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Sample records for communities norris brook

  1. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  2. Sustaining a Rural Black Farming Community in the South: A Portrait of Brooks Farm, Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Valerie; Effland, Anne B. W.

    1997-01-01

    Brooks Farm is an independent Black farming community unique in the Mississippi Delta. A community case study shows that, despite declining population and resources, Brooks Farm has drawn on the strength of its traditional institutions (family, churches, civic groups) to sustain community life and to continue to provide services to the elderly,…

  3. Nearshore habitat and fish community associations of coaster brook trout in Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, O.T.; Moore, S.A.; Carlson, A.J.; Quinlan, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the nearshore habitat and fish community composition of approximately 300 km of shoreline within and adjacent to the major embayments of Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Sampling yielded 17 species, of which 12 were widespread and represented a common element of the Lake Superior fish community, including cisco Coregonus artedi, lake whitefish C. clupeaformis, round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, lake chub Couesius plumbeus, longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus, white sucker C. commersonii, trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus, ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius, burbot Lota lota, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. The presence of brook trout S. fontinalis in an embayment was associated with the common species of the Isle Royale nearshore fish community, particularly cisco, longnose sucker, and round whitefish. However, brook trout were present in only five embayments and were common only in Tobin Harbor. Most Isle Royale embayments had broadly overlapping ranges of nearshore habitats. Within embayments, fish were distributed along a habitat gradient from less-protected rocky habitat near the mouth to highly protected habitat with mixed and finer substrates at the head. Embayments with brook trout had greater mean protection from the open lake, greater variation in depth, greater mean cover, and higher mean frequencies of large substrates (cobble, boulder, and bedrock). Within those embayments, brook trout were associated with habitat patches with higher mean frequencies of small substrates (particularly sand and coarse gravel). Within Tobin Harbor, brook trout were associated with midembayment habitat and species assemblages, especially those locations with a mixture of sand, gravel, and cobble substrates, an absence of bedrock, and the presence of round whitefish, white sucker, and trout-perch. Comparison of embayments with the model, Tobin Harbor, showed that six embayments

  4. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Initial Characterization of Carbon Metabolism in Iron Oxidizing Microbial Communities of Acidic Hot Springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, H. W.; Jennings, R. D.; Whitmore, L.; Inskeep, W. P.; Moran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park is home to several acidic, sulfidic hot springs. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The microbial communities in the iron oxidation zones are dominated by Archaea, including several members that appear to define previously unrecognized taxa. Abiotic iron oxidation rates are very slow at these temperatures (typically ~ 65-70 oC) and pH's (typically ~3). Therefore, the relatively rapid iron oxide deposition rate strongly suggests the process is microbially mediated, and an organism previously isolated from these springs, Metallosphaera yellowstonensis, has been shown to oxide iron in culture. M. yellowstonensis has been observed in the all microbial communities analyzed in the iron oxidizing zones of these springs, though metagenomic profiling suggests it constitutes only ~20% of the community membership. When we began our studies of C flow in the iron-oxidizing community, no C source had been demonstrated. Observed potential carbon sources in the springs include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane, as well as random inputs of heterotrophic carbon in the forms of insect carcasses, pine needles, and animal scat. The temperatures in the iron oxidation zones are above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit, thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the community itself. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. We have demonstrated that M. yellowstonensis as well as excised samples of iron oxide mat communities can fix CO2, and our estimated isotopic fractionation factor is consistent with the 3-hydroxypropionate 4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. Genes of this pathway have been identified in the M. yellowstonensis genome. We have tentatively identified small amounts of organic compounds

  6. Observations on communities of brook and brown trout separated by an upstream movement barrier on the Firehole River

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, L.R.

    1980-07-01

    Division of a fluvial fish community by stream impoundment can give rise to dissimilar upstream and downstream assemblages which may themselves differ from the original community. These changes are often ascribed to the modification of physical habitat or water quality. Less well documented are effects on fluvial fish communities of an upstream-1 movement barrier alone. Observations were made on contrasting communities of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) separated by Kepler Cascades in the Firehole River of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, a series of waterfalls that form an upstream-movement barrier. (ACR)

  7. Norrie's disease in an Asian family.

    PubMed Central

    Harendra de Silva, D G; de Silva, D B

    1988-01-01

    Norrie's disease, a congenital progressive oculo-acoustico-cerebral degenerative condition, is a sex linked recessive disorder. Previously described as atrophia oculi congeneti, it is associated with bilateral pseudotumour of the retina, lens, and corneal opacities, and phthisis bulbi. Some patients develop progressive deterioration of mental function and hearing. We report a Sri Lankan family with typical features of Norrie's disease. Images PMID:3342220

  8. Plant communities as indicators of salt marsh hydrology A study at Goose Fare Brook, Saco, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, P.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Salt marsh stratigraphy often relies on vegetation fragment distribution as an indicator of paleo-sea level. This study is attempting to validate the use of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens at Goose Fare Brook in Saco, Maine as paleo-sea level indicators. Plant zones were mapped and each zone boundary was surveyed to describe the relationship between sea level and plant species zonation. Data showing the contact elevations between S. patens and S. alterniflora were examined, and contacts from different environments in the marsh were compared. Differences in contact elevations ranged from only a few centimeters to more than eighty centimeters. Three series of groundwater monitoring wells were installed along transects. Within a single transect, one well was placed in the creek bottom, measuring the free water surface, and one was placed at each of several plant zone boundaries. Strip chart recordings from one series of monitoring wells show the flood dominated patterns of tidally influenced groundwater fluctuations in the wells. Root depths of 100 plugs each of S. alterniflora and S. patens were also measured. A comparison of these measurements and those from monitoring wells will assist in the determination of the average length of submergence time for each species. Preliminary findings suggest that sea level is not the only force affecting the modern zonation of these two indicator plants in Goose Fare Brook.

  9. Brookings supports breastfeeding: using public deliberation as a community-engaged approach to dissemination of research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jenn; Kuehl, Rebecca A; Mehltretter Drury, Sara A; Tschetter, Lois; Schwaegerl, Mary; Yoder, Julia; Gullickson, Heidi; Lamp, Jamison; Bachman, Charlotte; Hildreth, Marilyn

    2017-03-13

    Empirical evidence demonstrates myriad benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child, along with benefits to businesses that support breastfeeding. Federal and state legislation requires workplace support for pumping and provides protections for public breastfeeding. Yet, many are unaware of these laws, and thus, support systems remain underdeveloped. We used a community-based approach to spread awareness about the evidence-based benefits of breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. We worked to improve breastfeeding support at the local hospital, among local employers, and throughout the broader community. Our coalition representing the hospital, the chamber of commerce, the university, and local lactation consultants used a public deliberation model for dissemination. We held focus groups, hosted a public conversation, spoke to local organizations, and promoted these efforts through local media. The hospital achieved Baby-Friendly status and opened a Baby Café. Breastfeeding support in the community improved through policies, designated pumping spaces, and signage that supports public breastfeeding at local businesses. Community awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding and breastfeeding support increased; the breastfeeding support coalition remains active. The public deliberation process for dissemination engaged the community with evidence-based promotion of breastfeeding support, increased agency, and produced sustainable results tailored to the community's unique needs.

  10. Henry Norris Russell and the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, D.

    2013-04-01

    Henry Norris Russell, one of the most influential American astronomers of the first half of the 20th Century, had a special place in his heart for the Lowell Observatory. Although privately critical of the founder for his pronouncements about life on Mars and the superiority of the Mars Hill observing site, he always supported the Observatory in public and professional circles. He staunchly supported Tombaugh's detection of a planet as leading from Lowell's prediction, and always promoted V. M. Slipher's spectroscopic investigations of planetary and stellar phenomena. But how did he react to Slipher's puzzling detection of the extreme radial velocities of spiral nebulae starting in 1912, and how did he regard the extension and interpretation of those observations by Hubble and others in following decades? Here we describe the arc of Russell's reactions, dating from Slipher's first detection, as an indicator of how mainstream stellar astronomers reacted to the concept of an expanding universe.

  11. A Strong Independent Community College for the District of Columbia. Testimony of Alice M. Rivlin, Senior Fellow and Director of Greater Washington Research at the Brookings Institution, before the Council of the District of Columbia Committee of the Whole Community College Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivlin, Alice M.

    2009-01-01

    In this testimony, the author talks briefly about how the District of Columbia Appleseed and her organization, Greater Washington Research at Brookings, came to sponsor the community college feasibility study they have released. In 2008, both Brookings and DC Appleseed published papers highlighting the importance of providing opportunities for DC…

  12. A Strong Independent Community College for the District of Columbia. Testimony of Alice M. Rivlin, Senior Fellow and Director of Greater Washington Research at the Brookings Institution, before the Council of the District of Columbia Committee of the Whole Community College Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivlin, Alice M.

    2009-01-01

    In this testimony, the author talks briefly about how the District of Columbia Appleseed and her organization, Greater Washington Research at Brookings, came to sponsor the community college feasibility study they have released. In 2008, both Brookings and DC Appleseed published papers highlighting the importance of providing opportunities for DC…

  13. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall, 1934-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striker, Jeremiah P.; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2007-12-01

    John Norris Bahcall, one of the most creative and influential astrophysicists of his generation — a scientist who helped prove what makes the Sun shine and helped make the Hubble Space Telescope a reality — passed away in Pasadena, California, on 17 August 2005. Bahcall died peacefully in his sleep from a rare blood disorder. For the past 35 years, Bahcall was the Richard Black Professor of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he created one of the leading astrophysics programs in the world. Active and working to the end, Bahcall said that he was always grateful for a full and happy life that exceeded his wildest expectations. Bahcall died as he lived, surrounded by the family he loved, embracing life to its fullest, happy, working and joking to the end. Bahcall's stellar career encompassed seminal contributions in numerous fields of astrophysics as well as extraordinary leadership on behalf of the scientific community, including the American Astronomical Society, the American Physical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, NASA, and Congress. Bahcall's contributions made him one of the scientific leaders of his time. He had been recognized by numerous awards including the 1998 National Medal of Science from President Clinton, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Medal of the Swedish Royal Academy, the Dan David Award, the Fermi Award, the first Hans Bethe Prize, the Franklin Medal, the Comstock Prize in physics, NASA's Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the top awards of the American Astronomical Society — including the Russell Award, the Heineman Prize, and the Warner Prize. Bahcall was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1976 and to the American Philosophical Society in 2001. He was the recipient of Honorary Degrees from numerous universities around the world. Bahcall's scientific interests and expertise ranged from neutrino

  14. A Grassroots Community Dialogue on the Ethics of the Care of People with Autism and Their Families: The Stony Brook Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Post, Stephen G; Pomeroy, John; Keirns, Carla; Cover, Virginia Isaacs; Dorn, Michael Leverett

    2017-04-10

    The increased recognition and reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) combined with the associated societal and clinical impact call for a broad grassroots community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. In these Stony Brook Guidelines, which were developed during a full year of community dialogue (2010-2011) with affected individuals, families, and professionals in the field, we identify and discuss topics of paramount concern to the ASD constituency: treatment goals and happiness, distributive justice, managing the desperate hopes for a cure, sibling responsibilities, intimacy and sex, diagnostic ethics, and research ethics. The members of the dialogue core committee included doctors, ethicists, administrators, social workers, ministers, disability experts, and many family members of individuals with autism who were especially engaged in community activities on behalf of their constituency, including siblings, parents, and grandparents. Our guidelines are not based on "top-down" imposition of professional expertise, but rather on a "bottom-up" grass roots attention to the voices of affected individuals and families speaking from experience. These guidelines can inform clinical practice, but they also are meaningful for the wider social conversation emerging over the treatment of individuals with ASD.

  15. Diving in Head First: Finding the Volume of Norris lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Drew W.

    2008-01-01

    This article allows students to apply their knowledge and experience of area and volume to find the volume of Norris Lake, a large reservoir lake in Tennessee. Students have the opportunity to demonstrate their skills in using maps and scales as well as to incorporate the use of technology in developing the solution. This project satisfied the…

  16. Diving in Head First: Finding the Volume of Norris lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Drew W.

    2008-01-01

    This article allows students to apply their knowledge and experience of area and volume to find the volume of Norris Lake, a large reservoir lake in Tennessee. Students have the opportunity to demonstrate their skills in using maps and scales as well as to incorporate the use of technology in developing the solution. This project satisfied the…

  17. Botanical reconnaissance of Nancy Brook Research Natural Area

    Treesearch

    Joshua L. Royte; Daniel D. Sperduto; John P. Lortie

    1996-01-01

    A survey of the flora and natural communities of Nancy Brook Research Natural Area, Crawford Notch, White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire, was conducted during the summer and fall of 1992. Nancy Brook Research Natural Area is noted for being the largest virgin mountain spruce forest in New Hampshire, and one of the few remaining large examples in the...

  18. Soil bacterial communities of a calcium-supplemented and a reference watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, Ganapathi; Minocha, Rakesh; Turlapati, Swathi A; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Brodie, Eoin L; Tisa, Louis S; Minocha, Subhash C

    2012-03-01

    Soil Ca depletion because of acidic deposition-related soil chemistry changes has led to the decline of forest productivity and carbon sequestration in the northeastern USA. In 1999, acidic watershed (WS) 1 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, USA was amended with Ca silicate to restore soil Ca pools. In 2006, soil samples were collected from the Ca-amended (WS1) and reference watershed (WS3) for comparison of bacterial community composition between the two watersheds. The sites were about 125 m apart and were known to have similar stream chemistry and tree populations before Ca amendment. Ca-amended soil had higher Ca and P, and lower Al and acidity as compared with the reference soils. Analysis of bacterial populations by PhyloChip revealed that the bacterial community structure in the Ca-amended and the reference soils was significantly different and that the differences were more pronounced in the mineral soils. Overall, the relative abundance of 300 taxa was significantly affected. Numbers of detectable taxa in families such as Acidobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae were lower in the Ca-amended soils, while Flavobacteriaceae and Geobacteraceae were higher. The other functionally important groups, e.g. ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonadaceae, had lower numbers of taxa in the Ca-amended organic soil but higher in the mineral soil.

  19. Brooks Grease Service, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Brooks Grease Service, Inc., for alleged violations at its vegetable oil collection and storage facility located at or near 218 East James St., Kansas City, KS 66118.

  20. Expression study of the Norrie disease (NDP) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.Y.; Battinelli, E.M.; Breakefield, X.O.

    1994-09-01

    Norrie disease is a severe X-linked recessive neurological disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Typically, Norrie disease is characterized by congenital blindness with progressive loss of hearing; over half of Norrie patients also manifest different degrees of mental retardation. The gene for Norrie disease (NDP) comprises three exons, with the first exon being untranslated. The open reading frame is confined within exons 2 and 3. The mouse NDP gene has essentially the same structure as the human. In order to determine the expression pattern of the NDP gene, RT-PCR was performed on mRNAs isolated from brain, retina, cochlea, and liver tissues of mice at different developmental stages. Transcripts were detected in all tissues at all times. This result, however, is different from the results we obtained from human tissue in which all tissues examined showed expression of the NDP gene with the exception of liver. We further analyzed the transcription initiation sites of the mouse NDP gene by random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The results showed that there are multiple transcription initiation sites associated with the expression of the NDP gene. The transcription start sites are utilized differentially in the tissues at different developmental stages. By using different intronic genomic fragments, we detected a possible second transcript which does not include the untranslated first exon. Northern analysis also revealed that there are at least two abundant transcripts associated with the NDP gene in brain. The results suggest that both multiple transcription initiation sites and different promoters may contribute to the expression of the NDP gene in different tissues during development.

  1. Heterospecific aggression and adaptive divergence in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans).

    PubMed

    Peiman, K S; Robinson, B W

    2007-06-01

    Agonistic behavior between heterospecifics, in which individuals of one species attack another, may cause a subordinate species to shift resource or habitat use. Subsequent evolutionary responses to selection may mimic shifts expected under ecological character displacement, but with no role played by exploitative competition. Alternatively, aggressive behavior can evolve when fitness is improved by excluding members of a coexisting species from a defendable resource through interference. We tested whether heterospecific agonistic behavior has evolved in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) by comparing replicate allopatric populations to those sympatric with ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). We also tested for heritable variation in heterospecific aggressive behavior by rearing family groups in a common environment. Allopatric populations of brook stickleback were more aggressive than ninespine stickleback, suggesting that pre-existing aggression in brook stickleback contributed to niche shifts by ninespine stickleback. In addition, sympatric adult brook stickleback were more aggressive toward ninespine stickleback than brook stickleback from allopatric populations. Overt heterospecific aggressive behaviors were heritable, and aggression in juvenile brook stickleback increased with age in sympatric but not in allopatric populations reared in a common environment. Brook stickleback have evolved increased aggression when they coexist with ninespine stickleback. These stickleback communities have been structured by both evolved and pre-existing variation in heterospecific aggressive behavior in brook stickleback.

  2. Soil bacterial communities of a calcium-supplemented and a reference watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA

    Treesearch

    Ganapathi Sridevi; Rakesh Minocha; Swathi A. Turlapati; Katherine C. Goldfarb; Eoin L. Brodie; Louis S. Tisa; Subhash C. Minocha

    2012-01-01

    Soil Ca depletion because of acidic deposition-related soil chemistry changes has led to the decline of forest productivity and carbon sequestration in the northeastern USA. In 1999, acidic watershed (WS) 1 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, USA was amended with Ca silicate to restore soil Ca pools. In 2006, soil samples were collected from the Ca-...

  3. NDP gene mutations in 14 French families with Norrie disease.

    PubMed

    Royer, Ghislaine; Hanein, Sylvain; Raclin, Valérie; Gigarel, Nadine; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Munnich, Arnold; Steffann, Julie; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Kaplan, Josseline; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul

    2003-12-01

    Norrie disease is a rare X-inked recessive condition characterized by congenital blindness and occasionally deafness and mental retardation in males. This disease has been ascribed to mutations in the NDP gene on chromosome Xp11.1. Previous investigations of the NDP gene have identified largely sixty disease-causing sequence variants. Here, we report on ten different NDP gene allelic variants in fourteen of a series of 21 families fulfilling inclusion criteria. Two alterations were intragenic deletions and eight were nucleotide substitutions or splicing variants, six of them being hitherto unreported, namely c.112C>T (p.Arg38Cys), c.129C>G (p.His43Gln), c.133G>A (p.Val45Met), c.268C>T (p.Arg90Cys), c.382T>C (p.Cys128Arg), c.23479-1G>C (unknown). No NDP gene sequence variant was found in seven of the 21 families. This observation raises the issue of misdiagnosis, phenocopies, or existence of other X-linked or autosomal genes, the mutations of which would mimic the Norrie disease phenotype.

  4. The geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.E.; Keith, T.E.C. ); Hutchinson, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone Caldera, one of the largest volcanic features of its type in the world. Hydrothermal activity may have been continuous for {gt}100,000 years B.P. Norris Basin includes the highest erupting geyser of recent water types, colors of organisms and inorganic precipitates, frequent changes in activity and chemistry, and very high subsurface temperatures ({gt}240{degrees}C). Norris Basin is only a part of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. Norris Basin has a heat flow roughly 10 percent of that of the Yellowstone Caldera and requires an estimated 0.01 km{sup 3} of rhyolitic magma per year-a quantity far greater than the corridor's rate of eruption.

  5. A bidirectional YAC walk from the Norrie disease (NDP) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Black, G.C.; Zheng-Yi Chen; Craig, I.W.

    1995-02-10

    The region of Xp between DXS7 and the centromere contains the gene for Norrie disease in addition to the genes for several other ophthalmic disorders. A 650-kb YAC containing the loci MAOA, MAOB, and NDP has been used as the starting point for a bidirectional chromosomal walk. A contig of 16 YACs covering between 2 and 3 Mb has been developed in which the following markers/genes are located (in physical order): Xpter - DXS1201 (256ze5) - DXS6668 - DXS228 - DXS77 - DXS7 - MAOA - MAOB - FR12 (pseudogene) - NDP - DXS6670 - RRM2P3 - DXS6671 - DXS742 - Xcen. Seven new STSs are described both for end clones and for internal Alu PCR products from the contig. The contig contains the breakpoint of the t75-2ma-1b (t75) translocation, close to the 5{prime} end of the MAOB gene. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. LYE BROOK WILDERNESS, VERMONT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Harrison, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Lye Brook Wilderness, in the Green Mountains of Vermont is underlain by gneisses, quartzites, schists, and amphibolites of Precambrian to Ordovician age. A mineral-resource survey determined that only one commodity, quartzite, is present in large quantities and could be a source of dimension stone or crushed stone. Although an anomalously high radioactive area occurs within the Precambrian basement, geochemical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of significant uranium mineralization or for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources within the wilderness,

  7. Investigating Rapid Uplift and Subsidence Near Norris, Yellowstone, During 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, W. K.; Cervelli, P. F.; Shelly, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Although Yellowstone's last magmatic eruption occurred about 70,000 years ago, hydrothermal explosions, earthquakes, and ground deformation still occur as testament to ongoing volcanic and tectonic processes. Since the late 1990s, a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has recorded uplift and subsidence of the caldera and northwest caldera margin near Norris Geyser Basin. Previous deformation episodes have shown opposing vertical motion at the two sites, which has been attributed to temporal variations in magmatic fluid flux from the caldera laterally through the Norris-Mammoth fault corridor that intersects the caldera's northwest margin (Dzurisin et al., 2012; Wicks et al., 2006). These episodes have exhibited gradual changes, transitioning from uplift to subsidence (and vice versa) over weeks to months. Large earthquake swarms accompanied transitions from caldera uplift to subsidence in 1985 and 2010. Recent deformation in Yellowstone differs from previously observed episodes. In the latter half of 2013, uplift began around Norris, and by January of 2014 it reached rates of over 15 cm/yr. Also at the start of 2014, caldera deformation shifted from approximately 4 years of slow subsidence to slow uplift. On March 30, 2014, a M4.8 earthquake, the largest in Yellowstone since 1980, occurred northwest of Norris Geyser Basin near the center of uplift. Shortly after the event, deformation near Norris abruptly reversed to rapid subsidence (over 20 cm/yr). Caldera uplift began to accelerate around the same time. Thus, uplift can occur simultaneously in both the caldera and the Norris area, and dramatic reversals from rapid uplift to rapid subsidence can occur within a matter of days. While the complexity of the deformation defies a simple explanation, we hypothesize that the rapid transition from uplift to subsidence at Norris may indicate that the M4.8 earthquake opened a pathway for fluid migration away from Norris and allowed an

  8. Building the Engaged Campus: An Interview with John Brooks Slaughter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Donna

    1999-01-01

    Interview with John Brooks Slaughter, recent president of Occidental College, focuses on his leadership during a period when the college dramatically increased its minority enrollment, recruited an impressively diverse faculty, and launched various community outreach programs. Explores Slaughter's views concerning diversity as part of a college's…

  9. Marginal Experiments: Peter Brook and Stepping out Theatre Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article juxtaposes the recent work of Peter Brook with a Bristol-based mental health service-user collective--Stepping Out Theatre Company. Informed by field-work with the company, this chapter explores the aesthetic and political relationship between professional, experimental theatre work and community-based performance practice. Drawing…

  10. Heat Budget Monitoring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. A. M.; Neale, C. M. U.; Jaworowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent estimation of heat flux in active hydrothermal areas are required to monitor the variation in activity. Natural changes in geothermal and hydrothermal features can include rapid significant changes in surface temperature distribution and may be an indication of "re-plumbing" of the systems or potential hydrothermal explosions. Frequent monitoring of these systems can help Park managers make informed decisions on infrastructure development and/or take precautionary actions to protect the public. Norris Geyser Basin (NGB) is one of Yellowstone National Park's hottest and most dynamic basins. Airborne high-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing was used to estimate radiometric temperatures within NGB and allow for the estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface temperatures and the heat flow budget. The airborne monitoring occurred in consecutive years 2008-2012 allowing for the temporal comparison of heat budget in NGB. Airborne thermal infrared images in the 8-12 µm bands with 1-m resolution were acquired using a FLIR SC640 scanner. Digital multispectral images in the green (0.57 μm), red (0.65 μm), and near infrared (0.80 μm) bands were also acquired to classify the terrain cover and support the atmospheric and emissivity correction of the thermal images. The airborne images were taken in the month of September on selected days with similar weather and under clear sky conditions. In the winter of 2012, images were also taken in March to compare the effect of the cold weather and snow cover on the heat budget. Consistent methods were used to acquire and process the images each year to limit the potential variability in the results to only the variability in the hydrothermal system. Data from radiation flux towers installed within the basin were used to compare with airborne radiometric surface temperatures and compensate for residual solar heating in the imagery. The presentation will discuss the different mechanisms involved in

  11. The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin, normally shortened to Norris Basin, is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. An east-west fault zone terminates the Gallatin Range at its southern end and extends from Hebgen Lake, west of the park, to Norris Basin. No local evidence exists at the surface in Norris Basin for the two oldest Yellowstone volcanic caldera cycles (~2.0 and 1.3 m.y.B.P.). The third and youngest cycle formed the Yellowstone caldera, which erupted the 600,000-year-old Lava Creek Tuff. No evidence is preserved of hydrothermal activity near Norris Basin during the first 300,000.years after the caldera collapse. Glaciation probably removed most of the early evidence, but erratics of hot-spring sinter that had been converted diagenetically to extremely hard, resistant chalcedonic sinter are present as cobbles in and on some moraines and till from the last two glacial stages, here correlated with the early and late stages of the Pinedale glaciation <150,000 years B.P.). Indirect evidence for the oldest hydrothermal system at Norris Basin indicates an age probably older than both stages of Pinedale glaciation. Stream deposits consisting mainly of rounded quartz phenocrysts of the Lava Creek Tuff were subaerial, perhaps in part windblown and redeposited by streams. A few small rounded pebbles are interpreted as chalcedonic sinter of a still older cycle. None of these are precisely dated but are unlikely to be more than 150,000 to 200,000 years old. ...Most studies of active hydrothermal areas have noted chemical differences in fluids and alteration products but have given little attention to differences and models to explain evolution in types. This report, in contrast, emphasizes the kinds of changes in vents and their changing chemical types of waters and then

  12. Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.

    2008-01-01

    This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc feature classes as well as a table of geologic units and their descriptions. This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for studying hydrothermal processes in Norris Geyser Basin. The original map does not contain registration tic marks. To create the geodatabase, the original scanned map was georegistered to USGS aerial photographs of the Norris Junction quadrangle collected in 1994. Manmade objects, i.e. roads, parking lots, and the visitor center, along with stream junctions and other hydrographic features, were used for registration.

  13. Hydrologic conditions in the Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook drainage basins, west-central New Jersey, 1986-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobsen, Eric; Hardy, M.A.; Kurtz, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Data on the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in the drainage basins of Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook upstream from U.S. Route 206 in west-central New Jersey were collected from October 1, 1986, through September 30, 1988. Water levels measured in 74 wells ranged from 49 to 453 ft above sea level. The water-table surface generally mimicked topography; however, the water-level altitude in one well indicates the possibility of local interbasin groundwater flow. Calcium and bicarbonate were the most abundant cation and anion in most of the 25 groundwater samples. With one exception, concentrations of nutrients, trace elements, organic carbon, and volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Stream low-flow measurements made twice at each of 63 sites indicate that both discharge and runoff increased downstream for most reaches of Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook. For main-stem sites, the highest base-flow runoff occurred at site 01462733 on Jacobs Creek; the greatest discharge was measured at site 01401100 on Stony Brook. The flow-duration curve for Stony Brook for 1987-88 indicates a wetter- than-normal period for the area. Results of surface-water-quality analyses indicate that calcium and sodium plus potassium were the dominant or codominant cations, and bicarbonate and chloride were the dominant or codominant anions in most samples. Concentrations of nutrients typically exceeded those needed to support surplus algal growth. Concentrations of trace elements generally were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Bottom-sediment samples contained several persistent organic compounds. Significant downstream variations were found in concentrations of copper and lead in Jacobs Creek and Stony Brook. Results of macroinvertebrate community sampling indicate an input of nutrients to several stream

  14. Is That What Bayesians Believe? Reply to Griffiths, Chater, Norris, and Pouget (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Griffiths, Chater, Norris, and Pouget (2012) argue that we have misunderstood the Bayesian approach. In their view, it is rarely the case that researchers are making claims that performance in a given task is near optimal, and few, if any, researchers adopt the theoretical Bayesian perspective according to which the mind or brain is actually…

  15. Geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.E.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. The dominant quartz sand is hydrothermally cemented by chalcedony and is extremely hard, thereby justifying the term hydrothermal quartzite. The fundamental water type in Norris Basin is nearly neutral in pH and high in Cl and SiO/sub 2/. Another common type of water in Norris Basin is high in SO/sub 4/ and moderately high in Cl, with Cl/SO/sub 4/ ratios differing considerably. This study provides no new conclusive data on an old problem, the source or sources of rare dissolved constitutents. An important part of this paper consists of examples of numerous changes in behavior and chemical composition of most springs and geysers, to extents not known elsewhere in the park and perhaps in the world. Hydrothermal mineralogy in core samples from three research holes drilled entirely in Lava Creek Tuff to a maximum depth of -331.6 m permits an interpretation of the hydrothermal alteration history. A model for large, long-lived, volcanic-hydrothermal activity is also suggested, involving all of the crust and upper mantle and using much recent geophysical data bearing on crust-mantle interrelations.

  16. Is That What Bayesians Believe? Reply to Griffiths, Chater, Norris, and Pouget (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Griffiths, Chater, Norris, and Pouget (2012) argue that we have misunderstood the Bayesian approach. In their view, it is rarely the case that researchers are making claims that performance in a given task is near optimal, and few, if any, researchers adopt the theoretical Bayesian perspective according to which the mind or brain is actually…

  17. Formaldehyde as a carbon and electron shuttle between autotroph and heterotroph populations in acidic hydrothermal vents of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Moran, James J; Whitmore, Laura M; Isern, Nancy G; Romine, Margaret F; Riha, Krystin M; Inskeep, William P; Kreuzer, Helen W

    2016-05-01

    The Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains a large number of hydrothermal systems, which host microbial populations supported by primary productivity associated with a suite of chemolithotrophic metabolisms. We demonstrate that Metallosphaera yellowstonensis MK1, a facultative autotrophic archaeon isolated from a hyperthermal acidic hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) spring in Norris Geyser Basin, excretes formaldehyde during autotrophic growth. To determine the fate of formaldehyde in this low organic carbon environment, we incubated native microbial mat (containing M. yellowstonensis) from a HFO spring with (13)C-formaldehyde. Isotopic analysis of incubation-derived CO2 and biomass showed that formaldehyde was both oxidized and assimilated by members of the community. Autotrophy, formaldehyde oxidation, and formaldehyde assimilation displayed different sensitivities to chemical inhibitors, suggesting that distinct sub-populations in the mat selectively perform these functions. Our results demonstrate that electrons originally resulting from iron oxidation can energetically fuel autotrophic carbon fixation and associated formaldehyde excretion, and that formaldehyde is both oxidized and assimilated by different organisms within the native microbial community. Thus, formaldehyde can effectively act as a carbon and electron shuttle connecting the autotrophic, iron oxidizing members with associated heterotrophic members in the HFO community.

  18. Formaldehyde as a carbon and electron shuttle between autotroph and heterotroph populations in acidic hydrothermal vents of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Romine, Margaret F.; Riha, Krystin M.; Inskeep, William P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2016-03-19

    The Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains a large number of hydrothermal systems, which host microbial populations supported by primary productivity associated with a suite of chemolithotrophic metabolisms. We demonstrate that Metallosphaera yellowstonesis MK1, a facultative autotrophic archaeon isolated from a hyperthermal acidic hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) spring in Norris Geyser Basin, excretes formaldehyde during autotrophic growth. To determine the fate of formaldehyde in this low organic carbon environment, we incubated native microbial mat (containing M. yellowstonensis) from a HFO spring with 13C-formaldehyde. Isotopic analysis of incubation-derived CO2 and biomass showed that formaldehyde was both oxidized and assimilated by members of the community. Autotrophy, formaldehyde oxidation, and formaldehyde assimilation displayed different sensitivities to chemical inhibitors, suggesting that distinct sub-populations in the mat selectively perform these functions. Our results demonstrate that electrons originally resulting from iron oxidation can energetically fuel autotrophic carbon fixation and associated formaldehyde excretion, and that formaldehyde is both oxidized and assimilated by different organisms within the native microbial community. Thus, formaldehyde can effectively act as a carbon and electron shuttle connecting the autotrophic, iron oxidizing members with associated heterotrophic members in the HFO community.

  19. Sulfonamide toxicity in brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Snieszko, S.F.

    1954-01-01

    Sterility was observed in female brook trout that were treated with sulfamerazine at frequent intervals for 2 years to control endemic furunculosis. Feeding sulfamerazine for a period of 8 months caused massive kidney damage similar to that observed in humans who develop allergies to “sulfa” drugs. Kidney damage of the type observed would probably cause renal insufficiency which would handicap any physiological function including reproduction. Feeding sulfonamides for periods up to 13 weeks did not produce kidney damage.

  20. E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS Stanley Brook ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS - Stanley Brook Bridge, Spanning Stanley Brook, Stanley Brook Motor Road, & Seaside Trail on Barr Hill-Day Mountain Carriage Road, Seal Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  1. A new species of Neorhaphiomidas Norris (Diptera: Mydidae) from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2013-02-14

    Neorhaphiomidas Norris, with 7 species, is an endemic genus and the only Australian representative of the mydid subfamily Megascelinae. The genus was for many years considered to be restricted to Western Australia but the range of the genus was extended to the eastern part of South Australia with Paramonov's (1961) description of N. inermis. The new species described here, the first record of the genus from Queensland, extends the known distribution of the genus some 1500 km to the north-east.

  2. Performance of the Norris Cotton Federal Office Building for the first 3 years of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. E.; May, W. B., Jr.; Richtmyer, T. E.; Elder, J.; Tibbott, R. L.; Yonemura, G. T.; Hunt, C. M.; Chen, P. T.

    1981-08-01

    The Norris Cotton Federal Office Building, designed to demonstrate a number of energy saving concepts, is discussed. Some of the major energy conserving features of the building are the use of solar collectors; heavy masonry construction with exterior insulation; small overall window area; heat recovery from heat pumps, chillers, a natural gas-powered engine/generator, and the ventilation system; modular boilers; thermal storage tanks; and a variety of energy conserving lighting systems.

  3. Repair of Total Tractional Retinal Detachment in Norrie Disease: Report of Technique and Successful Surgical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Todorich, Bozho; Thanos, Aristomenis; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Capone, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Norrie disease is a rare, but devastating cause of pediatric retinal detachment, universally portending a poor visual prognosis. This paper describes successful surgical management of an infant with total retinal detachment associated with Norrie disease mutation. The infant was a full-term white male who presented with bilateral total funnel retinal detachments (RDs). He underwent genetic testing, which demonstrated single-point mutation 133 G>A transition in exon 2 of the NDP gene. The retinal detachment was managed with translimbal iridectomy, lensectomy, capsulectomy, and vitrectomy. Careful dissection of the retrolental membranes resulted in opening of the funnel. Single-stage surgery in this child's eye achieved re-attachment of the posterior pole with progressive reabsorption of subretinal fluid and cholesterol without the need for external drainage. Fluorescein angiography, performed at 2 months postoperatively, demonstrated perfusion of major vascular arcades, but with significant abnormalities and aneurysmal changes of higher-order vessels, suggestive of retinal and vascular dysplasia. The child has maintained brisk light perception vision. Early surgical intervention with careful dissection of tractional tissues can potentially result in good anatomic outcomes in some patients with Norrie disease-associated retinal detachment. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:260-262.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Plum Brook Station Open House - 2016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-11

    Astronaut Sunita Williams gives a talk at NASA's Plum Brook Station. In June, NASA Glenn hosted an Open House at Plum Brook Station in Sandusky to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the Center. Thousands of people attended, and some lucky kids got to see awesome experiments and meet astronaut Suni Williams.

  5. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    American education has always had its critics, and undoubtedly always will. Nonetheless, there are signs that the educational environment is improving in unexpected ways. This issue of the Brookings Papers on Education Policy, the eighth volume springing from a series of annual meetings sponsored by the Brookings Institution to examine specific…

  6. Landscape- and decadal-scale changes in the composition and structure of plant communities in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range of Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Gould, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists have predicted an increase in vascular plant cover in some tundra ecosystems as a result of global climate change. In Arctic Alaska, observational studies have documented increases in shrub cover for some regions; however, only a few studies have provided detailed quantitative evidence supporting the existence such changes. To address these shortcomings, we analyzed plant community data from 156 1m2 vegetation plots located at two 1km2 grids in Toolik Lake, Alaska. This data covered the time period from 1989-2008. After 18 years, we found that the relative abundance of vascular vegetation have increased by 16%, while the relative abundance of nonvascular vegetation decreased by 19%. Mean plant canopy height has experienced an increase from 4.4 cm in 1990 to 6.5 cm in 2008 and the extent and complexity of the canopy have increased over time from about 60% to 80%. Species diversity was also significantly reduced. While major vegetation changes in other tundra regions have been attributed to gradual increases in surface air temperature, changes documented in this study were apparently promoted by increasing soil moisture conditions that resulted from increased summer rainfall in our region. These results support the idea that tundra ecosystems in this region of the Alaskan Arctic are experiencing significant increases in aboveground standing crop and a shift in carbon allocation to vascular plants vs. bryophytes. These changes will likely affect important ecosystem processes like snow re-deposition, winter biological activities, nutrient cycling and could ultimately result in significant feedbacks to climate.

  7. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brooks Falls area. 13.1226... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  8. Plum Brook Reactor Facility Control Room during Facility Startup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-02-21

    Operators test the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Reactor Facility systems in the months leading up to its actual operation. The “Reactor On” signs are illuminated but the reactor core was not yet ready for chain reactions. Just a couple weeks after this photograph, Plum Brook Station held a media open house to unveil the 60-megawatt test reactor near Sandusky, Ohio. More than 60 members of the print media and radio and television news services met at the site to talk with community leaders and representatives from NASA and Atomic Energy Commission. The Plum Brook reactor went critical for the first time on the evening of June 14, 1961. It was not until April 1963 that the reactor reached its full potential of 60 megawatts. The reactor control room, located on the second floor of the facility, was run by licensed operators. The operators manually operated the shim rods which adjusted the chain reaction in the reactor core. The regulating rods could partially or completely shut down the reactor. The control room also housed remote area monitoring panels and other monitoring equipment that allowed operators to monitor radiation sensors located throughout the facility and to scram the reactor instantly if necessary. The color of the indicator lights corresponded with the elevation of the detectors in the various buildings. The reactor could also shut itself down automatically if the monitors detected any sudden irregularities.

  9. Harriet Brooks-Pioneer nuclear scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner-Canham, M. F.; Rayner-Canham, G. W.

    1989-10-01

    This article, using revealing statements from contemporary correspondence, traces the eventful life of Harriet Brooks, one of Ernest Rutherford's most valued research students and collaborators at McGill University. Brooks performed some of the crucial experiments in the early work on radioactivity; her work led her to the Cavendish where she did work with J. J. Thomson. Still later, she worked with Marie Curie, to whom Rutherford favorably compared her. Despite Brooks' achievements and promise, she finally relinquished her research career when faced with insurmountable objections to women who wished to have both a professional and a married life.

  10. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks from wildlife hosts, a response to Norris et al.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Grover, Abha; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Medina, Raul F; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; de León, Adalberto A Pérez

    2015-02-27

    In a recent Letter to the Editor, Norris et al. questioned the validity of some of our data reported by Feria-Arroyo et al. The main issue investigated by us was the potential impact of climate change on the probable distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region. As an ancillary issue, an analysis of sequence data for the intergenic spacer of Borrelia burgdorferi was conducted. In the present letter, we provide further evidence supporting our original results, and advocate that extensive study of the population genetics of B. burgdorferi is needed in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region.

  11. Toward Better Teaching. 2001 James Flack Norris Award, sponsored by ACS Northeast Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Dennis G.

    2002-07-01

    This article, prepared from remarks made at the presentation of the James Flack Norris Award for 2001, offers some thoughts about how to enhance classroom and laboratory teaching. Many good practices, as well as behavior to avoid, can be obtained by recalling our own experiences as students and by analyzing the presentation styles of visiting speakers. Other qualities of effective teaching include (a) punctuality, (b) thorough preparation, (c) acquiring and sustaining contact with your class, (d) dealing with student questions that you cannot immediately answer, and (e) being serious and professional, yet compassionate and occasionally humorous. Ultimately, attitude is everything in teaching.

  12. AmeriFlux US-Bkg Brookings

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meyers, Tilden [NOAA/ARL

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bkg Brookings. Site Description - The Brookings site is located in a private pasture, consisting of a mixture of C3 and C4 species actively used for grazing. Belonging to the Northern Great Plains Rangelands, the grassland is representative of many in the north central United States, with seasonal winter conditions and a wet growing season.

  13. Large-scale hydrothermal fluid discharges in the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Sorey, M.L.; Thordsen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Norris–Mammoth corridor is a complex subsidence structure that extends ∼40 km northward from the 0.6 Ma Yellowstone caldera, and contains many hydrothermal features with high fluid discharges totaling ∼1000 l/s. About 150–250 l/s of hydrothermal water, which attains boiling temperature at surface and 360°C at depth, discharge from the Norris Geyser Basin, adjacent to the caldera. The highest thermal water and gas discharges in the corridor are from Mammoth Hot Springs, where 500–600 l/s thermal water with surface temperatures of up to 73°C and calculated subsurface temperatures of ∼100°C issue from ∼100 hot springs scattered over a score of step-like travertine terraces that range in age from ∼0.4 Ma to recent. All the thermal water is meteoric, likely recharged in the Gallatin Range at 2.5–3.0 km elevations. The isotopic and chemical compositions of thermal waters and solutes can be interpreted to indicate a common magmatic source for heat and volatile solutes located near Norris. However, the chemical and isotopic compositions of gases, especially the 3He/4He ratios, provide strong evidence for a separate magmatic source for the Mammoth system.

  14. Surface and subsurface hydrothermal flow pathways at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham Wall, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    During summer 2003 at Yellowstone's Norris Geyser Basin notable changes were observed in the discharge of heat and steam, creating new thermal features, dying vegetation, and the consequent closure of trails to protect public safety. In order to interpret data collected from GPS, seismic, and temperature instruments deployed in response to the increased hydrothermal activity, a study has been undertaken to provide a more complete knowledge of the spatial distribution of subsurface fluid conduits. Geologic data, including mapped outcrops, aerial imagery, thermal infrared imagery, and subsurface core, indicate that fracture pathways in the Lava Creek Tuff (LCT) channel flow in the hydrothermal system. These data show clear evidence that NE-SW and NW-SE trending structures provide major flow pathways at Norris. By mapping fracture sets in outcrops of LCT with varied degrees of hydrothermal alteration, one can consistently identify fractures that localize hydrothermal fluid flow, alteration, and the geometry of surface thermal features. Alteration is characterized by acid leaching that quickly alters LCT mafic minerals and glassy groundmass, which in outcrop is recognized by corroded and disaggregated LCT with local secondary mineral deposition. Mapping the sequence from unaltered to altered LCT has identified vertical cooling joints as primary conduits for hydrothermal fluids. These vertical joints correlate with the NE-SW trending geomorphic expression of the LCT in this area, and parallel the adjacent caldera boundary. Horizontal fractures parallel depositional stratigraphy, and in core from drill holes Y-9 (248 m) and Y-12 (332 m) appear to initiate at collapsed vapor-phase cavities or regions of altered fiamme. Vertical fractures in the core show sequences of hydrothermal minerals locally derived from water-rock interaction that line fracture walls, characteristic of mineral deposition associated with repeat reactivation. Although the hydrothermal system is

  15. Real-time Remote Data Online For Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Clor, L.; Cervelli, P. F.; Allen, S. T.; Heasler, H.; Moloney, T.

