparative framing effects with cognitive fluency, the present research brings together 2 research fields in social cognition, shedding new light on both.

  20. Comparative Effectiveness Research Through a Collaborative Electronic Reporting Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fiks, Alexander G; Grundmeier, Robert W; Steffes, Jennifer; Adams, William G; Kaelber, David C; Pace, Wilson D; Wasserman, Richard C

    2015-07-01

    The United States lacks a system to use routinely collected electronic health record (EHR) clinical data to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) on pediatric drug therapeutics and other child health topics. This Special Article describes the creation and details of a network of EHR networks devised to use clinical data in EHRs for conducting CER, led by the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS). To achieve this goal, PROS has linked data from its own EHR-based "ePROS" network with data from independent practices and health systems across the United States. Beginning with 4 of proof-of-concept retrospective CER studies on psychotropic and asthma medication use and side effects with a planned full-scale prospective CER study on treatment of pediatric hypertension, the Comparative Effectiveness Research Through Collaborative Electronic Reporting (CER(2)) collaborators are developing a platform to advance the methodology of pediatric pharmacoepidemiology. CER(2) will provide a resource for future CER studies in pediatric drug therapeutics and other child health topics. This article outlines the vision for and present composition of this network, governance, and challenges and opportunities for using the network to advance child health and health care. The goal of this network is to engage child health researchers from around the United States in participating in collaborative research using the CER(2) database. PMID:26101357

  1. Medication Adherence in a Comparative Effectiveness Trial for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sylvia, Louisa G.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Leon, Andrew C.; Kansky, Christine I.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ketter, Terence A.; Friedman, Edward S.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Thase, Michael E.; Ostacher, Michael J.; Keyes, Michelle; Rabideau, Dustin; Nierenberg, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Psychopharmacology remains the foundation of treatment for bipolar disorder, but medication adherence in this population is low (Range = 20% to 64%). We examined medication adherence in a multi-site, comparative effectiveness study of lithium. Method The Lithium Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS) was a six-month, six-site, randomized effectiveness trial of adjunctive moderate dose lithium therapy compared to optimized treatment in adult outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder (N=283). Medication adherence was measured at each study visit with the Tablet Routine Questionnaire. Results We found that 4.50% of participants reported missing at least 30% of their medications in the past week at baseline and non-adherence remained low throughout the trial (< 7%). Poor medication adherence was associated with more manic symptoms and side effects as well as lower lithium serum levels at mid- and post-treatment, but not with poor quality of life, overall severity of illness, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion Participants in LiTMUS were highly adherent with taking their medications. The lack of association with possible predictors of adherence, such as depression and quality of life, could be explained by the limited variance or other factors as well as by not using an objective measure of adherence. PMID:24117232

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Oral Medications for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Ataru; Inoue, Sachie; Ishii, Tomonori; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2016-07-27

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease that imposes a significant burden on patients. Although multiple treatment options for PAH are available, head-to-head comparisons are difficult to conduct. Network meta-analysis (NMA) can be a useful alternative for direct comparison to estimate the relative effectiveness of multiple treatments. The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and NMA to evaluate the relative effectiveness among oral PAH medications.Data collection was performed by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Ichushi-Web. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing at least 1 of the following 3 outcome measurements; 6-minute walk distance test (6MWD), WHO functional class (WHOFC), and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) were included (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015016557). Outcomes were evaluated by estimating the differences in the mean change from baseline or by estimating the odds ratios. Analyses were performed using WinBUGS 1.4.3.Seven double-blind RCTs were eligible. NMA results showed similar improvements in 6MWD for all medications assessed. Bosentan and sildenafil caused a statistically significant improvement in WHOFC compared to other medications.The relative effectiveness of oral PAH medications could be compared using NMA, which suggested the superiority of bosentan and sildenafil in the improvement of WHOFC. PMID:27385603

  3. Indirect Estimation of the Comparative Treatment Effect in Pharmacogenomic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Sorich, Michael J.; Coory, Michael; Pekarsky, Brita A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of clinical utility is a key issue in translating pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. Appropriately designed randomized controlled trials generally provide the most robust evidence of the clinical utility, but often only data from a pharmacogenomic association study are available. This paper details a method for reframing the results of pharmacogenomic association studies in terms of the comparative treatment effect for a pharmacogenomic subgroup to provide greater insight into the likely clinical utility of a pharmacogenomic marker, its’ likely cost effectiveness, and the value of undertaking the further (often expensive) research required for translation into clinical practice. The method is based on the law of total probability, which relates marginal and conditional probability. It takes as inputs: the prevalence of the pharmacogenomic marker in the patient group of interest, prognostic effect of the pharmacogenomic marker based on observational association studies, and the unstratified comparative treatment effect based on one or more conventional randomized controlled trials. The critical assumption is that of exchangeability across the included studies. The method is demonstrated using a case study of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype and the anti-platelet agent clopidogrel. Indirect subgroup analysis provided insight into relationship between the clinical utility of genotyping CYP2C19 and the risk ratio of cardiovascular outcomes between CYP2C19 genotypes for individuals using clopidogrel. In this case study the indirect and direct estimates of the treatment effect for the cytochrome P450 2C19 subgroups were similar. In general, however, indirect estimates are likely to have substantially greater risk of bias than an equivalent direct estimate. PMID:24015225

  4. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising.

  5. The principle of parity: the 'placebo effect' and physician communication.

    PubMed

    Blease, Charlotte

    2012-04-01

    The use of 'placebos' in clinical practice is a source of continued controversy for physicians and medical ethicists. There is rarely any extensive discussion on what 'placebos' are and how they work. In this paper, drawing on Louhiala and Puustinen's work, the author proposes that the term 'placebo effect' be replaced in clinical contexts with the term 'positive care effect'. Medical treatment always takes place in a 'context of care' that encompasses all the phenomena associated with medical intervention it includes the particular method of treatment, the interpersonal relationships between medical staff and the patient and other factors, including physicians' and patients' beliefs in the power of the treatment. Together, these phenomena can result in a full spectrum of therapeutic effects to the patient--from no effects, to small effects, to large effects. In cases where there are significant therapeutic benefits to the patient, 'positive care effects' may be spoken of. Since the ethical codes of the General Medical Council and the American Medical Association demand transparency with respect to patient treatment and insist on complete openness in 'placebo' usage, the author argues that, as a matter of conceptual rigour and consistency, if the term 'placebo effect' is replaced by 'positive care effect', these ethical codes appear to insist on transparency about all such beneficial components of treatment. Given that this appears to be a counterintuitive obligation, the author concludes the paper with some comments on the clinical consequences of this conceptual revision, including a brief discussion of how this important debate might develop. PMID:22048851

  6. [Palliative care: an example of Comparative Effectiveness Research?].

    PubMed

    Schmacke, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) seeks to establish treatment objectives and concepts striving to achieve patient relevant progress in therapy on the basis of published evidence. Using the example of palliative medicine and palliative care, respectively, it will be demonstrated that these two are under-researched areas of care. In addition, it will become clear that the success of this interdisciplinary treatment concept for the seriously ill must be weighed in the light of traditional clinical research - far beyond the cancer diagnosis. The current distinction between curative and palliative research and care urgently needs to be reconsidered.

  7. Training Family Medicine Residents in Effective Communication Skills While Utilizing Promotoras as Standardized Patients in OSCEs: A Health Literacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany; Arnold, Danielle; Brandt, Jeffrey; Woodfin, Grant; Gimpel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Future health care providers need to be trained in the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate with their patients with limited health literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a curriculum designed to increase residents' health literacy knowledge, improve communication skills, and work with an interpreter. Materials and Methods. Family Medicine residents (N = 25) participated in a health literacy training which included didactic lectures and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Community promotoras acted as standardized patients and evaluated the residents' ability to measure their patients' health literacy, communicate effectively using the teach-back and Ask Me 3 methods, and appropriately use an interpreter. Pre- and postknowledge, attitudes, and postdidactic feedback were obtained. We compared OSCE scores from the group that received training (didactic group) and previous graduates. Residents reported the skills they used in practice three months later. Results. Family Medicine residents showed an increase in health literacy knowledge (p = 0.001) and scored in the adequately to expertly performed range in the OSCE. Residents reported using the teach-back method (77.8%) and a translator more effectively (77.8%) three months later. Conclusions. Our innovative health literacy OSCE can be replicated for medical learners at all levels of training. PMID:26491565