    2010-12-01

    Perry, John, Lowenstern, Jacob, Cervelli, Peter, Clor, Laura, Heasler, Henry, Allen, Scott, Moloney, Tim During June 2010, ten 900MHz wireless temperature data loggers (nodes) were installed around the Norris Geyser Basin to monitor geothermal features, streams and soil temperatures. The loggers can provide near real-time updates on temperature variations within 0.2 deg C due to hydrothermal discharges or subsurface fluid migration. Each sensor node is programmed to measure the temperature every two minutes and automatically upload data to the base station computer daily. The hardware consists of a waterproof case containing an M5 logger (made by Marathon Products, Inc.®) with internal memory, lithium D-cell batteries and a 900 MHz, 1-W-transceiver and 5 meter long Teflon-coated probe with a thermistor sensor. Tethered stub or panel antennas are oriented to optimize signal strength to the base station near the Norris Museum. A 0.61 meter-long base-station antenna located 10m high provides signal to the furthest node over 850 meters away with most being “line-of-sight”. A 20-meter coaxial cable and lightning grounding wire connects the base-station antenna to an Ethernet-radio connected to the YNP local-area network. A server located 26-km north at Mammoth Hot Springs requests data at regular intervals (normally daily), archives the information, and then sends it to the USGS for further archiving and internet distribution. During periods of unusual hydrothermal behavior, data can be requested as needed, and it is possible to set user-programmable alarm limits for notification. The RF network is designed to monitor changes from three different sub-basins at Norris (Gray Lakes, Steamboat-Echinus and Porcelain Basin), the main Tantalus Creek drainage, and five individual thermal features (Constant, Porkchop, Steamboat and Echinus Geysers, and Opalescent Spring). The logger installed in Nuphar Lake provides ambient temperatures controlled solely by local

  16. Ectopic norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and restores normal retinal angiogenesis in Norrie disease mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, Andreas; Scholz, Michael; Goldwich, Andreas; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Hudl, Kristiane; Ohlmann, Anne V; Zrenner, Eberhart; Berger, Wolfgang; Cvekl, Ales; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R

    2005-02-16

    Norrie disease is an X-linked retinal dysplasia that presents with congenital blindness, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation. Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene (NDP), is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. Norrie disease (Ndp(y/-)) mutant mice that are deficient in norrin develop blindness, show a distinct failure in retinal angiogenesis, and completely lack the deep capillary layers of the retina. We show here that the transgenic expression of ectopic norrin under control of a lens-specific promoter restores the formation of a normal retinal vascular network in Ndp(y/-) mutant mice. The improvement in structure correlates with restoration of neuronal function in the retina. In addition, lenses of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show significantly more capillaries in the hyaloid vasculature that surrounds the lens during development. In vitro, lenses of transgenic mice in coculture with microvascular endothelial cells induce proliferation of the cells. Transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show more bromodeoxyuridine-labeled retinal progenitor cells at embryonic day 14.5 and thicker retinas at postnatal life than wild-type littermates, indicating a putative direct neurotrophic effect of norrin. These data provide direct evidence that norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and that pharmacologic modulation of norrin might be used for treatment of the vascular abnormalities associated with Norrie disease or other vascular disorders of the retina.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AIMSS Project. I. Compact Stellar Systems (Norris+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, M. A.; Kannappan, S. J.; Forbes, D. A.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Brodie, J. P.; Faifer, F. R.; Huxor, A.; Maraston, C.; Moffett, A. J.; Penny, S. J.; Pota, V.; Smith-Castelli, A.; Strader, J.; Bradley, D.; Eckert, K. D.; Fohring, D.; McBride, J.; Stark, D. V.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2015-04-01

    The majority of our southern spectroscopic observations to date have been obtained using the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and the Goodman spectrograph in longslit and MOS modes. We used the South African Large Telescope (SALT) to observe fainter targets requiring exposure times impractically long to be used as filler targets for SOAR observing and which cannot be observed with Keck. As part of a study examining the GCs and UCDs of the shell elliptical NGC 3923 we obtained deep Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy of three UCDs (see Norris et al., 2012MNRAS.421.1485N, Cat. J/MNRAS/421/1485 for further details). The observations were made in MOS mode. The majority of our Northern hemisphere candidates were spectroscopically confirmed using the DEIMOS and ESI instruments on the Keck telescope . We also obtained spectra of NGC 4649 UCD1 with the IDS instrument on the Isaac Newton Telescope. (2 data files).

  18. Brief Report: Stony Brook Guidelines on the Ethics of the Care of People with Autism and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Stephen G.; Pomeroy, John; Keirns, Carla C.; Cover, Virginia Isaacs; Dorn, Michael Leverett; Boroson, Louis; Boroson, Florence; Coulehan, Anne; Coulehan, Jack; Covell, Kim; Kubasek, Kim; Luchsinger, Elizabeth; Nichols, Shana; Parles, James; Schreiber, Linda; Tetenbaum, Samara P.; Walsh, Rose Ann

    2013-01-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with associated societal and clinical impacts, calls for a broad community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. The Stony Brook Guidelines, based on a community dialogue process with affected individuals, families and professionals, identify and discuss the…

  19. Brief Report: Stony Brook Guidelines on the Ethics of the Care of People with Autism and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Stephen G.; Pomeroy, John; Keirns, Carla C.; Cover, Virginia Isaacs; Dorn, Michael Leverett; Boroson, Louis; Boroson, Florence; Coulehan, Anne; Coulehan, Jack; Covell, Kim; Kubasek, Kim; Luchsinger, Elizabeth; Nichols, Shana; Parles, James; Schreiber, Linda; Tetenbaum, Samara P.; Walsh, Rose Ann

    2013-01-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with associated societal and clinical impacts, calls for a broad community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. The Stony Brook Guidelines, based on a community dialogue process with affected individuals, families and professionals, identify and discuss the…

  20. Brook Trout Back in Aaron Run

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Following a series of acid mine drainage (AMD) projects funded largely by EPA’s Clean Water Act Section 319 non-point source program, the pH level in Aaron Run is meeting Maryland’s water quality standard – and the brook trout are back.

  1. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.

    In this inaugural issue of "Brookings Papers on Education Policy" a varied group of scholars considers different dimensions of student performance. Several contributors try to offer a clear picture of how American students are performing as compared with their international peers and with the past. The following are included: (1) "Introduction"…

  2. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Fifty Years of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, E. M.

    1999-05-01

    It is easy to pick out my most memorable meeting of the AAS: the 149th meeting held in January, 1977, and hosted by the University of Hawaii, in Honolulu, HI. It was the meeting at which two traditions of the Society were broken, and we moved into the era of equal opportunity for women astronomers. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin received the highest award of the AAS: the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship. This award had never before been available to women, otherwise Cecilia would, years earlier, have been honored for the many achievements in her lifetime of renowned astronomical research. And I, the first woman to be elected President of the AAS, had the honor of presenting the illuminated scroll to Cecilia, and of introducing her on the platform where she delivered the Henry Norris Russell Prize Lecture, entitled ``Fifty Years of Novae"(1) . Cecilia opened by comparing the experience of young and old scientists in achieving exciting results from their research, and then led us through the history of the discoveries of and about some famous novae. She described the physical picture that emerged from studies of their light curves, their spectra, and the discovery of their binary nature. Three important tables were included, listing data on cataclysmic binaries (dwarf novae) and their link to the nova phenomenon in general. She recalled that she and Sergei Gaposchkin had hesitated between the names catastrophic and cataclysmic for the dwarf novae, and decided on the latter, from the dictionary definitions of those two terms: ``a cataclysm is a great and general flood" while a catastrophe ``is a final event". The nova phenomenon is recurrent, as are the dwarf novae, and both involve an outpouring of a flood of energy. She concluded by describing her 50 years' experience with novae as presenting ``the contemporary portrait of a nova", rather than a final picture, and by forecasting that the next 50 years of discovering and studying novae will be as full of surprises as the

  3. X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy caused by an arginine to leucine substitution in exon 3 of the Norrie gene

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.; Perry, Y.M.; Ferrell, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a disorder characterized by abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina affecting both the retina and the vitreous body. This is a bilateral disorder and leads to a clinical phenotype resembling retinopathy of prematurity, but affected individuals experience a normal gestational period, and they do not have a history of oxygen therapy. Manifestations of the disorder may include retinal folds, retinal traction, sub- or intraretinal exudates, and in severe cases enophthalmos or phthisis ultimately leading to blindness. Autosomal dominant and X-linked patterns of segregation have been reported. We studied a large three-generation family in which FEVR segregated as an X-linked recessive trait. The Norrie gene was examined because of a prior report of mutation in this gene in a small X-linked FEVR family. Exons 1-3 of the Norrie gene were amplified and screened for mutations by single stranded conformational analysis. A variant conformer of exon 3 was observed in an affected male and in combination with the normal conformer in an obligate carrier female. Sequence analysis revealed a G{r_arrow}T transversion destroying an MspI restriction site. The mutation was present in all affected males, and all obligate carrier females were heterozygous for the mutation. The mutation was not present in unaffected males or in 108 randomly selected normal females. The G{r_arrow}T mutation leads to the substitution of a hydrophobic leucine residue for the positively charged arginine normally present at position 121 of the Norrie gene product. This study confirms that mutation in the Norrie gene can lead to the FEVR phenotype and the existence of allelic heterogeneity.

  4. Is that what Bayesians believe? reply to Griffiths, Chater, Norris, and Pouget (2012).

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Davis, Colin J

    2012-05-01

    Griffiths, Chater, Norris, and Pouget (2012) argue that we have misunderstood the Bayesian approach. In their view, it is rarely the case that researchers are making claims that performance in a given task is near optimal, and few, if any, researchers adopt the theoretical Bayesian perspective according to which the mind or brain is actually performing (or approximating) Bayesian computations. Rather, researchers are said to adopt something more akin to what we called the methodological Bayesian approach, according to which Bayesian models are statistical tools that allow researchers to provide teleological explanations of behavior. In our reply we argue that many Bayesian researchers often appear to be make claims regarding optimality, and often appear to be making claims regarding how the mind computes at algorithmic and implementational levels of descriptions. We agree that some Bayesian theorists adopt the methodological approach, but we question the value of this approach. If Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience are only designed to provide insights into teleological questions, we expect that many readers have misunderstood, and hence there is a pressing need to clarify what Bayesian theories of cognition are all about.

  5. Expression of the Norrie disease gene (Ndp) in developing and adult mouse eye, ear, and brain

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Smallwood, Philip; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The Norrie disease gene (Ndp) codes for a secreted protein, Norrin, that activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to its receptor, Frizzled-4. This signaling system is required for normal vascular development in the retina and for vascular survival in the cochlea. In mammals, the pattern of Ndp expression beyond the retina is poorly defined due to the low abundance of Norrin mRNA and protein. Here we characterize Ndp expression during mouse development by studying a knock-in mouse that carries the coding sequence of human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) inserted at the Ndp locus (NdpAP). In the CNS, NdpAP expression is apparent by E10.5 and is dynamic and complex. The anatomically delimited regions of NdpAP expression observed prenatally in the CNS are replaced postnatally by widespread expression in astrocytes in the forebrain and midbrain, Bergman glia in the cerebellum, and Müller glia in the retina. In the developing and adult cochlea, NdpAP expression is closely associated with two densely vascularized regions, the stria vascularis and a capillary plexus between the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion. These observations suggest the possibility that Norrin may have developmental and/or homeostatic functions beyond the retina and cochlea. PMID:21055480

  6. Overproduction and partial purification of the Norrie disease gene product, norrin, from a recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Shastry, Barkur S; Trese, Michael T

    2003-12-05

    Abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina and retinal detachment are common clinical characteristics of Norrie disease (ND), familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, Coats' disease, and retinopathy of prematurity. Although little is known about the molecular basis of these diseases, studies have shown that all of these diseases are associated with mutations in the ND gene. In spite of this, little is known about norrin, its molecular mechanism of action, and its functional relationship with the development of abnormal retinal vasculature. To obtain a large quantity of norrin for structural and functional studies, we have overproduced it in insect cells. For this purpose, a cDNA fragment (869 bp) was isolated from a human retinal cDNA library by amplification and was cloned into an expression vector. The purified plasmid was co-transfected with wild-type linearized Bac-N-Blue DNA into S. frugiperda Sf21 insect cells. The recombinant virus plaques were purified and clones were selected based on the level of recombinant protein expressed in Sf21 cells infected with a purified recombinant virus. From these, a high-titer stock was generated and subsequently used to prepare a fused protein on a large scale. The protein was partially purified by the process of immobilized metal affinity chromatography and the use of ion exchange chromatography

  7. Norris Geyser Basin: An example of Yellowstone National Park's Effort to Monitor Geothermal Resources Using Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H. P.; Rodriguez, J.; Hardy, C. C.; Seielstad, C.; Queen, L. P.

    2007-12-01

    Protection of Yellowstone's unique geothermal resources is the main focus of Yellowstone National Park's effort to map and scientifically monitor heat emitted from selected hydrothermal areas and the entire 2.2 million acres of Yellowstone National Park. In 2005, Yellowstone National Park geologists began collaborations with researchers from the University of Montana's National Center For Landscape Fire Analysis(UM-NCLFA), Utah State University's Remote Sensing Services Laboratory, Montana State University and the USDA Fire Sciences Lab to accomplish this task. A goal of the remote sensing component of Yellowstone's Geothermal Monitoring Plan is the estimation of radiant heat flux for Norris Geyser Basin, the Upper Geyser Basin, Midway Geyser Basin, the Lower Geyser Basin, the Mud Volcano area, Mammoth Hot Springs, Hot Spring Basin, the Sour Creek resurgent dome and the entire Park. Norris Geyser Basin is an example of a fracture-controlled hydrothermal basin. The nine hydrothermal sub- basins that compose Norris Geyser Basin include: Porcelain Basin, Steamboat-Echinus, Gray Lakes-Porkchop, the Gap, the West Gap, Reservoir-Upper Tantalus Creek, Lower Tantalus Creek, One Hundred Spring Plain, and Sulfur Dust. Two orthogonal sets of fractures (northeast and northwest; north-south and east-west) direct the flow of heat and water through the otherwise impermeable Lava Creek B tuff within these sub-basins. Airborne mid- infrared (3-5 micron) imagery acquired at night clearly shows the flow of heat and water along these fracture trends. These major fracture sets also partition Norris Geyser Basin into numerous blocks, potentially allowing independent movements among blocks and hydrothermal sub-basins. We estimated radiant heat flux for the Norris Geyser Basin using airborne mid-infrared (3-5 micron) daytime imagery acquired by a thermal imagery contractor on 9 October 2002 and daytime imagery acquired with a different sensor but similar mid-infrared bandpass on 12

  8. Serving Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Les, Ed.

    This book contains 15 articles about various aspects of community further education (FE) programs in Great Britain, including program rationales/benefits, administration, and delivery. The following articles are included: "Foreword" (Bradshaw); "Commitment to Community Is Good Business and Practical Politics" (Brook); "Can…

  9. Hazardous Waste Technical Assistance Survey, Brooks AFB Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    INTRODUCTION In a 22 Jun 87 letter (Appendix A), Headquarters Joint Military Medical Command, USAF Clinic Brooks/SGPB, requested the USAF Occupational and...FORCE " HEADQUARTERS JOINT MILITARY MEDICAL COMMAND - SAN ANTONIO (ATC) USAF CLINIC. BROOKS0BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE TX 78235-5300 REPLY TO 2 2 JUN 1981...Thispageleft lank 32I A.~%. &~. ~ 4. * * ~ - - - A 4 4 = - - - .. - ..K a. I;. S * **. APPENDI B " - Texa Watr Comision nifom"- . ’i...-. .4

  10. Mn-ilmenites from the Norris kimberlite: metasomatism in the mantle of the south appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Klobcar, C.L.; Taylor, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Kimberlites provide petrologists a tantalyzingly diverse sample of the mantle. The Norris kimberlite (30 mile North of Knoxville, Tennessee) contains a unique suite of ilmenite nodules and megacrysts that span a wide compositional range. Some nodules contain the highest MnO contents yet reported (up to 71 mol% MnTiO/sub 3/). These ilmenites reflect redox changes in the upper mantle/lower crust and are our only samples of the mantle underlying the South Appalachians. Ilmenite can be divided into three groups: I high MnO (to 31 wt%), low MgO (<1 wt%); II High Mgo (to 15 wt%), low Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (<1 wt%); and III High Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (to 6.5 wt%) high MgO (to 12 wt%). Ilmenite can also be grouped by Fe/sup 2 +//Fe/sup 2 +/ + Fe/sup 3 +/ (Fe') into low Fe' (<0.8) and high Fe' (>0.8) (cf. Tompkins and Haggerty, 1985). Type II shows no marked increase in MgO from core to rim, common in other kimberlites; Fe' is also constant. Type I occurs in a variety of forms and is secondary to Types II and III. These ilmenites reflect a distinct evolution in the redox conditions which occurred during their formation. Type I (high MnO) formed at some later time and involved a highly-reducing form of metasomatism. Alteration of ilmenites also formed perovskite and spinel. This represents a unique type of Mn metasomatism and emphasizes the heterogeneity of the mantle of the N.A. craton.

  11. Mutation spectrum of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene in Indian patients with FEVR

    PubMed Central

    Musada, Ganeswara Rao; Jalali, Subhadra; Hussain, Anjli; Chururu, Anupama Reddy; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP; Xp11.3) gene have been involved in retinal blood vessel formation and neural differentiation and are implicated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) cases. However, the role of the gene has not been explored in the Indian context. Thus, this study was designed to understand the involvement of NDP among Indian patients with FEVR. Methods The study cohort comprised 225 subjects, including unrelated patients with FEVR (n = 110) and ethnically matched healthy subjects (n = 115) recruited from a tertiary eye care center in India. The entire coding regions, intron–exon boundaries, along with the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of NDP were screened with resequencing following standard protocols. The spectrum of the observed variants was analyzed in conjunction with data available from other populations. Results Eight potentially pathogenic mutations (p.His4ArgfsX21, p.Asp23GlufsX9, p.Ile48ValfsX55, p.His50Asp, p.Ser57*, p.Gly113Asp, p.Arg121Gln, and p.Cys126Arg, including five novel ones), were observed in the coding region of the NDP gene in ten unrelated FEVR probands (9%). The novel changes were not observed in the control subjects and were unavailable in the dbSNP, ESP5400, NIEHS95, and ExAC databases. All probands with NDP mutations exhibited classical features of the disease as observed among patients with FEVR worldwide. Conclusions This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate the involvement of NDP among patients with Indian FEVR that further expands its mutation spectrum. The data generated could have broad implications in genetic counseling, disease management, and early intervention for a better prognosis in FEVR. PMID:27217716

  12. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 NORTH ELEVATION - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  13. Rainbow trout versus brook trout biomass and production under varied climate regimes in small southern Appalachian streams

    Treesearch

    Bonnie. J.E. Myers; C. Andrew Dolloff; Andrew L. Rypel

    2014-01-01

    Many Appalachian streams historically dominated by Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis have experienced shifts towards fish communities dominated by Rainbow Trout Onchorhynchus mykiss. We used empirical estimates of biomass and secondary production of trout conspecifics to evaluate species success under varied thermal regimes. Trout...

  14. Plasma amine oxidase activities in Norrie disease patients with an X-chromosomal deletion affecting monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K B; Karoum, F; Garrick, N A; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M; Norio, R; Breakefield, X O

    1991-01-01

    Two individuals with an X-chromosomal deletion were recently found to lack the genes encoding monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) and MAO-B. This abnormality was associated with almost total (90%) reductions in the oxidatively deaminated urinary metabolites of the MAO-A substrate, norepinephrine, and with marked (100-fold) increases in an MAO-B substrate, phenylethylamine, confirming systemic functional consequences of the genetic enzyme deficiency. However, urinary concentrations of the deaminated metabolites of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) were essentially normal. To investigate other deaminating systems besides MAO-A and MAO-B that might produce these metabolites of dopamine and 5-HT, we examined plasma amine oxidase (AO) activity in these two patients and two additional patients with the same X-chromosomal deletion. Normal plasma AO activity was found in all four Norrie disease-deletion patients, in four patients with classic Norrie disease without a chromosomal deletion, and in family members of patients from both groups. Marked plasma amine metabolite abnormalities and essentially absent platelet MAO-B activity were found in all four Norrie disease-deletion patients, but in none of the other subjects in the two comparison groups. These results indicate that plasma AO is encoded by gene(s) independent of those for MAO-A and MAO-B, and raise the possibility that plasma AO, and perhaps the closely related tissue AO, benzylamine oxidase, as well as other atypical AOs or MAOs encoded independently from MAO-A and MAO-B may contribute to the oxidative deamination of dopamine and 5-HT in humans.

  15. Is special FDA regulation of nanomedicine needed? A conversation with Norris E. Alderson. Interview by Barbara J Culliton.

    PubMed

    Alderson, Norris E

    2008-01-01

    Cutting-edge research in nanomedicine dominates studies in drug delivery, medical imaging, and the development of new devices. Materials and devices the size of molecules, and even individual atoms, make it possible to see a tumor when it is no more than a few atoms in size. By using material in this size range, drugs can go directly to tumors or inflamed arteries, bypassing healthy tissue. In this interview Norris Alderson of the Food and Drug Administration discusses the present and future state of nanomedicine as it applies to health care, taking into consideration benefits, risks, and how much is still unknown.

  16. Organisms of the Hubbard Brook Valley, New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Richard T. Holmes; Gene E. Likens

    1999-01-01

    Lists the organisms, both plant and animal, that have been identified by scientists engaged in multidisciplinary ecological research in the Hubbard Brook Valley, New Hampshire, during the past three decades. The Valley encompasses the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Mirror Lake, and nearby areas within the White Mountain region of Grafton County. The species lists...

  17. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  20. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  2. A coupled geochemical and geophysical investigation of phase separation in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, B.; Sims, K. W. W.; Scott, S. R.; Holbrook, W. S.; Heasler, H.; Jaworwski, C.

    2016-12-01

    Geochemical and hydrological evidence has been used for decades to imagine the subsurface plumbing of the Yellowstone (YS) hydrothermal system. An accepted paradigm of the YS hydrothermal system is phase separation, or boiling, of the hydrothermal fluid as it rises through the flow-paths of the subsurface. Neutral-chloride fluids are thought to represent the liquid portion of the two-phase fluid, and acid-sulfate fluids are thought to represent a condensed version of the steam portion. While this first-order hypothesis explains much of the chemical variation in YS hydrothermal fluids it is only a theoretical construct; this phase separation has never been actually imaged nor has it ever been definitively established that the phase separated waters come from the same source. Here, we use isotopic and geophysical methods to examine phase separation in two adjacent neutral chloride-acid sulfate pools in Norris Geyser Basin that are 14 meters apart: Perpetual Spouter (pH of 7.5, Cl 790 mg/L; SO4 37mg/L) and "Acid Bubbler" (pH of 3, Cl 340 mg/L, SO4 207 mg/L). Using: 1) Sr, Nd, and Pb radiogenic isotopic measurements we examine whether these waters come from the same source in terms of their water-rock interaction signatures; and, 2) geophysical methods to see if we can image the phase separation in the subsurface. These adjacent pools have different isotopic compositions suggesting they have come from different sources or that their waters have interacted with different rock types. Perpetual Spouter has a 208Pb/206Pb ratio of 2.10, similar to the underlying Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks indicating these waters came from a deep source; whereas Acid Bubbler has a 208b/206Pb of 2.22 suggesting its water has interacted with surficial Lava Creek rhyolite. Numerous 1D, 2D, and 3D geophysical methods were acquired and integrated over an area 30 m x 30 m to image subsurface geophysical properties, groundwater flow pathways, and structural constraints. These data

  3. The Norris Survey of the Corona Borealis Supercluster. II. Galaxy Evolution with Redshift and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Todd A.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Hamilton, Donald

    1997-10-01

    We measure the field galaxy luminosity function (LF) as a function of color and redshift from z = 0 to z = 0.5 using galaxies from the Norris Survey of the Corona Borealis Supercluster. The data set consists of 603 field galaxies with 0 < z <= 0.5 and spans a wide range in apparent magnitude (14.0 <~ r <~ 21.5), although our field galaxy LF analysis is limited to 493 galaxies with r <= 20.0 mag. We use the observed g-r colors of the galaxies to compute accurate corrections to the rest BAB and r bands. We find that our local r-band LF, when normalized to counts in high galactic latitude fields, agrees well with the local LF measured in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey. Our BAB-band local LF, however, does not match the bj-band LF from the Stromlo/APM survey, having a normalization 1.6 times higher. We see compelling evidence that the BAB-band field galaxy LF evolves with redshift. The evolution is strongest for the population of star-forming galaxies with [O II] λ3727 rest-frame equivalent widths greater than 10 Å. The population of red, quiescent galaxies shows no sign of evolution to z = 0.5. The evolution of the LF that we observe is consistent with the findings of other faint galaxy redshift surveys. The fraction of galaxies with [O II] emission increases rapidly with redshift, but the fraction of galaxies with strong Hδ absorption, a signature of a burst of star formation, does not. We thus conclude that the star formation in distant galaxies is primarily long-lived. We also compute the LFs of the Corona Borealis supercluster (z ~ 0.07, 419 galaxies with 14.1 <= r <= 20.0 mag) and the Abell 2069 supercluster (z ~ 0.11, 318 galaxies with 15.1 <= r <= 20.0 mag). The shapes of the two supercluster luminosity functions are broadly similar to the shape of the local luminosity function. However, there are important differences. Both supercluster LFs have an excess of very bright galaxies. In addition, the characteristic magnitude of the Corona Borealis

  4. A multitracer approach for characterizing interactions between shallow groundwater and the hydrothermal system in the Norris Geyser Basin area, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, W.P.; Susong, D.D.; Solomon, D.K.; Heasler, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple environmental tracers are used to investigate age distribution, evolution, and mixing in local- to regional-scale groundwater circulation around the Norris Geyser Basin area in Yellowstone National Park. Springs ranging in temperature from 3??C to 90??C in the Norris Geyser Basin area were sampled for stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, major and minor element chemistry, dissolved chlorofluorocarbons, and tritium. Groundwater near Norris Geyser Basin is comprised of two distinct systems: a shallow, cool water system and a deep, high-temperature hydrothermal system. These two end-member systems mix to create springs with intermediate temperature and composition. Using multiple tracers from a large number of springs, it is possible constrain the distribution of possible flow paths and refine conceptual models of groundwater circulation in and around a large, complex hydrothermal system. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  6. Cretaceous Olistostrome Model, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    The foothills area of the Brooks Range thrust belt in the area between the Itkillik River and the Etivluk River is composed dominantly of shallow, thrusted olistostrome sheets. Three olistostrome units can be recognized based on the dominant lithology of contained olistoliths and age of the matrix shales. The lower unit is Thithonian to mid-Valanginian in age and is characterized by abundant graywacke and turbidite, mafic rocks, black cherts, olistoliths of Norian-Rhaetic shales, Nuka sands, and glide sheets of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian rocks. Olistolights were derived from the Misheguk, Ipnavik, and Nuka Ridge allochthonous sequences. The middle unit is of late Valanginian age and has olistoliths of Norian shales; more abundant Upper Triassic chert; Otuk Formation; variegated, radiolarian, black and white cherts; Siksikpuk facies red, green and black shales; Upper Jurassic graywacke; and minor occurrences of mafic rocks. The unit is characterized by glide sheets of Triassic white and multicolor cherts. Olistoliths are derived from Nuka Ridge and Brooks Range sequences. The upper unit is Hauterivian in age and olistoliths included reworked material from all older units. Olistoliths are few and widely scattered. Isolated outcrops of white chert and conglomerate boulders are characteristic.

  7. Growth and reproductive ecology of the eastern brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, in streams of differing vulnerability to acidic atmospheric deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Light, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Three naturally infertile streams of differing vulnerability to acidic atmospheric deposition were studied to determine the status of their brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, populations and associated benthic communities. Of the three streams, Upper Three Runs was judged to be the least fertile, followed by Little Fishing Creek, with Roaring Run being the most fertile. The median weighted pH of acidic deposition impacting the watersheds was 3.8 for Upper Three Runs and 4.0 for Little Fishing Creek and Roaring Run. Brook trout from Roaring Run grew at a similar rate to those from Little Fishing Creek, with trout from Upper Three Runs showing the slowest growth. Roaring Run brook trout also had the highest relative condition of the three streams. Brook trout from Roaring Run and Little Fishing Creek generally matured one year later (age group II) than those from Upper Three Runs. Early maturity may be selected for in Upper Three Runs due to small annual increases in fecundity in higher age groups. Although the data were limited, there was a trend for brook trout from Upper Three Runs to produce fewer and larger ova. Roaring Run had higher volumes of benthos during fall and summer, and higher numbers during fall. Roaring Run and Little Fishing Creek had more, larger crayfish present, which added significantly to the volume of benthos in these streams. Qualitatively, Upper Three Runs had more shredders and fewer scrapers on a volume basis than the other two streams. On a per fish basis, the drift available to the fish in Roaring Run was always highest in volume, and highest in number during fall and spring. The brook trout from Roaring Run therefore had an advantage over those in the other two streams, by having a higher drift available per fish.

  8. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation in Maine is a paired watershed experiment. Monitoring of the paired catchments (East Bear Brook - reference; West Bear Brook - experimental) began in early 1987. Chemical manipulation of West Bear Brook catchment began in November 1989. Proce...

  9. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Brooks City Base Project, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Readjustment Zone. A Defense Economic Readjustment Zone was established in San Antonio to induce capital investment and create new 3-6 FEIS for the Brooks...is little potential for ground collapse from sinkholes even if solution cavities have developed in the limestone. Surface slopes on the base are 0-3...have poor surface drainage characteristics and permeability is slow to moderate. Typically, rainfall is very rapidly absorbed when the soil is dry

  10. NASA's Plum Brook Station Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puzak, Robert M.; Kimpton, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Plum Brook Station's water systems were built in the 1940s to support a World War II ordnance production complex. Because the systems had not been analyzed for current NASA usage, it was unknown if they could meet current requirements and codes or if they were efficient for current use. NASA wanted to determine what improvements would be needed or advisable to support its research projects, so it contracted a hydraulic analysis of the raw and domestic water systems. Burgess and Niple determined current water demands and water flow, developed and calibrated models of the two water systems, and evaluated efficiency improvements and cost-cutting options. They recommended replacing some water mains, installing a new service connection, and removing some high-maintenance items (an underground reservoir, some booster pumps, and a tower).

  11. Interior of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-02-21

    A view inside the 55-foot high containment vessel of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Plum Brook Reactor Facility in Sandusky, Ohio. The 60-megawatt test reactor went critical for the first time in 1961 and began its full-power research operations in 1963. From 1961 to 1973, this reactor performed some of the nation’s most advanced nuclear research. The reactor was designed to determine the behavior of metals and other materials after long durations of irradiation. The materials would be used to construct a nuclear-powered rocket. The reactor core, where the chain reaction occurred, sat at the bottom of the tubular pressure vessel, seen here at the center of the shielding pool. The core contained fuel rods with uranium isotopes. A cooling system was needed to reduce the heat levels during the reaction. A neutron-impervious reflector was also employed to send many of the neutrons back to the core. The Plum Brook Reactor Facility was constructed from high-density concrete and steel to prevent the excess neutrons from escaping the facility, but the water in the pool shielded most of the radiation. The water, found in three of the four quadrants served as a reflector, moderator, and coolant. In this photograph, the three 20-ton protective shrapnel shields and hatch have been removed from the top of the pressure tank revealing the reactor tank. An overhead crane could be manipulated to reach any section of this room. It was used to remove the shrapnel shields and transfer equipment.

  12. Results of weekly chemical and isotopic monitoring of selected springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park during June-September, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Weltman, U.; Counce, D.; White, L.D.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year at Norris Geyser Basin, generally in August or September, a widespread hydrothermal 'disturbance' occurs that is characterized by simultaneous changes in the discharge characteristics of many springs, particularly in the Back Basin. During the summer season of 1995, water samples from eight widely distributed hot springs and geysers at Norris were collected each week and analyzed to determine whether chemical and isotopic changes also occurred in the thermal waters at the time of the disturbance. In addition, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, 5.8 km southwest of Norris Geyser Basin, was included in the monitoring program. Waters discharged by four of the monitored hot springs and geysers appear to issue from relatively deep reservoirs where temperatures are at least 270 C and possibly higher than 300 C. At the time of, and for several days after, the onset of the 1995 disturbance, the normally neutral-chloride waters discharged by these four features all picked up an acid-sulfate component and became isotopically heavier. The acid-sulfate component appears to be similar in composition to some waters discharged in 100 Spring Plain that issue from subsurface regions where temperatures are in the range 170-210 C. However, the two monitored springs that discharge acid-chloride-sulfate waters in the 100 Spring Plain region did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. Beryl Spring, and two neutral-chloride hot springs at Norris that appear to draw their water from reservoirs where temperatures are 250 C or less, also did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. After the start of the annual disturbance, chloride concentrations in water sampled from Double Bulger Geyser in the Back Basin increased from about 800 ppm to about 1500 ppm, nearly twice as high as any previously reported chloride concentration in a thermal water at Yellowstone. The isotopic composition of that water

  13. Design for Resilience in Brattleboro's Lower Whetstone Brook Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report details design solutions that identify options for creating resilient redevelopment & recreational opportunities within flood prone areas of the town while protecting water quality & connecting people with the Whetstone Brook.

  14. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  15. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 EAST ENTRY AND BELL TOWER - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  16. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 FIRST FLOOR LOOKING SOUTH - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  17. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 SOUTH AND WEST FACADES - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  18. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 FIRST FLOOR LOOKING NORTH TOWARD ALTAR - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  19. Just Add Water and Stir. Graduate Chemistry Laboratory, Stony Brook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Roger

    1974-01-01

    Using traditional building materials and a fast-track recipe, the architects, acting as construction manager, completed the Graduate Chemistry Laboratory at Stony Brook, New York, two full years ahead of schedule. (Author/MF)

  20. Systematics of Water Temperature and Flow at Tantalus Creek During Calendar Year 2005, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clor, Laura E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Heasler, Henry P.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze data for stream flow and water temperature from Tantalus Creek in the Norris Geyser Basin and their relationship to air temperature, precipitation, and geyser eruptions during calendar year 2005. The creek is of interest because it is the primary drainage of the Norris Geyser Basin and carries a very high proportion of thermal water derived directly from hot springs. Two separate diurnal patterns emerge - (1) a winter pattern where increases in water temperature and stream flow closely track those of air temperature and (2) a summer pattern where water and air temperature are closely aligned but stream flow declines once water temperature reaches its daily maximum. The winter pattern is present when the daily average temperature consistently drops below 0 ?C whereas the summer pattern is recognizable when the daily average temperature regularly exceeds 0 ?C. Spring and fall systematics are much more irregular, although both summer and winter patterns can be discerned occasionally during those seasons. We interpret increases in stream flow associated with the winter pattern to result from addition of locally sourced melt water (both snow and soil-bound ice) that increases in abundance once temperatures increase in the morning. Melting is facilitated by the warm ground temperatures in the geyser basin, which are significantly higher than air temperatures in the winter. The summer pattern appears to be strongly affected by increased evaporation in the afternoon, decreasing flow and cooling the remaining water. Discharge from eruptions at Echinus Geyser are clearly visible as peaks in the hydrograph, and indicate that water from this geyser reach the Tantalus weir in 80 to 90 minutes, reflecting a slug of water that travels about 0.4 m s-1.

  1. Learning to Communicate Science: Stony Brook University's Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E.

    2012-12-01

    -profile activities that generated interest and allowed students, postdocs, faculty and administrators to sample course material. --CCS structured the courses as "bite-size" modules to make them easier to take. Courses are given in the evening, in successive four- or five-week blocks, so a student can take one to six modules in a single semester. At the heart of the effort are two courses: Distilling Your Message, in which students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally at different levels of complexity to different audiences, and Improvisation for Scientists, in which students use improvisational theater exercises to help connect more responsively with their audiences. This is not about acting. It is about paying dynamic attention to the audience, shifting the focus from what the student is saying to what the other person is receiving. Other modules deal with writing for the public; using social media, and connecting with the community. In addition to the 1-credit courses, science graduate students can take a 3-credit course examining how the media cover science and health issues. This course also is taken by students in the journalism MS program, which focuses on science, health and environmental reporting, part of Stony Brook University's multi-pronged effort to improve communication of science to the public.

  2. Hydraulic modeling of stream channels and structures in Harbor and Crow Hollow Brooks, Meriden, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Lawrence A.; Sears, Michael P.; Cervione, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of urbanization have increased the frequency and size of floods along certain reaches of Harbor Brook and Crow Hollow Brook in Meriden, Conn. A floodprofile-modeling study was conducted to model the effects of selected channel and structural modifications on flood elevations and inundated areas. The study covered the reach of Harbor Brook downstream from Interstate 691 and the reach of Crow Hollow Brook downstream from Johnson Avenue. Proposed modifications, which include changes to bank heights, channel geometry, structural geometry, and streambed armoring on Harbor Brook and changes to bank heights on Crow Hollow Brook, significantly lower flood elevations. Results of the modeling indicate a significant reduction of flood elevations for the 10-year, 25-year, 35-year, 50-year, and 100-year flood frequencies using proposed modifications to (1 ) bank heights between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook, and between Centennial Avenue and Johnson Avenue on Crow Hollow Brook; (2) channel geometry between Coe Avenue and Interstate 69 1 on Harbor Brook; (3) bridge and culvert opening geometry between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook; and (4) channel streambed armoring between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook. The proposed modifications were developed without consideration of cost-benefit ratios.

  3. The Laser Teaching Center at Stony Brook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Harold

    2010-03-01

    Stony Brook's Laser Teaching Center was built more than ten years ago to serve a clientele ranging from high school (HS) students to graduate students. Its construction in a formerly open hallway area was financed by donations from private corporations and foundations, and it was equipped with similar contributions. It provides a working area for laser and optics-related projects, both individual and group. Its daily operations are overseen by a highly-dedicated Ph.D. who is a department employee. It is populated by HS students doing science fair related research, including the major national contests (in which we have many finalists and semifinalists), undergraduates doing extra-credit course projects and other kinds of research activities, graduate students in a special course called ``Optics Rotation,'' and many others who come to use its facilities. All of its denizens benefit enormously by occasional prestigious visitors. Students are drawn from among our undergraduates and graduate students, NSF's WISE program, special HS summer programs, and direct application from the outside. We have an excellent record of placing our HS students in the highest ranking colleges.

  4. Ammonia Oxidation Plant at Plum Brook Ordnance Works

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-06-21

    An ammonia oxidation plant at the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio, which later became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station. During World War II the ordnance works produced trinitroluene (TNT), dinitrotoluene (DNT), and pentolite which were crated and shipped to an arsenal in Ravenna, Ohio. There, the explosives were packed into shells and sent to Allied forces overseas. Plum Brook was the third largest producer of TNT during World War II. Toluene, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were used to manufacture the TNT. Nitric Acid is made by oxidizing ammonia, adding water, and concentrating it. The facility in this photograph was used for this oxidation. The structure included air compressors, filters, aftercoolers, power recovery systems, air receivers, heaters, ammonia gasifiers, gas mixers, cooler condensers, absorption columns, and bleaching columns. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works was shut down immediately after the war and remained vacant for the next ten years. NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), acquired the 500 acres of the site in 1955 to build a nuclear test reactor. By 1963, the agency had acquired the entire 9000 acres from the Army. Almost all of the military facilities were removed in the early 1960s. Plum Brook Station contained over 30 test facilities at its peak in the late 1960s. Today there are four major facilities in operation.

  5. The Mw4.8 Norris Geyser Basin Earthquake of 30 March, 2014 and its Relationship to Crustal Deformation and Seismic Activity of the Yellowstone Volcanic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Shelly, D. R.; Smith, R. B.; Puskas, C. M.; Chang, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    The largest earthquake to be recorded in Yellowstone in over 30 years, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake, occurred on March 30, 2014 near the Norris Geyser Basin on the NW side of the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera. The earthquake was felt throughout Yellowstone and the surrounding region. We analyze this unusual event using data from the Yellowstone Seismic and Geodetic networks in the context of active volcanic-tectonic processes of the Yellowstone volcanic system and its relationship to regional swarm seismicity and crustal deformation. Moment tensor analysis of the March 30 earthquake revealed a strike-slip, double-couple source mechanism with no isotropic contribution. This earthquake was part of a larger sequence of earthquake swarm activity in the Norris Geyser Basin area that began in September 2013 and continued into June 2014. During that period, 50-60% of the total seismicity recorded in Yellowstone, including nearly all of the swarm seismicity (earthquakes clustered in time and space), occurred in the Norris Geyser Basin area. In addition, GPS derived deformation data revealed unusually high uplift rates at ~15 cm/yr in the Norris area prior to the MW4.8 event, while a dramatic reversal to subsidence at rates of ~20 cm/yr occurred after the event. Regionally, the much larger Yellowstone caldera had experienced subsidence since January 2010 at rates of ~1.5 cm/yr prior to the MW4.8 event. After March 30, 2014 the caldera reversed to regional uplift at rates of ~10 cm/yr, similar to accelerated uplift rates observed in mid-2004.

  6. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH.

  7. Origins of water and solutes in and north of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif; Mariner, Robert; Ambats, Gil; Evans, William; White, Lloyd; Bullen, Thomas; Kennedy, B. Mack

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the impacts of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) on the hydrothermal features of Yellowstone National Park. To determine possible hydrogeochemical connections, we used the diagnostic stable and radioactive isotopes of several elements, and the chemical and gas compositions of thermal and cold waters from the Norris-Mammoth Corridor and areas north of the Park. The investigations were particularly comprehensive in the Mammoth Hot Springs area, Corwin Springs KGRA, and Chico Hot Springs. The geochemical tools used are still subject to uncertainties of 1 - 5%. Preliminary interpretation of the data, especially the ??D and ??18O values of water, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, ??11B values, composition and isotopes of noble gases and several conservative chemical species would indicate that the waters from Mammoth Hot Springs and La Duke Spring area have evolved chemically and isotopically by reactions with different rock types, and are probably not directly connected. These data indicate that a component (<20%) of water in Bear Creek Springs may be derived from the Mammoth system.

  8. Persistent mortality of brook trout in episodically acidified streams of the Southwestern Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.; Simonin, H.

    2007-01-01

    Water chemistry, discharge, and mortality of caged brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis were characterized in six headwater streams in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains of New York during spring 2001-2003. Results were compared with mortality recorded during similar tests during 1984-1985, 1988-1990, and 1997 to assess contemporary relations between stream acidification and brook trout mortality, the effects of exposure duration on mortality, and the effects of decreased rates of acidic deposition on water quality and fish mortality. Water quality and mortality of caged, young-of-the-year brook trout were evaluated during 30-d exposure periods from mid-April to late May during the most recent tests. In 2001-2003, mortality ranged from 0% to 100% and varied among streams and years, depending on the timing of toxicity tests in relation to the annual snowmelt and on the ability of each watershed to neutralize acids and prevent acutely toxic concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) during high-flow events. Mortality rates in 2001-2003 tests were highly variable but similar to those observed during earlier tests. This similarity suggests that stream water quality in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains has not changed appreciably over the past 20 years. Concentrations of Alim greater than 2.0 and 4.0 ??mol/L were closely correlated with low and high mortality rates, respectively, and accounted for 83% of the variation in mortality. Two to four days of exposure to Alim concentrations greater than 4.0 ??mol/L resulted in 50-100% mortality. The extended periods (as long as 6 months) during which Alim concentrations exceeded 2.0 and 4.0 ??mol/L in one or more streams, combined with the low tolerance of many other fish species to acid and elevated Al concentrations, indicate a high potential for damage to fish communities in these and other poorly buffered streams of the Northeast. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Thrust involvement of metamorphic rocks, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Till, A.B.; Schmidt, J.M.; Nelson, S.W. )

    1988-10-01

    Most models for the tectonic history of the western Brooks Range treat Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic metamorphic rocks exposed in the southern part of the range as passive structural basement vertically uplifted late in the Mesozoic orogenic episode. Mapping in the metamorphic rocks shows that they can de divided into two structurally and metamorphically distinct belts, both of which were folded and thrust during the orogeny. Recognition of these belts and the nature of the contact separating them is critical to construction of accurate tectonic models of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt.

  10. Endoparasites of plethodontid salamanders from Paradise Brook, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Muzzall, P M; Peebles, C R; Burton, T M

    1997-12-01

    Totals of 52 dusky salamanders Desmognathus fuscus, 51 two-lined salamanders Eurycea bislineata, 54 red-backed salamanders Plethodon cinereus, and 3 spring salamanders Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Plethodontidae) collected in June and August 1995 from Paradise Brook, a tributary to Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, were examined for parasites. Parasites found were Brachycoelium storeriae, Brachycoelium sp., Bothriocephalus rarus, Falcaustra sp., Omeia sp., Batracholandros magnavulvaris, and Cepedietta michiganensis. Eighty-six percent of the red-backed salamanders, a terrestrial species, harbored 1 or more parasites. Among the aquatic and semiaquatic species, 27% of the dusky and 45% of the two-lined salamanders were infected with 1 or more parasites.

  11. Seasonal temperature and precipitation regulate brook trout young-of-the-year abundance and population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Pregler, Kasey C.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Hocking, Daniel; Wofford, John E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Our results indicate that YOY abundance is a key driver of brook trout population dynamics that is mediated by seasonal weather patterns. A reliable assessment of climate change impacts on brook trout needs to account for how alternations in seasonal weather patterns impact YOY abundance and how such relationships may differ across the range of brook trout distribution.

  12. Movements of nonnative brook trout in relation to stream channel slope

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Adams; Christopher A. Frissell; Bruce E. Rieman

    2000-01-01

    Abstract.We provide new insights on the ability of naturalized brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to ascend steep, headwater streams in the western USA. We tested hypotheses that upstream movements by brook trout are limited or absent in reaches of steep streams and are more prevalent and longer in gradually sloping streams. We compared brook trout...

  13. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and

  14. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtless, Gary, Ed.; Pack, Janet Rothenberg, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, the "Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs" is an annual series that serves as a forum for cutting-edge, accessible research on urban policy. The editors seek to integrate broader research into the policy discussion by bringing urban studies scholars together with economists and…

  15. Environmental DNA particle size distribution from Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Treesearch

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Winsor H. Lowe; Michael K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has become a widespread approach for detecting aquatic animals with high potential for improving conservation biology. However, little research has been done to determine the size of particles targeted by eDNA surveys. In this study, we conduct particle distribution analysis of eDNA from a captive Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in...

  16. Hydrometeorological database for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: 1955-2000

    Treesearch

    Amey Schenck Bailey; James W. Hornbeck; John L. Campbell; Christopher Eagar

    2003-01-01

    The 3,160-ha Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire has been a prime area of research on forest and stream ecosystems since its establishment by the USDA Forest Service in 1955. Streamflow and precipitation have been measured continuously on the HBEF, and long-term datasets exist for air and soil temperature, snow cover, soil frost, solar radiation,...