  8. Training Family Medicine Residents in Effective Communication Skills While Utilizing Promotoras as Standardized Patients in OSCEs: A Health Literacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany; Arnold, Danielle; Brandt, Jeffrey; Woodfin, Grant; Gimpel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Future health care providers need to be trained in the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate with their patients with limited health literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a curriculum designed to increase residents' health literacy knowledge, improve communication skills, and work with an interpreter. Materials and Methods. Family Medicine residents (N = 25) participated in a health literacy training which included didactic lectures and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Community promotoras acted as standardized patients and evaluated the residents' ability to measure their patients' health literacy, communicate effectively using the teach-back and Ask Me 3 methods, and appropriately use an interpreter. Pre- and postknowledge, attitudes, and postdidactic feedback were obtained. We compared OSCE scores from the group that received training (didactic group) and previous graduates. Residents reported the skills they used in practice three months later. Results. Family Medicine residents showed an increase in health literacy knowledge (p = 0.001) and scored in the adequately to expertly performed range in the OSCE. Residents reported using the teach-back method (77.8%) and a translator more effectively (77.8%) three months later. Conclusions. Our innovative health literacy OSCE can be replicated for medical learners at all levels of training. PMID:26491565

  9. Approaches to comparative effectiveness research in multimorbid populations.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Bayliss, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    There is an urgent need for an evidence base to guide care for patients with multiple chronic medical conditions (MCC). Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been touted as 1 solution to generating such evidence. However, the majority of CER topics and methods are designed to generate evidence applicable to single diseases. Generating evidence to guide the care of MCC populations requires thoughtful, and often alternative, approaches to using the existing armamentarium of CER methods. To initiate a dialog about appropriate methods for CER in MCC populations, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of experimental and quasi-experimental study designs for CER in MCC populations, estimating heterogeneity of treatment effects, developing meaningful outcome measures, and aligning morbidity measurement with relevant outcomes. Through an engaged dialog with clinicians, methodologists, and patients, evidence about strengths and limitations of alternative approaches, recommendations about preferred methods for CER in MCC can be developed to ensure that knowledge gaps are filled by valid evidence.

  10. The effect of formal, neonatal communication-intervention training on mothers in kangaroo care

    PubMed Central

    van Rooyen, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) unit offers unique opportunities for training. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers’ knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants. Methods Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother. Results Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups. Conclusion The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme. PMID:26245414

  11. Troposphere communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovlev, L. I.; Dediukin, G. V.; Kagramanov, E. S.; Redin, A. P.; Stuton, P. I.; Tsybulkin, L. D.

    The physical processes and features of troposphere radiowave propagation are reviewed, and fundamental principles for the construction of troposphere lines of communication are discussed. The technical characteristics of troposphere stations in the USA, England, France, FRG, and Japan are studied and compared. Attention is given to mobile and stationary military stations, and to stationary troposphere communication systems in the Americas, Greenland, the Caribbean islands, Asia, Africa, and Australia. Developments in troposphere communications, including the AN/TRC-170 station, are discussed.

  12. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. Atmospheric effects on Quaternary polarization encoding for free space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soorat, Ram; Vudayagiri, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    We have simulated atmospheric effects such as fog and smoke in laboratory environment to simulate depolarisation due to atmospheric effects during a free space optical communi- cation. This has been used to study noise in two components of quaternary encoding for polarization shift keying. Individual components of a Quaternary encoding, such as vertical and horizontal as well as 45$^\\circ$ and 135$^\\circ$ , are tested separately and indicates that the depo- larization effects are different for these two situation. However, due to a differential method used to extract information bits, the protocol shows extremely low bit error rates. The information obtained is useful during deployment of a fully functional Quaternary encoded PolSK scheme in free space.

  14. Learning Doctor-Patient Communication – Evaluating the effectiveness of the communication training course at Leipzig University from the students' point of view

    PubMed Central

    Cämmerer, Jana; Martin, Olaf; Rockenbauch, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: At the University of Leipzig, the requirements of the Licensing Regulations for Doctors (Approbationsordnung für Ärzte) for the practical training of communication skills are actively implemented by a two-semester communication course. During this course, student tutors impart the basics of interpersonal as well as selected aspects of doctor-patient communication using interactive training methods. This article reports on the effect the training has on the self-assessed communication skills of the medicine students. Methods: The students’ self-perceived communication skills were assessed, both at the beginning and after the completion of the first and second course semesters using questionnaires related to the course’s learning goals. Pre-post comparisons were then carried out. 142 students (of 163 students in total) participated in the survey at the start of the course, of which 117 completed the T2-questionnaire at the end of the first course semester. Only the 84 students who also completed the questionnaires in the second course semester were included in the statistical analysis. These responses were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The comparison of the self-assessments between the four measurement points showed that statistically significant learning progress for all assessed communication skills had taken place from the point of view of the students. The largest changes between measurements, and therefore the greatest learning progress, could be seen in knowledge related skills. Conclusion: From the students’ point of view the communication training contributes significantly to the acquisition of communication skills. The results suggest that this “hands-on” course concept is suited to successfully enhance the students’ communication skills. The course concept should therefore be retained for both the course in its current form as well as for any extension of the course into the clinical part of

  15. Noise effects on passenger communication in light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupf, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of noise on conversation between two persons seated in a close, side-by-side position such as in a small aircraft. Twelve pairs of subjects were required to converse while being exposed to noises of various levels and spectra similar to those currently found in general aviation aircraft. After a period of noise exposure, subjects rated the disruptive effect of the noise on conversation and judged the acceptability of the noise. Subjective estimates of the maximum times for pleasant conversation in the noises were also obtained.

  16. Effects of acupuncture in bronchial asthma: preliminary communication.

    PubMed Central

    Dias, P L; Subramaniam, S; Lionel, N D

    1982-01-01

    Twenty patients randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group participated in a double blind study to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture in bronchial asthma, using the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) as an index of bronchial patency. All patients in the control group showed a significant improvement in their PEFR while only 3 patients in the treated group showed an improvement. A subjective improvement and a reduction in drug dosages were observed in both groups. It is concluded that acupuncture has a placebo effect in bronchial asthma. PMID:7040659

  17. Non-Markovian effects on quantum-communication protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Ye; Oh, C. H.; An, Jun-Hong

    2010-09-15

    We show how, under the influence of non-Markovian environments, two different maximally entangled Bell states give rise to states that have equal classical correlations and the same capacities to violate the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, but intriguingly differing usefulness for teleportation and dense coding. We elucidate how different entanglement measures like negativity and concurrence, and two different measures of quantum discord, could account for these behaviors. In particular, we explicitly show how the Ollivier-Zurek measure of discord directly accounts for one state being a better resource for dense coding compared to another. Our study leads to several important issues about these measures of discord.

  18. Comparative effectiveness research: Policy context, methods development and research infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Tunis, Sean R; Benner, Joshua; McClellan, Mark

    2010-08-30

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received substantial attention as a potential approach for improving health outcomes while lowering costs of care, and for improving the relevance and quality of clinical and health services research. The Institute of Medicine defines CER as 'the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances.' Improving the methods and infrastructure for CER will require sustained attention to the following issues: (1) Meaningful involvement of patients, consumers, clinicians, payers, and policymakers in key phases of CER study design and implementation; (2) Development of methodological 'best practices' for the design of CER studies that reflect decision-maker needs and balance internal validity with relevance, feasibility and timeliness; and (3) Improvements in research infrastructure to enhance the validity and efficiency with which CER studies are implemented. The approach to addressing each of these issues should be informed by the understanding that the primary purpose of CER is to help health care decision makers make informed clinical and health policy decisions.

  19. Effects of Peer Assisted Communication Application Training on the Communicative and Social Behaviors of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasberger, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Non-verbal children with autism are candidates for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). One type of AAC device is a voice output communication aid (VOCA). The primary drawbacks of past VOCAs were their expense and portability. Newer iPod-based VOCAs alleviate these concerns. This dissertation sought to extend the iPod-based VOCA…

  20. Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making: Homogeneity and Task as Moderators of the Communication-Performance Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates circumstances under which communication variables contribute significantly to the constitution of group decisions. Postulates two variables, homogeneity of task-relevant information possessed by group members and task demonstrability, to moderate the impact of communication and group member ability on quality of group outcomes.…

  1. Improvement of Effective Communication--The Case of Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olteanu, Constanta; Olteanu, Lucian

    2012-01-01

    The research study this article is based on aims to implement research knowledge to teaching, that is, the concept of critical aspects and dimensions of variation used in the variation theory. To do this, the researchers worked with willing teachers to explore how to make mathematics teaching more effective. This paper illustrates how teachers…

  2. Programmatic research to increase the effectiveness of health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Nancy Grant; Palmgreen, Philip C; Donohew, Lewis

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews a long program of research designed to investigate ways to increase the effectiveness of televised antidrug public service announcements. The review highlights the importance of audience targeting (adolescent and young adult high sensation seekers) and message design (message sensation value) in campaign research. It also emphasizes the role of theory and evaluation in programmatic research.

  3. Communication on the World Wide Web: Designing an Effective Homepage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Tom; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Nine focus groups of University of Florida faculty, staff, and students (n=79) provided comments on the university's Web site. Resulting suggestions for effective sites involved design/aesthetics (menu bar, structure, graphics), content (balance, timeliness), and interactivity (search engine, feedback mechanism). (SK)

  4. A communications system for the terminal area effectiveness program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetter, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The terminal area effectiveness program has the broad scope of evaluating air traffic control (ATC) procedures. One area of interest is pilot acceptance of complex ATC procedures. A means to measure this acceptance is described by studying the impact on pilots of meeting the ATC procedural requirements. The concept-testing system configuration, its operation, and its performance are discussed.

  5. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  6. Effectiveness of Interactive Videodisc in Army Communications Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, John D.; Polich, J. Michael

    This report presents the results of RAND research conducted at the U.S. Army Signal Center, Fort Gordon, Georgia, to evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive videodisc (IVD) system used to facilitate training in a variety of military occupational specialities. The objectives of the study were to: (1) develop a methodology for assessing the…

  7. A Study Concerning the Differential Effectiveness of Two Approaches to Human Relationship Training in Facilitating Change in Interpersonal Communication Skill and Style of Interpersonal Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Edward John

    This study investigated and compared the effectiveness of T groups and the Human Development Institute (HDI) in changing interpersonal perception styles and communication skills. In 20 hours of instruction over a ten week period, the two training conditions were systematically varied with groups of elementary school teachers differing on the…

  8. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  9. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on intercellular communication in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bånrud, H; Mikalsen, S O; Berg, K; Moan, J

    1994-02-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts were studied by means of a dye transfer assay. Intercellular communication was shown to be altered by UVB (297/302 nm) and UVA (365 nm) radiation, the effect depending on the wavelength of exposure and time between irradiation and microinjection of the dye in the dye transfer assay. Exposure to 297/302 nm radiation induced a reduction in intercellular communication 6 min after exposure. Incubation of the cells post-irradiation reversed the inhibition of GJIC. From 2 to 24 h after exposure an increase in GJIC over the control cells was seen, with a maximum at 8 h post-irradiation. UVA (365 nm) radiation, on the other hand, induced an increase in the intercellular communication 6 min after irradiation. Incubation of the cells post-irradiation led to a decrease in the number of communicating cells, with a minimum seen 4 h after exposure. The reduction in communication observed after exposure to UVB and UVA was not correlated with similar modifications in the gap junction protein connexin43 as found when exposing the cells to the tumour promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. For the higher fluences of UVA, a decrease in immunorecognizable connexin43 was seen, concomitant with a markedly increased background of higher mol. wt compounds. This may be due to UVA-induced crosslinking of connexin43. No correlation was found between changes in communication induced by UV radiation and levels of cyclic AMP. PMID:8313514

  10. A cost effective block framing scheme for underwater communication.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Young; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the Selective Multiple Acknowledgement (SMA) method, based on Multiple Acknowledgement (MA), is proposed to efficiently reduce the amount of data transmission by redesigning the transmission frame structure and taking into consideration underwater transmission characteristics. The method is suited to integrated underwater system models, as the proposed method can handle the same amount of data in a much more compact frame structure without any appreciable loss of reliability. Herein, the performance of the proposed SMA method was analyzed and compared to those of the conventional Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ), Block Acknowledgement (BA), block response, and MA methods. The efficiency of the underwater sensor network, which forms a large cluster and mostly contains uplink data, is expected to be improved by the proposed method.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation in ginkgo and guarana [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabelo Soriani, Renata; Cristina Satomi, Lucilia; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus A.

    2005-07-01

    Raw plant materials normally carry high bioburden due to their origin, offering potential hazards to consumers. The use of decontamination processes is therefore an important step towards the consumer safety and therapeutical efficiency. Several authors have reported the treatment of medicinal herbs with ionizing radiation. This work evaluated the effects of different radiation doses on the microbial burden and chemical constituents of ginkgo ( Ginkgo biloba L.) and guaraná ( Paullinia cupana H.B.K.).

  12. Communication skills training in a nursing home: effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides' communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides' (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides' communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents' psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff.

  13. Effects of ocean thermocline variability on noncoherent underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Porter, Michael B; Hursky, Paul; McDonald, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The performance of acoustic modems in the ocean is strongly affected by the ocean environment. A storm can drive up the ambient noise levels, eliminate a thermocline by wind mixing, and whip up violent waves and thereby break up the acoustic mirror formed by the ocean surface. The combined effects of these and other processes on modem performance are not well understood. The authors have been conducting experiments to study these environmental effects on various modulation schemes. Here the focus is on the role of the thermocline on a widely used modulation scheme (frequency-shift keying). Using data from a recent experiment conducted in 100-m-deep water off the coast of Kauai, HI, frequency-shift-key modulation performance is shown to be strongly affected by diurnal cycles in the thermocline. There is dramatic variation in performance (measured by bit error rates) between receivers in the surface duct and receivers in the thermocline. To interpret the performance variations in a quantitative way, a precise metric is introduced based on a signal-to-interference-noise ratio that encompasses both the ambient noise and intersymbol interference. Further, it will be shown that differences in the fading statistics for receivers in and out of the thermocline explain the differences in modem performance.

  14. Effects of information and communication technology on youth's health knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Nahid R; Heidari, Rosemarie N

    2011-05-01

    Information technology (IT) has produced a deep impact on human lives, and the most important aspect of its effect is on education and learning. This study was done for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of electronic health information on our Web site http://www.teen.hbi.ir in the promotion of health education and in increasing the capabilities of the students in the use of the Internet. This study was performed on the basis of the information obtained from the questionnaires on selected health issues from 649 students from 3 high schools. Information was collected in 2 steps (pretest and posttest). The t test and Leven's test were used in the statistical analysis of data. Results of the t test showed that educating students through health information Web sites has increased their knowledge by at least 14.5% on environmental health and 48.9% on nutrition and was statistically meaningful in all fields (P=.000) with the exception of mental health. The fact is that the use of IT has become a part of our society and is perhaps the most promising medium for achieving health promotion initiatives. PMID:19625324

  15. Effects of information and communication technology on youth's health knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Nahid R; Heidari, Rosemarie N

    2011-05-01

    Information technology (IT) has produced a deep impact on human lives, and the most important aspect of its effect is on education and learning. This study was done for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of electronic health information on our Web site http://www.teen.hbi.ir in the promotion of health education and in increasing the capabilities of the students in the use of the Internet. This study was performed on the basis of the information obtained from the questionnaires on selected health issues from 649 students from 3 high schools. Information was collected in 2 steps (pretest and posttest). The t test and Leven's test were used in the statistical analysis of data. Results of the t test showed that educating students through health information Web sites has increased their knowledge by at least 14.5% on environmental health and 48.9% on nutrition and was statistically meaningful in all fields (P=.000) with the exception of mental health. The fact is that the use of IT has become a part of our society and is perhaps the most promising medium for achieving health promotion initiatives.

  16. Challenges and lessons learned in conducting comparative-effectiveness trials.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Linda M; Locke, G Richard; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Talley, Nicholas J

    2012-05-01

    The current health-care environment is demanding evidence-based medicine that relies on clinical trials as the basis for decisions. Clinician investigators are more often finding that they are personally responsible for coordinating large, multisite trials. We present strategies for successful implementation and management of multisite clinical trials and knowledge gained through an international, multisite randomized clinical trial. Topics include team composition, regulatory requirements, study organization and governance, communication strategies, recruitment and retention efforts, budget, technology transfer, and publication.

  17. Challenges and Lessons Learned in Conducting Comparative-Effectiveness Trials

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Linda M.; Locke, G. Richard; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The current health-care environment is demanding evidence-based medicine that relies on clinical trials as the basis for decisions. Clinician investigators are more often finding that they are personally responsible for coordinating large, multisite trials. We present strategies for successful implementation and management of multisite clinical trials and knowledge gained through an international, multisite randomized clinical trial. Topics include team composition, regulatory requirements, study organization and governance, communication strategies, recruitment and retention efforts, budget, technology transfer, and publication. PMID:22552235

  18. An overview of methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Weinberger, Morris; Chen, Ronald C; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a broad category of outcomes research encompassing many different methods employed by researchers and clinicians from numerous disciplines. The goal of cancer-focused CER is to generate new knowledge to assist cancer stakeholders in making informed decisions that will improve health care and outcomes of both individuals and populations. There are numerous CER methods that may be used to examine specific questions, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies, systematic literature reviews, and decision sciences modeling. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. To both inform and serve as a reference for readers of this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology as well as the broader oncology community, we describe CER and several of the more commonly used approaches and analytical methods.