  17. Annual cycles of soil and water temperatures at Hubbard Brook

    Treesearch

    C. Anthony Federer

    1973-01-01

    Soil temperatures in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in central New Hampshire decline very slowly from December to March and are restricted from falling below OºC by insulation of snow and organic matter. Soil in the hardwood forest on a moderate south slope warms rapidly in the spring leafless period after snowmelt and reaches a maximum temperature in...

  18. Fine Sediment Effects on Brook Trout Eggs in Laboratory Streams

    Treesearch

    David G. Argent; Patricia A. Flebbe

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of different fine sediments (0.43-0.85 mm in diameter) on survival of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs during early developmental stages under laboratory conditions. Intragravel permeability and dissolved oxygen declined with increasing fine sediment amounts. Survival at each developmental stage...

  19. Induction and viability of tetraploids in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are threatened by introduction of invasive species, habitat loss, and habitat degradation in their native range; and are a problem invasive species in western Unites States and Canada, and in Europe. Stocking sterile triploids has been promoted as an ...

  20. Documentary Linguistics and Computational Linguistics: A Response to Brooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Chiang, David; Frowein, Friedel; Hanke, Florian; Vaswani, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    In mid-2012, the authors organized a two-week workshop in Papua New Guinea to provide training in basic techniques and technologies for language documentation, and to gain understanding of how these technologies might be improved in the future. An assessment of the workshop was conducted by Brooks with the central idea that the workshop's…

  1. Patterns of streamwater acidity in Lye Brook Wilderness, Vermont, USA

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; Christopher Eagar; William H. McDowell

    2002-01-01

    Under the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, a class I designation safeguards wilderness areas from the negative effects of new sources of air pollution. We monitored streamwater chemistry in the class I Lye Brook Wilderness in southwestern Vermont from May 1994 through August 1995. Stream samples were collected biweekly at nine sampling locations...

  2. Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Donald C.; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  3. Groundbreaking Ceremony at the NACA's Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1956-09-21

    Addison Rothrock, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics’s (NACA) Assistant Director of Research, speaks at the groundbreaking ceremony for the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory’s new test reactor at Plum Brook Station. This dedication event was held almost exactly one year after the NACA announced that it would build its $4.5 million nuclear reactor on 500 acres of the army’s 9000-acre Plum Brook Ordnance Works. The site was located in Sandusky, Ohio, approximately 60 miles west of the NACA Lewis laboratory in Cleveland. Lewis Director Raymond Sharp is seated to the left of Rothrock, Congressman Albert Baumhart and NACA Secretary John Victory are to the right. Many government and local officials were on hand for the press conference and ensuing luncheon. In the wake of World War II the military, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the NACA became interested in the use of atomic energy for propulsion and power. A Nuclear Division was established at NACA Lewis in the early 1950s. The division’s request for a 60-megawatt research reactor was approved in 1955. The semi-remote Plum Brook location was selected over 17 other possible sites. Construction of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility lasted five years. By the time of its first trial runs in 1961 the aircraft nuclear propulsion program had been cancelled. The space age had arrived, however, and the reactor would be used to study materials for a nuclear powered rocket.

  4. Documentary Linguistics and Computational Linguistics: A Response to Brooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Chiang, David; Frowein, Friedel; Hanke, Florian; Vaswani, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    In mid-2012, the authors organized a two-week workshop in Papua New Guinea to provide training in basic techniques and technologies for language documentation, and to gain understanding of how these technologies might be improved in the future. An assessment of the workshop was conducted by Brooks with the central idea that the workshop's…

  5. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtless, Gary, Ed.; Pack, Janet Rothenberg, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, the "Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs" is an annual series that serves as a forum for cutting-edge, accessible research on urban policy. The editors seek to integrate broader research into the policy discussion by bringing urban studies scholars together with economists and…

  6. Feeding ecology of Brook Silverside, Golden Shiner, and Subyearling Pumpkinseed in a Lake Ontario embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; Diaz, Avriel R; Nack, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Fish feeding ecology has been shown to vary over a 24-h period in terms of the prey consumed and feeding intensity. Consequently, in order to best determine the interspecific feeding associations within a fish community, examination of the diet at multiple times over a 24-h period is often necessary. We examined the diel feeding ecology of three fish species that were numerically dominant in a Lake Ontario embayment during summer. The diet of each of the three species, young-of-year Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, and Brook Silverside Labidesthes sicculus, was distinct with no significant overlap in diet composition occurring within any of the 4-h time intervals. The diet composition of each species suggested that Brook Silverside were feeding at the surface (terrestrial invertebrates and aquatic surface dwelling hemipterans), whereas young-of-year Pumpkinseed (amphipods) and Golden Shiner (tipulids) were feeding on different benthic prey. Differences in feeding periodicity were most pronounced for young-of-year Pumpkinseed. Our findings provide valuable insights on interspecific feeding associations among these three fish species during summer in a Lake Ontario embayment.

  7. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  8. Characterizing Thermal features in Norris Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Using Multi- spectral Remote Sensing Data and Dynamic Calibration Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, C. C.; Queen, L. P.; Heasler, H. P.; Jaworowski, C.

    2007-12-01

    A thermal infrared remote sensing project was implemented to develop methods for identifying, classifying, and mapping thermal features. This study is directed at geothermal features, with the expectation that new protocols developed here will apply to the wildland fire thermal environment. Airborne multi-spectral digital imagery were acquired over the geothermally active Norris Basin region of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Two image acquisitions were flown, with one acquisition near solar noon and the other at night. Raw data from the five sensors were uncalibrated, so a vicarious calibration procedure was developed to compute reflectance for the visible and NIR bands using an independently calibrated hyperspectral dataset. Calibration of the thermal sensor band utilized a dynamic, in-scene calibration procedure that exploited natural, pseudo-invariant thermal reference targets instrumented with in situ kinetic temperature recorders. The calibrated reflectance and radiant temperature data from each acquisition were processed and analyzed to develop a suite of thermal attributes, including radiant temperatures, a daytime-nighttime temperature difference (DeltaT), albedo, an albedo derivative (one minus albedo), and apparent thermal inertia (ATI). The albedo terms were computed using a published weighed-average albedo algorithm based on ratios of the narrowband red and near-infrared (NIR) reflectances to total solar irradiance for the respective red and NIR bandpasses. The weighing factors for each band were the proportion of total solar irradiance incident on the surface within each segment represented by a respective bandpass. In the absence of verifiable "truth," a step-wise chain of unsupervised classification and multivariate analysis exercises was performed, drawing heavily on "fuzzy truth" to assess the quality, efficiency, and efficacy of classification procedures and results. A final classification synthesizes a "geothermal phenomenology" comprised of

  9. "How are the Egyptians behaving?" Herbert Brookes, British-Australian.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, P

    1999-01-01

    Herbert Brookes was a wealthy businessman, a distinguished patron of high culture in Melbourne society, an anti-Labor eminence who moved comfortably in the highest of imperial circles. The richness of his papers in the National Library provides the opportunity to examine the life of a leading British-Australian, to analyse issues of conscience and purpose that do not figure much in current historiography and perhaps to throw new light on the concerns of the generation that saw its world disrupted after 1914. Using the notion of Protestant stewardship, I have suggested that Brookes' life offers one way into the dynamics of liberalism before the Great War and of loyalism after it.

  10. Survival of brook trout embryos in three episodically acidified streams

    SciTech Connect

    Fiss, F.C. ); Carline, R.F. )

    1993-03-01

    We evaluated, for brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in three streams that undergo episodic acidification during critical periods of embryo development, survival of embryos from egg disposition to preemergence in natural redds and survival of sac fry in toxicity tests done in situ. Twenty-five natural redds were used for comparisons among streams. Median survival to preemergence (range, 16-68%) was different (P [le] 0.05) among streams and was inversely related to stream concentration of inorganic monomeric Al. Survival to preemergence was not related to intragravel dissolved oxygen concentration, gravel quality, or depth or velocity of stream water at redd sites. Median survival of sac fry exposed to stream water for 39 d was different among streams (range, 51-95%) and was inversely related to stream concentration of inorganic monomeric Al. Episodic acidification could lead to declines in populations of brook trout by causing decreased survival of early life stages. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Merrimack River Basin, Leominster Local Protection, Monoosnoc Brook, Leominster, Massachusetts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Coordination 2 Summary of Studies 2 The Report 3 Prior Studies and Reports 3 Studies in Progress 3 RESOURCES AND ECONOMY OF THE STUDY AREA 4...expressed at this meeting, form the basis of selecting the flood control plan as reported herein. SUMMARY OF STUDIES Aerial topography from the U.S...North Nashua and its tributary Monoosnoc Brook which became basis for project authorization. (A summary of these earlier reports is contained in

  12. A geologic framework for mineralization in the western Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Lorne E.

    2004-01-01

    The Brooks Range is a 950-km-long north-vergent fold and thrust belt, which was formed during Mesozoic convergence of the continental Arctic Alaska terrane and the oceanic Angayucham terrane and was further shortened and uplifted in Tertiary time. The Arctic Alaska terrane consists of parautochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains and De Long Mountains subterranes. The Endicott Mountains allochthon of the western Brooks Range is the setting for many sulfide and barite occurrences, such as the supergiant Red Dog zinc-lead mine. Mineralization is sediment hosted and most commonly is present in black shale and carbonate turbidites of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. The reconstructed Kuna basin is a 200 by +600 km feature that represents the culmination of a remarkable chain of events that includes three fluvial-deltaic and two or more orogenic cycles, Middle Devonian to Mississippian episodes of extension and igneous activity, and the emergence of a seaward Lower Proterozoic landmass that may have constituted a barrier to marine circulation. Mississippian extension and related horst-and-graben architecture in the western Brooks Range is manifested in part by strong facies variability between coeval units of allochthons and structural plates. Shallow marine to possibly nonmarine arkose, platform to shelf carbonate, slope-to-basin shale, chert and carbonate turbidites, and submarine volcanic rocks are all represented in Mississippian time. The structural setting of Mississippian sedimentation, volcanism, and mineralization in the Kuna basin may be comparable to documented Devono-Mississippian extensional sags or half-grabens in the subsurface north of the Brooks Range. Climate, terrestrial ecosystems, multiple fluvial-deltaic aquifers, and structural architecture affected the liberation, movement, and redeposition of metals in ways that are incompletely understood.

  13. The Mothball, Sustainment, and Proposed Reactivation of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart

  14. Rural Schools and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Largy, Paul

    1981-01-01

    A community education project in Brooks County, Georgia, began in 1977 with five people, developed county-wide support, and now includes a community education county council, federal funding, volunteer programs, after-school programs, agricultural education (especially swine production), and a day-care center. (AN)

  15. Rural Schools and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Largy, Paul

    1981-01-01

    A community education project in Brooks County, Georgia, began in 1977 with five people, developed county-wide support, and now includes a community education county council, federal funding, volunteer programs, after-school programs, agricultural education (especially swine production), and a day-care center. (AN)

  16. Using noble gases measured in spring discharge to trace hydrothermal processes in the Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, W.P.; Susong, D.D.; Solomon, D.K.; Heasler, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved noble gas concentrations in springs are used to investigate boiling of hydrothermal water and mixing of hydrothermal and shallow cool water in the Norris Geyser Basin area. Noble gas concentrations in water are modeled for single stage and continuous steam removal. Limitations on boiling using noble gas concentrations are then used to estimate the isotopic effect of boiling on hydrothermal water, allowing the isotopic composition of the parent hydrothermal water to be determined from that measured in spring. In neutral chloride springs of the Norris Geyser Basin, steam loss since the last addition of noble gas charged water is less than 30% of the total hydrothermal discharge, which results in an isotopic shift due to boiling of ?? 2.5% ??D. Noble gas concentrations in water rapidly and predictably change in dual phase systems, making them invaluable tracers of gas-liquid interaction in hydrothermal systems. By combining traditional tracers of hydrothermal flow such as deuterium with dissolved noble gas measurements, more complex hydrothermal processes can be interpreted. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Coupled Heat Transport and Liquid Water and Water Vapor Flow in Geothermally Heated Ground at Norris Geyser Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. A. M.; Jones, S. B.; Neale, C. M. U.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of ground surface temperature and heat flow near hydrothermally active areas in Yellowstone National Park can help determine possible changes of the subsurface heat flow. Some of these changes may alter the safety of the park's visitors, rangers and scientists. The geothermal heated ground in Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park receives heat from both the geothermal gradient and the atmospheric shortwave and longwave radiations. In this study a one dimensional numerical model was used to model the coupled movement of liquid water, water vapor, and heat in the top 10 cm soil layer near a hydrothermal crater in Norris Geyser Basin. The Hydrus 1D numerical model was used to simulate the coupled processes in order to optimize the soil hydraulic parameters. Parameter optimization was done using Marquardt-Levenberg type parameter optimization algorithm for variably saturated soil under steady state and transient flow conditions. The simulation of coupled heat transport and liquid water and water vapor flow in geothermally heated ground is a new application to Hydrus 1D. Preliminary results, however, showed that the calculated temperature and water content correlated well with observed patterns on both dry sunny days and wet days. The study explained the coupled processes at the ground-atmosphere boundary layer which can help determine possible changes within the subsurface heat flow from the geothermal source.

  18. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  19. AmeriFlux US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, Tim; Prueger, John

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 11 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 10 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  20. AmeriFlux US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, Tim; Prueger, John

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 10 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 11 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  1. Effects of dam removal on brook trout in a Wisconsin stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, E.H.; Catalano, M.J.; Mercado-Silva, N.; Orr, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dams create barriers to fish migration and dispersal in drainage basins, and the removal of dams is often viewed as a means of increasing habitat availability and restoring migratory routes of several fish species. However, these barriers can also isolate and protect native taxa from aggressive downstream invaders. We examined fish community composition two years prior to and two years after the removal of a pair of low-head dams from Boulder Creek, Wisconsin, U.S.A. in 2003 to determine if removal of these potential barriers affected the resident population of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Despite the presence of other taxa in the downstream reaches, and in other similar streams adjacent to the Boulder Creek (including the brown trout, Salmo trutta), no new species had colonized the Boulder Creek in the two years following dam removal. The adults catch per unit effort (CPUE) was lower and the young-of-the-year catch per unit effort (YOY CPUE) was higher in 2005 than in 2001 in all reaches, but the magnitude of these changes was substantially larger in the two dam-affected sample reaches relative to an upstream reference reach, indicating a localized effect of the removal. Total length of the adults and the YOY and the adult body condition did not vary between years or among reaches. Thus, despite changes in numbers of adults and the YOYs in some sections of the stream, the lack of new fish species invading Boulder Creek and the limited extent of population change in brook trout indicate that dam removal had a minor effect on these native salmonids in the first two years of the post-removal. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  3. 77 FR 37707 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Brooks River Visitor Access for Katmai National Park and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Lake barge landing area at the mouth of the Brooks River. A no-action alternative is also evaluated. If... feet. A new barge landing site would be located approximately 200 feet south of the mouth of the Brooks...

  4. 78 FR 8582 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Brooks River Visitor Access for Katmai National Park and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Lake barge landing area at the mouth of the Brooks River. A no-action alternative is also evaluated. If... feet south of the mouth of the Brooks River. A new road segment (about 100 ft. long) would be...

  5. [Obituary] In memoriam: Mortimer Brooke Meanley, Jr., 1915-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2008-01-01

    Mortimer Brooke Meanley, Jr., was born at Riderwood, Baltimore County, Maryland, on 19 January 1915, and died at home in Maine on 19 August 2007. He was always called “Brooke” as an adult. Much of his youth was spent in birding and other natural-history activities, interest he credits to the Boy Scouts and his teachers. These activities directed him toward a professional career in wildlife biology. He was educated at McDonogh High School in Owings Mill, Maryland – at the time a private, semimilitary school for boys – and graduated in 1934.

  6. Histopathology of fish. IV. A granuloma of brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    In the summer of 1952, Snieszko and Griffin (1955) diagnosed kidney disease in brook trout from the Fish and Wildlife Service's station at Berlin, New Hampshire. During the examination of these fish, a peculiar lesion was observed in the vicinity of the gastric caeca. In very advanced cases, hard, glistening, white masses of tissue bearing a striking resemblance to mature testes often filled the abdominal cavity. In the initial examinations, the material was actually mistaken for normal testicular tissue. Subsequently, it was recognized as an entirely aberrant, proliferating tumor-like mass.

  7. Proposed standard-weight equations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyatt, M.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Weight and length data were obtained for 113 populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis across the species' geographic range in North America to estimate a standard-weight (Ws) equation for this species. Estimation was done by applying the regression-line-percentile technique to fish of 120-620 mm total length (TL). The proposed metric-unit (g and mm) equation is log10Ws = -5.186 + 3.103 log10TL; the English-unit (lb and in) equivalent is log10Ws = -3.483 + 3.103 log10TL. No systematic length bias was evident in the relative-weight values calculated from these equations.

  8. Pears (In: Brooks & Olmo Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 44)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Names, synonyms, and brief descriptions of new and noteworthy fruit cultivars are periodically published in the "Brooks and Olmo Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties." This paper is the Pear section of the 44th Brooks and Olmo Register and describes the Asian pear cultivar 'Sooyoung' and the Eur...

  9. Global climate change and fragmentation of native brook trout distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1997-01-01

    Current distributions of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southern Appalachians are restricted to upper elevations by multiple factors, including habitat requirements, introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown (Salmo trutta) trout, and other human activities. Present-day distribution of brook trout habitat is already fragmented. Increased...

  10. The use of hoop nets seeded with mature brook trout to capture conspecifics

    Treesearch

    James A. Lamansky; Ernest R. Keeley; Michael K. Young; Kevin A. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    The brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, a native of eastern North America, is considered an invasive species in the western United States because it has been implicated in the decline of many native trout species there. Current methods for controlling brook trout are usually time-consuming and expensive and are sometimes harmful to nontarget species....

  11. The Why, What, and Impact of GPA at Oxford Brookes University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction at Oxford Brookes University of a Grade Point Average (GPA) scheme alongside the traditional honours degree classification. It considers the reasons for the introduction of GPA, the way in which the scheme was implemented, and offers an insight into the impact of GPA at Brookes. Finally, the paper considers…

  12. Competition and predation as mechanisms for displacement of greenback cutthroat trout by brook trout

    Treesearch

    C. C. McGrath; W. M. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    Cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii frequently are displaced by nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, but the ecological mechanisms of displacement are not understood. Competition for food and predation between greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias and brook trout were investigated in montane streams of...

  13. 77 FR 63897 - Notice of License Terminations for National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Plum Brook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of License Terminations for National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Plum Brook Reactor and Plum Brook Mock-Up Reactor The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is noticing the termination of the National...

  14. The Why, What, and Impact of GPA at Oxford Brookes University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction at Oxford Brookes University of a Grade Point Average (GPA) scheme alongside the traditional honours degree classification. It considers the reasons for the introduction of GPA, the way in which the scheme was implemented, and offers an insight into the impact of GPA at Brookes. Finally, the paper considers…

  15. Tandem Brook Rearrangement/Silicon Polonovski Reaction via Oxidative Generation of Ammonium Ylides.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Hiromasa; Nakago, Takahiro; Inoue, Seiichi; Hoshino, Yujiro; Honda, Kiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    A tandem Brook rearrangement/silicon Polonovski reaction has been achieved by in situ generation of ammonium ylides via the oxidation of α-silyl-tertiary amines. Furthermore, we found that the oxidation of N-(1-cyano-1-silyl)methyl-tertiary amines with peracids induced the tandem Brook rearrangement/silicon Polonovski reaction/fragmentation to give formamide derivatives in moderate yields.

  16. Seasonal habitat use of brook trout and juvenile steelhead in a Lake Ontario tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Abbett, Ross; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are generally restricted to headwaters in New York tributaries of Lake Ontario. In only a few streams are brook trout abundant in lower stream reaches that are accessible to adult Pacific salmonids migrating from the lake. Consequently, because of the rarity of native brook trout populations in these lower stream reaches it is important to understand how they use stream habitat in sympatry with juvenile Pacific salmonids which are now naturalized in several Lake Ontario tributaries. In this study, we examined the seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) habitat use of brook trout and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Hart Brook, a tributary of eastern Lake Ontario. We found interspecific, intraspecific, and seasonal variation in habitat use. Subyearling steelhead were associated with faster water velocities than subyearling brook trout and, overall, had the least habitat similarity to the other salmonid groups examined. Overyearling brook trout and yearling steelhead exhibited the greatest degree of habitat selection and habitat selection by all four salmonid groups was greatest in summer. The availability of pool habitat for overyearling salmonids may pose the largest impediment to these species in Hart Brook.

  17. Brook trout movement during and after recolonization fo a naturally defaunated stream reach

    Treesearch

    Craig N. Roghair; C. Andrew Dolloff

    2005-01-01

    In june 1995 a debris flow associated with a massive streamwide flood completely eliminated brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from the lower 1.9 km of the Staunton River in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Biannual diver counts revealed that brook trout moved several hundred meters into the debris-flow-affected area each year, resulting in...

  18. Hydraulic complexity metrics for evaluating in-stream brook trout habitat

    Treesearch

    J. Kozarek; W. Hession; M. ASCE; C. Dolloff; P. Diplas

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional hydraulic model (River2D) was used to investigate the significance of flow complexity on habitat preferences of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the high-gradient Staunton River in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Two 100-m reaches were modeled where detailed brook trout surveys (10–30-m resolution) have been conducted annually since 1997....

  19. Organic Compounds in Running Gutter Brook Water Used for Public Supply near Hatfield, Massachusetts, 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Trombley, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The 258 organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, and pavement and combustion-derived compounds. Of these 258 compounds, 26 (about 10 percent) were detected at least once among the 31 samples collected approximately monthly during 2003-05 at the intake of a flowthrough reservoir on Running Gutter Brook in Massachusetts, one of several community water systems on tributaries of the Connecticut River. About 81 percent of the watershed is forested, 14 percent is agricultural land, and 5 percent is urban land. In most source-water samples collected at Running Gutter Brook, fewer compounds were detected and their concentrations were low (less than 0.1 micrograms per liter) when compared with compounds detected at other stream sites across the country that drain watersheds that have a larger percentage of agricultural and urban areas. The relatively few compounds detected at low concentrations reflect the largely undeveloped land use at Running Gutter Brook. Despite the absence of wastewater discharge points on the stream, however, the compounds that were detected could indicate different sources and uses (point sources, precipitation, domestic, and agricultural) and different pathways to drinking-water supplies (overland runoff, groundwater discharge, leaking of treated water from distribution lines, and formation during treatment). Six of the 10 compounds detected most commonly (in at least 20 percent of the samples) in source water also were detected commonly in finished water (after treatment but prior to distribution). Concentrations in source and finished water generally were below 0.1 micrograms per liter and always less than humanhealth benchmarks, which are available for about one-half of the compounds detected. On the basis of this screening-level assessment, adverse effects to human health are expected to be

  20. Norrie disease pedigree carrying the novel mutation C65Y, predicted to disrupt the cystine knot growth factor motif, analyzed by RasI restriction digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Strasberg, P.M.; Liede, H.A.; Stein, T.

    1994-09-01

    Norrie disease (MIM 310600; ND) is an X-linked (Xp11.2-11.3) neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital blindness, retinal dysplasia with pseudoglioma formation, and often associated with progressive mental retardation and deafness. The ND gene, comprised of 3 exons, codes for an evolutionarily conserved protein of 133 amino acids. We have analyzed 8 pedigrees segregating Norrie disease. Although microdeletions have been detected in several typical ND patients, Southern blot analysis with probes L1.28, MAO-A, MAO-B, TIMP-3.9X, pTak8, and M27{beta} failed to detect such deletions in these 8 ND pedigrees. With the cloning of the ND gene, PCR analysis of all 3 exons likewise did not reveal any insertions or deletions. SSCP analysis ({sup 35}S-dNTP PCR) on PCR products of exon 3 showed a band shift for 1 patient. Repeat `cold` SSCP on minigels (3 inches x 4 inches) followed by liver staining was confirmatory. Direct sequencing revealed a G{r_arrow}A transition at nucleotide 610 corresponding to amino acid 65, changing Cys to Tyr. The mutation created an RsaI site, such that the uncut, normal, and mutant PCR products (using the same PCR primers) were 297 bp, 243 and 54 bp, and 177, 72 and 54 bp respectively. Affected males in the relevant pedigree had restricted PCR products of 177, 72 and 54 bp, carrier mothers 243, 177, 72, and 54 bp, and normals, including 30 unrelated individuals, 243 and 54 bp. Recent evidence indicates that the ND gene has a C-terminal domain homologous to that of TGF{beta}, thus identifying it as putative peptide growth factor, providing a monogenic disease model for the family of cystine knot growth factors. This is the first report of a mutation in Cys 2, critical for crosslinking to Cys 5 forming a disulphide bridge which holds the cystine knot growth factor tertiary structure together.

  1. Heritability of Morphology in Brook Trout with Variable Life Histories

    PubMed Central

    Varian, Anna; Nichols, Krista M.

    2010-01-01

    Distinct morphological variation is often associated with variation in life histories within and among populations of both plants and animals. In this study, we examined the heritability of morphology in three hatchery strains of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), which were historically or are currently used for stocking and supplementation of both migratory and resident ecotypes in the upper Great Lakes region. In a common garden experiment, significant variation in body morphology was observed within and across populations sampled at three time periods. The most notable differences among strains were differences in dorso-ventral body depth and the shape of the caudal peduncle, with some differences in the anterior-posterior placement of the dorsal and ventral fins. Variation with and among 70 half-sib families indicates that heritabilities of morphology and body size were significant at most developmental time points both within and across strains. Heritabilities for morphological characters within strains ranged from 0 to 0.95 across time points. Significant within-strain heritabilities for length ranged from 0 to 0.93 across time points and for weight ranged from 0 to 0.88. Significant additive genetic variation exists within and across hatchery brook trout strains for morphology and size, indicating that these traits are capable of responding to natural or artificial selection. PMID:20886080

  2. Rooted Brooks Range ophiolite: Implications for Cordilleran terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Morin, R.L.; Hudson, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling of gravity and magnetic data shows that areally extensive mafic and ultramafic rocks of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, are at least 8 km thick, and that gabbro and ultramafic rocks underlie basalt in several places. The basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks have been considered parts of a far-traveled ophiolite assemblage. These rocks are the highest structural elements in the Brooks Range thrust belt and are thought to be hundreds of kilometers north of their origin. This requires these rocks to be thin klippen without geologic ties to the continental shelf sedimentary rocks that now surround them. The geophysically determined, thick and interleaved subsurface character of the basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks is inconsistent with this interpretation. An origin within an extensional setting on the continental shelf could produce the required subsurface geometries and explain other perplexing characteristics of these rocks. Early Mesozoic Alaska, from the North Slope southward to the interior, may have had many irregular extensional basins on a broad, distal continental shelf. This original tectonic setting may apply elsewhere in Cordilleran-type margins where appropriate mafic and ultramafic analogs are present.

  3. Is motivation important to brook trout passage through culverts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Culverts can restrict movement of stream-dwelling fish. Motivation to enter and ascend these structures is an essential precursor for successful passage. However, motivation is challenging to quantify. Here, we use attempt rate to assess motivation of 447 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) entering three culverts under a range of hydraulic, environmental, and biological conditions. A passive integrated transponder system allowed for the identification of passage attempts and success of individual fish. Attempt rate was quantified using time-to-event analysis allowing for time-varying covariates and recurrent events. Attempt rate was greatest during the spawning period, at elevated discharge, at dusk, and for longer fish. It decreased during the day and with increasing number of conspecifics downstream of the culvert. Results also show a positive correlation between elevated motivation and successful passage. This study enhances understanding of factors influencing brook trout motivation to ascend culverts and shows that attempt rate is a dynamic phenomenon, variable over time and among individuals. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate other species’ motivation to pass natural or anthropogenic barriers.

  4. Geochemical evidence for a brooks range mineral belt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, S.P.; Cathrall, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical studies in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, delineate a regional, structurally controlled mineral belt in east-west-trending metamorphic rocks and adjacent metasedimentary rocks. The mineral belt extends eastward from the Ambler River quadrangle to the Chandalar and Philip Smith quadrangles, Alaska, from 147?? to 156??W. longitude, a distance of more than 375 km, and spans a width from 67?? to 69??N. latitude, a distance of more than 222 km. Within this belt are several occurrences of copper and molybdenum mineralization associated with meta-igneous, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks; the geochemical study delineates target areas for additional occurrences. A total of 4677 stream-sediment and 2286 panned-concentrate samples were collected in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, from 1975 to 1979. The -80 mesh ( 2.86) nonmagnetic fraction of the panned concentrates from stream sediment were analyzed by semiquantitative spectrographic methods. Two geochemical suites were recognized in this investigation; a base-metal suite of copper-lead-zinc and a molybdenum suite of molybdenum-tin-tungsten. These suites suggest several types of mineralization within the metamorphic belt. Anomalies in molybdenum with associated Cu and W suggest a potential porphyry molybdenum system associated with meta-igneous rocks. This regional study indicates that areas of metaigneous rocks in the central metamorphic belt are target areas for potential mineralized porphyry systems and that areas of metavolcanic rocks are target areas for potential massive sulfide mineralization. ?? 1981.

  5. Brief report: Stony Brook Guidelines on the ethics of the care of people with autism and their families.

    PubMed

    Post, Stephen G; Pomeroy, John; Keirns, Carla C; Cover, Virginia Isaacs; Dorn, Michael Leverett; Boroson, Louis; Boroson, Florence; Coulehan, Anne; Coulehan, Jack; Covell, Kim; Kubasek, Kim; Luchsinger, Elizabeth; Nichols, Shana; Parles, James; Schreiber, Linda; Tetenbaum, Samara P; Walsh, Rose Ann

    2013-06-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with associated societal and clinical impacts, calls for a broad community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. The Stony Brook Guidelines, based on a community dialogue process with affected individuals, families and professionals, identify and discuss the following topics: treatment goals and happiness, distributive justice, managing the hopes for a cure, sibling responsibilities, intimacy and sex, diagnostic ethics, and research ethics. Our guidelines, based not on "top-down" imposition of professional expertise but rather on "bottom-up" grass roots attention to the voices of affected individuals and families speaking from experience, can inform clinical practice and are also meaningful for the wider social conversation emerging over the treatment of individuals with ASD.

  6. Mitigating fisheries-induced evolution in lacustrine brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in southern Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Whitlock, Rebecca; Magnan, Pierre; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Size-selective mortality caused by fishing can impose strong selection on harvested fish populations, causing evolution in important life-history traits. Understanding and predicting harvest-induced evolutionary change can help maintain sustainable fisheries. We investigate the evolutionary sustainability of alternative management regimes for lacustrine brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) fisheries in southern Canada and aim to optimize these regimes with respect to the competing objectives of maximizing mean annual yield and minimizing evolutionary change in maturation schedules. Using a stochastic simulation model of brook charr populations consuming a dynamic resource, we investigate how harvesting affects brook charr maturation schedules. We show that when approximately 5% to 15% of the brook charr biomass is harvested, yields are high, and harvest-induced evolutionary changes remain small. Intensive harvesting (at approximately >15% of brook charr biomass) results in high average yields and little evolutionary change only when harvesting is restricted to brook charr larger than the size at 50% maturation probability at the age of 2 years. Otherwise, intensive harvesting lowers average yield and causes evolutionary change in the maturation schedule of brook charr. Our results indicate that intermediate harvesting efforts offer an acceptable compromise between avoiding harvest-induced evolutionary change and securing high average yields.

  7. River mainstem thermal regimes influence population structuring within an Appalachian brook trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aunins, Aaron W.; Petty, J. Todd; King, Timothy L.; Schilz, Mariya; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) often exist as highly differentiated populations, even at small spatial scales, due either to natural or anthropogenic sources of isolation and low rates of dispersal. In this study, we used molecular approaches to describe the unique population structure of brook trout inhabiting the Shavers Fork watershed, located in eastern West Virginia, and contrast it to nearby populations in tributaries of the upper Greenbrier River and North Fork South Branch Potomac Rivers. Bayesian and maximum likelihood clustering methods identified minimal population structuring among 14 collections of brook trout from throughout the mainstem and tributaries of Shavers Fork, highlighting the role of the cold-water mainstem for connectivity and high rates of effective migration among tributaries. In contrast, the Potomac and Greenbrier River collections displayed distinct levels of population differentiation among tributaries, presumably resulting from tributary isolation by warm-water mainstems. Our results highlight the importance of protecting and restoring cold-water mainstem habitats as part of region-wide brook trout conservation efforts. In addition, our results from Shavers Fork provide a contrast to previous genetic studies that characterize Appalachian brook trout as fragmented isolates rather than well-mixed populations. Additional study is needed to determine whether the existence of brook trout as genetically similar populations among tributaries is truly unique and whether connectivity among brook trout populations can potentially be restored within other central Appalachian watersheds.

  8. Stream acidification and mortality of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in response to timber harvest in Catskill Mountain watersheds, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of clear-cut and timber-stand improvement (TSI) harvests on water chemistry and mortality of caged brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were evaluated in a study of three Catskill Mountain streams, 1994-2000. Harvests removed 73% of tree basal area (BA) from a clearcut subbasin, 5% BA from a TSI subbasin, and 14% BA at a site below the confluence of both streams. A fourth nonharvested site served as a control. Water quality and trout mortality were affected only in the clearcut stream. Acidity and concentrations of nitrate and inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) increased sharply during high flows after the first growing season (fall 1997). Acid-Alim episodes were severe during this period and decreased steadily in magnitude and duration thereafter. All trout at this site died within 7 days during spring 1998 and 85% died during spring 1999. Only background mortality was observed in other years at this site and at the other three sites during all tests. The absence of mortality in TSI watersheds indicates that limited harvests should not harm brook trout populations in acid-sensitive streams. Effects of tree harvests on fish communities are of concern, however, because many stream-dwelling species are more sensitive to acidified waters than brook trout. ?? 2005 NRC.

  9. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  10. Decontamination of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Peecook, K.M.

    2008-07-01

    The NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility decommissioning project recently completed a major milestone with the successful decontamination of seven hot cells. The cells included thick concrete walls and leaded glass windows, manipulator arms, inter cell dividing walls, and roof slabs. There was also a significant amount of embedded conduit and piping that had to be cleaned and surveyed. Prior to work starting evaluation studies were performed to determine whether it was more cost effective to do this work using a full up removal approach (rip and ship) or to decontaminate the cells to below required clean up levels, leaving the bulk of the material in place. This paper looks at that decision process, how it was implemented, and the results of that effort including the huge volume of material that can now be used as fill during site restoration rather than being disposed of as LLRW. (authors)

  11. Cold Brook Dam, Hot Springs, South Dakota, Fall River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Is ’ 44 .0 01 0 o0 0 . 4 . 00 0 &J w 0. 0) 01 0c Ai 061 0 . u00 l .1 Coo 𔃾 0 0a 0 .4 0 0 A - 0. Z%0 0 01 w low" to 0 m N t 0 o AJ,0 00 4 .a ... 0 40...tf Des,. uw file .11 C0..A D,k,,Io ’hf .i*’ .. . . . .. . . -- ~ e 749?-fat-6 0 0 -- AI COLD BROOK DAM FOWNMTION REPORT LOCATiOE OF CKPLORATION §OftUS...Secondary Holes T- lC Tertiary Holes T-1D Quaternary Holes T-1E Quintary Holes T-2 Pressure Test Records T-2A Primary Holes T-2B Secondary Holes T-2C

  12. Progress in radar snow research. [Brookings, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Multifrequency measurements of the radar backscatter from snow-covered terrain were made at several sites in Brookings, South Dakota, during the month of March of 1979. The data are used to examine the response of the scattering coefficient to the following parameters: (1) snow surface roughness, (2) snow liquid water content, and (3) snow water equivalent. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient is insensitive to snow surface roughness if the snow is drv. For wet snow, however, surface roughness can have a strong influence on the magnitude of the scattering coefficient. These observations confirm the results predicted by a theoretical model that describes the snow as a volume of Rayleig scatterers, bounded by a Gaussian random surface. In addition, empirical models were developed to relate the scattering coefficient to snow liquid water content and the dependence of the scattering coefficient on water equivalent was evaluated for both wet and dry snow conditions.

  13. Geological mapping in Doonerak Fenster, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, C.C.; Adams, K.E.; Dillon, J.T.

    1985-04-01

    Mapping of the north flank of the Doonerak fenster has traced the Amawk thrust, the sole fault of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, from the North Fork of the Koyukuk River - Mount Doonerak area eastward for more than 40 km (25 mi) to the east plunge of the Doonerak anticline at Koyuktuvuk Creek near the Dietrich River. Mapping has concentrated on the structural style of the area and on the autochthonous or parautochthonous Carboniferous Lisburne Group, Kayak shale, Kekiktuk Conglomerate - which are present along most of the anticline - and Triassic Karen Creek Sandstone, Triassic Shublik Formation, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group - which are present only in the west. This Triassic to Mississippian section closely resembles the coeval autochthonous to Parautochthonous Ellesmerian section of the subsurface to the north and in the Brooks Range to the northeast.

  14. Structural architecture of the central Brooks Range foothills, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Five structural levels underlie the Brooks Range foothills, from lowest to highest: (1) autochthon, at a depth of ~9 km; (2) Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA), thickest under the northern Brooks Range (>15 km) and wedging out northward above the autochthon; (3) higher allochthons (HA), with a composite thickness of 1.5+ km, wedging out northward at or beyond the termination of EMA; (4) Aptian-Albian Fortress Mountain Formation (FM), deposited unconformably on deformed EMA and HA and thickening northward into a >7-km-thick succession of deformed turbidites (Torok Formation); (5) gently folded Albian-Cenomanian deltaic deposits (Nanushuk Group). The dominant faulting pattern in levels 2-3 is thin-skinned thrusting and thrust-related folds formed before deposition of Cretaceous strata. These structures are cut by younger steeply south-dipping reverse faults that truncate and juxtapose structural levels 1-4 and expose progressively deeper structural levels to the south. Structural levels 4-5 are juxtaposed along a north-dipping zone of south-vergent folds and thrusts. Stratigraphic and fission-track age data suggest a kinematic model wherein the foothills belt was formed first, by thrusting of HA and EMA as deformational wedges onto the regionally south-dipping authochon at 140-120Ma. After deposition of FM and Torok during mid-Cretaceous hinterland extension and uplift, a second episode of contractional deformation at 60 Ma shortened the older allochthonous deformational wedges (EMA, HA) and overlying strata on north-vergent reverse faults. To the north, where the allochthons wedge out, shortening caused duplexing in the Torok and development of a triangle zone south of the Tuktu escarpment.

  15. Schubert in Stony Brook and Kinks in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    Wolfgang Kummer became my friend during the many years I have been visiting Vienna in January. He created a marvellous Institute for Theoretical Physics with an enthusiastic group of students, postdocs and colleagues. Great Institutes need a central person to grow around. Two such Institutes I have been attached to are Utrecht where M. Veltman created a school of field theorists, and Stony Brook where C.N. Yang was the natural leader. In Vienna Wolfgang played a similar role. His mere presence during seminars gave a sense of enthusiasm and direction, and his active participation was an example for younger physicists not to be shy and also ask further clarifications when needed. In particular I was impressed by his collaboration with students. Almost every afternoon I would find him sitting with one or two students at his desk or in the conference room, trying to understand new problems in dilaton gravity, and discussing and calculating with them on equal footing. I invited Wolfgang to visit Stony Brook, but he was noncommittal, and I soon found out that he was seriously ill. Yet, he would come in everyday, and be the life of the Institute. Every year with his wife Lore we would go out one evening in Vienna, either to a play or a concert. These were great evenings as I will describe below. Near the end, I would phone him at his home, and we would talk physics. He remained optimistic about his chances, but then suddenly all went wrong and he died. I miss a dear friend. Below is the story of how we became friends…

  16. Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch focuses on communities. Ethnic groups, religious groups, schools, families, even the Internet, are used as examples of communities in Iowa. Forced communities are exemplified by migration, law, natural disasters, and sometimes education. Photographs from Iowa's past show the changing nature of communities and encourage…

  17. Preliminary plan for testing a thermionic reactor in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, F. A.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary plan is presented for testing a thermionic reactor in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility (SPF). A technical approach, cost estimate, manpower estimate, and schedule are presented to cover a 2 year full power reactor test.

  18. Synthesis of gamma,delta-unsaturated glycolic acids via sequenced brook and Ireland--claisen rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Daniel C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2010-03-05

    Organozinc, -magnesium, and -lithium nucleophiles initiate a Brook/Ireland-Claisen rearrangement sequence of allylic silyl glyoxylates resulting in the formation of gamma,delta-unsaturated alpha-silyloxy acids.

  19. Pingos in the Brooks Range, northern Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, T.D.; Obi, Curtis M.

    1982-01-01

    Some 70 pingos occur at 27 separate localities within and near the Brooks Range. The pingos are distributed through mountain valleys at altitudes up to 725m and in terrain glaciated as recently as late Wisconsinan time. Pingos are particularly abundant in the Koyukuk and Chandalar drainage systems of the south-central Brooks Range, where they may be associated with structural features of regional extent.-from Authors

  20. Giant American brook lampreys, Lampetra lamottei, in the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; Purvis, Harold A.

    1971-01-01

    Five female American brook lampreys, Lampetra lamottei, collected in lakes Michigan and Huron averaged nearly twice as long and about six times as heavy as American brook lampreys of normal size. Three factors suggested that the giant lampreys may have fed parasitically after metamorphosis: morphological adaptations of the species for parasitic life, their large size, and absence of extremely large ammocetes among a million sampled.

  1. Spatial and seasonal dynamics of brook trout populations inhabiting a central Appalachian watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.T.; Lamothe, P.J.; Mazik, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the watershed-scale spatial population dynamics of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the Second Fork, a third-order tributary of Shavers Fork in eastern West Virginia. We used visual surveys, electrofishing, and mark-recapture techniques to quantify brook trout spawning intensity, population density, size structure, and demographic rates (apparent survival and immigration) throughout the watershed. Our analyses produced the following results. Spawning by brook trout was concentrated in streams with small basin areas (i.e., segments draining less than 3 km2), relatively high alkalinity (>10 mg CaCO3/L), and high amounts of instream cover. The spatial distribution of juvenile and small-adult brook trout within the watershed was relatively stable and was significantly correlated with spawning intensity. However, no such relationship was observed for large adults, which exhibited highly variable distribution patterns related to seasonally important habitat features, including instream cover, stream depth and width, and riparian canopy cover. Brook trout survival and immigration rates varied seasonally, spatially, and among size-classes. Differential survival and immigration tended to concentrate juveniles and small adults in small, alkaline streams, whereas dispersal tended to redistribute large adults at the watershed scale. Our results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in spawning, survival, and movement interact to determine the distribution, abundance, and size structure of brook trout populations at a watershed scale. These results underscore the importance of small tributaries for the persistence of brook trout in this watershed and the need to consider watershed-scale processes when designing management plans for Appalachian brook trout populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. Simulated effects of YY-male stocking and manual suppression for eradicating nonnative Brook Trout populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Eradication of nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis populations is difficult to achieve with standard techniques, such as electrofishing removal or piscicides; new approaches are needed. A novel concept is to stock “supermale” hatchery fish with wild conspecifics. Supermales (MYY) have two Y-chromosomes, resulting in offspring that are all males; over time, successful supermale reproduction could eradicate the wild population. We constructed an age-structured stochastic model to investigate the effects of manually suppressing wild fish and stocking MYY fingerlings on the long-term viability of hypothetical nonnative Brook Trout populations. In streams, an annual stocking rate of supermales equivalent to 50% of wild age-0 Brook Trout density combined with an annual selective suppression rate equivalent to 50% of wild Brook Trout density resulted in a time to extirpation of only 2–4 years if supermale fitness was equivalent to wild male fitness. However, time to extirpation in streams was 5–15 years if supermale fitness was 80% lower than wild male fitness. In alpine lakes, higher supermale stocking rates and nonselective gillnetting were required to eradicate Brook Trout populations. If supermales were assumed to be as fit as wild males, however, any supermale stocking rate greater than 49% in alpine lakes or 60% in streams achieved eradication in 10 years or less, regardless of the suppression rate. Because manual suppression and the stocking of MYY fingerlings can readily be conducted at the levels assumed in our simulations, use of such an integrated pest management (IPM) approach could extirpate undesirable Brook Trout populations within reasonably short periods of time. Given the recent successful development of an MYY Brook Trout broodstock capable of producing large numbers of MYY fingerlings and given the positive results of the present simulations for both streams and alpine lakes, field testing of MYY stocking is warranted within an

  3. Landscape models of brook trout abundance and distribution in lotic habitat with field validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Johnson, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are native fish in decline owing to environmental changes. Predictions of their potential distribution and a better understanding of their relationship to habitat conditions would enhance the management and conservation of this valuable species. We used over 7,800 brook trout observations throughout New York State and georeferenced, multiscale landscape condition data to develop four regionally specific artificial neural network models to predict brook trout abundance in rivers and streams. Land cover data provided a general signature of human activity, but other habitat variables were resistant to anthropogenic changes (i.e., changing on a geological time scale). The resulting models predict the potential for any stream to support brook trout. The models were validated by holding 20% of the data out as a test set and by comparison with additional field collections from a variety of habitat types. The models performed well, explaining more than 90% of data variability. Errors were often associated with small spatial displacements of predicted values. When compared with the additional field collections (39 sites), 92% of the predictions were off by only a single class from the field-observed abundances. Among “least-disturbed” field collection sites, all predictions were correct or off by a single abundance class, except for one where brown trout Salmo trutta were present. Other degrading factors were evident at most sites where brook trout were absent or less abundant than predicted. The most important habitat variables included landscape slope, stream and drainage network sizes, water temperature, and extent of forest cover. Predicted brook trout abundances were applied to all New York streams, providing a synoptic map of the distribution of brook trout habitat potential. These fish models set benchmarks of best potential for streams to support brook trout under broad-scale human influences and can assist with planning and

  4. Predicting Brook Trout occurrence in stream reaches throughout their native range in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell; Wagner, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is an important species of conservation concern in the eastern USA. We developed a model to predict Brook Trout population status within individual stream reaches throughout the species’ native range in the eastern USA. We utilized hierarchical logistic regression with Bayesian estimation to predict Brook Trout occurrence probability, and we allowed slopes and intercepts to vary among ecological drainage units (EDUs). Model performance was similar for 7,327 training samples and 1,832 validation samples based on the area under the receiver operating curve (∼0.78) and Cohen's kappa statistic (0.44). Predicted water temperature had a strong negative effect on Brook Trout occurrence probability at the stream reach scale and was also negatively associated with the EDU average probability of Brook Trout occurrence (i.e., EDU-specific intercepts). The effect of soil permeability was positive but decreased as EDU mean soil permeability increased. Brook Trout were less likely to occur in stream reaches surrounded by agricultural or developed land cover, and an interaction suggested that agricultural land cover also resulted in an increased sensitivity to water temperature. Our model provides a further understanding of how Brook Trout are shaped by habitat characteristics in the region and yields maps of stream-reach-scale predictions, which together can be used to support ongoing conservation and management efforts. These decision support tools can be used to identify the extent of potentially suitable habitat, estimate historic habitat losses, and prioritize conservation efforts by selecting suitable stream reaches for a given action. Future work could extend the model to account for additional landscape or habitat characteristics, include biotic interactions, or estimate potential Brook Trout responses to climate and land use changes.