  19. The comparative effectiveness of conventional and digital image libraries.

    PubMed

    McColl, R I; Johnson, A

    2001-03-01

    Before introducing a hospital-wide image database to improve access, navigation and retrieval speed, a comparative study between a conventional slide library and a matching image database was undertaken to assess its relative benefits. Paired time trials and personal questionnaires revealed faster retrieval rates, higher image quality, and easier viewing for the pilot digital image database. Analysis of confidentiality, copyright and data protection exposed similar issues for both systems, thus concluding that the digital image database is a more effective library system. The authors suggest that in the future, medical images will be stored on large, professionally administered, centrally located file servers, allowing specialist image libraries to be tailored locally for individual users. The further integration of the database with web technology will enable cheap and efficient remote access for a wide range of users.

  20. Stakeholder assessment of comparative effectiveness research needs for Medicaid populations.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael A; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Farrell, Stephen F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Patients, providers and policy-makers rely heavily on comparative effectiveness research (CER) when making complex, real-world medical decisions. In particular, Medicaid providers and policy-makers face unique challenges in decision-making because their program cares for traditionally underserved populations, especially children, pregnant women and people with mental illness. Because these patient populations have generally been underrepresented in research discussions, CER questions for these groups may be understudied. To address this problem, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality commissioned our team to work with Medicaid Medical Directors and other stakeholders to identify relevant CER questions. Through an iterative process of topic identification and refinement, we developed relevant, feasible and actionable questions based on issues affecting Medicaid programs nationwide. We describe challenges and limitations and provide recommendations for future stakeholder engagement. PMID:26388438

  1. Comparing effective population sizes of dominant marine alphaproteobacteria lineages.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiwei; Swan, Brandon K; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Hughes, Austin L; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental question in marine microbial ecology is how microbes adapt to ocean environments. Although numerically dominant populations are typically considered more successful, higher census population sizes (Nc) do not equate directly to a greater capability for adaptation. Instead, effective population size (Ne) determines the fate of deleterious and favourable mutations, and thus is a key parameter for determining the adaptive potential of a population. In the case of the SAR11 and Roseobacter lineages, two abundant heterotrophic bacteria in ocean surface waters with contrasting life history strategies, culture-independent population surveys suggest that SAR11s have greater Nc than Roseobacters. To determine relative Ne, we compared the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (ω) of recently diverged lineages of these taxa. Values of ω associated with several of the Roseobacter subclades were lower than for SAR11 subclades, suggesting greater Ne in these cases. Most Roseobacter lineages also had smaller ω values compared with an atypical basal Roseobacter lineage with a large Nc. This finding provides insight into variability in Ne across two important marine bacterial lineages, and provides an evolutionary context for considering how heterotrophic marine bacteria may differ in their ability to adapt to changing ocean habitats.

  2. Effects of processing fluency on comparative performance judgments.

    PubMed

    Reber, Rolf; Meier, Beat; Ruch-Monachon, Marie-Antoinette; Tiberini, Mara

    2006-11-01

    Research has shown that performance predictions are biased by the impact of processing fluency. However, existing data are inconclusive with regard to comparative judgments of performance. In five experiments, participants in an easy condition gave more favorable comparative judgments than participants in a difficult condition. Participants judged their performance more favorably if they named colors of non-color words rather than non-matching color words (Experiment 1), if they had to generate six words of a category rather than 12 words (Experiment 2), if they had to run in place for 15 s rather than 2 min (Experiment 3), but the latter result holds only true if participants were not active in sports (Experiment 4). When 67% of the items in a recognition test were old words, participants thought that their recognition performance was better than when 33% of the items were old words, although recognition performance did not differ between groups (Experiment 5). We discuss this result in the light of recent theories about effects of processing fluency on judgments.

  3. Assessing the Use of Metaphors to Facilitate and Improve the Effectiveness of Climate Change Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh-Thomas, J.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    Metaphors are sometimes used in science communication to explain unfamiliar scientific concepts and processes in more familiar terms. Empirical research has shown that metaphors can help audiences better understand complicated scientific concepts. A growing number of metaphors are used to explain various climate science concepts, but the only empirical evaluation of climate metaphors to date (van der Linden et al, 2014, Climatic Change) found that medical and bridge safety metaphors did not enhance the effectiveness of a simple corrective statement about the scientific consensus on human-caused climate change. Drawing on a recent meta-analysis by Sopory and Dillard (2002, Hum Commun. Res.), we will briefly review what is known about appropriate metaphor usage in communicating scientific concepts. We will also present preliminary findings from an experiment currently underway to further explain the conditions in which metaphors are likely to help in communicating climate science concepts. We hypothesize that metaphors will be more effective in communicating high complexity climate science concepts that are less easily understood by the public than more easily understood low complexity concepts (such as scientific consensus on climate change). We also hypothesize that the more familiar people are with the referent (performance enhancing drugs in baseball is a metaphor about "the climate system on steroids"), the more effective the metaphor will be. To test these hypotheses, we are randomly assigning ~1000 adults - approximately representative of the US adult population - to read one brief passage in which one of four relatively simple or complex climate concepts is presented and explained with or without a metaphor. The outcome measures will include climate change belief, concern, knowledge, and involvement. This study is intended to add to the knowledge base about use of metaphors in science communication, and provide practical advice to climate communicators.

  4. STRATOP: A Model for Designing Effective Product and Communication Strategies. Paper No. 470.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pessemier, Edgar A.

    The STRATOP algorithm was developed to help planners and proponents find and test effectively designed choice objects and communication strategies. Choice objects can range from complex social, scientific, military, or educational alternatives to simple economic alternatives between assortments of branded convenience goods. Two classes of measured…

  5. Computer Communication Modes and Their Effect on Student Attitudes Towards Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boillot, Michel

    The effect of different communicating modes to computers on students' attitudes toward programing was studied. In a computer-related course, 13 students used batch processing mode to solve problems on the computer, while 12 other students used conversational mode to solve the same problems. It was found that those students accessing the computer…

  6. Effects of Noise and Filtering on the Intelligibility of Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Douglas J.; Schiavetti, Nicholas; Whitehead, Robert L.; Metz, Dale Evan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of noise and filtering on the intelligibility of speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC). Four normal hearing, experienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech alone (SA) conditions speaking Boothroyd's forced-choice phonetic contrast material designed for measurement of speech…

  7. Procedural Explanations in Mathematics Writing: A Framework for Understanding College Students' Effective Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Ishii, Drew K.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the procedural explanations written by remedial college mathematics students. Relevant literatures suggest that six communication activities might be key in effective procedural explanations in mathematics writing: (a) orienting the learner, (b) providing kernels or definitions of concepts and procedures, (c) using exemplars or…

  8. Effectiveness of Immediate Verbal Feedback on Trainer Behaviour During Communication Training with Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vonderen, A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of immediate verbal feedback on trainer behaviour during communication training sessions with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) was assessed. Trainers were six undergraduate university students majoring in psychology. The procedure consisted of interrupting the sequence of trials of training by the supervisor and then giving…

  9. Effects of Communication Competence and Social Network Centralities on Learner Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun; Kang, Stephanie; Yoon, Meehyun

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative learning has become a dominant learning apparatus for higher level learning objectives. Much of the psychological and social mechanisms operating under this complex group activity, however, is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of college students' communication competence and…

  10. Effective Communication: An Essential Tool To Cope with the Challenge of Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coing, Marga

    For a library to function effectively, it is essential that it fosters an open management style, which encourages communication of ideas and objectives both within the library itself and, by example, in other elements in the overall administration of which the library is a part. This paper describes the improvement in morale, efficiency, and…

  11. The Effects of Communicative Genres on Intra-Group Conflict in Virtual Student Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chou, Huey-Wen

    2009-01-01

    With increasing convenience and prevalence, the distant communication application has become a promising way for individuals who are eager to cooperate and interact virtually. This study explored the question of whether the collaborative interaction of the virtual teams has any effect on the conflict and network structure of virtual groups. A…

  12. Communication as an Essential Component of Effective Leadership across Low Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingert, Jennifer L.; Bradfield, Gail A.; Marriott, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    This project describes a problem-based learning project focusing on communication between high school principals and students and families from poverty. Review of current research indicated a lack of effective interactions between school administrators and families in poverty. There were many identified factors which contribute to this…

  13. How To Create Effective Information and Communication Technology Learning Programmes. A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Alan