  5. Town Brook Local Protection, Massachusetts Coastal Streams: Feasibility Report for Water Resources Development. Volume II. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    between the New England Division and MCZMP could serve as a model for coordination elsewhere and are very committed to it. In that vein, I hope that...hydrology for Town Brook in Quincy, Massachusetts. Studies included the development of an HEC- 1 computer model using information from previ- ous studies...plus 7 years of stream flow records. The model was then used to access the development of floods on the brook, the frequency and magnitude of flood

  6. Modeling Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields with Realistic Anatomical Models: The Brooks Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Both versions of Brooks FDTD are parallelized for Beowulf clusters and have run on more than one hundred processors. In addition to code, a number of...rewritten in C. Both versions of Brooks FDTD are parallelized for Beowulf clusters and have run on more than one hundred processors. In addition to...have made significant contributions include: Aldon Lyssy, who volunteered to scavenge and build the first Beowulf : Peter Gajsek who lead the first

  7. Movement patterns of Brook Trout in a restored coastal stream system in southern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snook, Erin L.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Dubreuil, Todd L.; Zydlewski, Joseph; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Danylchuk, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are found from northern Canada to New England. The extent of anadromy generally decreases with latitude, but the ecology and movements of more southern populations are poorly understood. We conducted a 33-month acoustic telemetry study of Brook Trout in Red Brook, MA, and adjacent Buttermilk Bay (marine system) using 16 fixed acoustic receivers and surgically implanting acoustic transmitters in 84 individuals. Tagged Brook Trout used the stream, estuary (50% of individuals) and bay (10% of individuals). Movements into full sea water were brief when occurring. GAMM models revealed that transitions between habitat areas occurred most often in spring and fall. Environmental data suggest that use of the saline environment is limited by summer temperatures in the bay. Movements may also be related to moon phase. Compared to more northern coastal populations of Brook Trout, the Red Brook population appears to be less anadromous overall, yet the estuarine segment of the system may have considerable ecological importance as a food resource.

  8. The temperature-productivity squeeze: Constraints on brook trout growth along an Appalachian river continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J. Todd; Thorne, David; Huntsman, Brock M.; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that brook trout growth rates are controlled by a complex interaction of food availability, water temperature, and competitor density. We quantified trout diet, growth, and consumption in small headwater tributaries characterized as cold with low food and high trout density, larger tributaries characterized as cold with moderate food and moderate trout density, and large main stems characterized as warm with high food and low trout density. Brook trout consumption was highest in the main stem where diets shifted from insects in headwaters to fishes and crayfish in larger streams. Despite high water temperatures, trout growth rates also were consistently highest in the main stem, likely due to competitively dominant trout monopolizing thermal refugia. Temporal changes in trout density had a direct negative effect on brook trout growth rates. Our results suggest that competition for food constrains brook trout growth in small streams, but access to thermal refugia in productive main stem habitats enables dominant trout to supplement growth at a watershed scale. Brook trout conservation in this region should seek to relieve the “temperature-productivity squeeze,” whereby brook trout productivity is constrained by access to habitats that provide both suitable water temperature and sufficient prey.

  9. Results of sediment and water sampling and inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes - Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes - Data report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

  10. Results of sediment and water sampling for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes -- Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

  11. Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov., from water of pristine brooks.

    PubMed

    Niemi, R Maarit; Ollinkangas, Tuula; Paulin, Lars; Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Karkman, Antti; Kosina, Marcel; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of Enterococcus strains from pristine waters of two brooks in Finland formed a distinct cluster on the basis of whole-cell protein fingerprinting by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The strains shared the following characteristics. Cells were ovoid, Gram-positive-staining and non-spore-forming, appearing singly or in pairs or chains. They were facultatively anaerobic and catalase-negative. Growth in broth containing 6.5 % NaCl or at 45 °C was weak or absent. Production of D antigen was variable. The strains tolerated 60 °C for 30 min, 40 % bile and tellurite, hydrolysed aesculin strongly and gelatin weakly, produced no acid from hippurate and did not reduce it, grew weakly at 10 °C, showed a strong reaction for the Voges-Proskauer test and produced acid from methyl α-d-glucoside, mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose, with weak or no production of acid from methyl α-d-mannoside, l-arabinose, gluconate and l-xylose. Several of the strains were selected for identification on the basis of sequencing of almost the whole 16S rRNA gene and partial atpA and pheS genes and of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. Partial atpA and pheS gene sequencing was also performed for those type strains of Enterococcus species without available sequences in the database. The pristine brook isolates formed a novel species, for which the name Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov. (type strain S299(T) = HAMBI 3055(T) = LMG 25899(T) = CCM 7986(T)) is proposed. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, E. rivorum sp. nov. is related to the Enterococcus faecalis genogoup. It is distinguished from described Enterococcus species on the basis of 16S rRNA, atpA and pheS gene sequences and whole-cell protein and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. It is most closely related to E. faecalis, but DNA-DNA hybridization confirms it to represent a novel species.

  12. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Stony Brook Harbor, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, J. M.; Young, C.; Wong, T.; Hanson, G. N.

    2012-12-01

    As nutrients can significantly impact coastal ecosystems, understanding their path to embayments and oceans is crucial. In Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the only significant contribution of freshwater and thus constitutes the main pathway for nutrients, which may eventually reach Long Island Sound. Subterranean estuaries have been shown to be highly reactive zones where nitrogen attenuation can occur. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in Stony Brook Harbor requires knowing the volume of groundwater entering the bay as well as the amount of denitrification, in the context of the hydrogeological framework. This is achieved by combining electrical resistivity survey, water sampling in piezometers, point conductivity and seepage measurements. A Trident probe inserted 60 cm deep into the sediments allows measuring the conductivity and temperature of the sediments and the overlying seawater. In spring 2011, five Trident transects spreading across the head of the harbor were used as a preliminary study to reveal potential locations for SGD. Locations with significant difference between sediment and seawater temperature and/or conductivities were further investigated using an AGI SuperSting 8-channel receiver resistivity meter. Two ultrasonic seepage meters were deployed in May and July 2011 about 20 m below the low tide mark. Five piezometers were aligned parallel to one resistivity survey. Our resistivity data indicate superficial mixing in the intertidal zone. The freshwater extends quite far under the seafloor, above 67 meters after the low tide mark for one location. The freshwater/saltwater interface seems to be almost horizontal. The piezometer data agree relatively well with the resistivity data. The preliminary average seepage rates observed vary from 3 to 60 cm/d. The resistivity sections reveal the presence of a thin layer of high conductivity above the low tide mark. This matches the observation of a superficial

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 54 (RANDTH00BR0054) on Brook Street, crossing Thayer Brook, Randolph, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RANDTH00BR0054 on Brook Street crossing Thayer Brook, Randolph, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge available from VTAOT files was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain physiographic division of central Vermont in the town of Randolph. The 5.39-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the immediate banks are forested. In the study area, Thayer Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 60 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble (D50 is 42.4 mm or 0.139 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visits on August 3, 1994 and December 5, 1994, indicated that the reach was vertically and laterally unstable. This assessment was due to the extreme channel misalignment with the bridge opening and the presence of a drop structure downstream of the bridge protecting against channel degradation. The Brook Street crossing of Thayer Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 2, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. Streamflow attacks the upstream right wingwall and has undermined the upstream end of the right abutment. Type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) exists only on the upstream and downstream sides of the left

  14. Theoretical stream of comet 12P/Pons-Brooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomko, D.

    2014-07-01

    We modeled the theoretical stream of the Halley-type comet 12P/Pons- Brooks in a single perihelion passage that was 1,000 orbital periods in the past (the orbital period is 70.85 years). We generated 10,000 particles with randomly distributed directions of their velocity vectors. The ejection velocity for these particles was set to 37.51 m/s (equal to 1/1000 of the perihelion velocity). We followed the dynamical evolution of the stream of particles during the numerical integration from the moment of their ejection. From the total number of 10,000 particles, 1,227 particles are crossing or passing around the Earth's orbit at a distance smaller than 0.05 au. These particles have a well-defined radiant predicted on the northern sky, with a high declination (from about 61° to 81° -- figure). The subsequent identification with available databases of the meteors can confirm whether the meteor shower is real or not. For this, we will use three databases: the photographical IAU MDC (Lindblad et al., 2003), the radio-meteor database (Hawkins, 1963; Sekanina & Southworth, 1975), and the SonotaCo video-meteor database (SonotaCo, 2009).

  15. Geohydrology of Brooks, Lowndes, and western Echols counties, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krause, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The principal artesian aquifer, a limestone of Eocene to Miocene age, is the main source of water supply for Brooks, Lowndes, and western Echols Counties in south Georgia. Pumpage of about 22 million gallons perday from this prolific aquifer has not posed any problems regarding declining water levels or depletion of the reservoir. However, water-quality problems do occur in the Valdosta area. Seepage-run measurements indicate that the Withlacoochee River north of Valdosta contributes an average of 112 cubic feet per second of water to caverns and sinkholes that recharge the aquifer. Wells near the recharge area withdraw relatively unfiltered water with iron concentration and color intensity exceeding standards for drinking water. South of Valdosta, water from the aquifer contains as much as 3.0 milligrams per liter of hydrogen sulfide, rendering the water unfit for drinking. Water high in sulfate concentration occurs below 550 feet in the lower part of the aquifer in Valdosta, and is assumed to be present at that depth throughout the study area. Generally, sufficient quantities of freshwater can be obtained without drilling to this depth.

  16. Space Power Facility at NASA’s Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-02-21

    Exterior view of the Space Power Facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The $28.4-million facility, which began operations in 1969, is the largest high vacuum chamber ever built. The chamber is 100 feet in diameter and 120 feet high. It produces a vacuum deep enough to simulate the conditions at 300 miles altitude. The facility can sustain a high vacuum; simulate solar radiation via a 4-megawatt quartz heat lamp array, solar spectrum by a 400-kilowatt arc lamp, and cold environments. The Space Power Facility was originally designed to test nuclear power sources for spacecraft during long durations in a space atmosphere, but it was never used for that purpose. The facility’s first test in 1970 involved a 15 to 20-kilowatt Brayton Cycle Power System for space applications. Three different methods of simulating solar heat were employed during the Brayton tests. The facility was also used for jettison tests of the Centaur Standard Shroud. The shroud was designed for the new Titan-Centaur rocket that was scheduled to launch the Viking spacecraft to Mars. The new shroud was tested under conditions that simulated the time from launch to the separation of the stages. Test programs at the facility include high-energy experiments, shroud separation tests, Mars Lander system tests, deployable Solar Sail tests and International Space Station hardware tests.

  17. Operators in the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-03-21

    Donald Rhodes, left, and Clyde Greer, right, monitor the operation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Reactor Facility from the control room. The 60-megawatt test reactor, NASA’s only reactor, was the eighth largest test reactor in the world. The facility was built by the Lewis Research Center in the late 1950s to study the effects of radiation on different materials that could be used to construct nuclear propulsion systems for aircraft or rockets. The reactor went critical for the first time in 1961. For the next two years, two operators were on duty 24 hours per day working on the fission process until the reactor reached its full-power level in 1963. Reactor Operators were responsible for monitoring and controlling the reactor systems. Once the reactor was running under normal operating conditions, the work was relatively uneventful. Normally the reactor was kept at a designated power level within certain limits. Occasionally the operators had to increase the power for a certain test. The shift supervisor and several different people would get together and discuss the change before boosting the power. All operators were required to maintain a Reactor Operator License from the Atomic Energy Commission. The license included six months of training, an eight-hour written exam, a four-hour walkaround, and testing on the reactor controls.

  18. Llama-supported geologic fieldwork in Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dillion, J.T.; Faiks, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    For the first time since their camelid ancestors migrated from Asia, across the Bering Sea land bridge, into the Brooks Range, and eventually south to the Andes during the Late Pleistocene, domestic llamas trekked through Arctic Alaska mountains. During August 1981, six llamas carrying 520 lb of gear supported a field party of eight people that traveled 80 mi over 11 days. The route followed left the Dietrich Trans-Alaska Pipe line camp on the Dalton Highway and went eastward over the 5000 ft mountains separating the Dietrich and Matthews Rivers, then north to the headwaters of the Matthews River, and finally west to the Dietrich River drainage north of Snowsden Mountain. Although none had packing experience, all of the llamas were friendly and easy to handle. They carried 60-2100 lbs each, depending on their age. Only blocky talus and very steep slopes were obstacles. The llamas easily traversed fine loose rock, making ascents and descents as steep as 1000 ft/mi (190 m/km), bashed through alder scrub, slogged over muskeg, and forded rivers. Since they are avid foragers, minimal food was packed for the llamas. Bears were sighted during the trip, but none approached the group. Dall sheep and llamas puzzled at each other from a distance.

  19. Impact of Extreme Streamflows on Brook Trout Young-of-Year Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, A. G.; Letcher, B. H.; Vogel, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    An understanding of how extreme streamflows influence ecological outcomes is necessary to prioritize, protect and restore ecosystems threatened by climate change and other human impacts. Highly sensitive to stream flows and temperature, salmonids, such as brook trout, are often used as ecological indicators. Unfortunately, streamflow measurements at brook trout sampling sites are rarely available, making it difficult to assess the relationship between flows and trout abundance. In this study, a long-term dataset of brook trout counts from 29 years across 115 sites in Shenandoah National Park (SNP) was used to assess the utility of predicted extreme streamflows for improving our understanding of brook trout young-of-the-year (YOY) abundance. High and low streamflows at ungaged trout sampling sites were predicted using regional regression equations based on gaged flows at nearby unregulated sites. We assessed a range of flow metrics with the goal of identifying which metrics were most closely related to variations in brook trout YOY abundance. Bayesian hierarchical models which allowed coefficients on predicted streamflows to vary by site and accounted for imperfect detection of brook trout were used. We found that estimates of extreme streamflows are important predictors of next summer brook trout YOY abundance in SNP. These findings can help inform streamflow targets and thereby promote environmental conservation and management. For areas with similar data scarcity challenges, these methods can be used to predict the response of other species to extreme flows. In many regions, extreme hydrologic events are expected to increase with climate change, making an understanding of the relationship between extreme streamflows and population resilience particularly important.

  20. Evaluation of catch-and-release regulations on Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; Wagner, Tyler; Greene, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission implemented catch-and-release (CR) regulations on headwater stream systems to determine if eliminating angler harvest would result in an increase in the number of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Under the CR regulations, angling was permitted on a year-round basis, no Brook Trout could be harvested at any time, and there were no tackle restrictions. A before-after–control-impact design was used to evaluate the experimental regulations. Brook Trout populations were monitored in 16 treatment (CR regulations) and 7 control streams (statewide regulations) using backpack electrofishing gear periodically for up to 15 years (from 1990 to 2003 or 2004) before the implementation of the CR regulations and over a 7–8-year period (from 2004 or 2005 to 2011) after implementation. We used Poisson mixed models to evaluate whether electrofishing catch per effort (CPE; catch/100 m2) of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout increased in treatment streams as a result of implementing CR regulations. Brook Trout CPE varied among sites and among years, and there was no significant effect (increase or decrease) of CR regulations on the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout. Results of our evaluation suggest that CR regulations were not effective at improving the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams. Low angler use, high voluntary catch and release, and slow growth rates in infertile headwater streams are likely the primary reasons for the lack of response.

  1. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  2. Stochastic life history modeling for managing regional-scale freshwater fisheries: an experimental study of brook trout.

    PubMed

    Adams, Blair K; Cote, David; Fleming, Ian A

    2016-04-01

    Environmental heterogeneity can combine with evolutionary responses to create very dynamic and often locally independent populations across a landscape. Such complexity creates difficulties for managers trying to conserve populations across large areas. This study develops, applies, and tests the use of stochastic life history modeling and Monte Carlo simulation to assess management scenarios related to the realities of regional fisheries management and conservation. We apply this approach to the management of recreational brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fishing; an activity that can severely impact species balance, abundance, and the size structure of fish communities. Specifically, the model incorporates population-specific life-history information (e.g., growth rate, reproductive effort, and survival) to allow forecasts of the impact of various management strategies and/or changes to environmental conditions on a population's ecological characteristics (e.g., size structure, abundance, and probability of persistence). Sampling was carried out in 16 water bodies spread across four sites in Atlantic Canada. Each water body was sampled in 2005 and reassessed in 2008. This sampling had two primary objectives: (1) define a significant proportion of life-history variation of brook trout in Atlantic Canada, and (2) to test the precision and accuracy of model predictions of population responses to experimental exploitation and management changes. The model successfully predicted population responses to changes in adult survival in 12 of 13 populations having sufficient data for validation testing, while also proving to be a useful tool when engaging stakeholders regarding management options and their associated risk. We suggest that such models are cost-effective and have great potential for informing proactive management of jurisdictions with numerous and diverse populations.

  3. Science in Flux: NASA's Nuclear Program at Plum Brook Station 1955-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Science in Flux traces the history of one of the most powerful nuclear test reactors in the United States and the only nuclear facility ever built by NASA. In the late 1950's NASA constructed Plum Brook Station on a vast tract of undeveloped land near Sandusky, Ohio. Once fully operational in 1963, it supported basic research for NASA's nuclear rocket program (NERVA). Plum Brook represents a significant, if largely forgotten, story of nuclear research, political change, and the professional culture of the scientists and engineers who devoted their lives to construct and operate the facility. In 1973, after only a decade of research, the government shut Plum Brook down before many of its experiments could be completed. Even the valiant attempt to redefine the reactor as an environmental analysis tool failed, and the facility went silent. The reactors lay in costly, but quiet standby for nearly a quarter-century before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided to decommission the reactors and clean up the site. The history of Plum Brook reveals the perils and potentials of that nuclear technology. As NASA, Congress, and space enthusiasts all begin looking once again at the nuclear option for sending humans to Mars, the echoes of Plum Brook's past will resonate with current policy and space initiatives.

  4. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  5. Conservation genetics of Lake Superior brook trout: Issues, questions, and directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.C.; Stott, W.; Miller, L.; D'Amelio, S.; Jennings, Martin J.; Cooper, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Parallel efforts by several genetic research groups have tackled common themes relating to management concerns about and recent rehabilitation opportunities for coaster brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Lake Superior. The questions that have been addressed include the evolutionary and genetic status of coaster brook trout, the degree of relatedness among coaster populations and their relationship to riverine tributary brook trout populations, and the role and effectiveness of stocking in maintaining and restoring coasters to Lake Superior. Congruent genetic results indicate that coasters are an ecotype (life history variant) rather than an evolutionarily significant unit or genetically distinct strain. Regional structure exists among brook trout stocks, coasters being produced from local populations. Introgression of hatchery genes into wild populations appears to vary regionally and may relate to local population size, habitat integrity, and anthropogenic pressures. Tracking the genetic diversity and integrity associated with captive breeding programs is helping to ensure that the fish used for stocking are representative of their source populations and appropriate for rehabilitation efforts. Comparative analysis of shared samples among collaborating laboratories is enabling standardization of genotype scoring and interpretation as well as the development of a common toolkit for assessing genetic structure and diversity. Incorporation of genetic data into rehabilitation projects will facilitate monitoring efforts and subsequent adaptive management. Together, these multifaceted efforts provide comprehensive insights into the biology of coaster brook trout and enhance restoration options. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  7. Brook trout use of thermal refugia and foraging habitat influenced by brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Snook, Erin; Massie, Danielle L.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in eastern North America is often limited by temperature and introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta), the relative importance of which is poorly understood but critical for conservation and restoration planning. We evaluated effects of brown trout on brook trout behavior and habitat use in experimental streams across increasing temperatures (14–23 °C) with simulated groundwater upwelling zones providing thermal refugia (6–9 °C below ambient temperatures). Allopatric and sympatric trout populations increased their use of upwelling zones as ambient temperatures increased, demonstrating the importance of groundwater as thermal refugia in warming streams. Allopatric brook trout showed greater movement rates and more even spatial distributions within streams than sympatric brook trout, suggesting interference competition by brown trout for access to forage habitats located outside thermal refugia. Our results indicate that removal of introduced brown trout may facilitate native brook trout expansion and population viability in downstream reaches depending in part on the spatial configuration of groundwater upwelling zones.

  8. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed studies of the composition, internal structure, and age of the Brooks Range ophiolite (BRO) and its metamorphic sole reveal new constraints for its tectonic evolution. The BRO consists of six separate thrust masses of consanguineous composition, internal organization, structure and age. Subophiolite metamorphic rocks are locally preserved along its structural base, which is well exposed in several places. The metamorphic sole is locally transitional with mafic volcanic sequences, chert, tuffs, and minor clastic sedimentary material of the Copter Peak Complex, which is correlative with the Angayucham terrane. This terrane is much older than, and chemically distinct from the BRO. The internal structure of the BRO is characterized by NE-SW trending igneous layers that expose the transition zone from crust to mantle. Residual mantle material consists of tectonized peridotite in abrupt contact with dunite pods up to 4 km thick. Ductile and brittle structures of the BRO preserve various phases of its dynamic evolution from a magma body to a fragmented thrust sheet. The earliest deformational effects are recorded by ductile lattice and shape fabrics in dunites and the layered series of the BRO. Magmatic flow planes generally parallel the petrologic moho, and dip 40[degree]--70[degree] to the NW and SE. Flow lineations consistently plunge ESE-ENE from 39[degree]--54[degree]. Igneous laminations and compositional layers represent patterns of magmatic flow in, and plastic deformation of, a cumulate sequence -- not the deposition pattern of cumulate layers. In the upper layered series, amphiboles with a shape-preferred orientation yield Ar/Ar plateau ages of 163--169 Ma. These ages overlap with plateau ages of the same kind from amphibolite of the metamorphic sole. This concordance in age indicates that cooling of the BRO coincided with its tectonic emplacement.

  10. Space Propulsion Research Facility Firing at Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-12-21

    The Space Propulsion Research Facility, better known as B-2, operating at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. B-2 is the world's only high altitude test facility capable of full-scale rocket engine and launch vehicle system level tests. It was created to test rocket propulsion systems with up to 100,000 pounds of thrust in a simulated space environment. The facility has the unique ability to maintain a vacuum at the rocket’s nozzle while the engine is firing. The rocket fires into a 120-foot deep spray chamber which cools the exhaust before it is ejected outside the facility. B-2 simulated space using giant diffusion pumps to reduce chamber pressure, nitrogen-filled cold walls create cryogenic temperatures, and quartz lamps replicate the radiation of the sun. This photograph shows the facility undergoing check-out runs prior to its first test in late 1969.The 38-foot diameter and 62-foot tall vacuum chamber is inside the high-bay on the right. Below that is a 67-foot diameter and 120-foot deep spray chamber. The hot rocket exhaust is cooled in the chamber by a spray of 250,000 gallons of water per minute. B-2’s first test was a hot firing of Centaur D-1A rocket on December 18, 1969. Since then the facility has fired more than 100 Pratt and Whitney RL-10 engines during the Centaur development, 80 current RL-10B-2 engines for Delta-3 development, and another 12 RL-10B-2s for the Delta 3 Upper Stage.

  11. Cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Cement stratigraphy serves as a descriptive framework for the interpretation of the diagenetic history of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska. The Lisburne is a sequence of shallow-water, marine carbonate rocks that have experienced a wide spectrum of diagenetic events: early marine diagenesis, early subaerial exposure, significant erosion and karstification following final Lisburne deposition, deep burial of at least 3,000 meters, compressional tectonism, and final uplift into modern mountain ranges. Compositional zones in the calcite cements were identified by using stains for ferroan calcite and cathodoluminescence microscopy. The cements are, from oldest to youngest: A1-nonferroan, nonluminescent or multibanded calcite; B1-nonferroan to low-ferroan, dull luminescent calcite; C1-ferroan, very-dull luminescent calcite; B2-nonferroan, dull luminescent calcite; A2-nonferroan calcite with 1 or 2 sets of nonluminescent and bright zones; C2-ferroan, very-dull luminescent calcite; Be-nonferroan, dull luminescent calcite. Petrographic studies of cross-cutting relationships show that A1 cements predate or are synchronous with surfaces of subaerial exposure within the Lisburne Group. The cross-cutting relationships include truncation of cements by early fractures, non-marine fissure fills, and at clast margins of autoclastic breccias. Similarly, B1 and C1 cements predate the major unconformity at the top of the Lisburne Group, hence, these cements are pre-Permian in age and may well have precipitated from fresh groundwaters introduced during development of the sub-Permian unconformity. B2 and C2 cements are present in the Permian Echooka formation overlying the Lisburne Group and, thus, can be dated as post-Pennsylvanian. B3 cements are Cretaceous or younger in age.

  12. Diagenesis of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Enos, P.

    1995-05-01

    Petrographic cathodoluminescence studies of the cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group yield insights on its diagenetic history. Crosscutting relationships between features of subaerial exposure and calcite cements show that early generations of nonferroan, nonluminescent and multibanded-luminescent calcites are synchronous with or postdated by subaerial exposure surfaces within the Lisburne. Surfaces of subaerial exposure occur at 18 horizons within the Lisburne and are distinguished by features as laminated crusts, rhizoliths, autoclastic breccia, fissure fills, mud cracks, and erosional surfaces. Crosscutting relationships also occur between calcite cements and clasts in karst breccias and conglomerates that formed along the sub-Permian unconformity at the top of the Lisburne. The sub-Permian unconformity postdates later generations of calcite cement. These cements formed in the following sequence: nonferroan to low-ferroan, dully luminescent calcite; ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite; and second generation of nonferroan, multibanded calcite. The crosscutting relationships not only constrain the timing of cement precipitation, but also suggest that the cements probably were precipitated from meteoric groundwaters introduced during subaerial exposure of the Lisburne platform. Late cements in the Lisburne postdate the Permian Echooka Formation. These cements are low-ferroan, moderately-bright to dully luminescent calcite, followed by a second generation of ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. Features of compaction and pressure solution are coincident with the precipitation of the late ferroan calcite and further constrain its timing to deep burial of the Lisburne. The youngest phase of calcite cement precipitated in the Lisburne Group is nonferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. It commonly fills tectonically-induced shear fractures, indicating precipitation after the onset of Cretaceous (and/or Cenozoic) tectonism in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  13. Structural problems of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Bickerstaff, D. . Dept. of Geology); Stone, D.B. . Geophysical Inst.)

    1993-04-01

    Structural and paleogeographic restorations of the Brooks Range ophiolite (hereafter BRO) and other associated mafic and ultramafic bodies of N. Alaska are difficult because of ambiguous relations between sheeted dikes, cover sediments, and steep NW and SE dipping magmatic flow fabrics. Paleomagnetically enhanced structural studies at Misheguk, Avan, and Siniktanneyak Mountains provide new constraints for the initial dip and sequence of deformation for various structural features of the BRO. The angle between magmatic layers near the petrologic moho and the paleomagnetic inclination of these layers is 50--63[degree] at Misheguk. High level gabbro layers that are disrupted by syn- and post-cooling intrusions display a greater variation. Assuming that the characteristic magnetization is primary, and that the primary inclination was > 80[degree], magmatic layers and the moho had initial dips from 17--40[degree]. These layers now dip 40--70[degree]SE suggesting some post-magmatic tilt. The variation of inclinations with depth in the ophiolite suggest that high level gabbro has tilted most. Sheeted dikes are documented at the Maiyumerak and Siniktanneyak ophiolite bodies. At both locations the dikes dip steeply and strike NE-SW. Sedimentary and volcanic flow layers associated with the dikes have the same strike and dip 0--30[degree]. Parallelism between various planar features throughout the BRO indicates that rotations about a vertical axis are either uniform throughout the ophiolite belt or negligible. Assuming the later, the BRO may represent a linear zone of SSZ magmatism that was oriented NE-SW prior to collision. Post-emplacement long wavelength folding of the ophiolite lid can account for its variation in facing direction and some steepening of magmatic layers.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis).

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianfeng; Buchinger, Tyler; Pu, Jiafei; Jia, Liang; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis) is reported. The two mitogenomes show a 13 bp length difference on the tRNA-Gly and two control regions. The gene order and contents are conserved in the two lampreys and identical to the lamprey mitogenomes published. Except for three indel polymorphic sites, there are 27 SNP sites which are all synonymous substitution sites and occurred on 9 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and one tRNA. The control region1 contains six consecutive 39-nt repetitive strings in both lampreys. A 7-nt repetitive string in the control region2 is repeated 3 and 5 times in northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey, respectively. The observed level of similarity between nucleotide sequences (99.74%) is consistent with the hypothesis that northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey represent two ecotypes of one species.

  15. Genome evolution in the fish family salmonidae: generation of a brook charr genetic map and comparisons among charrs (Arctic charr and brook charr) with rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salmonids are regarded as 4R derivative species, having experienced 4 whole genome duplication events in their ancestry. Many duplicated chromosome regions still share extensive homology with one another which is maintained primarily through male-based homeologous chromosome pairings during meiosis. The formation of quadrivalents during meiosis leads to pseudolinkage. This phenomenon is more prevalent within 5 of the 12 ancestral teleost linkage groups in salmonids. Results We constructed a genetic linkage map for brook charr and used this in combination with the genetic map from Arctic charr, to make comparisons with the genetic map of rainbow trout. Although not all chromosome arms are currently mapped, some homologous chromosome rearrangements were evident between Arctic charr and brook charr. Notably, 10 chromosome arms in brook charr representing 5 metacentric chromosomes in Arctic charr have undergone rearrangements. Three metacentrics have one arm translocated and fused with another chromosome arm in brook charr to a make a new metacentrics while two metacentrics are represented by 4 acrocentric pairs in brook charr. In two cases (i.e., BC-4 and BC-16), an apparent polymorphism was observed with the identification of both a putative metacentric structure (similar to metacentric AC-4 = BC-4 and a joining of acrocentric AC-16 + one arm of AC-28 = BC-16), as well as two separate acrocentric linkage groups evident in the mapping parents. Forty-six of the expected 50 karyotypic arms could be inter-generically assigned. SEX in brook charr (BC-4) was localized to the same homologous linkage group region as in Arctic charr (AC-4). The homeologous affinities detected in the two charr species facilitated the identification of 20 (expected number = 25) shared syntenic regions with rainbow trout, although it is likely that some of these regions were partial or overlapping arm regions. Conclusions Inter-generic comparisons among 2 species of charr (genus

  16. 77 FR 60676 - Stony Brook University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscope This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c.... Docket Number: 12-034. Applicant: Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794. Instrument: Electron.... Docket Number: 12-035. Applicant: The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031. Instrument:...

  17. Geomorphic, flood, and groundwater-flow characteristics of Bayfield Peninsula streams, Wisconsin, and implications for brook-trout habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Saad, David A.; Pratt, Dennis M.; Lenz, Bernard N.

    2015-01-01

    Available brook-trout habitat is dependent on the locations of groundwater upwellings, the sizes of flood peaks, and sediment loads. Management practices that focus on reducing or slowing runoff from upland areas and increasing channel roughness have potential to reduce flood peaks, erosion, and sedimentation and improve brook-trout habitat in all Bayfield Peninsula streams.

  18. Chemistry of precipitation, streamwater, and lakewater from the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: a record of sampling protocols and analytical procedures

    Treesearch

    Donald C. Buso; Gene E. Likens; John S. Eaton

    2000-01-01

    The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES), begun in 1963, is a long-term effort to understand the structure, function and change in forest watersheds and associated aquatic ecosystems at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Chemical analyses of streamwater and precipitation collections began in 1963, and analyses of lakewater collections began in 1967...

  19. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National... scoping and prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm... scoping is for NASA to obtain public comments on construction and operation of the wind farm. The...

  20. Effect of brook trout removal from a spawning stream on an adfluvial population of Lahontan cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Shea, Sean P.; Somer, William

    2012-01-01

    Independence Lake (Nevada and Sierra counties, California) harbors the only extant native population of Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi in the Truckee River system and one of two extant adfluvial populations in the Lahontan basin. The persistence of this population has been precarious for more than 50 years, with spawning runs consisting of only 30–150 fish. It is assumed that this population was much larger prior to the introduction of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout overlap with cutthroat trout in upper Independence Creek, where the cutthroat trout spawn and their resulting progeny emigrate to Independence Lake. In 2005, we began removing brook trout from upper Independence Creek using electrofishers and monitored the cutthroat trout population. Stomach analysis of captured brook trout revealed cutthroat trout fry, and cutthroat trout fry survival increased significantly from 4% to 12% with brook trout removal. Prior to brook trout removal, the only Lahontan cutthroat trout progeny emigrating to Independence Lake were fry; with brook trout removal, juveniles were found entering the lake. In 2010, 237 potential spawners passed a prefabricated weir upstream of Independence Lake. Although the results of this study suggest that brook trout removal from upper Independence Creek has had a positive influence on the population dynamics of Independence Lake Lahontan cutthroat trout, additional years of removal are needed to assess the ultimate effect this action will have upon the cutthroat trout population.

  1. Have brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) displaced bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) along longitudinal gradients in central Idaho streams?

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Rieman; James T. Peterson; Deborah L. Myers

    2006-01-01

    Invasions of non-native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) have the potential for upstream displacement or elimination of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other native species already threatened by habitat loss. We summarized the distribution and number of bull trout in samples from 12 streams with and without brook trout...

  2. Shale Gas Development and Brook Trout: Scaling Best Management Practices to Anticipate Cumulative Effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Shale gas development may involve trade-offs between energy development and benefits provided by natural ecosystems. However, current best management practices (BMPs) focus on mitigating localized ecological degradation. We review evidence for cumulative effects of natural gas development on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and conclude that BMPs should account for potential watershed-scale effects in addition to localized influences. The challenge is to develop BMPs in the face of uncertainty in the predicted response of brook trout to landscape-scale disturbance caused by gas extraction. We propose a decision-analysis approach to formulating BMPs in the specific case of relatively undisturbed watersheds where there is consensus to maintain brook trout populations during gas development. The decision analysis was informed by existing empirical models that describe brook trout occupancy responses to landscape disturbance and set bounds on the uncertainty in the predicted responses to shale gas development. The decision analysis showed that a high efficiency of gas development (e.g., 1 well pad per square mile and 7 acres per pad) was critical to achieving a win-win solution characterized by maintaining brook trout and maximizing extraction of available gas. This finding was invariant to uncertainty in predicted response of brook trout to watershed-level disturbance. However, as the efficiency of gas development decreased, the optimal BMP depended on the predicted response, and there was considerable potential value in discriminating among predictive models through adaptive management or research. The proposed decision-analysis framework provides an opportunity to anticipate the cumulative effects of shale gas development, account for uncertainty, and inform management decisions at the appropriate spatial scales.

  3. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  4. Seismic images of the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, reveal crustal- scale duplexing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Levander, A.R.; Lutter, W.J.; Wissinger, E.S.; Moore, T.E.; Christensen, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated set of seismic reflection and refraction data collected across the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, in 1990, has yielded a composite image of this Mesozoic and Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt that reveals duplexing to lower-crustal depths. Interpretations from this image are discussed. The position of the thickest crust may indicate that either the duplexed crust above the decollement was thrust onto and depressed the plate beneath the North Slope or the protracted tectonic history of the Brooks Range has left structures not simply explainable in terms of a single collisional event. -from Authors

  5. Structure of the Red Dog District, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; McClay, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog district of the western Brooks Range of northern Alaska, which includes the sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag ± Ba deposits at Red Dog, Su-Lik, and Anarraaq, contains one of the world's largest reserves of zinc. This paper presents a new model for the structural development of the area and shows that understanding the structure is crucial for future exploration efforts and new mineral discoveries in the district. In the Red Dog district, a telescoped Late Devonian through Jurassic continental passive margin is exposed in a series of subhorizontally stacked, internally imbricated, and regionally folded thrust sheets. These sheets were emplaced during the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Brookian orogeny and subsequently were uplifted by late tectonic activity in the Tertiary. The thrust sheet stack comprises seven tectonostratigraphically distinct allochthonous sheets, three of which have been subject to regional and detailed structural analysis. The lowermost of these is the Endicott Mountains allochthon, which is overlain by the structurally higher Picnic Creek and Kelly River allochthons. Each individual allochthon is itself internally imbricated into a series of tectonostratigraphically coherent and distinct thrust plates and subplates. This structural style gives rise to duplex development and imbrication at a range of scales, from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The variable mechanical properties of the lithologic units of the ancient passive margin resulted in changes in structural styles and scales of structures across allochthon boundaries. Structural mapping and analysis of the district indicate a dominant northwest to west-northwest direction of regional tectonic transport. Local north to north-northeast transport of thrust sheets is interpreted to reflect the influence of underlying lateral and/or oblique ramps, which may have been controlled by inherited basin margin structures. Some thrust-sheet stacking patterns suggest out

  6. 2014 Earthquake Swarm in Northwest Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Holtkamp, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    An unusual sequence of earthquakes in NW Brooks Range region of Alaska began with two magnitude 5.7 earthquakes within minutes of each other on April 18, 2014. These events were followed by a vigorous aftershock sequence with many aftershocks reaching magnitude 4 and higher. Later, three more magnitude 5.7 earthquakes occurred in the same source region on May 3, June 7 and June 16. Earthquake source mechanisms indicate normal faulting on SE-NW striking fault planes. The source region is located ~20 km NE of the Noatak village and ~40 km S of the Red Dog Mine. A magnitude 5.5 occurred in this area in 1981. The 1981 sequence also exhibited a swarm-like behavior over the course of 6 months. Detection and reporting of these earthquakes is complicated by sparseness of seismic network in NW Alaska. At the time of April 18 earthquake the nearest seismic site was located at the Red Dog Mine, with the next nearest station 350 km away. Following the May 3 event, the Alaska Earthquake Center installed two additional temporary stations, one in Noatak and another in Kotzebue, 85 km S of the source area. Overall, 450 events were reported in this sequence through end of July. The catalog magnitude of completeness with the additional stations was about ~2.2. We applied waveform template matching algorithm to detect additional events in this sequence that could not be detected with the standard network processing. The template matching resulted in ~600 additional event detections. The waveform cross-correlation indicates that most of the events are not repeating sources. From the catalogued events, only 6% of event pairs have correlation coefficients of 0.75 or higher. We were able to identify only a few families of repeating events. Only one family seemed to be present throughout the entire sequence, while other event families were mostly short-lived. We find preliminary evidence that the earthquakes migrated to shallower depths throughout the sequence, consistent with the

  7. Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Church, S.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality, habitats, and biota of streams in the upper Animas River watershed of Colorado, USA, are affected by metal contamination associated with acid drainage. We determined metal concentrations in components of the food web of the Animas River and its tributaries - periphyton (aufwuchs), benthic invertebrates, and livers of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) - and evaluated pathways of metal exposure and hazards of metal toxicity to stream biota. Concentrations of the toxic metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and trout livers from one or more sites in the upper Animas River were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Periphyton from sites downstream from mixing zones of acid and neutral waters had elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) reflecting deposition of colloidal Fe and Al oxides, and reduced algal biomass. Metal concentrations in benthic invertebrates reflected differences in feeding habits and body size among taxa, with greatest concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the small mayfly Rhithrogena, which feeds on periphyton, and greatest concentrations of Pb in the small stonefly Zapada, a detritivore. Concentrations of Zn and Pb decreased across each trophic linkage, whereas concentrations of Cu and Cd were similar across several trophic levels, suggesting that Cu and Cd were more efficiently transferred via dietary exposure. Concentrations of Cu in invertebrates and trout livers were more closely associated with impacts on trout populations and invertebrate communities than were concentrations of Zn, Cd, or Pb. Copper concentrations in livers of brook trout from the upper Animas River were substantially greater than background concentrations and approached levels associated with reduced brook trout populations in field studies and with toxic effects on other salmonids in laboratory studies. These results indicate that bioaccumulation and transfer of

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Norrie disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inherited eye disorder that leads to blindness in male infants at birth or soon after birth. It causes abnormal development of the retina , the layer of sensory cells that detect light and color, with masses of immature retinal cells accumulating at ...

  9. Henry Norris Russell's Toronto Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    In February 1924, at the invitation of C. A. Chant, Russell presented a set of 14 public lectures on the state of astronomy and astrophysics. Designed to be inspirational, they also reveal Russell's contemporary views on the state of astrophysics as well as his sense of proper practice in astronomy. During his visit, Russell was interviewed by local reporters who asked his opinion about building a large observatory, one of Chant's major projects. What Russell had to say about such ventures did not please Chant one bit.

  10. Chemical and morphological distinctions between vertical and lateral podzolization at Hubbard Brook

    Treesearch

    Rebecca R. Bourgault; Donald S. Ross; Scott W. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Classical podzolization studies assumed vertical percolation and pedon-scale horizon development. However, hillslope-scale lateral podzolization also occurs where lateral subsurface water flux predominates. In this hydropedologic study, 99 podzols were observed in Watershed 3, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Soil horizon samples were extracted with...

  11. Chen-Ning Yang and my Student Days at Stony Brook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2008-12-01

    The time was 35 years ago. Chen-Ning Yang, my Ph.D. advisor at Stony Brook, thoughtfully led me through a career decision path that I followed, and have enjoyed since then. This is my reminiscence of that time so critical to my career.

  12. Decontamination of Hot Cells and Hot Pipe Tunnel at NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.G.; Halishak, W.F.

    2008-07-01

    The large scale decontamination of the concrete Hot Cells and Hot Pipe Tunnel at NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility demonstrates that novel management and innovative methods are crucial to ensuring that the successful remediation of the most contaminated facilities can be achieved with minimal risk to the project stakeholders. (authors)

  13. Strategic Directions, 1992-1997: A Plan for the University at Stony Brook Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook. Library.

    Over 60 members of the State University of New York at Stony Brook faculty and staff worked for almost a year to develop a comprehensive strategic plan for the University Libraries, the first phase of which is presented here. The process, which began in the spring of 1991, consisted of three phases: (1) Organization--meeting of the planning team…

  14. Modeling ecohydrologic processes at Hubbard Brook: Initial results for Watershed 6 stream discharge and chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hubbard Brook Long Term Ecological Research site has produced some of the most extensive and long-running databases on the hydrology, biology and chemistry of forest ecosystem responses to climate and forest harvest. We used these long-term databases to calibrate and apply G...

  15. Elevation dependent sensitivity of northern hardwoods to Ca addition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH USA

    Treesearch

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Palaniswamy Thangavel; Subhash C. Minocha; Christopher Eagar; Charles T. Driscoll

    2010-01-01

    Acidic deposition has caused a depletion of calcium (Ca) in the northeastern forest soils. Wollastonite (Ca silicate) was added to watershed 1 (WS1) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in 1999 to evaluate its effects on various functions of the HBEF ecosystem. The effects of Ca addition on foliar soluble (extractable in 5% HClO4) ions...

  16. The Spine of Literature: A Conversation between Eudora Welty and Cleanth Brooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    Describes a discussion between Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty about the state of the story in today's fiction. Characterizes the narrative form as the spine of literature. Points out that, too often, contemporary writers neglect this form of writing and instead emphasize a type of prose poetry. Notes that authors today overemphasize the present…

  17. EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD MANIPULATION ON BROOK TROUT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT, FECUNDITY, AND CIRCULATING SEX STEROID CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting reproductive studies with brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis at times other than the normal fall-spawning period...Overall viability of embryos from this spring spawning was slightly lower than the average viabi...

  18. Back to Our Beginnings: Information utilization, Bertram Brookes and the Fundamental Equation of Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    1999-01-01

    This analytical paper covers: (1) review of the terrain of information utilization; (2) posits/examines Bertram Brookes' fundamental equation of information science as a theoretical framework, and discuss our understanding of/research into, the cognitive aspects of information utilization, and (3) discusses methodological aspects for investigating…

  19. The Spine of Literature: A Conversation between Eudora Welty and Cleanth Brooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    Describes a discussion between Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty about the state of the story in today's fiction. Characterizes the narrative form as the spine of literature. Points out that, too often, contemporary writers neglect this form of writing and instead emphasize a type of prose poetry. Notes that authors today overemphasize the present…

  20. Experimental Acidification Causes Soil Base-Cation Depletion at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine

    Treesearch

    Ivan J. Fernandez; Lindsey E. Rustad; Stephen A. Norton; Jeffrey S. Kahl; Bernard J. Cosby

    2003-01-01

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to elevated N and S deposition through bimonthly additions of (NH4)2SO4. Quantitative soil...

  1. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  2. Technology Education for All (Role of the Department of Technology and Society at Stony Brook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxal, John G.

    Studies offered by the Department of Technology and Society at the State University of New York at Stony Brook are described. The program of studies for nonengineering students provides an introduction to the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of the technological environment. The college provides courses for undergraduates in the…

  3. A useful single-solution polychrome stain for plant material...Brook Cyte-Chrome I.

    Treesearch

    Stanley L Krugman; Julia F. Littlefield

    1968-01-01

    Fresh and chemically fixed sectioned plant material can be quickly stained by applying a Brook Cyte Chrome I polychrome stain. Staining time averaged only about 10 minutes. And exact timing of staining and de-staining is not as critical as with most of the commonly used stains. The overall quality is comparable to that of the traditional stains.

  4. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in sediments near Sutton Brook Disposal Area, Tewksbury, Massachusetts, May 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Lyford, F.P.; Clifford, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Ground water at the Sutton Brook Disposal Area, a former municipal landfill in Tewksbury, Massachusetts, located adjacent to Sutton Brook, a tributary of the Shawsheen River, is contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results from the use of passive-vapor-diffusion samplers show vapor concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons as high as 500,000 parts per billion by volume in pore waters of streambed sediments along an approximate 2,000-foot reach of Sutton Brook where it flows between lobes of the former landfill. Petroleum hydrocarbons were also detected in the sediments on the eastern shore of Quarry Pond, which is south of the southern landfill lobe, with a maximum vapor concentration near 2,000 parts per billion by volume. Vapor concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments of Sutton Brook vary by two to three orders-of-magitude over distances of 50 to 100 feet. Chlorinated hydrocarbons also were detected with passive-vapor-diffusion samplers, but generally at locations downstream of where petroleum hydrocarbons were detected, and mostly at vapor concentrations of less than 100 parts per billion by volume.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  6. State University of New York at Stony Brook Main Library Circulation Department Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Curtis L., Comp.; Lange, Robert, Comp.

    Designed to train student circulation desk workers at the State University of New York at Stony Brook's Main Library, this guide details specific procedures and outlines administrative policies. Topics covered include: (1) what circulation is; (2) what is expected of graduate students; (3) the library's opening and closing procedures; (4) who may…

  7. Comparisons with results from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the Northern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    James Hornbeck; Amey S. Bailey; Christopher Eagar; John L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) is located in central New Hampshire, in the heart of the White Mountains, toward the northern end of the Appalachian chain. HBEF was established in 1955, two decades after Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (CHL), but research objectives at both sites have long been similar, that is, to understand hydrologic and nutrient cycling...

  8. 75 FR 38716 - Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display, Brookings, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... No. USCG-2010-0602] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display... Veterans of America Fireworks Display near Brookings, Oregon. This action is necessary to ensure the safety... with fireworks displays on navigable waters. Accordingly, under 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(B), the Coast...

  9. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  10. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Christopher Eagar; Gene E. Likens; Thomas G. Siccama; Chris E. Johnson; Timothy J. Fahey; Steven P. Hamburg; Richard T. Holmes; Amey S. Bailey; Donald C. Buso

    2007-01-01

    Summarizes 52 years of collaborative, long-term research conducted at the Hubbard Brook (NH) Experimental Forest on ecosystem response to disturbances such as air pollution, climate change, forest disturbance, and forest management practices. Also provides explanations of some of the trends and lists references from scientific literature for further reading.

  11. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  12. Modeling ecohydrologic processes at Hubbard Brook: Initial results for Watershed 6 stream discharge and chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hubbard Brook Long Term Ecological Research site has produced some of the most extensive and long-running databases on the hydrology, biology and chemistry of forest ecosystem responses to climate and forest harvest. We used these long-term databases to calibrate and apply G...

  13. William Graham Brooke (1835-1907): Advocate of Girls' Superior Schooling in Nineteenth-Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of William Graham Brooke as advocate of women's higher education and access to university. His work as advocate is considered against the religious, political, social and economic backdrop of late nineteenth century Ireland. A barrister, as Clerk in the Lord Chancellor's office, he was centrally involved in the…

  14. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  16. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  17. Brook trout movement within a high-elevation watershed: Consequences for watershed restoration

    Treesearch

    Jeff L. Hansbarger; J. Todd Petty; Patricia M. Mazik

    2010-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to quantify brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) movements in the Shavers Fork of the Cheat River, West Virginia, and an adjacent second-order tributary (Rocky Run). Our objectives were to quantify the overall rate of trout movement, assess spatial and temporal variation in...

  18. Brook trout nutritional analysis for inclusion into the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many species of wild game and fish that are legal to hunt or catch do not have nutrition information in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Among those species that lack nutrition information are brook trout. The research team worked with the Nutrient Data Laboratory wit...

  19. Myostatin protein and RNA transcript levels in adult and developing brook trout.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven B; Goetz, Frederick W

    2003-11-28

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis were used to measure RNA expression of the two brook trout myostatin (MSTN) genes ("ovarian", ov and "brain/muscle", b/m), and levels of MSTN immunoreactive protein (MIP) in developing embryos and muscle of brook trout adults. In developing brook trout embryos, ov and b/m MSTN RNAs and MIP significantly increased 45 days post-fertilization. In adult brook trout, the b/m MSTN form was expressed at higher levels in red versus white muscle regardless of gender or time of year. While few changes were observed in MSTN transcripts in fish sampled throughout the year, a significant increase in the processed 14 kDa MIP was observed at spawning in a tissue specific manner, and differences were observed between males and females. These data, along with promoter sequence analysis of the of b/m and ov genes, support a role for MSTN in muscle growth and development in fish.

  20. Decadal responses in soil N dynamics at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Treesearch

    Sultana Jefts; Ivan J. Fernandez; Lindwey E. Rustad; D. Bryan Dail

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forested ecosystems is a concern because of both geochemical and biological consequences for ecosystem integrity. High levels of prolonged N deposition can lead to "N saturation" of the ecosystem. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine is a long-term, paired forested watershed experiment with over a decade of experimental N...

  1. Hydrogen ion input to the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, during the last decade

    Treesearch

    Gene E. Likens; F. Herbert Bormann; John S. Eaton; Robert S. Pierce; Noye M. Johnson

    1976-01-01

    Being downwind of eastern and midwestern industrial centers, the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest offers a prime location to monitor long-term trends in atmospheric chemistry. Continuous measurements of precipitation chemistry during the last 10 years provide a measure of recent changes in precipitation inputs of hydrogen ion. The weighted average pH of precipitation...

  2. Analysis of nitrogen dynamics in the Lye Brook Wilderness Area, Vermont, USA

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; Christopher Eagar; William H. McDowell; James W. Hornbeck

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and its impact on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is a concern facing federal land managers at the Lye Brook Wilderness in Vermont and other protected areas throughout the northeastern United States. In this study, we compared N production in soils with N concentrations and outputs in leachates to determine how forest cover types differ in...

  3. Linking water age and solute dynamics in streamflow at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA

    Treesearch

    Paolo Benettin; Scott W. Bailey; John L. Campbell; Mark B. Green; Andrea Rinaldo; Gene E. Likens; Kevin J. McGuire; Gianluca Botter

    2015-01-01

    We combine experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is here applied to...

  4. Biological consequences of the coaster brook trout restoration stocking program in Lake Superior tributaries with Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Jill B.K.; Stott, Wendylee; Loope, Delora M.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Sreenivasan, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    The coaster Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is a Lake Superior ecotype representing intraspecific variation that has been impacted by habitat loss and overfishing. Hatchery strains of Brook Trout derived from populations in Lake Superior were stocked into streams within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, as part of an effort to rehabilitate adfluvial coaster Brook Trout. Wild and hatchery Brook Trout from three streams (Mosquito River, Hurricane River, and Sevenmile Creek) were examined for movement behavior, size, physiology, and reproductive success. Behavior and size of the stocked fish were similar to those of wild fish, and less than 15% of the stocked, tagged Brook Trout emigrated from the river into which they were stocked. There was little evidence of successful reproduction by stocked Brook Trout. Similar to the results of other studies, our findings suggest that the stocking of nonlocal Brook Trout strains where a local population already exists results in limited natural reproduction and should be avoided, particularly if the mechanisms governing the ecotype of interest are poorly understood.

  5. Efficacy of environmental DNA to detect and quantify Brook Trout populations in headwater streams of the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sporn, Lee Ann; George, Scott D.; Ball, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is rapidly evolving as a tool for monitoring the distributions of aquatic species. Detection of species’ populations in streams may be challenging because the persistence time for intact DNA fragments is unknown and because eDNA is diluted and dispersed by dynamic hydrological processes. During 2015, the DNA of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis was analyzed from water samples collected at 40 streams across the Adirondack region of upstate New York, where Brook Trout populations were recently quantified. Study objectives were to evaluate different sampling methods and the ability of eDNA to accurately predict the presence and abundance of resident Brook Trout populations. Results from three-pass electrofishing surveys indicated that Brook Trout were absent from 10 sites and were present in low (<100 fish/0.1 ha), moderate (100–300 fish/0.1 ha), and high (>300 fish/0.1 ha) densities at 9, 11, and 10 sites, respectively. The eDNA results correctly predicted the presence and confirmed the absence of Brook Trout at 85.0–92.5% of the study sites; eDNA also explained 44% of the variability in Brook Trout population density and 24% of the variability in biomass. These findings indicate that eDNA surveys will enable researchers to effectively characterize the presence and abundance of Brook Trout and other species’ populations in headwater streams across the Adirondack region and elsewhere.

  6. Scale-dependent seasonal pool habitat use by sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Sympatric populations of native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Brown Trout Salmo truttaexist throughout the eastern USA. An understanding of habitat use by sympatric populations is of importance for fisheries management agencies because of the close association between habitat and population dynamics. Moreover, habitat use by stream-dwelling salmonids may be further complicated by several factors, including the potential for fish to display scale-dependent habitat use. Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2) assess the sensitivity of inferred habitat use to changes in the spatial scale of the assumed available habitat. Trout exhibited an overall preference for pool habitats over nonpool habitats; however, the use of pools was nonlinear over time. Brook Trout displayed a greater preference for deep residual pool habitats than for shallow pool and nonpool habitats, whereas Brown Trout selected for all pool habitat categories similarly. Habitat use by both species was found to be scale dependent. At the smallest spatial scale (50 m), habitat use was primarily related to the time of year and fish weight. However, at larger spatial scales (250 and 450 m), habitat use varied over time according to the study stream in which a fish was located. Scale-dependent relationships in seasonal habitat use by Brook Trout and Brown Trout highlight the importance of considering scale when attempting to make inferences about habitat use; fisheries managers may want to consider identifying the appropriate spatial scale when devising actions to restore and protect Brook Trout populations and their habitats.

  7. Influence of landscape-scale factors in limiting brook trout populations in Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Carline, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Landscapes influence the capacity of streams to produce trout through their effect on water chemistry and other factors at the reach scale. Trout abundance also fluctuates over time; thus, to thoroughly understand how spatial factors at landscape scales affect trout populations, one must assess the changes in populations over time to provide a context for interpreting the importance of spatial factors. We used data from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission's fisheries management database to investigate spatial factors that affect the capacity of streams to support brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and to provide models useful for their management. We assessed the relative importance of spatial and temporal variation by calculating variance components and comparing relative standard errors for spatial and temporal variation. We used binary logistic regression to predict the presence of harvestable-length brook trout and multiple linear regression to assess the mechanistic links between landscapes and trout populations and to predict population density. The variance in trout density among streams was equal to or greater than the temporal variation for several streams, indicating that differences among sites affect population density. Logistic regression models correctly predicted the absence of harvestable-length brook trout in 60% of validation samples. The r 2-value for the linear regression model predicting density was 0.3, indicating low predictive ability. Both logistic and linear regression models supported buffering capacity against acid episodes as an important mechanistic link between landscapes and trout populations. Although our models fail to predict trout densities precisely, their success at elucidating the mechanistic links between landscapes and trout populations, in concert with the importance of spatial variation, increases our understanding of factors affecting brook trout abundance and will help managers and private groups to protect and

  8. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  9. Reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method for a French contemporary population.

    PubMed

    Savall, Frédéric; Rérolle, Camille; Hérin, Fabrice; Dédouit, Fabrice; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert; Saint-Martin, Pauline

    2016-09-01

    The Suchey-Brooks method is commonly used for pubic symphyseal aging in forensic cases. However, inter-population variability is a problem affected by several factors such as geographical location and secular trends. The aim of our study was to test the reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method on a virtual sample of contemporary French males. We carried out a retrospective study of 680 pubic symphysis from adult males undergoing clinical Multislice Computed Tomography in two hospitals between January 2013 and July 2014 (Toulouse and Tours, France). The reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method was tested by the calculation of inaccuracy and bias between real and estimated ages, and the mean age for each stage and the mean stage for each 10-years age interval were compared. The degree of inaccuracy and bias increased with age and inaccuracy exceeded 20 years for individuals over 65 years of age. The results are consistent with an overestimation of the real age for stages I and II and an underestimation of the real age for stages IV, V and VI. Furthermore, the mean stages of the reference sample were significantly lower for the 14-25 age group and significantly higher for individuals over 35 years old. Age estimation is potentially limited by differential inter-population error rates between geographical locations. Furthermore, the effects of secular trends are also supported by research in European countries showing a reduction in the age of attainment of indicators of biological maturity during the past few decades. The results suggest that the Suchey-Brooks method should be used with caution in France. Our study supports previous findings and in the future, the Suchey-Brooks method could benefit from re-evaluation of the aging standards by the establishment of new virtual reference samples.

  10. Conditions for creativity: lessons for lesbians in the lives of Romaine Brooks and Terry Wolverton.

    PubMed

    Walker, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the lives of Terry Wolverton, former lesbian separatist artist at The Women's Building, Los Angeles and now a mythical writer and visionary, and lesbian painter, Romaine Brooks. Whereas superficially their lives appear to have little in common other than that they were both lesbian artists, similarities can be found in stories linking them in ways previously un-examined before. Both came from abusive family backgrounds, Wolverton surviving sexual abuse and alcoholism, while Brooks' life was marred by a frightening mother and a father who deserted her. Using autobiography and biographical sources, Walker analyzes the creative conditions under which lesbian art may thrive. For a time, gay and lesbian art flourished in the United States. Brooks' portraits of "butch" lesbians became synonymous with popular images of twentieth-century lesbians. Wolverton's work with other lesbian artists in The Lesbian Art Project of 1977-1980 documents their engagement with art. The conditions required for creativity of whatever kind involves journeys and Walker uses the concept of "journeying" as a metaphor to describe the internal and external processes that of necessity accompany the creative act. The content of the article examines what can be learned from the lives of Brooks and Wolverton. Historically the "artist story" (Kunstlerroman) has focused on male and female heterosexual artists. The study of more recent autobiographical accounts permits an examination of the development of artists with cultural differences, and makes it possible to ask what conditions need be in place for lesbian artists to create art to "unfetter the self" when the self in question is different. Walker concludes that the early experiences of Wolverton and Brooks had a profound effect on their adult lives, as both made circuitous creative journeys in attempts to overcome the trauma of childhood years. Whereas one succeeded, the other failed due to the different cultural conditions

  11. Brook trout movement in response to temperature, flow, and thermal refugia within a complex Appalachian riverscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J. Todd; Hansbarger, Jeff L.; Huntsman, Brock M.; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified movements of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta in a complex riverscape characterized by a large, open-canopy main stem and a small, closed-canopy tributary in eastern West Virginia, USA. Our objectives were to quantify the overall rate of trout movement and relate movement behaviors to variation in streamflow, water temperature, and access to coldwater refugia. The study area experienced extremely high seasonal, yearly, and among-stream variability in water temperature and flow. The relative mobility of brook trout within the upper Shavers Fork watershed varied significantly depending on whether individuals resided within the larger main stem or the smaller tributary. The movement rate of trout inhabiting the main stem during summer months (50 m/d) was an order of magnitude higher than that of tributary fish (2 m/d). Movement rates of main-stem-resident brook trout during summer were correlated with the maximum water temperature experienced by the fish and with the fish's initial distance from a known coldwater source. For main-stem trout, use of microhabitats closer to cover was higher during extremely warm periods than during cooler periods; use of microhabitats closer to cover during warm periods was also greater for main-stem trout than for tributary inhabitants. Main-stem-resident trout were never observed in water exceeding 19.5°C. Our study provides some of the first data on brook trout movements in a large Appalachian river system and underscores the importance of managing trout fisheries in a riverscape context. Brook trout conservation in this region will depend on restoration and protection of coldwater refugia in larger river main stems as well as removal of barriers to trout movement near tributary and main-stem confluences.

  12. The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Communities Across the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David, Ed.; Reid, Carolina, Ed.; Nelson, Lisa, Ed.; O'Shaughnessy, Anne, Ed.; Berube, Alan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This report--a joint effort of the Federal Reserve's Community Affairs function and the Brookings Institution's Metropolitan Policy Program--examines the issue of concentrated poverty and profiles 16 high-poverty communities from across the country, including immigrant gateway, Native American, urban, and rural communities. Through these case…

  13. Flood Study of Warren Brook in Alstead and Cold River in Alstead, Langdon, and Walpole, New Hampshire, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents water-surface elevations and profiles as determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System, also known as HEC-RAS. Steady flow water-surface profiles were developed for two stream reaches: the Cold River from its confluence with the Connecticut River in Walpole, through Alstead to the McDermott Bridge in Langdon, NH, and Warren Brook from its confluence with the Cold River to Warren Lake in Alstead, NH. Flood events of a magnitude, which are expected to be equaled or exceeded once on the average during any 10-, 50-, 100-, or 500-year period (recurrence interval), were modeled using HEC-RAS as these flood events are recognized as being significant for flood-plain management, determination of flood insurance rates, and design of structures such as bridges and culverts. These flood events are referred to as the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods and have a 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent chance, respectively, of being equaled or exceeded during any year. The recurrence intervals represent the long-term average between floods of a specific magnitude. The risk of experiencing rare floods at short intervals or within the same year increases when periods greater than one year are considered. The analyses in this study reflect the flooding potentials based on conditions existing in the communities of Walpole, Alstead and Langdon at the time of completion of this study.

  14. Ontogenetic and diel variation in stream habitat use by brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a headwater stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. H.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.; Redell, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable information exists on habitat use by stream salmonids, only a small portion has quantitatively examined diurnal and nocturnal habitat variation. We examined diel variation in habitat use by age-0 and age-1+ brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) during summer and autumn in a headwater stream in northern Pennsylvania. Habitat variables measured included cover, depth, substrate, and velocity. The most pronounced diel variation occurred in the use of cover during both seasons. Both age-0 brook trout and age-1+ trout were associated with less cover at night. Age-0 brook trout occupied swifter water during the day than at night during both seasons, but the difference was not significant. Increased cover, depth, and substrate size governed the habitat of age-1+ brook trout. Our findings support the need for a better understanding of diel differences in habitat use of stream salmonids when considering habitat enhancement and protection.

  15. Delineation of Areas Contributing Water to the Dry Brook Public-Supply Well, South Hadley, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.; Stone, Janet Radway

    2004-01-01

    Areas contributing water to the Dry Brook public-supply well in South Hadley, Massachusetts, were delineated with a numerical ground-water-flow model that is based on geologic and hydrologic information for the confined sand and gravel aquifer pumped by the supply well. The study area is along the Connecticut River in central Massachusetts, about 12 miles north of Springfield, Massachusetts. Geologic units in the study area consist of Mesozoic-aged sedimentary and igneous bedrock, late-Pleistocene glaciolacustrine sediments, and recent alluvial deposits of the Connecticut River flood plain. Dry Brook Hill, immediately south of the supply well, is a large subaqueous lacustrine fan and delta formed during the last glacial retreat by sediment deposition into glacial Lake Hitchcock from a meltwater tunnel that was likely near where the Connecticut River cuts through the Holyoke Range. The sediments that compose the aquifer grade from very coarse sand and gravel along the northern flank of the hill, to medium sands in the body of the hill, and to finer-grained sediments along the southern flank of the hill. The interbedded and overlapping fine-grained lacustrine sediments associated with Dry Brook Hill include varved silt and clay deposits. These fine-grained sediments form a confining bed above the coarse-grained aquifer at the supply well and partially extend under the Connecticut River adjacent to the supply well. Ground-water flow in the aquifer supplying water to Dry Brook well was simulated with the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-flow modeling code MODFLOW. The Dry Brook aquifer model was calibrated to drawdown data collected from 8 observation wells during an aquifer test conducted by pumping the supply well for 10 days at a rate of 122.2 cubic feet per minute (ft3/min; 914 gallons per minute) and to water levels collected from observation wells across the study area. Generally, the largest hydraulic conductivity values used in the model were in the sand and

  16. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - James Harrison (left), Jack Nowling (center) and Amy Norris (right) pack up part of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - James Harrison (left), Jack Nowling (center) and Amy Norris (right) pack up part of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - James Harrison (left), Jack Nowling (center) and Amy Norris (right) pack up some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - James Harrison (left), Jack Nowling (center) and Amy Norris (right) pack up some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  19. The effect of nutrient deposition on bacterial communities in Arctic tundra soil

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Campbell; Shawn W. Polson; Thomas E. Hanson; Michelle C. Mack; Edward A.G. Schuur

    2010-01-01

    The microbial communities of high-latitude ecosystems are expected to experience rapid changes over the next century due to climate warming and increased deposition of reactive nitrogen, changes that will likely affect microbial community structure and function. In moist acidic tundra (MAT) soils on the North Slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska, substantial losses of C...

  20. Disaster averted: Community resilience in the face of a catastrophic flood

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, H. Katherine; McLean, Andrew J.; Kalis, Renetta; Shultz, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the spring of 2009, the Fargo, North Dakota, metropolitan area had 5 days to lay millions of sandbags to avoid devastation from record flooding of the Red River of the North. The community was able to successfully mitigate the flooding and escape potentially catastrophic economic, physical, and mental health consequences. We hypothesized that Fargo flood protection efforts reflected the community resilience factors proposed by Norris, Stevens, Pfefferbaum, et al. (2008): citizen involvement in mitigation efforts, effective organizational linkages, ongoing psychosocial support, and strong civic leadership in the face of rapidly changing circumstances. This community case report utilizes an extensive review of available sources, including news reports, government documents, research articles, and personal communication. Results demonstrate that Fargo's response to the threat of catastrophic flooding was consistent with Norris et al.'s (2008) factors of community resilience. Furthermore, success in 2009 carried over into future flood prevention and response efforts, as well as a structured approach to building psychological resilience. This case study contributes to the literature on community resilience by describing a community's successful efforts to avert a potentially catastrophic disaster. PMID:28229016

  1. Disaster averted: Community resilience in the face of a catastrophic flood.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, H Katherine; McLean, Andrew J; Kalis, Renetta; Shultz, James M

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2009, the Fargo, North Dakota, metropolitan area had 5 days to lay millions of sandbags to avoid devastation from record flooding of the Red River of the North. The community was able to successfully mitigate the flooding and escape potentially catastrophic economic, physical, and mental health consequences. We hypothesized that Fargo flood protection efforts reflected the community resilience factors proposed by Norris, Stevens, Pfefferbaum, et al. (2008): citizen involvement in mitigation efforts, effective organizational linkages, ongoing psychosocial support, and strong civic leadership in the face of rapidly changing circumstances. This community case report utilizes an extensive review of available sources, including news reports, government documents, research articles, and personal communication. Results demonstrate that Fargo's response to the threat of catastrophic flooding was consistent with Norris et al.'s (2008) factors of community resilience. Furthermore, success in 2009 carried over into future flood prevention and response efforts, as well as a structured approach to building psychological resilience. This case study contributes to the literature on community resilience by describing a community's successful efforts to avert a potentially catastrophic disaster.

  2. More than a corridor: use of a main stem stream as supplemental foraging habitat by a brook trout metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Huntsman, Brock M; Petty, J Todd; Sharma, Shikha; Merriam, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    Coldwater fishes in streams, such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), typically are headwater specialists that occasionally expand distributions downstream to larger water bodies. It is unclear, however, whether larger streams function simply as dispersal corridors connecting headwater subpopulations, or as critical foraging habitat needed to sustain large mobile brook trout. Stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and a hierarchical Bayesian mixing model analysis was used to identify brook trout that foraged in main stem versus headwater streams of the Shavers Fork watershed, West Virginia. Headwater subpopulations were composed of headwater and to a lesser extent main stem foraging individuals. However, there was a strong relationship between brook trout size and main stem prey contributions. The average brook trout foraging on headwater prey were limited to 126 mm standard length. This size was identified by mixing models as a point where productivity support switched from headwater to main stem dependency. These results, similar to other studies conducted in this watershed, support the hypothesis that productive main stem habitat maintain large brook trout and potentially facilitates dispersal among headwater subpopulations. Consequently, loss of supplementary main stem foraging habitats may explain loss of large, mobile fish and subsequent isolation of headwater subpopulations in other central Appalachian watersheds.

  3. Kinematics of the mosquito terrane, Coldfoot Area, Alaska: Keys to Brooks Range tectonics: Final report, Project No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, T.A.; Coney, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    Within the large-scale geometry of the Brooks Range, the Angayucham terrane occurs as a vast overthrust sheet. From the north flank of the Ruby terrane it underlies the Koyukuk basin and stretches north as the roof thrust to the various nappe terranes of the Brooks Range. The tectonic relationship of the Ruby terrane to the south flank of the Brooks Range lies largely obscured beneath the Angayucham in the eastern apex of the Koyukuk basin. The Mosquito terrane occurs as a window through the Angayucham at this juncture. The composition and structures of the Mosquito terrane reveal that is the result of shear along a sub-horizontal step or flange within the prominent, through-going dextral strike-slip fault system which cuts across the eastern Koyukuk basin and southeastern Brooks Range. Units of the Mosquito were derived from both the Angayucham and Ruby terranes. A consistent tectonic fabric imposed upon them is kinematically linked to the strike-slip system and indicates a northeasterly direction of transport across the terrane. The presence of Ruby-correlative units within the Mosquito suggests the Ruby underlies the Angayucham and that it is in contact with terrances of the southern Brooks Range at that structural level along high-angle strike-slip faults. These relationships demonstrate that an episode of dextral transpression is the latest in the history of terrane accretion and tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. 35 refs.

  4. Stratigraphy, structure, and palinspastic synthesis of the western Brooks Range, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, Irvin L.; Ellersieck, Inyo

    1983-01-01

    This report is an effort to describe and decipher the mid-Paleozoic to Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy and the orogenic evolution of the western Brooks Range. The western Brooks Range primarily is composed of stacks of complexly deformed thrust sheets that contain mostly coeval sequences of rocks with slightly different lithologic facies. In order to simplify the thrust-faulted stratigraphy and palinspastic restoration, the rocks are grouped into eight principal structural levels. The lowest structural level is believed to be autochthonous or parautochthonous and above that, each succeeding level is designated allochthon one through seven. Allochthon seven is composed of the remnants of an extensive ophiolite sheet. Allochthon six is composed of pillow basalt with subordinate intermediate volcanic rocks, chert, and Devonian limestone. It is not certain whether this allochthon was formed in a continental or oceanic setting. Allochthons five through one consist of distinctive and coeval sequences of Devonian to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a continental setting. The present geographic distribution of each structural level is shown on the allochthon map of the western Brooks Range. The stratigraphy of the southern part of northern Alaska has been reconstructed by systematically unstacking lower allochthons to the north of higher allochthons. The palinspastic map that results from this procedure shows that the minimum thrust displacement between allochthon seven and the autochthon is approximately 700 to 800 km. Schematic cross sections drawn across the palinspastic map show how the stratigraphy of the southern part of northern. Alaska most likely appeared prior to the orogeny. During Devonian and Mississippian time, the sedimentary sequences that are now part of allochthons one to five are inferred to have been deposited in an ensialic basin with both northern and southern margins. During Pennsylvanian time, the sequences seem to have become

  5. Dedication of the Mod-0 Wind Turbine at Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-10-21

    Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Administrator Robert Seamans addresses the crowd at the dedication ceremony for the Mod-0 100-kilowatt wind turbine at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station. The wind turbine program was a joint NASA/ERDA effort to develop less expensive forms of energy during the 1970s. NASA Lewis was able to use its experience with aerodynamics, powerplants, and energy transfer to develop efficient and cost-effective wind energy systems. The Plum Brook wind turbine was the first of a series of increasingly powerful NASA-ERDA wind turbines built around the nation. From left to right: Congressional Committee aide John Dugan, retired S. Morgan Smith Company chief engineer Carl Wilcox, windmill pioneer Beauchamp Smith, NASA Administrator James Fletcher, Seamans, and Lewis Center Director Bruce Lundin. The three men to the right are unidentified.

  6. Market Assessment of Brooke Army Medical Center - A Strategy for Today and the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    ticipation and representation in communitywide social or sports activi- ties are invited and strongly supported by the BAMC leadership. The purpose of...or individuals with supervisory responsibility in the outpatient setting (e.g., chief of podiatry , chief of occupational therapy, chief of physical... Sports events and activities (e.g., nutrition care run and wellness fair). c. Television and newspaper health spots. II. Increase Brooke Army

  7. Preparation and Reactivity of Acyclic Chiral Allylzinc Species by a Zinc-Brook Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Leibeling, Markus; Shurrush, Khriesto A; Werner, Veronika; Perrin, Lionel; Marek, Ilan

    2016-05-10

    The zinc-Brook rearrangement of enantiomerically enriched α-hydroxy allylsilane produces a chiral allylzinc intermediate, which reacts with retention of configuration in the presence of an electrophile. Two remarkable features of this transformation are the stereochemical outcome during the formation of the allylzinc species and the complete stereocontrol in the organized six-membered transition state, which leads to an overall and complete transfer of chirality within the reaction sequence.

  8. Field performance of timber bridges. 10, Sanborn Brook stress-laminated deck bridge

    Treesearch

    P. D. Hilbrich Lee; J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter

    The Sanborn Brook bridge was constructed in August 1991, 10 miles northeast of Concord, New Hampshire, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program of the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a simple-span, double-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure constructed from Southern Pine lumber and is approximately 25 ft long and 28 ft wide with a skew of 14 degrees...

  9. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Brooke Army Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    collection. This is the first in a series of reports concerning medical service accounts ( MSAs ). This report provides the results of our review...performed at U.S. Army Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC). We reviewed the 25 highest dollar delinquent MSAs valued at $11.0 million. Finding BAMC...Uniform Business Office (UBO) management did not effectively manage delinquent MSAs . As of May 29, 2013, BAMC UBO management had 15,106 outstanding

  10. X-linked mental retardation syndrome: Three brothers with the Brooks-Wisniewski-Brown syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Morava, E.; Storcz, J.; Kosztolanyi, G.

    1996-07-12

    We report on 3 brothers with growth and mental retardation, bifrontal narrowness, short palpebral fissures, deeply set eyes with entropion, wide bulbous nose, small mouth, myopia, and spastic diplegia. The patients were born to normal and non-consanguineous parents. The similarity of our cases with those recently reported by Brooks et al. supports their suggestion that these patients are representative of a distinct entity. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Dynamics and regulation of the southern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population in an Appalachian stream

    Treesearch

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E. Ratajczak; C. Michael Wagner; J. Todd Petty

    2010-01-01

    1. We used information theoretic statistics [Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC)] and regression analysis in a multiple hypothesis testing approach to assess the processes capable of explaining long-term demographic variation in a lightly exploited brook trout population in Ball Creek, NC. We sampled a 100-m-long second-order site during both spring and autumn 1991–...

  12. New cave species of Sinella Brook, 1882 from China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Feng

    2016-09-07

    Springtails, especially entomobryids, are abundant in Karst faunas. Five new species of Sinella Brook are described here from caves in southern China: S. liuae sp. nov., S. hunanica sp. nov., S. tigris sp. nov., S. minuta sp. nov. and S. tiani sp. nov. A new record of Sinella sineocula Chen & Christiansen, is also recorded. These species differ in claw structure, chaetae on ventral side of the head, and body chaetotaxy. An updated key to cave species of Sinella from China is provided.

  13. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  14. Devonian-Mississippian carbonate sequence in the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dumoulin, J.A. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Essentially continuous, dominantly carbonate sedimentation occurred from at least the Early Devonian through the Mississippian in the area that is now the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range. This succession is in striking contrast to Paleozoic sequences in the eastern Brooks Range and in the subsurface across northern Alaska, where uppermost Devonian-Mississippian clastic and Carboniferous carbonates unconformably overlie Proterozoic or lower Paleozoic metasedimentary or sedimentary rocks. Conodonts obtained throughout the Maiyumerak Mountains sequence indicate that any hiatus is less than a stage in duration, and there is no apparent physical evidence of unconformity within the succession. The sequence is best exposed northwest of the Eli River, where Emsian-Eifelian dolostones (Baird Group) are conformably overlain by Kinderhookian-Osagian sandy limestones (Utukok Formation) and Osagian-Chesterian fossiliferous limestones (Kogruk Formation) of the Lisburne Group. Conodont species assemblages and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in a range of shallow-water shelf environments. The sequence extends at least 30 km, from the Noatak Quadrangle northeast into the Baird Mountains Quadrangle; its easternmost extent has not been definitively determined. The Ellesmerian orogeny, thought to have produced the extensive middle Paleozoic unconformity seen through much of northern Alaska apparently had little effect on this western Brooks Range sedimentary succession.

  15. Spatial and temporal Brook Trout density dynamics: Implications for conservation, management, and monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; John A. Sweka,

    2014-01-01

    Many potential stressors to aquatic environments operate over large spatial scales, prompting the need to assess and monitor both site-specific and regional dynamics of fish populations. We used hierarchical Bayesian models to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability in density and capture probability of age-1 and older Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis from three-pass removal data collected at 291 sites over a 37-year time period (1975–2011) in Pennsylvania streams. There was high between-year variability in density, with annual posterior means ranging from 2.1 to 10.2 fish/100 m2; however, there was no significant long-term linear trend. Brook Trout density was positively correlated with elevation and negatively correlated with percent developed land use in the network catchment. Probability of capture did not vary substantially across sites or years but was negatively correlated with mean stream width. Because of the low spatiotemporal variation in capture probability and a strong correlation between first-pass CPUE (catch/min) and three-pass removal density estimates, the use of an abundance index based on first-pass CPUE could represent a cost-effective alternative to conducting multiple-pass removal sampling for some Brook Trout monitoring and assessment objectives. Single-pass indices may be particularly relevant for monitoring objectives that do not require precise site-specific estimates, such as regional monitoring programs that are designed to detect long-term linear trends in density.

  16. Amoxicillin pulsatile - MiddleBrook: APC 111, APC-111, PULSYS-enhanced amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals (formerly Advancis Pharmaceutical) is developing an improved version of amoxicillin using its pulsatile oral drug delivery technology, called PULSYS. Amoxicillin PULSYS is intended to provide a lower treatment dose, once-daily alternative to currently approved amoxicillin and penicillin regimens for the treatment of adolescents/adults with pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis. If amoxicillin PULSYS is approved, it will be the first and only once-daily amoxicillin therapy approved for use in the US. Regulatory submissions for the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis have been made in the US. Amoxicillin PULSYS is in clinical development for the treatment of pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis due to group A streptococcal infections in adolescents/adults as a tablet formulation. MiddleBrook was conducting clinical development of a sprinkle formulation for children. However, this has been put on hold for financial reasons. MiddleBrook is seeking regulatory approval for this product as a 505(b)(2) product, which is one that is not considered to be a completely new product, but is also not a generic product. It is a product with some differences from a previously approved product and clinical data to support such differences are required; however, the basic safety and efficacy studies may have been conducted by other organisations. In June 2007, Advancis Pharmaceutical was renamed as MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, Inc. MiddleBrook and Par Pharmaceuticals entered a co-promotion agreement for this product in June 2004. Par was to fund future development in exchange for co-exclusive marketing rights and exclusive rights to sell amoxicillin PULSYS. MiddleBrook retained responsibility for the manufacturing programme and also retained all patents and brand names and was responsible for their enforcement. However, this collaboration was subsequently terminated in August 2005 by Par Pharmaceutical. MiddleBrook received the US $4.75 million R&D reimbursement

  17. Lisburne Group (Mississippian-Lower Permian) petrography, paragenesis, and hydrocarbon potential, central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krutak, P.R.

    1989-03-01

    Subsurface Lisburne Group (Wahoo) rocks at Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk fields produce 2 million bbl of oil/day and contain 2-3 billion bbl of oil in place. Lisburne reservoirs are early diagenetic dolomites encased in thick platform carbonates. Petrographic and geochemical study of 264 samples from eight newly discovered surface Lisburne sections comprising 4568 ft of strata in the Central Brooks Range provide new data concerning paragenesis and hydrocarbon potential of Lisburne facies farther west. A generalized paragenetic sequence for Lisburne equivalents of this region is (1) initial carbonate skeletal growth (both aragonite and calcite) during the Carboniferous, (2) subsequent recrystallization and inversion of aragonite to calcite, the change to calcite proceeding throughout late Paleozoic and Permian-Triassic time, (3) dolomitization in the Middle and Late Carboniferous, (4) chertification and silicification, postdating slightly or overlapping dolomitization, (5) development of porosity (moldic, intracrystal, etc.) in the middle to late Mesozoic, (6) formation of fracture porosity concurrent with the Brooks Range orogeny during Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous time, (7) oil generation, migration, and emplacement in Late Cretaceous-Tertiary time. Lisburne dolomites from the Central Brooks Range bear heavy hydrocarbons. Rock-Eval pyrolysis indicates part of the section is in the oil window and near the peak wet-gas generation zone. Shale samples from this region display thermal alteration indices and vitrinite reflectance values near the oil floor and also indicate potential for sourcing dry gas. Conodont color alteration indices show part of the Lisburn could produce dry gas.

  18. Facies comparison of autochthonous and allochthonous Permian and Triassic units, north-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.E.

    1985-04-01

    Eight stratigraphic sections of Permian and Triassic rocks have been studied over a 30 km by 150 km area in the Endicott and Philip Smith Mountains of the central Brooks Range. Six of the sections are located on the Endicott Mountains allochthon, and the remaining two are parautochthonous columns in the Mount Doonerak area. The sections record a facies transition between the autochthonous Sadlerochit Group and Shublik Formation of the northeastern Brooks Range and the characteristically siliceous rocks of the allochthonous Siksikpuk and Otuk formations of the western Brooks Range. Laterally continuous and bioturbated beds of fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, and shale dominantly compose the Permian sequence, whereas the Triassic rocks consist of black shales, thin rhythmically bedded siliceous mudstones, and fossiliferous limestones. When the allochthonous sections are restored to a position south of the Mount Doonerak area, a general shallowing trend from southwest to northwest becomes evident within the reconstructed marine basin. To the south and west, the Permian sediments show a marked increase in silica content, with the occurrence of barite and a corresponding decrease in the thickness of the basal, coarser grained clastics. The Triassic formations also document an increase in silica and the presence of barite to the south and west, while becoming significantly sooty and phosphatic to the north and east. Ongoing petrographic and micropaleontologic studies of the field data will clarify these general paleogeographic relationships.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 10 (NORWTH00120010) Town Highway 012 Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NORWTH00120010 on town highway 12 crossing Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, available from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting the Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 8.98-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the left bank upstream and the left and right banks downstream are forested. The immediate right bank upstream is covered by shrub and brush with pasture on the overbank. Town Highway 12 runs along the valley of Bloody Brook; however, at structure NORWTH00120010 the road crosses Bloody Brook at a 90-degree angle. In the study area, Bloody Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.014 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 41 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble (D50 is 51.0 mm or 0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on October 31, 1994, indicated that the reach was unstable. The town highway 12 crossing of Bloody Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot clear span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., July 29, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The right abutment is protected by sparse type-2 stone fill (less than 24 inches diameter). The channel is skewed 0 degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees

  20. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  1. Hydrogeology and ground-water flow, fractured Mesozoic structural-basin rocks, Stony Brook, Beden Brook, and Jacobs Creek drainage basins, west-central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Jean C.; Jacobsen, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize ground- water flow in the Stony Brook, Beden Brook, and Jacobs Creek drainage basins in west-central New Jersey. The 89-square-mile study area is underlain by dipping beds of fractured siltstone, shale, and sandstone and by massive diabase sills. In all of the rocks, the density of interconnected fractures decreases with depth. A major fault extends through the study area, and rocks on both sides of the fault are extensively fractured. The average annual rates of precipitation and ground-water recharge in the study area are 45.07 inches and 8.58 inches, respectively. The rate of recharge to diabase rocks is about one-half the rate of recharge to other rocks. Part of the surface runoff from diabase rocks enters the ground-water system where it encounters more permeable rocks. Most ground water in the study area follows short, shallow flow paths. A three- dimensional finite-difference model of ground-water flow was developed to test hypotheses concerning geologic features that control ground-water flow in the study area. The decrease in the density of interconnected fractures with depth was represented by dividing the model into two layers with different hydraulic conductivity. The pinching out of water- bearing beds in the dip direction at land surface and at depth was simulated as a lower hydraulic conductivity in the dip direction than in the strike direction. This model can be used to analyze ground-water flow if the area of interest is more than about 0.5 square mile.

  2. A new species of Potamotrygonocestus Brooks & Thorson, 1976 (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson (Mylliobatoidea: Potamotrygonidae) and a redescription of Potamotrygonocestus chaoi Marques, Brooks & Araujo, 2003.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, N M; Marques, F P L; Charvet-Almeida, P

    2008-06-01

    Potamotrygonocestus Brooks & Thorson, 1976 is currently represented by six recognised species of tetraphyllidean cestodes inhabiting Neotropical freshwater stingrays. Potamotrygonid stingrays examined to date have included only a single specimen of Plesiotrygon iwamae. Only one species of tetraphyllidean, Potamotrygonocestus chaoi Marques, Brooks & Araujo, 2003, has been described from this host, and this description was based on limited material. New efforts to document the diversity in this host species resulted in the collection of eight additional specimens of P. iwamae, one of these from the upper Rio Solimões, at São Paulo de Olivença Amazonas during September, 2003, and seven from the Baía do Marajó, Pará, during November, 2003. The specimen from the upper Solimões was found to be infected with P. chaoi. Voucher material from this stingray was used for the redescription of this cestode, which is characterized by strobila 8.78-22.83 mm long and a great number of proglottides, 58-93; the new material provided strobilar length and proglottis counts for complete worms. Potamotrygonocestus marajoara n. sp. is the second species of this genus reported from Plesiotrygon iwamae, although it appears to be restricted to the lower Amazon. This new species resembles P. chaoi in possessing filitriches and blade-like spinitriches on the scolex, cephalic peduncle and cirrus, but differs from other species of the genus in the number of testes, which is 44 on average per proglottis, and by having apical sucker measuring 95-175 microm in length. Additional data on the distribution and morphology of the microtriches and a detailed description of the female reproductive system are also provided in this study.

  3. Summer movements of sub-adult brook trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon, and smallmouth bass in the Rapid River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Casey A. L.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Summer movement patterns and spatial overlap of native sub-adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), non-native landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Rapid River, Maine, were investigated with radio telemetry in 2005. Fishes were captured by angling, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked actively from June through September. Most brook trout (96%) and landlocked salmon (72%) displayed long distance movements (>1 km) to open water bodies (28 June to 4 July) followed by periods of time spent in presumed thermal refigia (5 July to 16 September). Summer water temperature rose above 25 °C, near the reported lethal limits for these coldwater species. In contrast, the majority of smallmouth bass (68%), a warrnwater species, did not make long distance movements from areas of initial capture, remaining in mainstem sections of the river (28 June to 16 September). Spatial overlap of smallmouth bass and brook trout in the summer is unlikely because brook trout presumably move to thermal rehgia during this time. However, interspecific competition between brook trout and landlocked salmon may occur since they select similar habitats June through September.

  4. Effect of postthaw storage time and sperm-to-egg ratio on fertility of cryopreserved brook trout sperm.

    PubMed

    Nynca, J; Dietrich, G J; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Ciereszko, A

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to test the influence of postthaw storage time on sperm motility parameters of brook trout (n = 9). Furthermore, we examined the effect of sperm-to-egg ratios of 300,000:1 and 600,000:1 on fertility of postthaw, cryopreserved, brook trout sperm. The application of a cryopreservation procedure produced very high postthaw sperm motility (56.8 ± 4.0%). The cryopreserved sperm of brook trout could be stored up to 60 minutes without loss of the percentage of sperm motility (52.0 ± 9.0%). The fertilization capacity of brook trout postthaw sperm was comparable with the fertilization rate of fresh semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 300,000:1 (42.4 ± 14.0% and 36.5 ± 11.0% for eyed and hatched stages, respectively). The possibility of postthaw semen storage for the prolonged time and the obtainment of high fertilization rate at low sperm-to-egg ratio can lead to the significant improvement of brook trout semen cryopreservation procedure.