    This guide, which is intended for information and communication technology (ICT) tutors and tutor managers in Great Britain's further education sector, explains how to create effective ICT learning programs for adults. The guide emphasizes developing students' confidence and providing them with a sound foundation for further study. The following…

  14. Social Networking and Pedagogical Variations: An Integrated Approach for Effective Interpersonal and Group Communications Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, Ephraim

    2012-01-01

    Electronic communication and social networking are effective and useful tools in the process of teaching and learning and have increasingly improved the quality of students' learning outcomes in higher education in recent years. The system encourages and supports students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities and…

  15. An Examination of the Relative Effectiveness of Training in Nonverbal Communication: Personal Selling Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…

  16. Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

  17. The Effectiveness of Twitter as a Communication Tool in College Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Karen Jean

    2013-01-01

    Although some colleges are making progress in integrating new technology into their recruitment practices, many still lack an understanding of how to utilize modern communication tools, including social media sites such as Twitter, effectively. This study explored whether there is a relationship between Twitter usage and recruitment at U.S.…

  18. Examining Effective Intervention Practices for Communication Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Oren, Thomas; Fischer, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes effective communication-related practices by reviewing specific evidence-based techniques, sharing how these techniques have been used in various treatment approaches, and discussing a constellation of general principles vital to treatment success. A comprehensive model of service delivery is provided to illustrate these key…

  19. Enhancing Willingness to Communicate: Relative Effects of Visualization and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munezane, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relative effects of two treatments--goal setting and visualization--on enhancing Willingness to Communicate (WTC) among a group of 373 Japanese university EFL learners. Although longitudinal studies in both EFL and ESL settings have been conducted to examine the developmental aspect of WTC, no solid results of enhancing…

  20. Using Multiple Schedules during Functional Communication Training to Promote Rapid Transfer of Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…

  1. An International Short Course for Training Professionals as Effective Science Communicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarathchandra, Dilshani; Maredia, Karim M.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have recognized a need for educational programs that prepare scientists, Extension practitioners, and other stakeholders to communicate science effectively. Such programs have the potential to increase public awareness and aid policy development. Having recognized this need, faculty at Michigan State University (MSU) developed an…

  2. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training.…

  3. The Effect of Reticence on College Students' Use of Electronic Mail To Communicate with Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Lynne; Duran, Robert L.; Zolten, J. Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of reticence on college students' use of electronic mail to communication with faculty. Notes the difference in the frequency of using electronic mail by reticent and non-reticent students. Considers how reticent students prefer to use electronic mail over speaking to faculty at their offices. (SG)

  4. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  5. Cross-Cultural Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Orlando L.

    This guide to improving cross-cultural communication is the second part of a four-part series addressing the essential characteristics of effective instruction that have a positive impact on the academic achievement of Black and Hispanic students. Since schools tend to reflect the norms and values of the majority culture, cultural…

  6. The Relationship of Organizational and Leader Factors to Communication Effectiveness in Illinois Public Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, James M.

    Communication effectiveness and its dependence on factors of leadership behavior, leader background, organizational structure, and organizational age in Illinois Public Junior Colleges are the concerns of this study. Data were obtained through questionnaires sent to full-time faculty members and institutional administrators in the Illinois 2-year…

  7. The Effects of Video SCMC on English Proficiency, Speaking Performance and Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iino, Atsushi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a case course with videoconferencing as a way of Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication (SCMC) for foreign language education in Japan. Research questions were to see the effects of videoconferencing on the learners' speaking ability and general English language proficiency, and also to see how the learners'…

  8. Formulaic Language as a Barrier to Effective Communication with People with Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Carers recognize that the linguistic problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be detrimental to effective communication, but they are often not sure what they can do to help. This article examines the use of formulaic language in AD, including routines, repetitions, and fillers, through the lens of a model of how cognitive and social…

  9. Differential Treatment Intensity Research: A Missing Link to Creating Optimally Effective Communication Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Steven F.; Fey, Marc E.; Yoder, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Research over the past 50 years has yielded several promising approaches and many specific intervention techniques designed to enhance the communication and language development of young children with intellectual and developmental delays and disabilities. Yet virtually no systematic research has been conducted on the effects of different…

  10. Effect of Using Facebook to Assist English for Business Communication Course Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ru-Chu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the effect of incorporating blended learning with Facebook and peer assessment for English for Business Communication course for college students. A total of 111 students from a public technological university participated in this study. The participants were divided into three Facebook site groups. A mixed method…

  11. The Effectiveness of Parental Communication in Modifying the Relation between Food Advertising and Children's Consumption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer…

  12. Effective Pedagogical Strategies for Millennial University Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Pieretti, Robert; Haberstock, Keith; Estrada, Jovany

    2016-01-01

    University instructors nationwide have been recognizing the increased importance of updating classroom teaching strategies to accommodate the needs of the millennial student generation. This article shares results of surveys of 323 university students in communication sciences and disorders and what they view as effective pedagogical strategies…

  13. [Risk communication during health crises: results of a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effectiveness of adopted corporate communication strategies during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in Italy and on the training needs of health professionals].

    PubMed

    De Giusti, Maria; Mannocci, Alice; Miccoli, Silvia; Palazzo, Caterina; Di Thiene, Domitilla; Scalmato, Valeria; Ursillo, Paolo; Monteduro, Maria Antonietta; Turri, Alberto; Mazzoli, Pier Giovanni; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate communication activities carried out during the A(H1N1) pandemic influenza in Italy and to identify educational needs of health professionals with regards to crisis communication. The study compared two samples representing respectively the general population and health professionals, living in different regions of northern, central and southern Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was used, with questions on knowledge about preventive measures during a pandemic and on satisfaction with the adopted communication campaigns. Study results highlight that both samples had very little knowledge of appropriate preventive behaviors to be adopted during a pandemic. The sample of health professionals received a greater amount of information about the pandemic with respect to the general population and showed a strong interest toward the problem of receiving adequate training in risk communication. The degree of knowledge about preventive measures is directly proportional to the existence of institutional communication activities and to having consulted a health professional.

  14. Effect of Small Transmission Delay on Human Behavior in Audio Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Kaname

    Transmission delay in audio communications is a well-known obstacle to achieving smooth communication. However, it is not known what kinds of effects are caused by small delays. We hypothesized that the small delay in the listener's responses disturbs the speaker's “verbal conditioning, ” where the verbal behavior of the speaker varies in accordance with the listener's responses. We examined whether the small delays in the listener's responses disturb the speaker's verbal conditioning using an artificial-grammar learning task. The results suggested that a 300-ms delay disturbed the participants' verbal conditioning although they were not adequately aware of the delay.

  15. Nerve communication model by bio-cells and optical dipole coupling effects.

    PubMed

    Zainol, Farrah Dilla; Thammawongsa, Nopparat; Mitatha, Somsak; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-12-01

    A novel design of nerve communications and networks using the coupling effects between bio-cells and optical dipoles is proposed. The electrical signals are coupled to the dipoles and cells which propagate within the optical networks for long distance without any electromagnetic interference. Results have shown that the use of optical spins in the spin networks, referred as Spinnet, can be formed. This technique can be used to improve the nerve communication performance. It is fabricated as a nano-biotic circuit system, and has great potential for future disability applications and diagnosis of the links of nerves across the dead cells.

  16. Plan for the Characterization of HIRF Effects on a Fault-Tolerant Computer Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Miner, Paul S.; Koppen, Sandra V.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the plan for the characterization of the effects of high intensity radiated fields on a prototype implementation of a fault-tolerant data communication system. Various configurations of the communication system will be tested. The prototype system is implemented using off-the-shelf devices. The system will be tested in a closed-loop configuration with extensive real-time monitoring. This test is intended to generate data suitable for the design of avionics health management systems, as well as redundancy management mechanisms and policies for robust distributed processing architectures.

  17. Effectiveness of adaptive optics system in satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication.

    PubMed

    Jian, Huang; Ke, Deng; Chao, Liu; Peng, Zhang; Dagang, Jiang; Zhoushi, Yao

    2014-06-30

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems can suppress the signal fade induced by atmospheric turbulence in satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication. The lower bound of the signal fade under AO compensation was investigated by analyzing the pattern of aberration modes for a one-stage imaging AO system. The distribution of the root mean square of the residual aberration is discussed on the basis of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the residual aberration of the AO system. The effectiveness of the AO system for improving the performance of coherent optical communication is presented in terms of the bit error rate and system availability.