  5. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-08-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of 19 comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semi-major axes between 50 000 and 150 000 au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as a nearly 2-yr-long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star) measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such a new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star) measurements and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for the reference stars originally used. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction in the uncertainty of orbital elements. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion, it will once again be a comet from the Oort spike.

  6. Spatial structure of morphological and neutral genetic variation in Brook Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Keller, Stephen R.; Colaw, Mark C.; Holloway, Amanda E.; Morgan, Raymond P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis exhibit exceptional levels of life history variation, remarkable genetic variability, and fine-scale population structure. In many cases, neighboring populations may be highly differentiated from one another to an extent that is comparable with species-level distinctions in other taxa. Although genetic samples have been collected from hundreds of populations and tens of thousands of individuals, little is known about whether differentiation at neutral markers reflects phenotypic differences among Brook Trout populations. We compared differentiation in morphology and neutral molecular markers among populations from four geographically proximate locations (all within 24 km) to examine how genetic diversity covaries with morphology. We found significant differences among and/or within streams for all three morphological axes examined and identified the source stream of many individuals based on morphology (52.3% classification efficiency). Although molecular and morphological differentiation among streams ranged considerably (mean pairwise FST: 0.023–0.264; pairwise PST: 0.000–0.339), the two measures were not significantly correlated. While in some cases morphological characters appear to have diverged to a greater extent than expected by neutral genetic drift, many traits were conserved to a greater extent than were neutral genetic markers. Thus, while Brook Trout exhibit fine-scale spatial patterns in both morphology and neutral genetic diversity, these types of biological variabilities are being structured by different ecological and evolutionary processes. The relative influences of genetic drift versus selection and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology appear to vary among populations occupying nearby streams.

  7. Environmental planning as a tool for economic development: The black brook watershed experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ryner, P.C.; Heller, G.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Keene, New Hampshire Planning Department has attempted to use environmental planning as a tool to facilitate industrial development of the Black Brook Watershed. The City has established detailed modeling of drainage, floodplains and groundwater, and has placed that information on accurate computer-based maps. When provided to developers at the beginning of the development process, this environmental information expidites design and permitting while also improving the likelihood of protecting sensitive environmental areas. Starting in 1987 as part of a Master Plan revision process, the Planning Department decided to concentrate on the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern Keene as a target area for a new approach to economic development and environmental protection. The entire watershed was chosen as the boundary for this study area and detailed studies were conducted. During this effort the City formulated a new Economic Development Master Plan which called for the creation of approximately 300 acres of new industrial development within the next ten years. The Black Brook basin was identified as the preferred site. Because of pro-active environmental planning, the City is now able to work in active, cooperative partnership with the private sector in the development of this area. It is clear from this first specific development project that the project development and permitting process will be shortened by at least 60 days, and a minimum of $5,000 to $10,000 in preliminary site information costs will be saved. The availability of good information on wetlands and floodplains has already had a dramatic impact upon proposed site design and has achieved the desired objective of avoiding these sensitive areas whenever possible. The City is now working on the design of an Industrial Design and Permitting System which will be applied to the entire City, based upon what has been learned from this effort.

  8. Systematics and diversification of Anindobothrium Marques, Brooks & Lasso, 2001 (Eucestoda: Rhinebothriidea)

    PubMed Central

    Primon, Juliana F.

    2017-01-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Anindobothrium Marques, Brooks & Lasso, 2001 are found in both marine and Neotropical freshwater stingrays of the family Potamotrygonidae. The patterns of host association within the genus support the most recent hypothesis about the history of diversification of potamotrygonids, which suggests that the ancestor of freshwater lineages of the Potamotrygonidae colonized South American river systems through marine incursion events. Despite the relevance of the genus Anindobothrium to understand the history of colonization and diversification of potamotrygonids, no additional efforts were done to better investigate the phylogenetic relationship of this taxon with other lineages of cestodes since its erection. This study is a result of recent collecting efforts to sample members of the genus in marine and freshwater potamotrygonids that enabled the most extensive documentation of the fauna of Anindobothrium parasitizing species of Styracura de Carvalho, Loboda & da Silva, Potamotrygon schroederi Fernández-Yépez, P. orbignyi (Castelnau) and P. yepezi Castex & Castello from six different countries, representing the eastern Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and river basins in South America (Rio Negro, Orinoco, and Maracaibo). The newly collected material provided additional specimens for morphological studies and molecular samples for subsequent phylogenetic analyses that allowed us to address the phylogenetic position of Anindobothrium and provide molecular and morphological evidence to recognize two additional species for the genus. The taxonomic actions that followed our analyses included the proposition of a new family, Anindobothriidae fam. n., to accommodate the genus Anindobothrium in the order Rhinebothriidea Healy, Caira, Jensen, Webster & Littlewood, 2009 and the description of two new species—one from the eastern Pacific Ocean, A. carrioni sp. n., and the other from the Caribbean Sea, A. inexpectatum sp. n. In addition, we also present a

  9. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  10. Industrial cogeneration case study No. 2: American Cyanamid Chemical Company, Bound Brook, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Within a project for evaluating the economics of cogeneration for industrial plants with an electrical capacity of 10,000 to 30,000 kW, the American Cyanamid plant at Bound Brook, NJ was selected for study. Built between 1915 and 1920 this power plant was converted in the 1960's from coal-fueling to oil and natural gas. Information is presented on the plant site, fuel usage, generation costs, comparative cost of purchasable electric power, equipment used, performance, and reliability and capital and maintenance costs. (LCL)

  11. A 2000 year varve-based climate record from the central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, B.W.; Abbott, M.B.; Finney, B.P.; Kutchko, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Varved minerogenic sediments from glacial-fed Blue Lake, northern Alaska, are used to investigate late Holocene climate variability. Varve thickness measurements track summer temperature recorded at Atigun Pass, located 41 km east at a similar elevation (r2 = 0.31, P = 0.08). Results indicate that climate in the Brooks Range from 10 to 730 AD (varve year) was warm with precipitation inferred to be higher than during the twentieth century. The varve-temperature relationship for this period was likely compromised and not used in our temperature reconstruction because the glacier was greatly reduced, or absent, exposing sub-glacial sediments to erosion from enhanced precipitation.

  12. Thermal Vacuum Testing of ICPTA RCS at Plum Brook B-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, M. J.; Hurlbert, E. A.; Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum and thermal vacuum testing of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) was performed at the Plum Brook B-2 facility as a part of a system checkout and facility characterization effort. Multiple test objectives included: integrated Reaction Control System (RCS) characterization, cold helium pressurization system characterization, modal propellant gaging experiment (Orion), CFM propellant loading experiments, main engine characterization. The ICPTA is a test bed for LOX/LCH4 technologies built in 2016 using new components and hardware from the former Morpheus vehicle and other projects.

  13. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: summary report. Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    This document summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility, which was placed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved safe storage configuration. The data were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits future utilization of this information in decommissioning of similar facilities. The information is presented both in computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. Complete cost data were not readily available and decommissioning activities did not in all cases conform with current criteria for the SAFSTOR decommissioning mode, therefore no cost comparisons were made.

  14. Middle Cambrian fossils from the Doonerak anticlinorium, central Brooks Range, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutro, J.T.; Palmer, A.R.; Repetski, J.E.; Brosge, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Middle Cambrian fossils collected near Wolf Creek in the Wiseman quadrangle, northern Alaska, include trilobites and paraconodonts. Trilobites date the strata as early Middle Cambrian, correlative with the Amgan Stage of Siberia. The assemblage includes: Kootenia cf. K. anabarensis Lermontova, cf. 'Parehmania' lata Chernysheva and Pagetia sp. Specimens of the paracondont genus Westergaardodina, from the same sample as the megafossils, record the earliest known occurrence of this taxon. These fossils, the first to establish an age for part of the sedimentary sequence in the Doonerak Anticlinorium, are the oldest fossils yet taken from the central and western Brooks Range.-Authors

  15. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACITIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-0-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout wer...

  16. Past and future effects of atmospheric deposition on the forest ecosystem at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: simulations with the dynamic model ForSAFE

    Treesearch

    Salim Belyazid; Scott Bailey; Harald. Sverdrup

    2010-01-01

    The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study presents a unique opportunity for studying long-term ecosystem responses to changes in anthropogenic factors. Following industrialisation and the intensification of agriculture, the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) has been subject to increased loads of atmospheric deposition, particularly sulfur and nitrogen. The deposition of...

  17. Comment on Meisner (1990): Effect of climatic warming on the southern margins of the native range of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    Treesearch

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1993-01-01

    Meisner (1990) proposed in the Journall that the lower elevational margin of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), in the southern part of their native range is related to the 15 degrees C groundwater isotherm, based on a modelled relationship between minimum elevations at which brook trout occur in this part of the native range and...

  18. 75 FR 3217 - J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application... 30, 2009, J&T Hydro Company (transferor) and W. Dean Brooks, and H. Bruce Cox (transferees) filed...

  19. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACITIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-0-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout wer...

  20. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACTIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout were...

  1. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACTIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout were...

  2. Enhancing Inquiry, Evidence-Based Reflection, and Integrative Learning with the Lifelong ePortfolio Process: The Implementation of Integrative ePortfolios at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Nancy McCoy

    2013-01-01

    Reflection plays a critical role in moving learning to the next level of inquiry. Stony Brook University has adopted an approach to using ePortfolios within the curriculum that emphasizes reflection. Stony Brook University successfully piloted ePortfolios in the Fall 2010 Semester and discovered their use facilitated the inquiry process for the…

  3. Enhancing Inquiry, Evidence-Based Reflection, and Integrative Learning with the Lifelong ePortfolio Process: The Implementation of Integrative ePortfolios at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Nancy McCoy

    2013-01-01

    Reflection plays a critical role in moving learning to the next level of inquiry. Stony Brook University has adopted an approach to using ePortfolios within the curriculum that emphasizes reflection. Stony Brook University successfully piloted ePortfolios in the Fall 2010 Semester and discovered their use facilitated the inquiry process for the…

  4. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; John A. Sweka,

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  5. Can nutrient limitations explain low and declining white spruce growth near the Arctic treeline in the eastern Brooks Range, Alaska?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, S.; Sullivan, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The position of the Arctic treeline is of critical importance for global carbon cycling and surface energy budgets. However, controls on tree growth at treeline remain uncertain. In the Alaskan Brooks Range, 20th century warming has caused varying growth responses among treeline trees, with trees in the west responding positively, while trees in the east have responded negatively. The prevailing explanation of this trend ascribes the negative growth response to warming-induced drought stress in the eastern Brooks Range. However, recent measurements of carbon isotope discrimination in tree rings, xylem sap flow and needle gas exchange suggest that drought stress cannot explain these regional growth declines. Additionally, evidence from the western Brooks Range suggests that nutrient availability, rather than drought stress, may be the proximate control on tree growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that low and declining growth of eastern Brooks Range trees is due to low and declining soil nutrient availability, which may continue to decrease with climate change as soils become drier and microbial activity declines. We compared microclimate, tree performance, and a wide range of proxies for soil nutrient availability in four watersheds along a west-east transect in the Brooks Range during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We hypothesized that soil nutrient availability would track closely with the strong west-east precipitation gradient, with higher rainfall and greater soil nutrient availability in the western Brooks Range. We expected to find that soil water contents in the west are near optimum for nitrogen mineralization, while those in the east are below optimum. Needle nitrogen concentration, net photosynthesis, branch extension growth, and growth in the main stem are expected to decline with the hypothesized decrease in soil nutrient availability. The results of our study will elucidate the current controls on growth of trees near the

  6. Growth of age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Thompson, Bradley E.; Hayes, Daniel B.; Riley, Timothy S.

    2006-12-01

    We sampled ten sites within the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan. In 2001, age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected to determine growth rates. In 2002, emergence dates of steelhead were determined by observational studies and age-0 steelhead and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected to determine growth rates. Steelhead emergence occurred from late June to mid-July 2002. Growth rates of both species varied among branches within the watershed (P<0.05). Steelhead growth varied from 0.24 to 0.42 mm/day and brook trout growth varied from 0.22 to 0.37 mm/day.

  7. Stony Brook Seismic Network on Long Island, New York: operation and maintenance. Final report, September 1979-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Liebermann, R.C.; Thurber, C.H.

    1986-04-01

    The seismology group in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the State University of New York at Stony Brook currently operates two short period seismic stations on Long Island, New York. These stations are part of the larger Northeastern United States Seismic Network (NEUSSN) operated by several university groups in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and New England. The Stony Brook stations provide data for specific studies of earthquakes in the vicinity of Long Island, including southeastern New England and offshore areas. This report discusses network operation and results of research using NEUSSN and related data.

  8. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Kanayut Conglomerate, central and western Brooks Range, Alaska; report of 1981 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, T.H.; Moore, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate forms a major stratigraphic unit along the crest of the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. It crops out for an east-west distance of about 900 km and a north-south distance of about 65 km. The Kanayut is wholly allochthonous and has probably been transported northward on a series of thrust plates. The Kanayut is as thick as 2,600 m in the east-central Brooks Range. It thins and fines to the south and west. The Kanayut forms the middle part of the allochthonous sequence of the Endicott Group, an Upper Devonian and Mississippian clastic sequence underlain by platform limestones of the Baird Group and overlain by platform limestone, carbonaceous shale, and black chert of the Lisburne Group. The Kanayut overlies the marine Upper Devonian Noatak Sandstone or, where it is missing, the marine Upper Devonian Hunt Fork Shale. It is overlain by the marine Mississippian Kayak Shale. The Kanayut Conglomerate forms the fluvial part of a large, coarse-grained delta that prograded to the southwest in Late Devonian time and retreated in Early Mississippian time. Four sections of the Kanayut Conglomerate in the central Brooks Range and five in the western Brooks Range were measured in 1981. The sections from the western Brooks Range document the presence of fluvial cycles in the Kanayut as far west as the shores of the Chukchi Sea. The Kanayut in this area is generally finer grained than it is in the central and eastern Brooks Range, having a maximum clast size of 3 cm. It is probably about 300 m thick. The upper and lower contacts of the Kanayut are gradational. The lower Kanayut contains calcareous, marine-influenced sandstone within channel deposits, and the upper Kanayut contains probable marine interdistributary-bay shale sequences. The members of the Kanayut Conglomerate cannot be differentiated in this region. In the central Brooks Range, sections of the Kanayut Conglomerate at Siavlat Mountain and Kakivilak

  9. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  10. Factors influencing successful eradication of nonnative brook trout from four small Rocky Mountain streams using electrofishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shepard, Bradley B.; Nelson, Lee M.; Taper, Mark L.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    We successfully eradicated nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis by electrofishing from 2.4- to 3.0-km treatment reaches of four Rocky Mountain streams in Montana to conserve sympatric populations of native Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi. At least 6, and as many as 14, removal treatments of two to four electrofishing passes per treatment were required to successfully eradicate Brook Trout from these treatment reaches. We increased success by modifying our treatment efforts during this study from single annual treatments to several treatments a year to take advantage of autumn spawning and winter aggregating behavior. Eradication by electrofishing cost US \\$3,500 to \\$5,500 per kilometer where no riparian vegetation or woody debris clearing was necessary, increasing to \\$8,000 to \\$9,000 per kilometer where clearing was needed. Treatment costs without stream clearing were similar to costs of eradication using piscicides. Eradication by electrofishing may be preferable where native fish occur in sympatry with nonnative fish in smaller streams (base flow wetted widths

  11. Diversifying and correlational selection on behavior toward conspecific and heterospecific competitors in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans)

    PubMed Central

    Peiman, Kathryn S; Robinson, Beren W

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors toward heterospecifics and conspecifics may be correlated because of shared mechanisms of expression in both social contexts (nonadaptive covariation) or because correlational selection favors adaptive covariation. We evaluated these hypotheses by comparing behavior toward conspecifics and heterospecifics in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) from three populations sympatric with and three allopatric from a competitor, the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). Behavioral traits were classified into three multivariate components: overt aggression, sociability, and activity. The correlation of behavior between social contexts for both overt aggression and activity varied among populations in a way unrelated to sympatry with ninespine stickleback, while mean aggression was reduced in sympatry. Correlations in allopatric populations suggest that overt aggression and activity may genetically covary between social contexts for nonadaptive reasons. Sociability was rarely correlated in allopatry but was consistently correlated in sympatry despite reduced mean sociability, suggesting that correlational selection may favor a sociability syndrome in brook stickleback when they coexist with ninespine stickleback. Thus, interspecific competition may impose diversifying selection on behavior among populations, although the causes of correlated behavior toward conspecifics and heterospecifics and whether it can evolve in one social context independent of the other may depend on the type of behavior. PMID:23139874

  12. Acoustical measurements of DOE/NASA MOD-0 wind turbine at Plum Brook Station, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Etter, C.L.; Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E.; Linn, C.; Garrelts, R.

    1983-06-01

    This report documents the evaluation of low-frequency acoustic emissions associated with the operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-0 wind turbine generator located at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. These measurements were taken as part of a joint SERI/NASA Brook Station, Ohio. These measurements were taken as part of a joint SERI/NASA effort to study acoustic noise generation by utility-sized wind turbines. The machine-operating conditions closely simulated the operation of the larger DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine installed near Boone, NC, in both its design downwind configuration and theoretical upwind mode. Measurement results indicated that acoustic impulses characteristic of the MOD-1 turbine were detectable only with a downwind configuration and a 35-rpm rotor speed, a situation which parallels a 23-rpm rotor speed operation on the MOD-1. Under the available meteorological conditions, no impulses were detected during downwind 23 rpm or by wind-induced noise, indicating a severe limitation of the microphone configuration used in these tests.

  13. High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turecek, Aaron M.; Danforth, William W.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a high-resolution geophysical survey within Red Brook Harbor, Massachusetts, from September 28 through November 17, 2009. Red Brook Harbor is located on the eastern edge of Buzzards Bay, south of the Cape Cod Canal. The survey area was approximately 7 square kilometers, with depths ranging from 0 to approximately 10 meters. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey Research Vessel Rafael. The research vessel was equipped with a 234-kilohertz interferometric sonar system to collect bathymetry and backscatter data, a dual frequency (3.5- and 200-kilohertz) compression high-intensity radar pulse seismic reflection profiler to collect subbottom data, a sound velocity profiler to acquire speed of sound within the water column, and a sea floor sampling device to collect sediment samples, video, and photographs. The survey was part of an ongoing cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to map the geology of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. In addition to inclusion within the cooperative geologic mapping effort, these data will be used to assess the shallow-water mapping capability of the geophysical systems deployed for this project, with an emphasis on identifying resolution benchmarks for the interferometric sonar system.

  14. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  15. The rise and fall of isolation by distance in the anadromous brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill).

    PubMed Central

    Castric, Vincent; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Geographic patterns of genetic diversity depend on a species' demographic properties in a given habitat, which may change over time. The rates at which patterns of diversity respond to changes in demographic properties and approach equilibrium are therefore pivotal in our understanding of spatial patterns of diversity. The brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis is a coastal fish exhibiting limited marine movements, such that a stable one-dimensional isolation-by-distance (IBD) pattern should be observed over the whole range. Its range, however, recently shifted northward such that northern populations may still be in the process of reaching equilibrium. We investigated variation in IBD patterns, genetic divergence, and allelic richness at six microsatellite markers in 2087 anadromous brook charr from 59 rivers along the most likely postglacial colonization route. We observed a decrease in allelic richness, together with an increase in differentiation and a decrease in IBD in the most recently colonized northern populations, as expected following recent colonization. Contrary to expectation, however, similar patterns were also observed at the southernmost part of the range, despite the fact that these populations are not considered to be newly colonized. We propose that the loss of dispersal capabilities associated with anadromy may have caused the southernmost populations to evolve relatively independently of one another. This study thus demonstrated that changes in a species' geographic range and dispersal capabilities may contribute to shaping geographic patterns of genetic diversity. PMID:12663537

  16. Water age and stream solute dynamics at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca; Benettin, Paolo; McGuire, Kevin; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The contribution discusses experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is used to model both conservative and weathering-derived solutes. Based on the available information about the hydrology of the site, an integrated transport model was developed and used to estimate the relevant hydrochemical fluxes. The model was designed to reproduce the deuterium content of streamflow and allowed for the estimate of catchment water storage and dynamic travel time distributions (TTDs). Within this framework, dissolved silicon and sodium concentration in streamflow were simulated by implementing first-order chemical kinetics based explicitly on dynamic TTD, thus upscaling local geochemical processes to catchment scale. Our results highlight the key role of water stored within the subsoil glacial material in both the short-term and long-term solute circulation at Hubbard Brook. The analysis of the results provided by the calibrated model allowed a robust estimate of the emerging concentration-discharge relationship, streamflow age distributions (including the fraction of event water) and storage size, and their evolution in time due to hydrologic variability.

  17. Modeling of a theoretical stream of comet 12P/Pons-Brooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomko, Dušan

    2015-12-01

    We show the modeling of the theoretical stream of the Halley type comet 12P/Pons-Brooks in a single perihelion passage that was 250P0 orbital periods in the past (the orbital period is 70.85 years). The modeled stream consisted of 10,000 particles. We followed its dynamical evolution by the numerical integration from the moment of their ejection up to present. From the total number of 10,000 particles, 1227 particles are passing around the Earth's orbit within the distance 0.05 AU. These particles have a well-defined radiant (Fig. 2) predicted on the northern sky, with a high declination (from about 61° to 81°). The subsequent identification with available meteor databases can confirm whether the meteor shower is real or not. For this purpose we used three databases: the photographical, radio-meteor, and video-meteor database. Despite the well-defined radiant, which it consists of 1227 particles, we cannot certainly confirm, that comet 12P/Pons-Brooks is a parent body of some meteor shower observable on the Earth.

  18. Estimation of streambed groundwater fluxes associated with coaster brook trout spawning habitat.

    PubMed

    Van Grinsven, Matthew; Mayer, Alex; Huckins, Casey

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that the spatial distribution of groundwater inflows through river bottom sediments is a critical factor associated with the distribution of coaster brook trout (a life history variant of Salvelinus fontinalis) spawning redds. An 80-m reach of the Salmon Trout River, in the Huron Mountains of the upper peninsula of Michigan, was selected to test the hypothesis based on long-term documentation of coaster brook trout spawning at this site. A monitoring well system consisting of 22 wells was installed in the riverbed to measure surface and subsurface temperatures over a 13-month period. The array of monitoring wells was positioned to span areas where spawning has and has not been observed. Over 200,000 total temperature measurements were collected from five depths within each monitoring well. Temperatures in the substrate beneath the spawning area were generally less variable than river temperatures, whereas temperatures under the nonspawning area were generally more variable and closely tracked temporal variations in river temperatures. Temperature data were inverted to obtain subsurface groundwater velocities using a numerical approximation of the heat transfer equation. Approximately 45,000 estimates of groundwater velocities were obtained. Estimated groundwater velocities in the spawning area were primarily in the upward direction and were generally greater in magnitude than velocities in the nonspawning area. Both the temperature and velocity results confirm the hypothesis that spawning sites correspond to areas of significant groundwater flux into the river bed. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Acute toxicity and histopathology of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, mitchill) exposed to aluminum in acid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tandjung, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Fingerling brook trout were exposed to different concentrations of Al at pH 5.6. The Basic Static Acute Toxicity Test was used to determine the 96-hr LC50. The toxicity of Al varied inversely with water hardness. The 96-hr LC/sub 50/ at a hardness of 2, 18, and 40 mg/l (CaCO/sub 3/) was 0.37, 3.4, and 6.53 mg/l Al respectively. Darkening of skin color was possible due to an increase in Na ions in the water as a result of body ion loss, activating the hormone MSH which causes melanin granules to spread within the melanocytes. Histology of all tissues of surviving fish appeared normal 3 months after transfer to uncontaminated water. The lateral line canal was regenerated by the end of the second month of the recovery period. In conclusion, we found that histology was essential to the interpretation of the toxicological effects of Al. The mortality of brook trout was attributed to Al toxicity that increased cell membrane permeability and mucification. Increased permeability resulted in the loss of body salt and an influx of Al and H ions. Mucus on gill surfaces caused anoxia leading to cell degeneration. Death was due to disturbances in osmoregulation, breakdown in enzyme activity, and disruption of O/sub 2/ transport.

  20. The role of Ca(2+) and Na (+) membrane transport in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) spermatozoa motility.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Olga; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2014-10-01

    The role of environmental ion composition and osmolality in Ca(2+) signaled activation was assessed in spermatozoa of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Milt from ten mature males was obtained by abdominal massage. Spermatozoa motility was evaluated in 0, 100, and 300 mOsm/kg NaCl or sucrose solutions, buffered by 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.5. For investigation of spermatozoa reaction to external Ca(2+) concentration, 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was added to the activation media as a calcium ions chelator. For investigation of the effect of external Na(+) concentration in conditions of low external Ca(2+), 100 µM amiloride was added to the EGTA-containing solutions as a Na(+) transport blocker. Low motility was observed in sucrose (Na(+) free) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA but not in Na(+) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA. Addition of amiloride led to significantly increased motility (P < 0.05) compared with sucrose (Na(+) free) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA. We conclude that Na(+) transport in Ca(2+)-free solutions plays a regulatory role in brook trout spermatozoa activation. The influence of competitive Na(+) and Ca(2+) transport on the control of spermatozoa activation requires further study with respect to its application for improvement of artificial activation and storage media.

  1. Evaluation of the Effects of Development on Peak-Flow Hydrographs for Collyer Brook, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Mann, Alexander; Chisolm, John

    2001-01-01

    The development of former agricultural or forested lands creates more impervious areas and drainage improvements that can increase the volume of runoff and decrease infiltration and ground-water recharge in a watershed. Drainage improvements also can improve the conveyance of runoff, decreasing the time of rise to peak flow between the start of a rainfall event and the peak surface-water runoff, and likewise decreasing the duration of the peak-flow event. The watershed of Collyer Brook in southern Maine was studied to evaluate the effect of land-use changes on peakflow hydrographs because of the known development in the area during the past 35 years and the availability of aerial photos and streamflow data for this time period. Although aerial photography indicates that suburban development has increased in the watershed between 1964 and 1999, the overall effect of suburbanization on rainfall-runoff processes in the watershed did not produce a statistically detectable change in the peak-flow hydrographs for Collyer Brook.

  2. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrighi, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  3. Evaluating Instructor Technology Integration in Community and Technical Colleges: A Performance Evaluation Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Marietta; Hinson, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    The press for implementing technology based instructional delivery systems in community and technical colleges is well documented. Yet faculty face numerous challenges in integrating technology into instruction (AL-Bataineh & Brooks, 2003; Groves & Zemel, 2000; Khoury, 1997). Stimulating faculty ownership in technology, diffusion of technology use…

  4. Growth of a Science Center: The Center for Science and Mathematics Education (CESAME) at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Leo; Bynum, R. David; Sheppard, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the origin and development of CESAME (The Center for Science and Mathematics Education) at Stony Brook University. The analysis identifies key ingredients in areas of personnel, funding, organizational structures, educational priorities, collaboration, and institutionalization. After a discussion of relevant issues in…

  5. What Do Facts Have to Do with It? Exploring Instructional Emphasis in Stony Brook News Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An analytic matrix comprised of multiple media literacy teaching and learning principles is conceptualized to examine a model of news literacy developed by journalism educators at Stony Brook University. The multidimensional analysis indicates that news literacy instructors focus on teaching students how to question and assess the veracity of news…

  6. SEX-LINKED CHANGES IN PHASE 1 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHENOL IN BROOK TROUT OVER AN ANNUAL REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microsomal metabolism of phenol (11 degrees C) over an annual reproductive cycle from June to December has been studied using fall spawning adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Incubations were optimized for time, cofactor connection, pH, and microsomal protein concentr...

  7. Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students…

  8. What Do Facts Have to Do with It? Exploring Instructional Emphasis in Stony Brook News Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An analytic matrix comprised of multiple media literacy teaching and learning principles is conceptualized to examine a model of news literacy developed by journalism educators at Stony Brook University. The multidimensional analysis indicates that news literacy instructors focus on teaching students how to question and assess the veracity of news…

  9. Maintenance of phenotypic variation: repeatibility, heritability, and size-dependent processes in a wild brook trout population

    Treesearch

    Benjamin H. Letcher; Jason A Coombs; Keith H. Nislow

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in body size can result from within-cohort variation in birth dates, among-individual growth variation and size-selective processes. We explore the relative effects of these processes on the maintenance of wide observed body size variation in stream-dwelling brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Based on the analyses of multiple...

  10. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine

    Treesearch

    Jose Alexander Elvir; Lindsey Rustad; G. Bruce Wiersma; Ivan Fernandez; Alan S. White; Gregory J. White

    2005-01-01

    The foliar chemistry of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The BBWM is a paired-watershed forest ecosystem study, with one watershed treated bimonthly since...

  11. Genetic identity of brook trout in Lake Superior south shore streams: Potential for genetic monitoring of stocking and rehabilitation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloss, Brian L.; Jennings, Martin J.; Franckowiak, R.; Pratt, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation of migratory ('coaster') brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis along Lake Superior's south shore is a topic of high interest among resource stakeholders and management agencies. Proposed strategies for rehabilitation of this brook trout life history variant in Wisconsin include supplemental stocking, watershed management, habitat rehabilitation, harvest regulations, or a combination thereof. In an effort to evaluate the success of coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts, we collected genetic data from four populations of interest (Whittlesey Creek, Bois Brule River, Bark River, and Graveyard Creek) and the hatchery sources used in the Whittlesey Creek supplementation experiment. We characterized the genetic diversity of 30 individuals from each of four populations using 13 microsatellite DNA loci. Levels of genetic variation were consistent with those in similar studies conducted throughout the basin. Significant genetic variation among the populations was observed, enabling adequate population delineation through assignment tests. Overall, 208 of the 211 sampled fish (98.6%) were correctly assigned to their population of origin. Simulated F1 hybrids between two hatchery strains and the Whittlesey Creek population were identifiable in the majority of attempts (90.5-100% accuracy with 0-2.5% error). The genetic markers and analytical techniques described provide the ability to monitor the concurrent coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts along Wisconsin's Lake Superior south shore, including the detection of hybridization between hatchery and native populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  12. State University of New York, Health Science Center at Stony Brook: Clinical Practice Management Plan. Report 94-S-34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    An evaluation was done of the use of funds generated by clinical practices at the Clinical Practice Management Plan of the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center (HSC) at Stony Brook. The audit looked at compliance with Board of Trustee policies regarding: (1) whether 5 percent of the gross receipts from clinical practices were…

  13. Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students…

  14. Past and projected future changes in snowpack and soil frost at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire show that air temperature has increased by about 1 °C over the last half century. The warmer climate has caused significant declines in snow depth, snow water equivalent, and snow cover duration. Paradoxically, it has been su...

  15. Invasion by nonnative brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of habitat quality, connectivity, and biotic resistance

    Treesearch

    Joseph R. Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest the invasion of nonnative freshwater species is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: biotic resistance, habitat quality, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each component to determine which were associated with small (150 mm) brook trout occurrence in Panther Creek, a tributary...

  16. Variation in chemistry of stream water and bulk deposition across the Hubbard Brook Valley, New Hampshire, USA

    Treesearch

    Gene E. Likens; Donald C. Buso; James W. Hornbeck

    2002-01-01

    Chemistry and volume of precipitation and stream water have been measured in south-facing watersheds of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), continuously for 37 years. These long-term data have provided important insights into the bio-geochemistry of these watershed ecosystems and the region (e.g. LIKENS & BORMANN 1995).

  17. Twenty years apart: Comparisons of DOM uptake during leaf leachate releases to Hubbard Brook Valley streams in 1979 versus 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, E. S.; McDowell, W. H.

    2008-09-01

    In seven experiments conducted in late summer 1979 and 2000 extracts of autumn-shed sugar maple leaves and spruce needles were added to two stream reaches of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest at concentrations similar to those found during peak leaf fall. Uptake rates for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 7 to 408 mg m-2 h-1. In Bear Brook uptake rates for spruce leachate were lower than for sugar maple leachate in both 1979 and 2000. Uptake velocities tended to be higher for more bioavailable DOC fractions: in 1979, monomeric carbohydrates in DOM were removed from the water column more rapidly than the bulk DOC pool in 4 of 4 cases; in 2000, uptake velocities for N-containing DOC (DON) were higher than those measured for bulk DOC in 2 of 3 cases. Both results suggest that biological assimilation is an important component of DOM uptake, in contrast to earlier reports that DOM uptake in HBEF streams was primarily through abiotic sorption. In both years, uptake velocities for the same forms of DOM were lower in the high DOC stream Cascade Brook than for the low DOC stream Bear Brook. Experiments in 1979 found no change in inorganic nitrogen concentrations during leachate additions, while all leachate releases in 2000 led to reductions in stream NO3- concentrations.

  18. Physician Provider Profiling in Brooke Army Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Clinic: A Multiple Regression and Process Control Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    in Brooke Army Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Clinic during the 3rd & 4th quarter of FY 1998. Data regarding 26,502 individual patient-provider...accomplished by selecting internists and internal medicine residents and a single primary diagnosis. Second level case mix adjustment accounted for other

  19. Performance Characterization of Influent and Effluent Treatment Systems: A Case Study at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study characterizes the performance of influent and effluent disinfection systems at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) restoration facility in East Orland, ME. Influent treatment of the hatchery’s water supply limits fish ...

  20. SEX-LINKED CHANGES IN PHASE 1 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHENOL IN BROOK TROUT OVER AN ANNUAL REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microsomal metabolism of phenol (11 degrees C) over an annual reproductive cycle from June to December has been studied using fall spawning adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Incubations were optimized for time, cofactor connection, pH, and microsomal protein concentr...

  1. On Conceptual Metaphor and the Flora and Fauna of Mind: Commentary on Brookes and Etkina; and Jeppsson, Haglund, and Amin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author presents his thoughts on two papers appearing in this special issue. The first, "The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes," by David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina (See: EJ1060728), and the second, "Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors Across Levels of…

  2. On Conceptual Metaphor and the Flora and Fauna of Mind: Commentary on Brookes and Etkina; and Jeppsson, Haglund, and Amin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author presents his thoughts on two papers appearing in this special issue. The first, "The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes," by David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina (See: EJ1060728), and the second, "Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors Across Levels of…

  3. Genetic structure and diversity among brook trout from Isle Royale, Lake Nipigon, and three Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stott, Wendylee; Quinlan, Henry R.; Gorman, Owen T.; King, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from Isle Royale, Michigan, three Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior, and Lake Nipigon in Ontario were analyzed for genetic variation at 12 microsatellite DNA loci. Analysis of molecular variance, genetic distance measures, and cluster analysis were used to examine the diversity, gene flow, and relatedness among the samples. The diversity estimates for the samples from Isle Royale were similar to those for the samples collected from Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior, and all estimates were lower than those reported in other studies of brook trout from eastern North America. Genetic differences were detected among the brook trout at Isle Royale, Lake Nipigon, and the Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior. Further, the population in Tobin Harbor at the eastern end of Isle Royale was distinct from the populations from tributaries at the southwestern end of the island. The Minnesota tributary population formed a group that was genetically distinct from those from Isle Royale and Lake Nipigon. The Isle Royale population should be managed to preserve the genetic and phenotypic variation that distinguishes it from the other brook trout populations analyzed to date.

  4. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  5. Ranking site vulnerability to increasing temperatures in southern Appalachian brook trout streams in Virginia: An exposure-sensitivity approach

    Treesearch

    Bradly A. Trumbo; Keith H. Nislow; Jonathan Stallings; Mark Hudy; Eric P. Smith; Dong-Yun Kim; Bruce Wiggins; Charles A. Dolloff

    2014-01-01

    Models based on simple air temperature–water temperature relationships have been useful in highlighting potential threats to coldwater-dependent species such as Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis by predicting major losses of habitat and substantial reductions in geographic distribution. However, spatial variability in the relationship between changes...

  6. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  7. Past and projected future changes in snowpack and soil frost at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; Scott V. Ollinger; Gerald N. Flerchinger; Haley Wicklein; Katharine Hayhoe; Amey S. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    Long-term data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire show that air temperature has increased by about 1 °C over the last half century. The warmer climate has caused significant declines in snow depth, snow water equivalent and snow cover duration. Paradoxically, it has been suggested that warmer air temperatures may result in colder soils...

  8. Enrichment Programs and Professional Development in the Geosciences: Best Practices and Models (OEDG Research Report, Stony Brook University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This report is based on several evaluations of NSF-funded geoscience projects at Stony Brook University on Long Island, NY. The report reviews the status of K-12 geoscience education, identifying challenges posed by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the experiences of university faculty engaged in teacher preparation, state…

  9. Identification of a barrier height threshold where brook trout population genetic diversity, differentiation, and relatedness are affected

    Treesearch

    Anne Timm; Eric Hallerman; Andy Dolloff; Mark Hudy; Randall Kolka

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of the study was to evaluate effects of landscape features, barriers, on Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis population genetics and to identify a potential barrier height threshold where genetic diversity was reduced upstream of the barrier and differentiation and relatedness increase. We screened variation at eight...

  10. Mortality of brook trout, mottled sculpins, and slimy sculpins during acidic episodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gagen, C.J.; Sharpe, W.E.; Carline, R.F. )

    1993-07-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, mottled sculpins Cottus bairdi, and slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus occur in many Pennsylvania streams that have depressed pH and elevated aluminum concentrations during episodes of high stream discharge (acidic episodes). We performed 20-d in situ cage exposures with these species to determine their relative sensitivities to field conditions. We also exposed fish in the laboratory to synthetic soft water, without added Al, to elevate possible effects of Al on sodium flux rates and pH toxicity. Exposures were in five streams: two with high pH (>5.60) and low Al concentrations (<80 [mu]g/L) and three with low pH (usually between 5.0 and 5.5) and high Al levels (124-294 [mu]g/L). Exposures were during two low-discharge fall periods, when pH tends to be seasonally higher and Al concentrations lower, and two relatively high-discharge spring seasons, when lower pH and higher Al concentrations are typical. Few fish died (generally <10%) in the two streams that had higher pH and lower al concentrations, whereas mortalities typically exceeded 20% and were as high as 100% during spring exposures in the streams with lower pH and elevated Al concentrations. All three species had higher mortality rates in spring, 20-100%, than in fall, 0-29%. Mottled sculpins and slimy sculpins had similar mortality rates and both had lower mortality rates than brook trout when exposed to similar conditions. We compared Na flux rates of mottled sculpins to those of brook trout in laboratory exposures at pH 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 to determine if low pH alone could account for mortality rates in the field. Because Na flux rates at pH 5.0, without added Al, were similar to flux rates of the controls for both species, high Al levels were believed to have contributed to the increased mortality observed in streams. 44 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: Oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, John S.; Budahn, James R.; Murchey, Benita L.

    1989-11-01

    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippean), Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks (pillow basalt, subordinate diabase, basaltic tuff, and radiolarian chert). Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. Classification based on immobile trace elements confirms the tholeiitic character of most of the basalts but suggests that some had primary compositions transitional to alkali basalt. Although field and petrographic features of the basalts are similar, trace element characteristics allow definition of geographically distinct suites. A central outcrop belt along the crest of the mountains is made up of basalt with relatively flat rare earth element (REE) patterns. This belt is flanked to the north and south by LREE (light rare earth element)-enriched basalts. Radiolarian and conodont ages from interpillow and interlayered chert and limestone indicate that the central belt of basalts is Triassic in age, the southern belt is Jurassic in age, and the northern belt contains a mixture of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Data for most of the basalts cluster in the "within-plate basalt" fields of trace element discriminant diagrams; none have trace-element characteristics of island arc basalt. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted

  12. Context-specific influence of water temperature on brook trout growth rates in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, C.; Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Modelling the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes requires robust field-based estimates accounting for interactions among multiple factors.2. We used data from an 8-year individual-based study of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to test the influence of water temperature on season-specific growth in the context of variation in other environmental (i.e. season, stream flow) or biotic factors (local brook trout biomass density and fish age and size) in West Brook, a third-order stream in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.3. Changes in ambient temperature influenced individual growth rates. In general, higher temperatures were associated with higher growth rates in winter and spring and lower growth rates in summer and autumn. However, the effect of temperature on growth was strongly context-dependent, differing in both magnitude and direction as a function of season, stream flow and fish biomass density.4. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong and complex interactive effects on trout growth. At the coldest temperatures (in winter), high stream flows were associated with reduced trout growth rates. During spring and autumn and in typical summers (when water temperatures were close to growth optima), higher flows were associated with increased growth rates. In addition, the effect of flow at a given temperature (the flow-temperature interaction) differed among seasons.5. Trout density negatively affected growth rate and had strong interactions with temperature in two of four seasons (i.e. spring and summer) with greater negative effects at high temperatures.6. Our study provided robust, integrative field-based estimates of the effects of temperature on growth rates for a species which serves as a model organism for cold-water adapted ectotherms facing the consequences of environmental change. Results of the study strongly suggest that failure to derive season-specific estimates, or to explicitly consider interactions with

  13. Luteinizing hormone stimulation of in vitro ovulation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) involves follicle contraction and activation of proteolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Diego; Pramanick, Kousik; Goetz, Frederick W; Planas, Josep V

    2013-07-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is an essential hormone for the stimulation of the ovulatory process in vertebrates. However, little is known in fish regarding the different mechanisms induced by LH during ovulation that facilitate the rupture of the follicle wall and the subsequent expulsion of the mature oocyte. In this study, the effects of salmon LH (sLH) on in vitro ovulation were investigated in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) isolated follicles. sLH significantly stimulated in vitro ovulation and contraction of brook trout preovulatory follicles. In order to investigate the possible involvement of proteolytic events in the ovulatory action of LH, the expression of genes known to have a crucial role in the degradation of follicle wall structure was examined. Our results show that sLH clearly stimulated the mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; including mmp2 and mmp19) and other enzymes with proteolytic action during ovulation, such as a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like motifs 1 (adamts1) and plasminogen (plg), in brook trout preovulatory follicles. In addition, the expression of mmp2, adamts1 and plg increased in brook trout follicles during the progression of LH-induced ovulation. Interestingly, the expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (timp2), a known regulator of MMP2 activity, paralleled that of mmp2, suggesting the existence of a controlled mechanism of MMP2 action. Therefore, the known increase in proteolytic activity during ovulation in fish could be the result of the stimulation of the expression of proteolytic enzymes by LH in preovulatory follicles. We propose that LH may stimulate ovulation in brook trout follicles by stimulating proteolysis of the follicle wall and by stimulating follicle contraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ‘Acid rain’, dissolved aluminum and chemical weathering at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Noye M.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Eaton, John S.; Likens, Gene E.; McDowell, William H.

    1981-09-01

    Contemporary ‘acid rain’ in the Hubbard Brook ecosystem has induced a series of geochemical responses. Neutralization is accomplished in essentially a 2-step process. Initially, hydrogen ion acidity is neutralized by the dissolution of reactive alumina primarilly found in the soil zone. In the Hubbard Brook area this reactive alumina has solution properties much like natural gibbsite. Aluminum-rich surface waters with a pH of 4.7 5.2 are typical of this neutralization stage. In a second step, both hydrogen ion acidity and aluminum acidity are neutralized by the chemical weathering of primary silicate minerals, i.e. by the alkali and alkaline earths contained in the bedrock and glacial till of the watershed. The chemical weathering reaction is much slower than the alumina dissolution reaction, so that the aluminum acidity stage (pH 4.7 5.2) may persist for substantial periods. Typically, however, in the Hubbard Brook area the aluminum acidity has been neutralized and a pH > 5.2 is obtained before surface waters reach a third-over stream channel. Because of the relatively low pH's throughout the soil zone and in the streamwater, carbonic acid reactions are essentially absent at the present time in the Hubbard Brook system. Water pathlength (or residence time) in the soil zone is the crucial factor in the state of acid rain neutralization, aluminum chemistry and chemical weathering. As measured by the losses of alkali and alkaline earths from the ecosystem, chemical weathering rate in the Hubhard Brook area at the present time is not especially high relative to other areas.

  15. Deformation and the timing of gas generation and migration in the eastern Brooks Range foothills, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parris, T.M.; Burruss, R.C.; O'Sullivan, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Along the southeast border of the 1002 Assessment Area in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, an explicit link between gas generation and deformation in the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt is provided through petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses of fracture cements integrated with zircon fission-track data. Predominantly quartz-cemented fractures, collected from thrusted Triassic and Jurassic rocks, contain crack-seal textures, healed microcracks, and curved crystals and fluid inclusion populations, which suggest that cement growth occurred before, during, and after deformation. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures (175-250??C) and temperature trends in fracture samples suggest that cements grew at 7-10 km depth during the transition from burial to uplift and during early uplift. CH4-rich (dry gas) inclusions in the Shublik Formation and Kingak Shale are consistent with inclusion entrapment at high thermal maturity for these source rocks. Pressure modeling of these CH4-rich inclusions suggests that pore fluids were overpressured during fracture cementation. Zircon fission-track data in the area record postdeposition denudation associated with early Brooks Range deformation at 64 ?? 3 Ma. With a closure temperature of 225-240??C, the zircon fission-track data overlap homogenization temperatures of coeval aqueous inclusions and inclusions containing dry gas in Kingak and Shublik fracture cements. This critical time-temperature relationship suggests that fracture cementation occurred during early Brooks Range deformation. Dry gas inclusions suggest that Shublik and Kingak source rocks had exceeded peak oil and gas generation temperatures at the time structural traps formed during early Brooks Range deformation. The timing of hydrocarbon generation with respect to deformation therefore represents an important exploration risk for gas exploration in this part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. The persistence of gas high at

  16. Total mitochondrial genome of mantis shrimp, Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Eun; Kim, Jung Nyun; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Kyeong Dong; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    We characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) collected from the southern waters of Korea, which is newly recorded into the Korean carcinological fauna. The total mitochondrial genome length of S. leptosquilla was 16,376 bp. This circular DNA encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs, as well as a putative control region. Compared with other decapod crustacean mitochondrial genomes, the overall A + T content was relatively high (71.1%) as those among other stomatopod species. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. The short non-coding region (210 bp) between tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Phe) may be the good candidate as the molecular marker to discriminate S. leptosequilla from other stomatopods.

  17. Restoration of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF), located at the Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is a non-vitiated, free-jet facility, capable of testing large-scale propulsion systems at Mach Numbers from 5 to 7. As a result of a component failure in September of 1996, a restoration project was initiated in mid- 1997 to repair the damage to the facility. Following the 2-1/2 year effort, the HTF has been returned to an operational condition. Significant repairs and operational improvements have been implemented in order to ensure facility reliability and personnel safety. As of January 2000, this unique, state-of-the-art facility was ready for integrated systems testing.

  18. Pseudolinkage of the duplicate loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    PubMed

    Wright, J E; May, B; Stoneking, M; Lee, G M

    1980-01-01

    Electrophoretic variation involving three alleles is described for the duplicated loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-1,2), from muscle extracts of brook trout. Both loci exhibit largely disomic inheritance. Exceptional progeny types are proposed to be the result of a form of tetrasomic inheritance. Nonrandom segregation was found among the progeny of males doubly heterozygous for AAT markers; where so-called linkage phase was known, this nonrandom assortment was shown to be pseudolinkage (78.9 percent recombination). Analyses of joint segregation of triply heterozygous males for the AAT-(1,2) loci and for the single alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus (AGP-1) revealed true linkage of AGP-1 with one AAT locus (mean r = 11 percent), but pseudolinkage with the other AAT locus (r = 74 percent). Intraindividual variation for homoeologous multivalent pairing of two acrocentric with two metacentric chromosomes in males, but with bivalent pairing in females, is proposed to account for pseudolinkage and for the tetrasomically inherited types.

  19. Thrust-breakthrough of asymmetric anticlines: Observational constraints from surveys in the Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, Margarete A.; Wallace, Wesley K.

    2014-05-01

    To gain insights into the processes governing the thrust-truncation of anticlines, we conducted a field study of the thrust-truncated folds in the remote Brooks Range of northern Alaska, where there is a transition in fold style from symmetric detachment folds to thrust-truncated asymmetric folds. In order to document the detailed geometry of the km-scale folds exposed in cliff-forming, largely inaccessible outcrops, a new surveying technique was developed that combines data from a theodolite and laser range finder. The field observations, survey profiles, and cross section reconstructions, indicate that late-stage thrust breakthrough of the anticlines within the mechanically competent Lisburne Group carbonates accommodated continued shortening when other mechanisms became unfeasible, including fold tightening, forelimb rotation, and parasitic folding in the anticline forelimbs. These results provide constraints on the processes that govern the transition from buckle folding to thrust truncation in fold-and-thrust belts worldwide.

  20. Incidence of pigmented skin tumors in a population of wild Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Silvestre, Albert; Amat, Fèlix; Bargalló, Ferran; Carranza, Salvador

    2011-04-01

    We report the presence of pigmented skin tumors in three populations of the endangered amphibian Montseny brook newt, Calotriton arnoldi, one of the European amphibian species with the smallest distribution range (40 km(2) in the Montseny Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain). Examination of one of the tumors by light microscopy was consistent with chromatophoroma and was most suggestive of a melanophoroma. Tumors were not found in juveniles. In adults, only two of three populations were affected. The proportions of males and females affected were not significantly different, but there was a positive correlation between body size and presence of tumors in both sexes. The etiology of chromatophoromas remains unknown but, in our study, they do not appear to have been caused by water quality or Ultraviolet B.

  1. Phylogeographical analysis reveals multiple conservation units in brook lampreys Lampetra planeri of Portuguese streams.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A M; Robalo, J I; Freyhof, J; Maia, C; Fonseca, J P; Valente, A; Almada, V C

    2010-08-01

    The populations of brook lamprey Lampetra planeri of Portuguese Rivers were analysed phylogeographically using a fragment of 644 bp of the mitochondrial control region of 158 individuals from six populations. Samples representing L. planeri and migratory lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis of rivers draining to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were also included to assess the relationships of Portuguese samples. The data support a clear differentiation of all the populations studied. Several populations, which are isolated among themselves and also from the migratory lampreys, proved to be entirely composed of private haplotypes, a finding that supports some time of independent evolutionary history for these populations. This, combined with the geographic confinement to small water bodies, justifies the recognition of at least four conservation units in the Portuguese rivers Sado, São Pedro, Nabão and Inha.

  2. Prediction of the saturated hydraulic conductivity from Brooks and Corey's water retention parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasta, Paolo; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Romano, Nunzio

    2013-05-01

    Prediction of flow through variably saturated porous media requires accurate knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention function (WRF) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). Unfortunately, direct measurement of the HCF is time consuming and expensive. In this study, we derive a simple closed-form equation that predicts the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks from the WRF parameters of Brooks and Corey (1964). This physically based analytical expression uses an empirical tortuosity parameter (τ) and exploits the information embedded in the measured pore-size distribution. Our proposed model is compared against the current state of the art using more than 250 soil samples from the Grenoble soil catalog (GRIZZLY) and hydraulic properties of European soils (HYPRES) databases. Results demonstrate that the proposed model provides better predictions of the saturated hydraulic conductivity values with reduced size of the 90% confidence intervals of about 3 orders of magnitude.

  3. Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov., isolated from fresh water of a brook in a cavern.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Svec, Pavel; Saavedra, Ma José; Figueras, Ma José; Sedlacek, Ivo

    2013-02-01

    Aeromonas P2973 was isolated from the water of a brook in a cavern in the Czech Republic. This isolate could not be biochemically identified at the species level, considering all updated species descriptions. Subsequent extensive phenotypic characterisation, DNA-DNA hybridisation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis (MLPA) of the concatenated sequence of 7 housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX and atpD; 4705 bp) was employed in an attempt to ascertain the taxonomy of this isolate. Based on this polyphasic approach, we describe a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CCM7641(T) (DSM24474(T), CECT7862(T)) as the type strain.

  4. Hydrologic data from the Johnson Brook phosphorus loading study, Kennebec County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, Thomas J.; Dominie, David R.; Nichols, William J.

    1983-01-01

    Streamflow, water quality, and precipitation data collected during the 1980 and 1981 water years are reported. The purpose was to document changes in total phosphorus loads resulting from a change in agricultural waste management practices in the Johnson Brook watershed in Maine. Streamflow data include mean-daily discharges for the period May 12, 1980, through September 30, 1981, and instantaneous discharges determined during water quality sampling. Water quality data for the period March 1980 to September 1981 include total phosphorus concentrations determined from samples collected using cross-sectional depth-integrating sampling techniques and from samples collected using a pumping sampler. Suspended sediment concentrations, and water temperature and specific conductance values are also included. The precipitation data are daily totals for the period October 1980 through September 1981. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Concomitant Antibiotic and Mercury Resistance Among Gastrointestinal Microflora of Feral Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Matthew M.; Parry, Erin M.; Guay, Justin A.; Markham, Nicholas O.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Barkay, Tamar; Fekete, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine bacterial isolates representing eight genera from the gastrointestinal tracts of feral brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell) demonstrated multiple maximal antibiotic resistances and concomitant broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance. Equivalent viable plate counts on tryptic soy agar supplemented with either 0 or 25 μM HgCl2 verified the ubiquity of mercury resistance in this microbial environment. Mercury levels in lake water samples measured 1.5 ng L−1; mercury concentrations in fish filets ranged from 81.8 to 1,080 ng g−1 and correlated with fish length. The presence of similar antibiotic and Hg resistance patterns in multiple genera of gastrointestinal microflora supports a growing body of research that multiple selective genes can be transferred horizontally in the presence of an unrelated individual selective pressure. We present data that bioaccumulation of non-point source Hg pollution could be a selective pressure to accumulate both antibiotic and Hg resistant bacteria. PMID:22850694

  6. Neocomian source and reservoir rocks in the western Brooks Range and Arctic Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, C.G.; Reifenstuhl, R.R.; Harris, E.E.; Crowder, R.K.

    1995-04-01

    Detailed (1:63,360) mapping of the Tingmerkpuk sandstone and associated rocks in the Misheguk Mountain and DeLong Mountains guadrangles of the western Brooks Range thrust belt documents potential hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks in the northern foothills of the western Delong Mountains and adjacent Colville basin of northwest Alaska. Neocomian (?) to Albian micaceous shale, litharenite, and graywacke that overlies the Tingmerkpuk represents the onset of deposition of orogenic sediments derived from the Brooks Range to the south, and the merging of northern and southern sediment sources in the Colville basin. Both the proximal and distal Tingmerkpuk facies contain clay shale interbeds and overlie the Upper Jurassic to Neocomian Kingak Shale. Preliminary geochemical data show that in the thrust belt, these shales are thermally overmature (Ro 1.4-1.6), but are good source rocks with total organic content (TOC) that ranges from 1.2 to 1.8 percent. Shale in the overlying Brookian rocks is also thermally overmature (Ro 1.2-1.5 percent), but contains up to 1.8 percent TOC from a dominantly terrigenous source, and has generated gas. In outcrops at Surprise Creek, in the foothills north of the thrust belt, the Kingak (1.9 percent TOC) and underlying Triassic Shublik Formation (4.6 percent TOC) are excellent oil source rocks with thermal maturity close to peak oil generation stage (Ro0.75-0.9 percent). These rocks have lower thermal maturity values than expected for their stratigraphic position within the deeper parts of the Colville basin and indicate anomalous burial and uplift history in parts of the basin. Preliminary apatite fission-track (AFTA) data from the thrust belt indicate a stage of rapid uplift and cooling at about 53.61 Ma.

  7. An evaluation of the precision of fin ray, otolith, and scale age determinations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolarski, J.T.; Hartman, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ages of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are typically estimated using scales despite a lack of research documenting the effectiveness of this technique. The use of scales is often preferred because it is nonlethal and is believed to require less effort than alternative methods. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different age estimation methodologies for brook trout, we measured the precision and processing times of scale, sagittal otolith, and pectoral fin ray age estimation techniques. Three independent readers, age bias plots, coefficients of variation (CV = 100 x SD/mean), and percent agreement (PA) were used to measure within-reader, among-structure bias and within-structure, among-reader precision. Bias was generally minimal; however, the age estimates derived from scales tended to be lower than those derived from otoliths within older (age > 2) cohorts. Otolith, fin ray, and scale age estimates were within 1 year of each other for 95% of the comparisons. The measures of precision for scales (CV = 6.59; PA = 82.30) and otoliths (CV = 7.45; PA = 81.48) suggest higher agreement between these structures than with fin rays (CV = 11.30; PA = 65.84). The mean per-sample processing times were lower for scale (13.88 min) and otolith techniques (12.23 min) than for fin ray techniques (22.68 min). The comparable processing times of scales and otoliths contradict popular belief and are probably a result of the high proportion of regenerated scales within samples and the ability to infer age from whole (as opposed to sectioned) otoliths. This research suggests that while scales produce age estimates rivaling those of otoliths for younger (age > 3) cohorts, they may be biased within older cohorts and therefore should be used with caution. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and the Cabauw polder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is a new parametric (conceptual) rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater-surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014). Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and the Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on 1 year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious). Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  9. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is a new parametric (conceptual) rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater-surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014). Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on one year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious). Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  10. Brown bear response to elevated viewing structures at Brooks River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBruyn, T.D.; Smith, T.S.; Proffitt, K.; Partridge, S.; Drummer, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing popularity of brown bear (Ursus arctos) viewing at Brooks River in Katmai National Park, Alaska has resulted in overcrowded facilities, increasing bear-human conflicts, displacement of bears from important habitats, and degradation of cultural resources. To partially address these issues, the National Park Service (NPS) constructed a 300-m-long elevated boardwalk with interconnected viewing platforms in August 2000. To determine what effects the new structures might have on individual bears, we observed bear movements and behaviors before and after construction. We used direct observations and motion-detection cameras to construct temporal-spatial profiles of bear activity. Although bear numbers were similar (59 bears in 2000 and 56 bears in 2001) and bear activity within the greater Brooks River area did not differ (P = 0.62, n = 29) between the 2 years of this study, trail crossings in the vicinity of the new structures decreased 78% (7,436 crossings in 2000 and 1,646 crossings in 2001; ??2 = 762, df = 14, P < 0.001). Bear temporal use of the boardwalk area changed such that when human use was highest, bear use was proportionally lower in the post- versus pre-construction phase (??2 = 34, df = 3, P < 0.005). Of 123 direct observations of bears approaching to pass beneath the structures, only 19.5% rerouted or avoided crossing under the structures. Bears' responses to the new structures were influenced by the behavior of visitors upon the structures. Potential management tools to minimize impacts of these structures on bears include enhanced public education regarding visitor conduct on the boardwalk, as well as visitor management and monitoring.

  11. Changes in seasonal climate outpace compensatory density-dependence in eastern brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassar, Ronald D.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how multiple extrinsic (density-independent) factors and intrinsic (density-dependent) mechanisms influence population dynamics has become increasingly urgent in the face of rapidly changing climates. It is particularly unclear how multiple extrinsic factors with contrasting effects among seasons are related to declines in population numbers and changes in mean body size and whether there is a strong role for density-dependence. The primary goal of this study was to identify the roles of seasonal variation in climate driven environmental direct effects (mean stream flow and temperature) versus density-dependence on population size and mean body size in eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We use data from a 10-year capture-mark-recapture study of eastern brook trout in four streams in Western Massachusetts, USA to parameterize a discrete-time population projection model. The model integrates matrix modeling techniques used to characterize discrete population structures (age, habitat type and season) with integral projection models (IPMs) that characterize demographic rates as continuous functions of organismal traits (in this case body size). Using both stochastic and deterministic analyses we show that decreases in population size are due to changes in stream flow and temperature and that these changes are larger than what can be compensated for through density-dependent responses. We also show that the declines are due mostly to increasing mean stream temperatures decreasing the survival of the youngest age class. In contrast, increases in mean body size over the same period are the result of indirect changes in density with a lesser direct role of climate-driven environmental change.

  12. Structure, metamorphism, and geochronology of the Cosmos Hills and Ruby Ridge, Brooks Range schist belt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Peter B.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    The boundary of the internal zones of the Brooks Range orogenic belt (the schist belt) is a fault contact that dips toward the hinterland (the Yukon-Koyukuk province). This fault, here referred to as the Cosmos Hills fault zone, juxtaposes oceanic rocks and unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks structurally above blueschist-to-greenschist facies metamorphic rocks of the schist belt. Near the fault contact, schist belt rocks are increasingly affected by a prominent, subhorizontal transposition foliation that is locally mylonitic in the fault zone. Structural and petrologic observations combined with 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release geochronology give evidence for a polyphase metamorphic and deformational history beginning in the Middle Jurassic and continuing until the Late Cretaceous. Our 40Ar/39Ar cooling age for Jurassic metamorphism is consistent with stratigraphic and other evidence for the onset of Brooks Range orogenesis. Jurassic metamorphism is nearly everywhere overprinted by a regional greenschist-facies event dated at 130–125 Ma. Near the contact with the Cosmos Hills fault zone, the schist belt is increasingly affected by a younger greenschist metamorphism that is texturally related to a prominent foliation that folds and transposes an older fabric. The 40Ar/39Ar results on phengite and fuchsite that define this younger fabric give recrystallization ages ranging from 103 to less than 90 Ma. We conclude that metamorphism that formed the transposition fabric peaked around 100 Ma and may have continued until well after 90 Ma. This age for greenschist metamorphism is broadly synchronous with the depositional age of locally derived, shallow-marine clastic sedimentary strata in the hanging wall of the fault zone and thus substantiates the interpretation that the fault zone accommodated extension in the Late Cretaceous. This extension unroofed and exhumed the schist belt during relative subsidence of the Yukon-Koyukuk province.

  13. Problems of quality designation in diffusely polluted urban streams - the case of Pymme's Brook, north London.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, H; Edmonds-Brown, V; Green, A

    2000-07-01

    Downstream patterns in the biology and bacteriology of Pymme's Brook (north London) between 1985 and 1992, are compared with the local Environment Agency (EA, England and Wales) quality classification of the site, revealing a considerable discrepancy. Although downstream contaminant dispersal patterns showed that at low flow the brook was less successful in absorbing contaminants at polluted surface water outfall (PSWO) entry points than it was at high flow (supporting the low flow strategy of contemporary audit schedules), this effect was found to vary downstream in response to reoxygenation from less polluted outfalls. Additionally, temporal variations in suspended solids, Escherichia coli counts, sediment-bound and soluble pollutant concentrations at low flow, and during two sampled storms, revealed that significant pollutant transfer was concentrated in the 'first flush' of storm events. A downstream survey of sediment-bound lead (Pb) found that concentrations in the bed sediments, which were likely to be mobilised during a first flush, were significantly higher than in solution. So, a complex pattern of downstream contaminant dispersal emerges, which varies with differing antecedent conditions, and through storms. These results indicate that: (1) the new General Quality Assessments (GQA) audit schedule proposed by the EA for England and Wales remains inappropriate for diffusely polluted, urban environments, because it omits routine E. coli counts and sediment-bound heavy metals; and that (2) when audit is based on chemical determinants alone, the choice of site and timing of audit excessively influence quality designations. Pre-audit planning surveys and more reliable alternatives to the use of chemical audit for urban watercourses, are discussed as possible ways forward for the design of quality audit schedules. Implications for the monitoring schedules in operation in other EU countries and the USA are also considered.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K.; Makhija, S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Cullings, K; Makhija, S

    2001-12-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal

  16. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Associates of Pinus contorta in Soils Associated with a Hot Spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    PubMed Central

    Cullings, Ken; Makhija, Shilpa

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 ± 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 ± 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 ± 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 ± 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal community

  17. Seismic images of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt, Arctic Alaska, from an integrated seismic reflection/refraction experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levander, A.; Fuis, G.S.; Wissinger, E.S.; Lutter, W.J.; Oldow, J.S.; Moore, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    We describe results of an integrated seismic reflection/refraction experiment across the Brooks Range and flanking geologic provinces in Arctic Alaska. The seismic acquisition was unusual in that reflection and refraction data were collected simultaneously with a 700 channel seismograph system deployed numerous times along a 315 km profile. Shot records show continuous Moho reflections from 0-180 km offset, as well as numerous upper- and mid-crustal wide-angle events. Single and low-fold near-vertical incidence common midpoint (CMP) reflection images show complex upper- and middle-crustal structure across the range from the unmetamorphosed Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA) in the north, to the metamorphic belts in the south. Lower-crustal and Moho reflections are visible across the entire reflection profile. Travel-time inversion of PmP arrivals shows that the Moho, at 33 km depth beneath the North Slope foothills, deepens abruptly beneath the EMA to a maximum of 46 km, and then shallows southward to 35 km at the southern edge of the range. Two zones of upper- and middle-crustal reflections underlie the northern Brooks Range above ~ 12-15 km depth. The upper zone, interpreted as the base of the EMA, lies at a maximum depth of 6 km and extends over 50 km from the range front to the north central Brooks Range where the base of the EMA outcrops above the metasedimentary rocks exposed in the Doonerak window. We interpret the base of the lower zone, at ~ 12 km depth, to be from carbonate rocks above the master detachment upon which the Brooks Range formed. The seismic data suggest that the master detachment is connected to the faults in the EMA by several ramps. In the highly metamorphosed terranes south of the Doonerak window, the CMP section shows numerous south-dipping events which we interpret as a crustal scale duplex involving the Doonerak window rocks. The basal detachment reflections can be traced approximately 100 km, and dip southward from about 10-12 km

  18. Behavioural plasticity of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) x brook charr (S. fontinalis) F1 hybrids in response to varying social environment.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M M; Noakes, D L

    1983-05-01

    Lake x brook F1 hybrid charr were observed in heterogeneous groups with lake charr or brook charr to assess the effects of different species on hybrid social behaviour. Levels of behavioural plasticity were low in relation to the behavioural differences between the parental and hybrid types. Feeding behaviour showed the most dramatic change, with higher levels in the lake charr treatment and lower levels in the brook charr treatment than controls, suggesting social facilitation. Even though only two measures varied significantly between treatments, there was a tendency for the frequencies and durations of all agonistic measures to increase in the presence of lake charr and decrease with brook charr. A cost-benefit argument is presented to account for this trend. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Financial Future of Maryland Community Colleges: Governmental Perspectives (Annapolis, MD, December 3, l982). Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Board for Community Colleges, Annapolis.

    Federal, state, local, and institutional perspectives on the financial future of Maryland's community colleges are presented in this conference proceedings. In the first section, spokesmen from the Brookings Institution examine "Federalism--Old and New." James Sundquist discusses President Reagan's "New Federalism" and its…

  20. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Powdermill Brook Detention Dam (MA 00605) Connecticut River Basin, Westfield, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    desilting tasins. Karl R. Klingelhof erjmgc State Conservation Engineer cc: George I’ cDonnell , County Enjlineer George Hartley, Chairman, Hampden Cons...AD-Ai56 POWDERNILL BROOK DETE..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAM "R NEW ENGLAND DIV AUG 78 UNCLSSIFIED F/G 13/3 NL 112. WI’ t 1 .- III - II&~’ .1.6...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A ’ ,, CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN * 0 WESTFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS U POWDERMILL BROOK DETENTION

  1. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Arm Brook Multiple Purpose Dam (MA 00604) Connecticut River Basin, Westfield, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Engineer .. . . -... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARM BROOK MULTIPLE PURPOSE DAM MA 0 0604 CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN WESTFIELD...ation of desilting Lasins. - I 5 6 Karl R. Klincelhofer-/Mgc State Conservation Engineer aorge ’Mcflonnelle, County Engineer aorge Hartley, Chairman...AD-Ai56 161 NATIONAL PROGRRH FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAS R 12’. BROOK MULTIPLE PU..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAN MR I NEW ENGLAND DIV AUG

  2. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  3. New U/Pb ages from granite and granite gneiss in the Ruby geanticline and southern Brooks Range, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W.; Stern, T.W.; Arth, Joseph G.; Carlson, C.

    1987-01-01

    New U/Pb zircon ages from the Ray Mountains of central Alaska clarify the plutonic history of the Ruby geanticline and support earlier suggestions that the Ruby geanticline and S Brooks Range were once parts of the same tectonostratigraphic terrane. U/Pb zircon ages of 109 to 112 Ma from the Ray Mountains pluton confirm previously reported mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid- Cretaceous. New U/Pb zircon ages from 4 granite gneiss samples in the Ray Mountains indicate a Devonian protolith age of 390+ or -12 Ma and suggest that the Ruby geanticline, like the S Brooks Range, underwent a major plutonic event in mid-Paleozoic time.-Authors

  4. Survey of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population in the Upper Little Tennessee River watershed, Macon and Swain Counties, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    During the months May--November 1992, as part of the Western North Carolina Alliance upper Little Tennessee River watershed survey, streams in the North Carolina portion (Macon and Swain Counties) of the watershed were surveyed for the presence of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The purposes of this survey were threefold: (1) To use this sensitive, pollution-intolerant species as an indicator organism for high quality waters. (2) To assist the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, the US Forest Service, and private landowners in managing for and protecting this popular game fish. (3) To locate possible stocks of pure ``southern Appalachian strain`` brook trout. Research is currently underway at the University of Tennessee and Auburn University to determine whether there is in fact a distinct southem subspecies or race of S. fontinalis. This author is one of those who is inclined to believe there is.

  5. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  6. The mitogenomes of the pouched lamprey (Geotria australis) and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera) with phylogenetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianfeng; Pu, Jiafei; Buchinger, Tyler; Zhu, Xinyun; Baker, Cindy; Li, Weiming

    2016-09-01

    We report the mitogenomes of the pouched lamprey (Geotria australis) and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera) in the families Geotriidae and Petromyzontidae, respectively. Both of the mitogenomes contain the 37 typical vertebrate genes. Their gene order and contents are identical to those of previously described lamprey mitogenomes. The mitogenome of G. australis (17 080 bp) is the largest among the 10 reported lamprey mitogenomes, owed to two long noncoding regions. The mitogenome of L. aepyptera is 77 bp longer (16 236 bp) than that of the congeneric European river lamprey L. fluviatilis, a size difference mostly due to different copy numbers of tandem repeats in the noncoding regions. The phylogenetic analysis supports that the pouched lamprey (Geotriidae) diverged earlier from the common ancestor of lampreys than the Petromyzonids, and the placement of the least brook lamprey in the genus Lampetra.

  7. Growth, age at metamorphosis, and sex ratio of northern brook lamprey in a tributary of southern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, Harold A.

    1970-01-01

    Growth was studied of five year classes of the northern brook lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fossor, collected from the Sturgeon River during intervals between treatment of the stream with a lampricide. Growth varied considerably among year classes. Larvae of the 1963 year class were slightly longer at age II and 30% longer at age III than the III-group larvae of the 1960 year class. About 6% of 558 III-group lampreys of the 1963 year class had metamorphosed by 17 August 1966. Although the sex ratio of larvae was about 1:1, 97% of the metamorphosed lampreys were males. The distribution of pigmentation on the caudal fin and upper lip in ammocoetes less than 40 mm long permitted accurate and rapid separation of northern brook lampreys from the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

  8. Nitrile anion cyclization with epoxysilanes followed by Brook rearrangement/ring-opening of cyclopropane nitriles/alkylation.

    PubMed

    Okugawa, Seigo; Masu, Hyuma; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Takeda, Kei

    2005-12-09

    [reactions: see text] The reaction of delta-silyl-gamma,delta-epoxypentanenitrile derivatives 9-12 with a base and an alkylating agent affords (Z)-delta-siloxy-gamma,delta-unsaturated pentanenitrile derivatives via a tandem process that involves the formation of a cyclopropane derivative by epoxy nitrile cyclization followed by Brook rearrangement and an anion-induced cleavage of the cyclopropane ring. Exclusive formation of a (Z)-derivative from trans-epoxides is explained by the reaction pathway that involves a backside displacement of the epoxide by the alpha-nitrile carbanion and the O-Si bond formation followed by concerted processes involving Brook rearrangement and the anti-mode of eliminative ring fission of the cyclopropane from the rotamer 19. The fact that (E)-isomers are exclusively obtained from cis-epoxides and alpha-cyclopropyl-alpha-silylcarbinol derivative 26 provides experimental support for the proposed pathway.

  9. Crustal implications of bedrock geology along the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) in the Brooks Range, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Wallace, W.K.; Mull, C.G.; Adams, K.E.; Plafker, G.; Nokleberg, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) project along the Dalton Highway in northern Alaska indicates that the Endicott Mountains allochthon and the Hammond terrane compose a combined allochthon that was thrust northward at least 90 km in the Early Cretaceous. The basal thrust of the combined allochthon climbs up section in the hanging wall from a ductile shear zone, in the south through lower Paleozoic rocks of the Hammond terrane and into Upper Devonian rocks of the Endicott Mountains allochthon at the Mount Doonerak antiform, culminating in Early Cretaceous shale in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range. Footwall rocks north of the Mount Doonerak antiform are everywhere parautochthonous Permian and Triassic shale of the North Slope terrane rather than Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous strata of the Colville Basin as shown in most other tectonic models of the central Brooks Range. Stratigraphic and structural relations suggest that this thrust was the basal detachment for Early Cretaceous deformation. Younger structures, such as the Tertiary Mount Doonerak antiform, deform the Early Cretaceous structures and are cored by thrusts that root at a depth of about 10 to 30 km along a deeper detachment than the Early Cretaceous detachment. The Brooks Range, therefore, exposes (1) an Early Cretaceous thin-skinned deformational belt developed during arc-continent collision and (2) a mainly Tertiary thick-skinned orogen that is probably the northward continuation of the Rocky Mountains erogenic belt. A down-to-the-south zone of both ductile and brittle normal faulting along the southern margin of the Brooks Range probably formed in the mid-Cretaceous by extensional exhumation of the Early Cretaceous contractional deformation. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks of the Baird Mountains quadrangle, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Tailleur, Irvin L.; Weimer, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Baird Mountains quadrangle form a relatively thin, chiefly shallow-water succession that has been thrust-faulted and metamorphosed to blueschist and greenschist facies. Although this succession was thought to be mostly Devonian until recently, a large part of it is in fact pre-Silurian in age.Middle and Upper Cambrian rocks - the first confirmed in the western Brooks Range - occur in the northeastern quarter of the quadrangle, south of Mt. Angayukaqsraq. These rocks consist of massive marble that grades upward into thin-bedded metalimestone/dolostone couplets and contain pelagiellid mollusks, acrotretid brachiopods, and agnostids. Sedimentologic features and the Pefagiellas indicate a shallow-water depositional environment. Overlying these Cambrian rocks is a thin sequence of Lower arid Middle Ordovician metalimestone and phyllite containing graptolites and cool-water, mid-shelf to basinal conodonts. Upper Ordovician rocks in the Mt. Angayukaqsraq area are bioturbated to laminated dolostone containing conodonts of warm-, shallow-water biofacies.In the Omar and Squirrel Rivers area to the west, the Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks are thicker and quite different in lithofacies and biofacies. These rocks are mainly dolostone with locally well-developed fenestral fabric and evaporite molds, and bioturbated to laminated orange- and gray-weathering dolomitic marble and metalimestone. Conodonts and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in restricted to normal marine, shallow to very shallow water platform environments.Exposures of Upper Silurian rocks occur near Mi. Angayukaqsraq and on the middle fork of the Squirrel River, and consist mostly of thinly laminated dolomitic mudstones. Conodonts in these rocks indicate deposition in a somewhat restricted, shallow-water environment.Devonian carbonate rocks are widely distributed in the western Baird Mountains quadrangle; at least two distinct sequences have been identified. In the

  11. Controls on Nitrogen Biogeochemistry in a Subterranean Estuary, Stony Brook Harbor, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C.; Durand, J. M.; Hanson, G. N.; Wong, T.

    2012-12-01

    Current subterranean estuary models predict a well-defined submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) 'freshwater tube' discharging at or slightly below the low tide point. Nutrient modeling of the subterranean estuary relies on redox defined end -member mixing of fresh and marine waters to produce either nutrient attenuation or remineralization within the SGD 'freshwater tube'. This study, based in Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), employs a combination of electrical resistivity surveys, pore water sampling and seepage meter measurements. In a glacial sands aquifer setting we find the 'freshwater tube' actually occurs as diffuse freshwater zone that can discharge for tens of meters offshore and is capped by a thin harbor floor 'muck' layer. This 'muck' layer acts as a zone of nutrient attenuation, despite near saturation dissolved oxygen levels in both discharging groundwater and overlying sea water. Stony Brook Harbor is rated highest in ecosystem diversity among north shore Long Island Sound embayments and represents embayments currently experiencing minimal anthropogenic impact. Electrical resistivity surveys were used to determine the placement of piezometers for porewater sampling. Porewater sampling was done using retract-a-tip piezometers (AMS) to a maximum 10m depth, at intervals of 0.5- 1.0m. Porewater was sampled in May and October of 2011; an additional intertidal cluster well was sampled for 30 days to confirm stabile salinity distribution. A combination of N2/Ar and δ15N-NO3- are used to determine the extent of denitrification in the subterranean estuary. Samples were also analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO), iron and manganese to determine the geochemical framework of nitrogen transformations. Month long intertidal cluster well measurements show stable porewater salinity and DO to a depth of 10m in the intertidal zone with a 2m tide range. Off shore sampling and electrical resistivity work indicate the freshwater zone

  12. Can brook trout survive climate change in large rivers? If it rains.

    PubMed

    Merriam, Eric R; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Petty, J Todd; Zegre, Nicolas

    2017-12-31

    We provide an assessment of thermal characteristics and climate change vulnerability for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitats in the upper Shavers Fork sub-watershed, West Virginia. Spatial and temporal (2001-2015) variability in observed summer (6/1-8/31) stream temperatures was quantified in 23 (9 tributary, 14 main-stem) reaches. We developed a mixed effects model to predict site-specific mean daily stream temperature from air temperature and discharge and coupled this model with a hydrologic model to predict future (2016-2100) changes in stream temperature under low (RCP 4.5) and high (RCP 8.5) emissions scenarios. Observed mean daily stream temperature exceeded the 21°C brook trout physiological threshold in all but one main-stem site, and 3 sites exceeded proposed thermal limits for either 63- and 7-day mean stream temperature. We modeled mean daily stream temperature with a high degree of certainty (R(2)=0.93; RMSE=0.76°C). Predicted increases in mean daily stream temperature in main-stem and tributary reaches ranged from 0.2°C (RCP 4.5) to 1.2°C (RCP 8.5). Between 2091 and 2100, the average number of days with mean daily stream temperature>21°C increased within main-stem sites under the RCP 4.5 (0-1.2days) and 8.5 (0-13) scenarios; however, no site is expected to exceed 63- or 7-day thermal limits. During the warmest 10years, ≥5 main-stem sites exceeded the 63- or 7-day thermal tolerance limits under both climate emissions scenarios. Years with the greatest increases in stream temperature were characterized by low mean daily discharge. Main-stem reaches below major tributaries never exceed thermal limits, despite neighboring reaches having among the highest observed and predicted stream temperatures. Persistence of thermal refugia within upper Shavers Fork would enable persistence of metapopulation structure and life history processes. However, this will only be possible if projected increases in discharge are realized and offset expected

  13. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) during early development

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.K.; Peterson, R.E. )

    1994-05-01

    The sensitivity of early life stages of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity was investigated. Newly fertilized eggs were exposed for 48 h to water containing either acetone or a range of concentrations of [[sup 3]H]TCDD dissolved in acetone. Eggs were then transferred to TCDD-free water and observed through development. TCDD concentrations of 101 to 470 pg/g in the eggs caused dose-related increases in sac-fry mortality associated with yolk-sac edema, hemorrhages, and arrested development. These signs of TCDD-induced toxicity resemble blue-sac disease. The NOELs and LOELs for sac-fry mortality were 135 and 185 pg TCDD/g egg, respectively, whereas the LD50 and LD100 were 200 and 324 pg/g egg, respectively. The time course and signs of TCDD toxicity to brook trout during early development are essentially identical to those observed in both rainbow trout and lake trout following TCDD exposure of their eggs via water or injection, and in lake trout exposed to maternally derived TCDD. Brook trout sac fry are intermediate in sensitivity to TCDD-induced lethality compared to lake trout and rainbow trout.

  14. Stratigraphic controls on lateral variations in the structural style of northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structural style of the range-front region of the northeastern Brooks Range in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is strongly controlled by (1) the existence of detachment horizons in both pre-Mississippian rocks and the unconformably overlying Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous cover sequence, and (2) lithology and structural competency of the pre-Mississippian rocks. These variables strongly influence lateral changes in structural style. The Brooks Range of northwestern ANWR is dominated by a series of narrow linear anticlinoria, whereas in northeastern ANWR the Brooks Range is characterized by only two broad and strongly arcuate anticlinoria. In both areas, the anticlinoria are controlled by the geometry of a duplex bounded by a floor thrust in pre-Mississippian rocks and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale, near the base of the cover sequence. In the west, where the pre-Mississippian partially consists of structurally competent carbonates, each anticlinorium marks a single horse in the duplex. However, in the east, pre-Mississippian rocks are relatively incompetent and each anticlinorium is cored by multiple horses. In the west, shortening above the roof thrust is by detachment folding, except where the shale detachment horizon is depositionally absent. In contrast, in eastern ANWR shortening above the roof thrust is by major thrust duplication of the entire cover sequence, perhaps due to lithology and thickness changes within the detachment horizon.

  15. Ice processes affect habitat use and movements of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in a Wyoming foothills stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstrom, J.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat use and movements of 25 adult cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and 25 adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from fall through winter 2002-2003 were assessed by means of radiotelemetry in a 7-km reach of a Rocky Mountains foothills stream. Temporal dynamics of winter habitat conditions were evaluated by regularly measuring the features of 30 pools and 5 beaver Castor canadensis ponds in the study reach. Groundwater inputs at three locations raised mean daily water temperatures in the stream channel during winter to 0.2-0.6??C and kept at least 250 m of the downstream channel free of ice, but the lack of surface ice further downstream led to the occurrence of frazil ice and anchor ice in pools and unstable habitat conditions for trout. Pools in segments that were not affected by groundwater inputs and beaver ponds tended to be stable and snow accumulated on the surface ice. Pools throughout the study reach tended to become more stable as snow accumulated. Both cutthroat trout and brook trout selected beaver ponds as winter progressed but tended to use lateral scour pools in proportion to their availability. Tagged fish not in beaver ponds selected lateral scour pools that were deeper than average and stable during winter. Movement frequencies by tagged fish decreased from fall through winter, but some individuals of both species moved during winter. Ice processes affected both the habitat use and movement patterns of cutthroat trout and brook trout in this foothills stream.

  16. Effect of stream acidification and inorganic aluminum on mortality of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    1997-01-01

    Juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were exposed in cages to fluctuating chemical conditions in four Catskill Mountain streams during the spring and fall of 1989 and the spring of 1990. Specific chemical constituents and characteristics of acidic episodes that correlated with increased fish mortality were identified. Mortality increased during acidic episodes in one poorly buffered stream when inorganic monomeric aluminum (Al(im)) concentrations increased; mortality was low in three other streams during acidic episodes of shorter duration and smaller magnitude than measured in the poorly buffered stream. Variation in mortality was attributed primarily to differences in concentrations of both Al(im) and dissolved organic carbon. Linear and logistic regression analyses indicate that either mean or median Al(im) concentrations could account for 73-99% of the variability in mortality. Regression analyses suggest that mortality was highly related (in order of importance) to Al(im), pH, dissolved organic carbon, calcium, and chloride concentration. Brook trout mortality was also highly related to durations of exposure above 0.225 and 0.250 mg/L Al(im) during test periods. Characteristics of acidic-Al(im) episodes that are critical to mortality of caged brook trout appear to be (i) Al(im) concentrations of at least 0.225 ?? 0.025 mg/L and (ii) exposure to these toxic Al(im) concentrations for at least 2 days.

  17. Distribution of Brook Trout and Their Food Sources in Meadow vs. Wooded Areas of Sierra Nevada Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, N. J.; Blumenshine, S.

    2005-05-01

    Stocked eastern brook trout are now well established in historically fishless, small headwater streams in the Sierra Nevada. Although non-native, brook trout have maintained healthy populations since stocking ended 60-80 years ago. Our primary research question was whether brook trout distribution and feeding ecology is influenced by variation in headwater stream habitats and food sources. Stream habitat characteristics and trout demographic data were collected during June and August 2004 from four forested and three meadow sites among five tributaries to Bull Creek in the Sierra Nevada. Both mean fish mass and total fish biomass were greater in forested versus meadow reaches. Macroinvertebrate drift rate did not differ between meadow versus wooded reaches, but were greater in June than August. However, despite higher fish biomass, trout in forests apparently selected prey from drift, whereas trout diets in meadows reflected availability in drift. The results of this research will ultimately be used in a larger, collaborative, whole-ecosystem study conducted by the USDA-Forest Service addressing how current forest management practices affect stream ecosystems.

  18. Impact of Treated Sewage Effluent on the Microbiology of a Small Brook Using Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Tool.

    PubMed

    Harry, Ibiye S K; Ameh, Ekwu; Coulon, Frederic; Nocker, Andreas

    Flow cytometry was applied to assess the microbiological impact of treated sewage effluent discharge into a small brook carrying surface runoff water. Increases in dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous were accompanied by increases in counts of intact bacteria by up to eightfold. Effluent ingress furthermore resulted in a pronounced shift of bacterial clusters. Whereas brook water upstream of the discharge point was characterised by a bacterial cluster with low nucleic acid (LNA) content, downstream water showed a shift to bacteria with high nucleic acid (HNA) content. Changes in the LNA/HNA ratio were largely maintained along the course of the brook. Results suggest that the LNA/HNA ratio can under certain conditions serve as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient impact. Measuring impact on this low trophic level might be more sensitive and straightforward than measuring macroindicators. More evidence will however be required to assess the usefulness of LNA/HNA measurements to assess the ecological nutrient status of natural waters and the impact of nutrient pollution.

  19. Relationship between individual variation in morphological characters and swimming costs in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Boily, Patrice; Magnan, Pierre

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if individual variation in morphological characters is related to swimming costs in wild and domestic brook charr, and in wild yellow perch. Our results indicate that absolute swimming cost was higher in wild and domestic brook charr individuals having a stout body shape, and these individuals are therefore less efficient swimmers. These results are consistent with field observations that described relationships between individual variation in morphology and habitat use in salmonids. Further analyses indicated that standard metabolic rates were higher in individuals having a stout body shape, and that net swimming cost was not related to body shape. Accordingly, the higher swimming cost of stout individuals is probably an indirect consequence of an increase in standard metabolic rate. In wild yellow perch, absolute and net swimming costs were higher in individuals having a stout body shape and a low aspect caudal fin, and standard metabolic rate was not related to body shape. Therefore, in contrast to brook charr, individual variation in the swimming cost of yellow perch appears to be related to morphological characters that affect drag and thrust forces, which is consistent with previously published inter-specific observations.

  20. Invasion by nonnative brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of local habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity to source habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, J.R.; Dunham, J.B.; Dare, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical models and empirical evidence suggest that the invasion of nonnative species in freshwaters is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each factor to determine which were associated with the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Panther Creek, a tributary to the Salmon River, Idaho. Habitat variables included measures of summer and winter temperature, instream cover, and channel size. The abundance of native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within sampled sites was used as a measure of biotic resistance. We also considered the connectivity of sample sites to unconfined valley bottoms, which were considered habitats that may serve as sources for the spread of established populations of brook trout. We analyzed the occurrence of small (<150-mm [fork length]) and large (???150-mm) brook trout separately, assuming that the former represents an established invasion while accounting for the higher potential mobility of the latter. The occurrence of small brook trout was strongly associated with the proximity of sites to large, unconstrained valley bottoms, providing evidence that such habitats may serve as sources for the spread of brook trout invasion. Within sites, winter degree-days and maximum summer temperature were positively associated with the occurrence of small brook trout. The occurrence of large brook trout was not related to any of the variables considered, perhaps due to the difficulty of linking site-specific habitat factors to larger and more mobile individuals. The abundance of rainbow trout was not conclusively associated with the occurrence of either small or large brook trout, providing little support for the role of biotic resistance. Overall, our results suggest that source connectivity and local habitat characteristics, but not biotic resistance, influence the establishment and spread of nonnative brook

  1. Streambed-material characteristics and surface-water quality, Green Pond Brook and tributaries, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1983-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storck, D.A.; Lacombe, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study designed to determine whether Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contain contaminated streambed sediments and to characterize the quaity of water in the brook. Results of previous investigations at Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New Jersey, indicate that significant contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil is present at the arsenal. Forty-five streambed-material samples were collected for analysis to determine whether contaminants have migrated to the brook from the surrounding area. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, base/neutral- and acid-etractable compounds, insecticides, and other constituents. Results of an electromagnetic-conductivity and natural-gamma-ray survey were used to describe the distribution of particle sizes in streambed and substreambed sediments. Historical results of analyses of streambed-material and surface-water samples also are presented. Samples of streambed material from three areas in Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contained organic and (or) inorganic constituents in concentrations greater than those typically found at the arsenal. These areas are Green Pond Brook, from the area near the outflow of Picatinny Lake downstream to Farley Avenue; Bear Swamp Brook, from the area near building 241 downstream to the confluence with Green Pond Brook; and Green Pond Brook, from the open burning area downstream to the dam near building 1178. Contaminants identified include trace elements, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine insecticides. Surface water in Green Pond Brook contained several volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dichloroethylene, at maximum concen- trations of 3.8, 4.6, and 11 micrograms per liter, respectively. Volatilization is expected to remove volatile organic compounds in the steep, fast- flowing reaches of the brook. No organic or inorganic constituents were

  2. The role of extremophile in the redox reaction of Fe and As relating with the formation of secondary phase mineral in extreme environment, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, T. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Park, K. R.; Jung, D. H.; Geesey, G. G.; Kim, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Redox reaction associated with microbial elemental respiration is a ubiquitous process in sediments and suspended particles at various temperatures or pH/Eh conditions. Particularly, changes in elemental redox states (structural or dissolved elemental form) induced by microbial respiration result in the unexpected biogeochemical reactions in the light of biotic/abiotic mineralization. The objective of the present study is, therefore to investigate the secondary phase mineralization through a-/biogeochemical Fe and As redox cycling in the acido-hyperhtermal Norris Geyser Basin (NGB) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, typical of the extreme condition. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer and liquid chromatography with ICP-mass spectroscopy with filtrated supernatant were performed for the mineralogical and hydro-geochemical analysis. The clay slurry collected from the active hot-spring of the NGB area (pH=3.5 and Temperature=78 ℃) was incubated with ("enrichment") or without the growth medium ("natural"). The control was prepared in the same condition except adding the glutaraldehyde to eliminate the microbial activity. The secondary phase mineral formation of the oxidative phase of Fe and As, and K identified as 'Pharmacosiderite' only appeared in the enrichment set suggesting a role of extremophiles in the mineral formation. The considerable population of Fe-oxidizer (Metallosphera yellowstonensis MK-1) and As-oxidizer (Sulfurihydrogenibium sp.) was measured by phylogenetic analysis in the present study area. The inhibition of As-oxidation in the low pH conditions was reported in the previous study, however the As-redox reaction was observed and consequently, precipitated the Pharmacosiderite only in the enrichment set suggesting a biotic mineralization. The present study collectively suggests that the microbial

  3. B-1 and B-3 Test Stands at NASA’s Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-21

    Operation of the High Energy Rocket Engine Research Facility (B-1), left, and Nuclear Rocket Dynamics and Control Facility (B-3) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The test stands were constructed in the early 1960s to test full-scale liquid hydrogen fuel systems in simulated altitude conditions. Over the next decade each stand was used for two major series of liquid hydrogen rocket tests: the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) and the Centaur second-stage rocket program. The different components of these rocket engines could be studied under flight conditions and adjusted without having to fire the engine. Once the preliminary studies were complete, the entire engine could be fired in larger facilities. The test stands were vertical towers with cryogenic fuel and steam ejector systems. B-1 was 135 feet tall, and B-3 was 210 feet tall. Each test stand had several levels, a test section, and ground floor shop areas. The test stands relied on an array of support buildings to conduct their tests, including a control building, steam exhaust system, and fuel storage and pumping facilities. A large steam-powered altitude exhaust system reduced the pressure at the exhaust nozzle exit of each test stand. This allowed B-1 and B-3 to test turbopump performance in conditions that matched the altitudes of space.