  18. Assessment of earthquake effects - contribution from online communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The rapid increase of social media and online newspapers in the last years have given the opportunity to make a national investigation on macroseismic effects on the Maltese Islands based on felt earthquake reports. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake struck close to Malta on Sunday 24th April 2011 at 13:02 GMT. The earthquake was preceded and followed by a series of smaller magnitude quakes throughout the day, most of which were felt by the locals on the island. The continuous news media coverage during the day and the extensive sharing of the news item on social media resulted in a strong public response to fill in the 'Did you feel it?' online form on the website of the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU) at the University of Malta (http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/). The results yield interesting information about the demographics of the island, and the different felt experiences possibly relating to geological settings and diverse structural and age-classified buildings. Based on this case study, the SMRU is in the process of developing a mobile phone application dedicated to share earthquake information to the local community. The application will automatically prompt users to fill in a simplified 'Did you feel it?' report to potentially felt earthquakes. Automatic location using Global Positioning Systems can be incorporated to provide a 'real time' intensity map that can be used by the Civil Protection Department.

  19. Effect of dapagliflozin on colon cancer cell [Rapid Communication].

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsugumichi; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Shimoda, Yoko; Osaki, Aya; Tagaya, Yuko; Shibusawa, Ryo; Okada, Junichi; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Dapagliflozin is a SGLT2 (Sodium/Glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitor that reduces circulating glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients by blocking the SGLT2-dependent reabsorption of glucose in the kidney. Dapagliflozin is metabolized by UGT1A9 (UDP Glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, Polypeptidase A9), suppressing its SGLT2 inhibitor activity. However little information is available on whether dapagliflozin acts in the absence of dapagliflozin metabolism. Treatment with 0.5μM dapagliflozin significantly reduced the number of HCT116 cells, which express SGLT2 but not UGT1A9. This was independent of SGLT2 inhibition, as the SGLT2 inhibitor phlorizin had no effect. Dapagliflozin also enhanced Erk phosphorylation but without changing levels of uncleaved and cleaved PPAR and uncleaved caspase-3, suggesting that the cause of the decrease in HCT116 cell number was apoptosis independent cell death. Taken together, these data indicate a new potential role for dapagliflozin as an anticancer reagent in tumor cell populations that do not express UGT1A9. PMID:26522271

  20. Effect of bolus composition on esophageal transit: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Appelgate, G.; Rock, E.; Lorber, S.H.

    1982-10-01

    The technique of esophageal scintigraphy was developed as a sensitive, quantitative, noninvasive test of esophageal transit. Esophageal scintigraphy was performed in 40 asymptomatic normal volunteers in order to determine the effect on esophageal transit of the following: body posture (sitting vs. supine), liquid vs. solid, the solid being either a standard gelatin capsule of the size used for antibiotic capsules, or a cube of solid food such as cooked chicken liver. The results showed that liquids emptied completely from the esophagus after one swallow whether supine or sitting. Capsules or liver cubes, when ingested without water, frequently remained in the esophagus for up to two hours without the subject's having any sensation that the solid had not left the esophagus. Both capsules and liver cubes cleared the esophagus better in the upright than in the supine position. When gelatin capsules were swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water, but after a preliminary sip of water, there was complete transit in each case. The study suggests that the practice of assisting patients into a sitting position and instructing them to take a sip of water before attempting to swallow a capsule will assure better transit of the capsule even when swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water. This may reduce the incidence of esophagitis following oral antibiotics, and of esophageal erosions from aspirin-containing medications.

  1. Effect of bolus composition on esophageal transit: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Applegate, G.; Rock, E.; Lorber, S.H.

    1982-10-01

    The technique of esophageal scintigraphy was developed as a sensitive, quantitative, noninvasive test of esophageal transit. Esophageal scintigraphy was performed in 40 asymptomatic normal volunteers in order to determine the effect on esophageal transit of the following: body posture (sitting vs. supine), liquid vs. solid, the solid being either a standard number4 gelatin capsule of the size used for antibiotic capsules, or a cube of solid food such as cooked chicken liver. The results showed that liquids emptied completely from the esophagus after one swallow, whether supine or sitting. Capsules or liver cubes, when ingested without water, frequently remained in the esophagus for up to two hours without the subject's having any sensation that the solid had not left the esophagus. Both capsules and liver cubes cleared the esophagus better in the upright than in the supine position. When gelatin capsules were swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water, but after a preliminary sip of water, there was complete transit in each case. The study suggests that the practice of assisting patients into a sitting position and instructing them to take a sip of water before attempting to swallow a capsule will assure better transit of the capsule even when swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water. This may reduce the incidence of esophagitis following oral antibiotics, and of esophageal erosions from aspirin-containing medications.

  2. On the origins of human handedness and language: a comparative review of hand preferences for bimanual coordinated actions and gestural communication in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Hopkins, William D

    2013-09-01

    Within the evolutionary framework about the origin of human handedness and hemispheric specialization for language, the question of expression of population-level manual biases in nonhuman primates and their potential continuities with humans remains controversial. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence showing consistent population-level handedness particularly for complex manual behaviors in both monkeys and apes. In the present article, within a large comparative approach among primates, we will review our contribution to the field and the handedness literature related to two particular sophisticated manual behaviors regarding their potential and specific implications for the origins of hemispheric specialization in humans: bimanual coordinated actions and gestural communication. Whereas bimanual coordinated actions seem to elicit predominance of left-handedness in arboreal primates and of right-handedness in terrestrial primates, all handedness studies that have investigated gestural communication in several primate species have reported stronger degree of population-level right-handedness compared to noncommunicative actions. Communicative gestures and bimanual actions seem to affect differently manual asymmetries in both human and nonhuman primates and to be related to different lateralized brain substrates. We will discuss (1) how the data of hand preferences for bimanual coordinated actions highlight the role of ecological factors in the evolution of handedness and provide additional support the postural origin theory of handedness proposed by MacNeilage [MacNeilage [2007]. Present status of the postural origins theory. In W. D. Hopkins (Ed.), The evolution of hemispheric specialization in primates (pp. 59-91). London: Elsevier/Academic Press] and (2) the hypothesis that the emergence of gestural communication might have affected lateralization in our ancestor and may constitute the precursors of the hemispheric specialization for language.

  3. Comparing stimulant effects in youth with ADHD symptoms and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hsin, Olivia; Gumlak, Sarah; Kimball, Kara; Rober, Ashley; Azeem, Muhammad W; Hickory, Meredith; Mrakotsky, Christine; Torres, Alcy; Mezzacappa, Enrico; Bourgeois, Blaise; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    To retrospectively examine response to stimulant treatment in patients with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms as predicted by seizure freedom for six months, use of methylphenidate (MPH) versus amphetamine (AMP) preparations, cognitive level, and medical records were searched for patients under the age of 18 with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms treated with MPH or AMP (n=36, age=10.4 ± 3.5; male=67%). "Responders" had a CGI-improvement score of ≤ 2 and did not stop medication because of adverse effects. "Worsened" patients discontinued medication because of agitation/emotional lability. Seizure freedom did not predict treatment response. Lower cognitive level was associated with increased rate of worsening (p=0.048). No patients who were seizure-free at the start of the medication trial experienced an increase in seizures. Of the patients having seizures at the start of trial, one patient on MPH and two patients on AMP had increased seizures during the trial. Seizures returned to baseline frequency or less after stimulant discontinuation or anticonvulsant adjustment. Methylphenidate was associated with a higher response rate, with 12 of 19 given MPH (0.62 ± 0.28 mg/kg/day) compared with 4 of 17 given AMP (0.37 ± 0.26 mg/kg/day) responding (p=0.03). Methylphenidate treatment and higher cognitive level were associated with improved treatment outcome, while seizure freedom had no clear effect. Confidence in these findings is limited by the study's small, open-label, and uncontrolled design.

  4. A Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Trial for Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the weight loss effectiveness of a ‘YMCA Model’ for the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention METHODS 509 overweight/obese, low-income, non-diabetic, adult primary care patients with elevated blood glucose were individually randomized to (1) standard care plus brief lifestyle counseling (SC); or (2) being offered a group-based adaption of the DPP offered free-of-charge by the YMCA (YDPP). Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss at 12 months. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses used longitudinal linear or logistic regression, with missing observations multiply imputed. Instrumental variables (IV) regression estimated weight loss effectiveness among participants completing ≥9 intervention lessons. RESULTS In the YDPP arm, 161 (62.6%) participants attended ≥1 lesson and 103 (40.0%) completed ≥9 lessons. In ITT analysis, mean 12-month weight loss was 2.3 kg (95% CI 1.1 to 3.4 kg) more for YDPP arm participants, compared to SC. In IV analyses, persons attending ≥9 lessons had a 5.3 kg (95% CI, 2.8 to 7.9 kg) greater weight loss than with standard care alone. CONCLUSIONS The YMCA model for DPP delivery achieves meaningful weight losses at 12 months among low income adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION National Clinical Trials Registry (NCT00656682) PMID:26378828

  5. Novel Therapeutics for Diabetes: Uptake, Usage Trends, and Comparative Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Vishal; Chou, Chia-Hung

    2016-06-01

    The number of available therapies for treating type 2 diabetes has grown considerably in recent years. This growth has been fueled by availability of newer medications, whose benefits and risks have not been fully established. In this study, we review and synthesize the existing literature on the uptake, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of novel antidiabetic agents. Specifically, we focus on three drug classes that were introduced in the market recently: thiazolidinediones (TZDs), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Not surprisingly, we find that the usage trends reflect the efficacy and safety profile of these novel drugs. The use of TZDs increased initially but decreased after a black-box warning was issued for rosiglitazone in 2007 that highlighted the cardiovascular risks associated with using the drug. Conversely, DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists gained market shares due to their efficacy in glycemic control as an add-on treatment to metformin. DPP-4 inhibitors were the most commonly prescribed agents among the three novel drug classes, likely because they are relatively less expensive, have better safety profile, are administered orally, and are weight neutral. Sitagliptin was the most preferred DPP-4 inhibitor. The level of evidence on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost implications of using novel antidiabetic agents remains low and further studies with long-term follow-ups are needed. PMID:27076180

  6. The effects of variable sample biomass on comparative metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Chafee, Meghan; Maignien, Loïs; Simmons, Sheri L

    2015-07-01

    Longitudinal studies that integrate samples with variable biomass are essential to understand microbial community dynamics across space or time. Shotgun metagenomics is widely used to investigate these communities at the functional level, but little is known about the effects of combining low and high biomass samples on downstream analysis. We investigated the interacting effects of DNA input and library amplification by polymerase chain reaction on comparative metagenomic analysis using dilutions of a single complex template from an Arabidopsis thaliana-associated microbial community. We modified the Illumina Nextera kit to generate high-quality large-insert (680 bp) paired-end libraries using a range of 50 pg to 50 ng of input DNA. Using assembly-based metagenomic analysis, we demonstrate that DNA input level has a significant impact on community structure due to overrepresentation of low-GC genomic regions following library amplification. In our system, these differences were largely superseded by variations between biological replicates, but our results advocate verifying the influence of library amplification on a case-by-case basis. Overall, this study provides recommendations for quality filtering and de-replication prior to analysis, as well as a practical framework to address the issue of low biomass or biomass heterogeneity in longitudinal metagenomic surveys.

  7. An approach to effective UHF (S/L band) data communications for satellite Personal Communication Service (PCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayase, Joshua Y.

    1995-01-01

    Reliable signaling information transfer is fundamental in supporting the needs of data communication PCS via LMS (Land Mobile Service) SSs (satellite systems). The needs of the system designer can be satisfied only through the collection of media information that can be brought to bear on the pertinent design issues. We at ISI hope to continue our dialogue with fading media experts to address the unique data communications needs of PCS via LMS SSs.

  8. Handoff communication: using failure modes and effects analysis to improve the transition in care process.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Michelle; Carroll, V Susan

    2011-01-01

    Handoff communication is a high-risk process that causes errors that lead to ineffective care delivery and patient safety breaches. A failure modes and effects analysis was utilized to proactively evaluate handoff through a risk priority scoring process that focused the improvement plan on communication from shift to shift and between units. The electronic medical record was utilized to standardize the handoff tool in SBAR (situation, background, assessment, and recommendation) format for both nurses and patient care technicians. Key concepts of Jean Watson's caring model were incorporated into workflow, along with team huddles, to hardwire team communication and patient-centered care. Changes to the handoff process were piloted on the telemetry unit then launched on remaining nursing units over time. Data targeting patient satisfaction and nurse-sensitive outcomes were collected pre and post-implementation with notable gains. Sustaining change in light of care-related variables is a challenge leadership, quality, and patient care teams are committed to achieving.

  9. Effect of interferences on indoor visible light car-to-car communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Young; Park, Bong-Seok; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, So Eun; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Chung Ghiu

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of interferences on visible light car-to-car communication system. The interferences from floor reflections and fluorescent lamps are taken into account for indoor car-to-car visible light communication (VLC) systems. The system is composed of a white LED lamp as a VLC transmitter and a photo-receiver with an appropriate optical filter as a VLC receiver. The signal power distribution patterns are measured and analyzed at a transmission distance, considering the positions of the transmitter and receiver. Generally, the light from fluorescent lamps in indoor environment affects the DC level of the received signal power, which is more significant at higher receiver positions. The measurements show that the indoor VLC communication performance can be varied depending on floor reflections. Also, the fluorescent ceiling illuminations affect the DC level change of the received VLC signal waveforms.

  10. Solution-Focused Strategies for Effective Sexual Health Communication among African American Parents and Their Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sharon D; Williams, Sha-Lai

    2015-11-01

    The high rates of sexual risk behaviors, particularly among African American youths who may not be aware of their HIV status, provide indication that, unless prevention efforts are enhanced, this vulnerable group of youths will remain at greater risk for negative health status outcomes. Parents are important in efforts to reduce risk among youths and often have a willingness to be sexuality educators for their children; however, communication barriers often impede their ability to provide preventive sexual health knowledge to their youths. Social workers are often presented with opportunities to help parents develop effective sexual health communication skills in informal settings when formal interventions are not feasible. The present effort considers solution-focused strategies social workers can use to help parents overcome barriers and communicate more positively with their youths about sexual health.

  11. Effective Communication Barriers in Clinical Teaching among Malaysian Medical Students in Zagazig Faculty of Medicine (Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Marwa Ahmed; Said, Nagwa Samy; Zahed, Eman Salah EL; Hussein, Wafaa Fawzy; Hamid, Omaima Ibrahim Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction effective communication in a clinical environment plays a vital role in patient assessment and treatment. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of Malaysian medical students concerning communication barriers during clinical practice. The goal was to provide answers for three important research questions, i.e., 1) Are communication barriers an impediment to Malaysian students during clinical teaching? 2) What is the nature of the language barriers that the students encounter? and 3) What are the best ways of reducing these barriers during clinical teaching? Methods The qualitative method was used to conduct the research, and open-ended questionnaires were used to collect the data. The study was conducted on 95 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year students, 80% of whom completed the study. Results Medical students from Malaysia who have limited knowledge of the Arabic language experience some difficulties in communicating with staff members, patients, and nurses during their clinical practices. Conclusion Successful orientation of students to the language used in the clinical environment will help the students overcome the communication barriers they encounter during their clinical practices. PMID:26816591

  12. Effective Patient-Physician Communication Based on Osteopathic Philosophy in Caring for Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Noll, Donald R; Ginsberg, Terrie; Elahi, Abdul; Cavalieri, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss effective communication strategies between elderly patients and their physicians from the perspective of osteopathic heritage. The patient-physician communication styles of Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, and early osteopathic physicians (ie, DOs) may have influenced how DOs today communicate with their patients. Historical literature describes how Still would discuss with his patients the causes of their health problems using analogies and language they would understand, and how, when caring for a patient at the end of life, he empathically provided emotional support for both patients and their families. Early DOs advocated setting clear expectations for patients regarding clinical outcomes and carefully listening to patients to build trust. The Osteopathic Oath, which calls for the DO to view the patient as a friend, may also affect patient-physician communication. Early osteopathic philosophy and culture, as modeled by Dr Still in his approach to elderly patients, should inspire today's DOs in their communication with their elderly patients. PMID:26745563

  13. Safety of ipsapirone treatment compared with lorazepam: discontinuation effects.

    PubMed Central

    Busto, U E; Naranjo, C A; Bremner, K E; Peachey, J E; Bologa, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine discontinuation effects of ipsapirone, a novel azapirone and partial 5-HTIA agonist that has anxiolytic effects clinically and has not caused dependence or withdrawal symptoms in animals, and to compare these effects with those of the benzodiazepine lorazepam, owing to concern about dependence or withdrawal symptoms following use of these drugs. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Outpatient and inpatient treatment. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five healthy male volunteers who had experience with sedative-hypnotics or anxiolytics and did not meet DSM-III-R criteria for abuse or dependence. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive ipsapirone 15 mg per day (n = 17), ipsapirone 22.5 mg per day (n = 16), lorazepam 3 mg per day (n = 16), or placebo (n = 16) as outpatients for 36 days (treatment) followed by single-blind placebo as inpatients for 3 days and as outpatients for 6 days (withdrawal). OUTCOME MEASURES: Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, Sleep Quality Questionnaire, General Symptom Checklist, self-rated intoxication, Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment--Benzodiazepines (CIWA-Benzo), psychomotor testing and urine drug screen. RESULTS: Only 45 subjects completed the study; discontinuation rates did not significantly differ among treatment groups. At day 39, fewer and less severe symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue) were found on the CIWA-Benzo scale after treatment with ipsapirone or placebo than after treatment with lorazepam (p < 0.05). Subjects reported longer sleep latency and poorer sleep quality after receiving lorazepam than after receiving ipsapirone or placebo. Scores on the HAM-D, Spielberger State Anxiety and HAM-A scales did not change from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Withdrawal symptoms were detected after discontinuation of therapeutic doses of lorazepam. Significantly fewer symptoms were observed after

  14. Comparative effects of haloacetic acids in whole embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E S; Rogers, E H; Schmid, J E; Richard, A

    1996-08-01

    A major class of disinfection by-products in drinking water are the haloacetic acids. Both dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids are teratogenic when administered to rats throughout organogenesis. However, there is little information regarding the developmental toxicity of other haloacetic acids. Therefore, 3-6 somite staged CD-1 mouse embryos were exposed to acetic acid (AA) or mono- (M), di- (D), and tri- (T) substituted fluoro- (F), chloro- (C), or bromo- (B) acetic acids in whole embryo culture in order to evaluate the effects of these agents on development. A 24 hour exposure to the haloacetic acids produced dysmorphogenesis. Effects on neural tube development ranged from prosencephalic hypoplasia to non-closure defects throughout the cranial region. Exposure to the haloacetic acids affected optic development, produced malpositioned and/or hypoplastic pharyngeal arches, and resulted in perturbation of heart development. In order to determine the relative toxicities of these agents, benchmark concentrations were calculated as the lower 95% confidence interval of the concentration that produced a 5% increase in neural tube defects. The benchmark concentrations occurred over a wide range with DFA (5912.6 microM) and MBA (2.7 microM) at the extremes. Using the benchmark concentrations to compare the chemicals gives a ranking of the agents in order of increasing potency as: DFA < TFA < DCA < AA < TBA < or = TCA < DBA < MCA < MBA. TCA and DCA have demonstrated ability to disrupt development in vivo but were among the least potent haloacetic acids in vitro. Because of the potential for widespread exposure to haloacetic acids in drinking water and the incomplete toxicity profile of these chemicals, further work on their developmental effects is warranted.

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Prestroke Aspirin on Stroke Severity and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong‐Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Cho, Yong‐Jin; Hong, Keun‐Sik; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Soo Joo; Ko, Youngchai; Han, Moon‐Ku; Lee, Jun; Cha, Jae‐Kwan; Kim, Dae‐Hyun; Kim, Dong‐Eog; Kim, Joon‐Tae; Choi, Jay Chol; Yu, Kyung‐Ho; Lee, Byung‐Chul; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Gorelick, Philip B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The effect of prestroke aspirin use on initial severity, hemorrhagic transformation, and functional outcome of ischemic stroke is uncertain. Methods Using a multicenter stroke registry database, patients with acute ischemic stroke of three subtypes (large artery atherosclerosis [LAA], small vessel occlusion [SVO], or cardioembolism [CE]) were identified. NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) and hemorrhagic transformation at presentation and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were compared between prestroke aspirin users and nonusers. Results Among the 10,433 patients, 1,914 (18.3%) reported prestroke aspirin use. On crude analysis, initial NIHSS scores of aspirin users were higher than nonusers (mean difference: 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04–0.66). However, a multivariable analysis with an application of inverse probability of treatment weighting based on a propensity score of prestroke aspirin, having an interaction effect of prestroke aspirin use and stroke subtype in the model, showed less stroke severity for aspirin users in LAA, but not in SVO and CE than for nonusers; mean difference in NIHSS scores in LAA was –0.97 (95% CI: –1.45 to –0.49). With respect to hemorrhagic transformation and mRS, no significant interaction effects were found. Prestroke aspirin use increased the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (adjusted odd ratio: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.05–1.73), but decreased the odds of the higher discharge mRS (0.86; 0.76–0.96). Interpretation Prestroke aspirin use may reduce initial stroke severity in atherothrombotic stroke and can improve functional outcome at discharge despite an increase of hemorrhagic transformation irrespective of stroke subtype. Ann Neurol 2016;79:560–568 PMID:26754410

  16. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed.

  17. Experimental Study of Doppler Effect for Underwater Acoustic Communication Using Orthogonal Signal Division Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Tadashi; Mizutani, Keiichi

    2012-07-01

    This paper is about the underwater acoustic (UWA) communication using orthogonal signal division multiplexing (OSDM) in shallow water, whose environment is time spread and frequency spread. In this paper, the Doppler effect - Doppler shift and spread - for UWA communication using OSDM is mainly considered. The effects of Doppler shift and Doppler spread are evaluated in a test tank with a moving platform on a stable water surface and with a stable platform with a moving water surface, respectively. Doppler shift correction, which has been considered in simulation-based studies, is found to work effectively. In relation to the effect of Doppler spread, the experimental result well agrees with the simulation result. Through this study, it is confirmed that a smaller frame length is preferable because it enables the measurement of the UWA channel frequently so that it can keep up with channel changes.

  18. Exploring the Effects of Communication Framed by Environmental Concern in Informal Science Education Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yocco, Victor S.

    Informal science education (ISE) venues such as zoos, nature centers, parks, and natural history museums play a critical role in allowing the general public to learn scientific concepts (National Research Council, 2009; 2010). Most adult learning of scientific concepts takes place outside of classrooms and away from work (Rennie and Williams, 2006). It is also true that zoos and natural history museums have stated missions regarding conveying concepts related to the conservation of our natural resources (Krishtalka and Humphrey, 2000; Patrick, Mathews, Ayers, and Tunicliffe, 2007). Theoretically, the successful communication of the desired message of these ISE institutions would inspire a more informed citizenry on the use and conservation of our natural resources. Framing communication is to present a topic in a manner that promote a specific view of the information. Effectively framing information can be an avenue to achieving the goal of ISE institutions (Chong & Druckman, 2007; Nisbet, 2009). Shultz and Zelezny (2003) posit that messages framed by egoistic concerns, concerns which focus on the individual, will be better received by the general public, leading to a greater likelihood for them to become engaged. This dissertation reports on a series of descriptive mixed methods studies conducted at a zoo, a natural history museum, and a science center, exploring the framing effects of communications framed by environmental concern (Schultz, 2001). In two of the studies the researcher examined the relationship between individuals' perceptions of the overlap between their lives and nature, their levels of environmental concern, and their preferences for statements designed to align with the types of environmental concern (i.e. egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric). Two studies were conducted using a quasi-experimental design in which the researcher randomly assigned messages framed by environmental concern while also taking measurements of prior involvement

  19. A study of the effect of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel have been investigated. Software and hardware simulations have been used to determine the effects of channel group delay variations with frequency on the bit error rate for a 220 Mbps SMSK channel. These simulations indicate that group delay distortions can significantly degrade the bit error rate performance. The severity of the degradation is dependent on the amount, type, and spectral location of the group delay distortion.

  20. Private manufacturers' thresholds to invest in comparative effectiveness trials.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Meltzer, David

    2012-10-01

    The recent rush of enthusiasm for public investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) in the US has focussed attention on these public investments. However, little attention has been given to how changing public investment in CER may affect private manufacturers' incentives for CER, which has long been a major source of CER. In this work, based on a simple revenue maximizing economic framework, we generate predictions on thresholds to invest in CER for a private manufacturer that compares its own product to a competitor's product in head-to-head trials. Our analysis shows that private incentives to invest in CER are determined by how the results of CER may affect the price and quantity of the product sold and the duration over which resulting changes in revenue would accrue, given the time required to complete CER and the time from the completion of CER to the time of patent expiration. We highlight the result that private incentives may often be less than public incentives to invest in CER and may even be negative if the likelihood of adverse findings is sufficient. We find that these incentives imply a number of predictions about patterns of CER and how they will be affected by changes in public financing of CER and CER methods. For example, these incentives imply that incumbent patent holders may be less likely to invest in CER than entrants and that public investments in CER may crowd out similar private investments. In contrast, newer designs and methods for CER, such as Bayesian adaptive trials, which can reduce ex post risk of unfavourable results and shorten the time for the production of CER, may increase the expected benefits of CER and may tend to increase private investment in CER as long as the costs of such innovative designs are not excessive. Bayesian approaches to design also naturally highlight the dynamic aspects of CER, allowing less expensive initial studies to guide decisions about future investments and thereby encouraging greater