  4. Summer temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Butryn, Ryan S.; Rizzo, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a methodology to predict brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution using summer temperature metrics as predictor variables. Our analysis used long-term fish and hourly water temperature data from the Dog River, Vermont (USA). Commonly used metrics (e.g., mean, maximum, maximum 7-day maximum) tend to smooth the data so information on temperature variation is lost. Therefore, we developed a new set of metrics (called event metrics) to capture temperature variation by describing the frequency, area, duration, and magnitude of events that exceeded a user-defined temperature threshold. We used 16, 18, 20, and 22°C. We built linear discriminant models and tested and compared the event metrics against the commonly used metrics. Correct classification of the observations was 66% with event metrics and 87% with commonly used metrics. However, combined event and commonly used metrics correctly classified 92%. Of the four individual temperature thresholds, it was difficult to assess which threshold had the “best” accuracy. The 16°C threshold had slightly fewer misclassifications; however, the 20°C threshold had the fewest extreme misclassifications. Our method leveraged the volumes of existing long-term data and provided a simple, systematic, and adaptable framework for monitoring changes in fish distribution, specifically in the case of irregular, extreme temperature events.

  5. The crustal section of the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerstaff, D.; Harris, R.A.; Miller, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-04-01

    Fragments of the upper crustal section of the Brooks Range Ophiolite on the west flank of Siniktanneyak Mountain expose important contact relations and paleohorizontal indicators. The nearly complete crustal sequence faces northwest. Based on field observations, the crustal units encountered at Siniktanneyak Mountain from bottom to top are: (1) layered gabbro, (2) isotropic gabbro, (3) high level and late-stage intrusions of diorite and diabase, (4) rare sheeted dikes, (5) basalt, and (6) a bedded volcanic tuff. Potassium feldspar-bearing pegmatites are also found. Of particular interest is the orientation of the layered gabbro, sheeted dikes, and the bedded volcanic tuff. The steeply dipping gabbro layers strike N-S, the adjacent vertical sheeted dikes strike NE-SW. Bedded volcanic tuff and lavas are flat lying. Contacts within the upper crust units are often covered by talus. Contacts between various plutonic rocks are both sharp and gradational, suggesting syn- and post-cooling intrusions. Contacts between plutonic rock and higher volcanic rock appear to be fault contacts.

  6. Hiding in Plain Sight: A Case for Cryptic Metapopulations in Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Kazyak, David C; Hilderbrand, Robert H; King, Tim L; Keller, Stephen R; Chhatre, Vikram E

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental issue in the management and conservation of biodiversity is how to define a population. Spatially contiguous fish occupying a stream network have often been considered to represent a single, homogenous population. However, they may also represent multiple discrete populations, a single population with genetic isolation-by-distance, or a metapopulation. We used microsatellite DNA and a large-scale mark-recapture study to assess population structure in a spatially contiguous sample of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a species of conservation concern. We found evidence for limited genetic exchange across small spatial scales and in the absence of barriers to physical movement. Mark-recapture and stationary passive integrated transponder antenna records demonstrated that fish from two tributaries very seldom moved into the opposite tributary, but movements between the tributaries and mainstem were more common. Using Bayesian genetic clustering, we identified two genetic groups that exhibited significantly different growth rates over three years of study, yet survival rates were very similar. Our study highlights the importance of considering the possibility of multiple genetically distinct populations occurring within spatially contiguous habitats, and suggests the existence of a cryptic metapopulation: a spatially continuous distribution of organisms exhibiting metapopulation-like behaviors.

  7. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; Budahn, J.R.; Murchey, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic, Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks. Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted from obduction faulting, but the lack of fault slabs of gabbro or peridotite suggests that obduction faults did not penetrate below oceanic layer 2, a likely occurrence if layer 2 were anomalously thick, as in the vicinity of an oceanic island. -from Authors

  8. Analysis of reinjection problems at the Stony Brook ATES field test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supkow, D. J.; Shultz, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) is one of several energy storage technologies being investigated by the DOE to determine the feasibility of reducing energy consumption by means of energy management systems. The State University of New York, (SUNY) Stony Brook, Long Island, New York site was selected by Battelle PNL for a Phase 1 investigation to determine the feasibility of an ATES demonstration to seasonally store chill energy by injecting chilled water in the winter and recovering it at a maximum rate of 100 MBTU/hr (30 MW) in the summer. The Phase 1 study was performed during 1981 by Dames & Moore under subcontract to Batelle PLN. The pumping and injection tests were performed using two wells in a doublet configuration. Well PI-1 is a previously existing well and PI-2 was installed specifically for this investigation. Both wells are screened in the Upper Magothy aquifer from approximately 300 to 350 feet below ground surface. Nine observation wells were also installed as a portion of the investigation to monitor water level and aquifer temperature changes during the test.

  9. Insights from transformations under way at four Brookings-Dartmouth accountable care organization pilot sites.

    PubMed

    Larson, Bridget K; Van Citters, Aricca D; Kreindler, Sara A; Carluzzo, Kathleen L; Gbemudu, Josette N; Wu, Frances M; Nelson, Eugene C; Shortell, Stephen M; Fisher, Elliott S

    2012-11-01

    This cross-site comparison of the early experience of four provider organizations participating in the Brookings-Dartmouth Accountable Care Organization Collaborative identifies factors that sites perceived as enablers of successful ACO formation and performance. The four pilots varied in size, with between 7,000 and 50,000 attributed patients and 90 to 2,700 participating physicians. The sites had varying degrees of experience with performance-based payments; however, all formed collaborative new relationships with payers and created shared savings agreements linked to performance on quality measures. Each organization devoted major efforts to physician engagement. Policy makers now need to consider how to support and provide incentives for the successful formation of multipayer ACOs, and how to align private-sector and CMS performance measures. Linking providers to learning networks where payers and providers can address common technical issues could help. These sites' transitions to the new payment model constitutes an ongoing journey that will require continual adaptation in the structure of contracts and organizational attributes.

  10. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities At NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

    2012-01-01

    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world?s largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center?s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  11. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 test facility-Thermal vacuum and propellant test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlac, Maureen; Weaver, Harold; Cmar, Mark

    2012-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/m2. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  12. Nesting by Golden Eagles on the North Slope of the Brooks Range in Northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Donald D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Bente, Peter J.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Ambrose, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-two Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories and 31 occupied eagle nests were documented on the north slope of the Brooks Range in northeastern Alaska, 1988-1990, in an area previously thought to be marginal breeding habitat for eagles. The mean number of young/successful nest was 1.25 in 1988, 1.27 in 1989, and 1.13 in 1990; means did not differ significantly among years. Eighty percent (20/25) of the nestlings for which age was estimated were assumed to have successfully fledged. Nesting success was 79% (11/14) in 1989, the only year nesting success could be determined. Laying dates ranged from 23 March (1990) to 11 May (1989) with mean estimated laying dates differing significantly among years. Annual variation in nesting phenology coincided with annual differences in snow accumulations during spring. These results indicate that Golden Eagles consistently and successfully breed at the northern extent of their range in Alaska, although, productivity may be lower than that for eagles at more southern latitudes.

  13. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 7-day survival and growth test method.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E

    2007-10-01

    A short-term method was developed in this study for conducting subchronic survival and growth renewal toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Previously published early life-stage methods for various salmonid species involve test durations of 30 to 90 days. This trout method, however, follows a previously published 7-day fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) growth method. The tests performed in this study measured subchronic growth and survival effects using standard reference toxicants (ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, phenol, and zinc sulfate), receiving water, and effluent samples. The test results were compared with performance criteria and results for 7-day survival and growth tests with P. promelas to determine the level of comparability between the two species. The results from tests with both salmonid species indicated that this 7-day survival and growth test method using O. mykiss and S. fontinalis provides reproducible results with various reference toxicant materials and can be used successfully to detect potential toxicity in environmental samples.

  14. Can personality predict individual differences in brook trout spatial learning ability?

    PubMed

    White, S L; Wagner, T; Gowan, C; Braithwaite, V A

    2017-08-01

    While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 Test Facility: Thermal Vacuum and Propellant Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  16. Hiding in Plain Sight: A Case for Cryptic Metapopulations in Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; King, Tim L.; Keller, Stephen R.; Chhatre, Vikram E.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental issue in the management and conservation of biodiversity is how to define a population. Spatially contiguous fish occupying a stream network have often been considered to represent a single, homogenous population. However, they may also represent multiple discrete populations, a single population with genetic isolation-by-distance, or a metapopulation. We used microsatellite DNA and a large-scale mark-recapture study to assess population structure in a spatially contiguous sample of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a species of conservation concern. We found evidence for limited genetic exchange across small spatial scales and in the absence of barriers to physical movement. Mark-recapture and stationary passive integrated transponder antenna records demonstrated that fish from two tributaries very seldom moved into the opposite tributary, but movements between the tributaries and mainstem were more common. Using Bayesian genetic clustering, we identified two genetic groups that exhibited significantly different growth rates over three years of study, yet survival rates were very similar. Our study highlights the importance of considering the possibility of multiple genetically distinct populations occurring within spatially contiguous habitats, and suggests the existence of a cryptic metapopulation: a spatially continuous distribution of organisms exhibiting metapopulation-like behaviors. PMID:26730588

  17. Are brook trout streams in western Virginia and Shenandoah National Park recovering from acidification?

    PubMed

    Webb, James R; Cosby, Bernard J; Deviney, Frank A; Galloway, James N; Maben, Suzanne W; Bulger, Arthur J

    2004-08-01

    Streamwater composition data obtained through periodic sampling of streams that support brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the mountains of western Virginia were examined for evidence of recovery from acidification during the 1988-2001 period. Measurements of sulfate deposition in precipitation indicate that sulfate deposition in the region declined approximately 40% between 1985 and 2000. While no significant regional trends in acid-base constituents were observed for the set (n = 65) of western Virginia study streams, significant regional trends were observed for a subset (n = 14) of streams in Shenandoah National Park (SNP). For the subset of SNP streams, the median increase in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was 0.168 microequiv L(-1) year(-1) and the median decrease in sulfate concentration was -0.229 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). Although these trends are consistent with recovery from acidification, the degree of apparent recovery is small compared to estimates of historic acidification in SNP streams and much less than observed in other, more northern regions in the United States. Correlation between sulfate concentration trends and current sulfate concentrations in streamwater suggests that recovery from stream acidification in the western Virginia region is determined by sulfur retention processes in watershed soils. A transient increase in nitrate concentrations that occurred among some western Virginia streams following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) complicates interpretation of the observed patterns of change in acid-base status.

  18. Loss of genetic integrity correlates with stocking intensity in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Marie, A D; Bernatchez, L; Garant, D

    2010-05-01

    Supportive breeding and stocking performed with non-native or domesticated fish to support sport fishery industry is a common practice throughout the world. Such practices are likely to modify the genetic integrity of natural populations depending on the extent of genetic differences between domesticated and wild fish and on the intensity of stocking. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of variable stocking intensities on patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation among nearly 2000 brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) from 24 lakes located in two wildlife reserves in Québec, Canada. Our results indicated that the level of genetic diversity was increased in more intensively stocked lakes, mainly due to the introduction of new alleles of domestic origin. As a consequence, the population genetic structure was strongly homogenized by intense stocking. Heavily stocked lakes presented higher admixture levels and lower levels of among lakes genetic differentiation than moderately and un-stocked lakes. Moreover, the number of stocking events explained the observed pattern of population genetic structure as much as hydrographical connections among lakes in each reserve. We discuss the implications for the conservation of exploited fish populations and the management of stocking practices.

  19. Mercury speciation comparison. BrooksApplied Laboratories and Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-12-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences (FGS), Inc. in Bothell, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Program Team. These samples were analyzed for seven species including: total mercury, dissolved mercury, inorganic mercury ((Hg(I) and Hg(II)), elemental mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury, with an eighth species, particulate mercury, calculated from the difference between total and dissolved mercury after subtracting the elemental mercury. The species fraction of total mercury measured has ranged broadly from a low of 32% to a high of 146%, though the vast majority of samples have been <100%. This can be expected since one is summing multiple values that each have at least a ± 20% measurement uncertainty. Two liquid waste tanks particularly important to understanding the distribution of mercury species in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm were selected for a round robin analysis by Eurofins FGS and BrooksApplied Laboratories (BAL). The analyses conducted by BAL on the Tank 22 and 38 samples and their agreement with those obtained from Eurofins FGS for total mercury, dissolved mercury, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and dimethylmercury provide a strong degree of confidence in these species measurements

  20. Results of the independent radiological verification survey of the lower Sheffield Brook floodplain, Wayne, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Yalcintas, M.G.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    Prior to 1971, the W.R. Grace Company processed and stored radioactive materials at Wayne, New Jersey, under license to the Atomic Energy Commission. Decontamination of structures and storage of waste materials on the property at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) took place in 1974. Surveys by the State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and by Oak Ridge Associated Universities for the NRC in 1982 indicated that properties adjacent to the WISS contained surface contamination by radioactive residuals in amounts exceeding those acceptable under US Department of Energy (DOE) remedial action guidelines. At the request of DOE, remedial actions have been conducted by Bechtel National, Inc., to remove radioactive residuals from properties adjacent to the site. It is the policy of DOE to assign an independent verification contractor to ensure the effectiveness of remedial actions performed within the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This report describes the methods and results of those studies that were conducted by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the lower Sheffield Brook floodplain west of the WISS. Based upon post-remedial action and verification survey data, it was concluded that residual soil concentrations and gamma levels following excavation and backfilling of the area are within the limits prescribed by DOE radiological guidelines. 12 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Experimental test of genetic rescue in isolated populations of brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Zachary L.; Coombs, Jason A.; Hudy, Mark; Nislow, Keith H.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic rescue is an increasingly considered conservation measure to address genetic erosion associated with habitat loss and fragmentation. The resulting gene flow from facilitating migration may improve fitness and adaptive potential, but is not without risks (e.g., outbreeding depression). Here, we conducted a test of genetic rescue by translocating ten (five of each sex) brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a single source to four nearby and isolated stream populations. To control for the demographic contribution of translocated individuals, ten resident individuals (five of each sex) were removed from each recipient population. Prior to the introduction of translocated individuals, the two smallest above-barrier populations had substantially lower genetic diversity, and all populations had reduced effective number of breeders relative to adjacent below-barrier populations. In the first reproductive bout following translocation, 31 of 40 (78%) translocated individuals reproduced successfully. Translocated individuals contributed to more families than expected under random mating and generally produced larger full-sibling families. We observed relatively high (>20%) introgression in three of the four recipient populations. The translocations increased genetic diversity of recipient populations by 45% in allelic richness and 25% in expected heterozygosity. Additionally, strong evidence of hybrid vigour was observed through significantly larger body sizes of hybrid offspring relative to resident offspring in all recipient populations. Continued monitoring of these populations will test for negative fitness effects beyond the first generation. However, these results provide much-needed experimental data to inform the potential effectiveness of genetic rescue-motivated translocations.

  2. Reconstructing the demographic history of divergence between European river and brook lampreys using approximate Bayesian computations

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Camille; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jérôme; Launey, Sophie; Evanno, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Inferring the history of isolation and gene flow during species divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. The European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and brook lamprey (L. planeri) show a low reproductive isolation but have highly distinct life histories, the former being parasitic-anadromous and the latter non-parasitic and freshwater resident. Here we used microsatellite data from six replicated population pairs to reconstruct their history of divergence using an approximate Bayesian computation framework combined with a random forest model. In most population pairs, scenarios of divergence with recent isolation were outcompeted by scenarios proposing ongoing gene flow, namely the Secondary Contact (SC) and Isolation with Migration (IM) models. The estimation of demographic parameters under the SC model indicated a time of secondary contact close to the time of speciation, explaining why SC and IM models could not be discriminated. In case of an ancient secondary contact, the historical signal of divergence is lost and neutral markers converge to the same equilibrium as under the less parameterized model allowing ongoing gene flow. Our results imply that models of secondary contacts should be systematically compared to models of divergence with gene flow; given the difficulty to discriminate among these models, we suggest that genome-wide data are needed to adequately reconstruct divergence history. PMID:27077007

  3. Modeling a High Resolution Stream Chloride Time Series from the Biscuit Brook Catchment, Catskills, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S. B.; Walter, M. T.; Harpold, A. A.

    2006-12-01

    Compelling work by Kirchner and colleagues (e.g., Kirchner et al., 2001, J. of Hydro., 254:81-100) suggests that lengthy, high resolution chloride time series can reveal the underlying travel time distribution of water in a catchment. However, few data sets of suitable length or sampling frequency have been available for assessment. Our analysis of a ten-year, weekly stream chloride time series data set for the steep, forested Biscuit Brook catchment in the Catskill Mountains of NY resulted in a 1/f spectral density plot. We used a lumped, two reservoir model with an upper reservoir representing quickflow and a lower reservoir representing base flow to reasonably replicate stream flow and stream chloride concentrations. A spectral analysis of the modeled daily chloride signal also resulted in a 1/f spectral density plot. This suggests that in some systems a 1/f signature can result from processes other than superposition of lateral chemical transport pathways, as has been previously hypothesized by other researchers. In this case, it appears that a long-term periodicity established by seasonal moisture deficits combines with shorter wavelength variations from rainfall inputs to create a 1/f spectral density for chloride concentration.

  4. Lateral continuity of the Blarney Creek Thrust, Doonerak Windown, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, C.M.; Julian, F.E.; Phelps, J.C.; Oldow, J.S.; Avellemant, H.G.

    1985-04-01

    The contact between Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks, exposed along the northern margin of the Doonerak window in the central Brooks Range, is a major thrust fault called the Blarney Creek thrust (BCT). The BCT has been traced over a distance of 25 km, from Falsoola Mountain to Wien Mountain. The tectonic nature of this contact is demonstrated by: (1) omission of stratigraphic units above and below the BCT; (2) large angular discordance in orientation of first-generation cleavage at the BCT; (3) numerous thrust imbricates developed in the upper-plate Carboniferous section that sole into the BCT; and (4) truncation of an upper-plate graben structure at the BCT. Lack of evidence for pre-Carboniferous deformation in the lower plate casts doubt on the interpretation of the contact as an angular unconformity. However, the localized presence below the BCT of Mississippian Kekiktuk Conglomerate and Kayak Shale, in apparent depositional contact with lower Paleozoic rocks, suggests that the BCT follows an originally disconformable contact between the Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks. The juxtaposition of younger over older rocks at the BCT is explained by calling upon the BCT to act as the upper detachment surface of a duplex structure. Duplex development involves initial imbrication of the Carboniferous section using the BCT as a basal decollement, followed by formation of deeper thrusts in the lower Paleozoic section, which ramp up and merge into the BCT.

  5. Evidence for a Flushing Mechanism of Nitrate Export from Susannah Brook Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, C. J.; Sivapalan, M.; Turner, J. V.; Oldham, C.

    2001-12-01

    The mechanism of nitrate export from catchments can be addressed by the identification of flow paths along which water is routed and the different time scales at which hydrologic and biogeochemical processes occur. This mechanism was investigated in Susannah Brook catchment (SB), a 24 square kilometre area rural catchment near Perth, Western Australia (Australia), which experiences high nitrate-nitrogen export to the Swan-Canning Rivers and Estuaries. Storm event isotopic (deuterium) and chemical (chloride) data were used to obtain the time source components of stormflow hydrographs and to relate them to nitrate export from the catchment. Storm, seasonal, and inter-annual variation of those components were investigated using standard isotopic and chemical hydrograph separation techniques, performed over 50 storm events recorded in three different hydrological catchment conditions: mean, wet, and dry years. Results from the hydrograph separation indicate the dominance of a pre-event water source in the catchment. The dynamics of contributing areas for saturated overland flow estimated from the event component was found to be consistent with hydrometric data and nitrate discharges from the catchment. There is evidence of a flushing mechanism of nitrate discharges operating within the catchment controlled by the dynamics of a shallow ephemeral perched aquifer built up during the raining season. Results suggest the viability in using hydrologic state variables in our approaches linking hydrologic and biogeochemical processes at catchment scale.

  6. Soil chemical and physical properties at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    SanClements, Michael D; Fernandez, Ivan J; Norton, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    Acidic deposition leads to the acidification of waters and accelerated leaching and depletion of soil base cations. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine has used whole-watershed chemical manipulations to study the effects of elevated N and S on forest ecosystem function on a decadal time scale. The objectives of this study were to define the chemical and physical characteristics of soils in both the reference and treated watersheds after 17 years of treatment and assess evidence of change in soil chemistry by comparing soil studies in 1998 and 2006. Results from 1998 confirmed depletion of soil base cation pools and decreased pH due to elevated N and S within the treated watershed. However, between 1998 and 2006, during a period of declining SO4(2-) deposition and continued whole-watershed experimental acidification on the treated watershed, there was little evidence of continued soil exchangeable base cation concentration depletion or recovery. The addition of a pulse of litterfall and accelerating mineralization from a severe ice storm in 1998 may have had significant effects on forest floor nutrient pools and cycling between 1998 and 2006. Our findings suggest that mineralization of additional litter inputs from the ice storm may have obscured temporal trends in soil chemistry. The physical data presented also demonstrate the importance of coarse fragments in the architecture of these soils. This study underscores the importance of long-term, quantitative soil monitoring in determining the trajectories of change in forest soils and ecosystem processes over time.

  7. The Cenozoic structural evolution of a fold-and-thrust belt, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, C.L. )

    1993-03-01

    A Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt in the eastern structural province of the northeastern Brooks Range exposes polydeformed low-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the pre-Mississippian basement and its sedimentary cover immediately adjacent to much younger foredeep deposits. Analysis of mesoscopic and map-scale structures in the range-front region suggests that at least one pre-Mississippian deformational event was recorded into the basement sequence by north-vergent fold-and-thrust structures and associated penetrative structures. Most of later Cenozoic shortening of the pre-Mississippian rocks was accommodated by thrust duplication, with little development of penetrative mesoscopic structures. Although separated from the underlying basement rocks by a major regional decollement horizon, Cenozoic deformation in the overlying Mississippian through Lower Cretaceous cover sequence also was primarily by thrust duplication. Although local and regional structural trends within the cover sequence suggest that Cenozoic deformation was north-northwest directed, east-west Cenozoic structural trends within the pre-Mississippian rocks may reflect an inherited pre-Mississippian structural grain and/or pre-Mississippian-age structures reactivated during Cenozoic deformation. A regional balanced cross section of the eastern structural province was constructed. 29 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Linking transcriptomic and genomic variation to growth in brook charr hybrids (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill).

    PubMed

    Bougas, B; Normandeau, E; Audet, C; Bernatchez, L

    2013-05-01

    Hybridization can lead to phenotypic differences arising from changes in gene expression patterns or new allele combinations. Variation in gene expression is thought to be controlled by differences in transcription regulation of parental alleles, either through cis- or trans-regulatory elements. A previous study among brook charr hybrids from different populations (Rupert, Laval, and domestic) showing distinct length at age during early life stages also revealed different patterns in transcription regulation inheritance of transcript abundance. In the present study, transcript abundance using RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and allelic imbalance were assessed in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed transcriptomic and differences in length at age among domestic × Rupert hybrids and Laval × domestic hybrids. We found 198 differentially expressed genes between the two hybrid crosses, and allelic imbalance could be analyzed for 69 of them. Among these 69 genes, 36 genes exhibited cis-acting regulatory effects in both of the two crosses, thus confirming the prevalent role of cis-acting regulatory elements in the regulation of differentially expressed genes among intraspecific hybrids. In addition, we detected a significant association between SNP genotypes of three genes and length at age. Our study is thus one of the few that have highlighted some of the molecular mechanisms potentially involved in the differential phenotypic expression in intraspecific hybrids for nonmodel species.

  9. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  10. Geochronology of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for the geologic evolution of the Anarraaq and Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rombach, C.S.; Layer, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    A compilation of published geochronology of rocks and minerals from the western and central Brooks Range provides a framework for understanding the complex history of the Brooks Range and northern Alaska. A simplified timeline of events comprises (1) Devonian extension, (2) Mississippian extension and Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization, (3) a passive interval, (4) pre-Brooks Range orogeny rock-formation and thermal event, (5) inception of Brooks Range orogeny, (6) exhumation and the end of main-stage deformation, and (7) subsequent episodic deformation. This compilation is supplemented by new 40Ar/39Ar dates of white mica from the Anarraaq and Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag (+ barite) deposits from the western Brooks Range. The deposits are hosted in black shale and carbonate rocks of the Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian Kuna Formation. Quartz-pyrite-white mica grains in sedimentary rocks above the Anarraaq deposit yield an age of 195.0 ?? 2.0 Ma, and paragenetically late quartz-pyrite-white mica from the Main orebody at the Red Dog deposit has an age of 126.1 ?? 0.7 Ma. These white micas are much younger than the age of Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization at Red Dog (338 ?? 5.8 Ma Re-Os age of pyrite). The date for white mica from Anarraaq (???195 Ma) appears to be related to a large-scale thermal event in the region immediately before the inception of the Brooks Range orogeny. The white mica from the Red Dog deposit (???126 Ma) correlates with the later stages of the orogeny, a period of blueschist metamorphism, extension, and rapid exhumation, which varied with geographic location. These dates suggest that the Red Dog deposits underwent significant hydrothermal overprinting during multiple episodes of the Brooks Range orogeny. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  11. Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Thinking and Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, David

    2013-01-01

    Computers have become powerful conceptual and intellectual tools. Examples will be given showing how computer simulations clarified the nature of some important astrophysical processes: gravitational collapse to black holes or neutron stars, the synthesis of the elements, supernova explosions, and turbulent motion in stars. Originally computers were thought of as tools for solving differential equations by numerical integration, but modern use of computers more closely resembles the construction of a digital model of reality based on conservation laws. Implications of our new abilities to solve nonlinear problems, and the synergism developing between analytic and digital theory will be discussed, with historical comments.

  12. Russell, Henry Norris (1877-1957)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Oyster Bay, NY, spent nearly all his life working at Princeton University. He spectroscopically studied eclipsing binary stars to determine the masses of their component stars. At first collaborating with the British astronomer Hinks at Cambridge, he started to measure stellar parallaxes and, plotting the absolute magnitudes of stars whose distance he had thus measured, agains...

  13. A Church-Based, Spanish-Language Community Education Breast Health Program Increases Awareness and Utilization of Breast Diagnostic Services among Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Albertie, Monica; Rodriguez, Judith; Nicholson, Garik; Kolomeyer, Irina; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Lesperance, Mary; Perez, Edith A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic Disparities Program and the University of North Florida Brooks College of Health partnered with representatives of the Hispanic community of Northeast Florida to develop an educational program aimed at raising awareness of the importance of diet in breast cancer prevention and availability of free breast cancer screening. An…

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amy Norris (left) packs some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. Jack Nowling works on the computer. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amy Norris (left) packs some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. Jack Nowling works on the computer. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  15. Flood of October 8 and 9, 2005, on Cold River in Walpole, Langdon, and Alstead and on Warren Brook in Alstead, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Southwestern New Hampshire experienced damaging flooding on October 8 and 9, 2005. The flooding was the result of a storm producing at least 7 inches of rain in a 30-hour period. The heavy, intense rainfall resulted in runoff and severe flooding, especially in regions of steep topography that are vulnerable to flash flooding. Some of the worst property damage was in the towns of Alstead, Langdon, and Walpole, New Hampshire along Cold River and Warren Brook. Warren Brook was severely flooded and had flows that exceeded a 100-year recurrence interval upstream of Cooper Hill Road. Downstream of Cooper Hill Road, the flooding was worsened as a result of a sudden release of impounded water, making the flood levels greater than what would be experienced from a 500-year recurrence-interval flood. Along Cold River, upstream of its confluence with Warren Brook, flooding was at approximately a 100-year recurrence interval. Downstream of the confluence of Cold River and Warren Brook, the streamflows, which were swollen by the surge of water from Warren Brook, exceeded a 500year recurrence interval.

  16. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of two cases not associated with a mutation in the CYLD and PTCH tumor-suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Giovanni; Nasti, Sabina; Losi, Lorena; Pastorino, Lorenza; Pollio, Annamaria; Benassi, Luisa; Giudice, Stefania; Bertazzoni, Giorgia; Veratti, Eugenia; Azzoni, Paola; Bianchi Scarrà, Giovanna; Seidenari, Stefania

    2012-03-01

    Brooke-Spiegler syndrome represents an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the occurrence of multiple cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas and (sporadically) spiroadenomas. Patients with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome are also at risk of developing tumors of the major and minor salivary glands. Patients with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome have various mutations in the CYLD gene, a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 16q. To date, 68 unique CYLD mutations have been identified. We describe two families with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, one with familial cylindromatosis and one with multiple familial trichoepithelioma, which showed wide inter-family phenotypic variability. Analysis of germline mutations of the CYLD and PTCH genes was performed using peripheral blood. In addition, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were analyzed for PTCH somatic mutations and cylindroma cell cultures were obtained directly from patients for further growth and analysis. Clinically, the major features of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome include the presence of heterogeneous skin tumors and wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability. Histopathologically, both cylindromas and trichoepitheliomas were found in affected individuals. Mutations or loss of heterozygosity was not found in CYLD and PTCH genes. In CYLD and PTCH mutation-negative patients, other genes may be affected and further studies are needed to clarify whether these patients may be affected by de novo germline mutations.

  17. The Honey Brook Upland: Multiple Accessory Phase Parageneses in a Grenville Terrane and Associated Cover Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    The Honey Brook Upland (HBU) of southeastern Pennsylvania is the only Grenville-age AMCG suite exposed between the Adirondacks and the anorthosite-bearing terranes of central and eastern Virginia. Several distinct accessory phase parageneses in the HBU and its Paleozoic metasedimentary cover sequence help: 1) to constrain the timing of known events affecting the HBU and cover; 2) to identify previously unknown events, and; 3) to elucidate the T-x conditions of the distinct metamorphic events. Granulite-facies gneisses (charnockites, mangerites) associated with the Honey Brook anorthosite contain primary Zrn, Aln, and Ap, but also texturally late Mnz in Bt+Hbl coronas around Opx, and (with Xno) as oriented acicular inclusions in primary Ap. The latter texture is interpreted as evidence of metasomatic infiltration (Harlov et al., Am Min, 2002), and Mnz-Xno pairs in Ap yield temperatures of 450° C-500° C. Amphibolite-facies felsic gneisses (metavolcanics) contain primary Zrn, Mnz, and Ap; Mnz rims are commonly replaced by Aln+Ep. Mnz in the metavolcanics has three distinct compositional domains; moderate-Y, low-Th cores, low-Y, high-Th outboards, and rare low-Y, low-Th rims. Garnets in the metavolcanics are only slightly zoned in Y (1000-800 ppm core to rim); Grt rims are typically replaced by Ep+Ms. Pairing of Grt compositions and Mnz core domains yields temperatures of 500° C-520° C, indicating preservation of prograde Mnz. The association of Qtz+Plg+Ms symplectites with high-Th Mnz domains suggests that this domain is representative of peak metamorphic conditions (650° C-750° C). Coexisting Mnz and Xno are found in metaquartzite (Chickies Formation) at the base of the HBU cover sequence; epitaxial overgrowths of Xno on oscillatory-zoned Zrn imply anin situ origin for Xno. Mnz-Xno pairs in the metaquartzite yield equilibration temperatures of 300° C-400° C. A provisional sequence of events in the HBU and cover, as determined from chemical Mnz ages, is as

  18. Groundwater discharge and base flow variability in the Brooks Range, North Slope, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Hinzman, L.; Kane, D.

    2004-12-01

    More than 30,000 liters/sec. of spring water discharges along the eastern part of foothills of the Brooks Range, North Slope, Alaska. These springs flow all year around and cover wide areas with aufeis every winter. In Arctic regions, aufeis is among the biggest temporary storage of freshwater during winter period (more than 8 months). This study examines the historical volume of the aufeis using aerial photographs and satellite imagery as well as MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS). The energy balance of the aufeis is also an important parameter for estimating perennial aufeis formations. We estimate the Holocene ice volume of aufeis using CaCO3 deposits in the soil. Carbonate material distributions and 13C isotope enrichment signals are indicative of the area occupied by aufeis. Thermal enrichment of the 13C spring water was around 0 to -2 permil at the Hulahula River aufeis area. The 13C isotope of the area immediately outside the aufeis field is around -25 permil and is also very low in carbonate content. The analysis of in-situ soil sample for d13C complemented with remote sensing analyses reveals historic aufeis distributions. The CaCO3 deposits appears to possess a characteristic spectral signature that is evident in the 2300 and 2550 nm wavelength range (two absorption bands 2500-2550 nm and 2300-2350 nm and a band between those two at ~ 2400 nm (2375-2425nm ). The aufeis area was not much greater during historical times such as Little Ice Age (LIA) or Last Glacial Maximum(LGM). However, some of the aufeis and springs (at least Shubik and Sadlerochit springs) survived during LGM. In case of the Sadlerochit spring, the total winter discharge (16,510,000 m3) was almost all turned to aufeis,(15,988,866 m3) preserved as ice on the tundra terrain. Questions of the spring water's ground residence time and infiltration processes are also examined in this study. We collected water from springs, wells, surface water, and precipitation samples for isotope (C, O, H, Sr

  19. Internal Creep Dynamics of Frozen Debris Lobe-A, Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrow, M. M.; Daanen, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are slow-moving landslides in permafrost, with 43 occurring within the Dalton Highway corridor in the Alaskan Brooks Range. FDL-A is the largest of the studied FDLs, and the closest to the infrastructure, located only 35.9m from the toe of the highway embankment as of May 2016. This FDL is currently moving 5.2m yr-1, and yearly measurements and analysis of historic imagery indicates that the rate is steadily increasing. Movement of FDL-A occurs mainly within a shear zone located near its base, with only 12% of the movement attributed to internal creep of the frozen, ice-poor sediment (i.e., ice content does not exceed pore volume of the soil). It is this smaller component of creep upon which we focus for this presentation. During a 2012 geotechnical investigation, we installed a MEMS-based in-place inclinometer (M-IPI) within a boring in FDL-A. Although the instrument sheared about one month after installation, the upper 20m continued to report displacement and temperature data until September 2015, when the device was severed at the surface. Analysis of strain rates produced from the M-IPI data indicates that FDL-A moves continuously throughout the year. Maximum strain occurs in the active layer during the summer months, with peak strain occurring during peak temperatures. Investigating strain from depths between 4m and 20m reveals that strain rates are fairly consistent with depth but vary seasonally. In fact, the depth-averaged strain demonstrates the same seasonal fluctuation as the surface temperature with a four-month lag. The three years of data indicate that the internal movement of FDL-A is closely tied to surface temperature.

  20. Caledonian Deformation in Polydeformed Pre-Mississippian Rocks of the Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. G.; Toro, J.; Benowitz, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the northeastern Brooks Range of Alaska there are polydeformed metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks exposed below a major pre-Mississippian unconformity. Elsewhere in northern Alaska it has been challenging to correlate the tectonic fabrics of these early Paleozoic to Neoproterozoic rocks to the different orogenic events of the Arctic because of the strong overprint of Mesozoic and Tertiary Brookian deformation. However, our recent field investigations along the Kongakut and Aichiklik rivers of ANWR have identified an older (pre-Brookian) structural event based on the orientation of penetrative cleavage planes and a contrast in folding style to Brookian structures. Many of the cleavage planes are north dipping and orientated parallel to the axial planes of south-vergent folds. Although metamorphic grade is generally low, in localized areas the cleavage planes contain white micas, whose petrologic and isotopic characteristics indicate that they crystallized during fabric formation. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the white micas yield a metamorphic age of ~400 Ma (Early Devonian). This is evidence for a south-directed structural event which is contemporaneous with Caledonian deformation in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stratigraphicaly, the basement consists of a diverse package of highly deformed marine clastic sediments, and a thick section of basaltic to andesitic flows and volcaniclastic rocks, the Whale Mountain volcanics, which have a sharp southern contact but grade northward and upwards into the clastic rocks. All units are metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. We are currently investigating the age and geochemical characteristics of the Whale Mountain volcanics to determine their tectonic affinity and role in the assemblage of the North Slope block of Northern Alaska.

  1. Erection of a Centaur Standard Shroud at Plum Brook Station’s B-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-08-21

    A section of the Centaur Standard Shroud transported to Nuclear Rocket Dynamics and Control Facility, or B-3 Test Stand, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station. B-3 was built in the early 1960s to test full-scale liquid hydrogen fuel systems in simulated altitude conditions. The facility was used in 1972, however, for testing of the Centaur Standard Shroud’s ejection system. In the late 1960s NASA engineers were planning the ambitious new Viking mission to send two rover vehicles to the surface of Mars. The Viking rovers were the heaviest payloads ever attempted and were over three times the weight of Atlas-Centaur’s previous heaviest payload. Consequently, NASA engineers selected the more powerful the Titan III rocket booster to mate with the Centaur. Concurrently, General Dynamics was in the process of introducing a new Centaur model for Titan—the D-1T. The biggest change for the D-1T was a completely new shroud designed by Lockheed, called the Centaur Standard Shroud. The shroud, its insulation, the Centaur ground-hold purge system, and the hydrogen tank venting system were all studied in B-3. After more than two years of preparations, the tests were run between April and July 1973. The tests determined the ultimate flight loads on two axes, established the Centaur’s load sharing, the level of propellant boiloff during launch holds, and the vent system capacity. The Centaur Standard Shroud performed flawlessly during the August 20 and September 9, 1975 launches of Viking 1 and 2.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Truelove, Nathan; Schreck, Carl B.; Fournie, John W.; Landers, Dixon H.; Kent, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occur in salmonids but are poorly organized, irregularly shaped, and are generally smaller than those in derived teleosts. These features complicate quantification, and thus these fishes have seldom been used in studies correlating MAs with environmental stressors. To alleviate these complications, we developed color filtering algorithms for use with the software package ImagePro Plus® (Media Cybernetics) that select and quantify pigmented area (i.e. colors ranging from gold to brown to black) in tissue sections. Image analysis results compared well with subjective scoring when tested on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss captured from high-elevation lakes or hatcheries. Macrophage aggregate pigments correlated positively with age and negatively with condition factor. Within individual fish, pigmentation correlated positively among organs, suggesting that the kidney, liver or spleen are suitable indicator organs. In age-matched fishes, MA pigments were not different between hatcheries and lakes in the organs examined. Between lakes, differences in pigments were observed in the kidney and spleen, but were not explained by age, condition factor, sex or maturation state. Our results indicate that quantification of the area occupied by MA pigments is an efficient and accurate means of evaluating MAs in salmonid organs and that organ pigmentation correlates with age and condition factor, as seen in studies with more derived fishes. 

  3. Effects of chronic ammonium sulfate treatment on the forest at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine.

    PubMed

    Elvir, Jose Alexander; Wiersma, G Bruce; Bethers, Suzanne; Kenlan, Peter

    2010-12-01

    At the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), the forest tree composition was characterized and the effects of the chronic ammonium sulfate ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) treatment on basal area growth, foliar chemistry, and gas exchange were investigated on forest species. The BBWM is a paired watershed forest ecosystem study with one watershed, West Bear (WB), treated since 1989 with 26.6 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 30 kg S ha(-1) year(-1)applied bimonthly as (NH(4))(2)SO(4), while the other watershed, East Bear (EB), serves as a reference. Tree species richness, density, and mortality were found to be similar between watersheds. Basal area increment was estimated from red spruce and sugar maple, showing that, for the first 7 years of treatment, it was significantly higher for sugar maple growing in WB compared to EB, but no differences were observed for red spruce between watersheds. However, the initial higher sugar maple basal area growth in WB subsequently decreased after 8 years of treatment. Foliar chemical analysis performed in trees, saplings, and ground flora showed higher N concentrations in the treated WB compared to the reference EB. But, foliar cation concentrations, especially Ca and Mg, were significantly lower for most of the species growing in WB compared with those growing in EB. For sugar maple, foliar N was higher on WB, but there were no differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between treated and reference watersheds. In addition, only sugar maple trees in the treated WB showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates compared to reference EB trees.

  4. Multistory duplexes with forward dipping roofs, north central Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Wesley K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Plafker, George

    1997-01-01

    The Endicott Mountains allochthon has been thrust far northward over the North Slope parautochthon in the northern Brooks Range. Progressively younger units are exposed northward within the allochthon. To the south, the incompetent Hunt Fork Shale has thickened internally by asymmetric folds and thrust faults. Northward, the competent Kanayut Conglomerate forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Hunt Fork and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale. To the north, the competent Lisburne Group forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Kayak and a roof thrust in the Siksikpuk Formation. Both duplexes formed from north vergent detachment folds whose steep limbs were later truncated by south dipping thrust faults that only locally breach immediately overlying roof thrusts. Within the parautochthon, the Kayak, Lisburne, and Siksikpuk-equivalent Echooka Formation form a duplex identical to that in the allochthon. This duplex is succeeded abruptly northward by detachment folds in Lisburne. These folds are parasitic to an anticlinorium interpreted to reflect a fault-bend folded horse in North Slope "basement," with a roof thrust in Kayak and a floor thrust at depth/These structures constitute two northward tapered, internally deformed wedges that are juxtaposed at the base of the allochthon. Within each wedge, competent units have been shortened independently between detachments, located mainly in incompetent units. The basal detachment of each wedge cuts upsection forward (northward) to define a wedge geometry within which units dip regionally forward. These dips reflect forward decrease in internal structural thickening by forward vergent folds and hindward dipping thrust faults.

  5. Meteoroid stream of 12P/Pons-Brooks, December κ-Draconids, and Northern June Aquilids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomko, D.; Neslušan, L.

    2016-08-01

    Context. It was found that some parent bodies of meteoroid streams can be related to more than one meteor shower observable in the atmosphere of Earth. The orbits of the members of such showers must evolve to the locations, which are far from the orbit of their parent, to cross the orbit of the Earth. An extensive simulation of the stream evolution is necessary to reveal such a complex of showers of the given parent body. Aims: We continue the investigation of the evolution of the theoretical stream originating from the comet 12P/Pons-Brooks to understand its meteor-shower complex in more detail. Methods: We model a theoretical comet stream assuming an ejection of 10 000 particles, representing the meteoroids, from its nucleus in several past perihelion passages. Adding to our previous work, here we also consider the Poynting-Robertson drag in our study of the particles' dynamics. The orbits currently occurring in a vicinity of the Earth's orbit are used to predict the showers associated with comet 12P. Results: Two nighttime and two daytime showers are predicted to originate from 12P. The showers must consist of only relatively large particles, which are influenced to only a small extent by the Poynting-Robertson drag, because in this case, it deflects the particles from the collisional course with the Earth when efficient. The shower predicted to have the most particles is the nighttime shower, which can clearly be identified to the December κ-Draconids, No. 336 in the IAU MDC list. Another predicted nighttime shower has no counterpart in the considered observational data. Some characteristics of this shower are vaguely similar to those of Northern June Aquilids, No. 164. The observed counterparts of two predicted daytime showers were not found in the observational data we used or in the IAU MDC list.

  6. Multistory duplexes with forward dipping roofs, north central Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.; Plafker, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Endicott Mountains allochthon has been thrust far northward over the North Slope parautochthon in the northern Brooks Range. Progressively younger units are exposed northward within the allochthon. To the south, the incompetent Hunt Fork Shale has thickened internally by asymmetric folds and thrust faults. Northward, the competent Kanayut Conglomerate forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Hunt Fork and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale. To the north, the competent Lisburne Group forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Kayak and a roof thrust in the Siksikpuk Formation. Both duplexes formed from north vergent detachment folds whose steep limbs were later truncated by south dipping thrust faults that only locally breach immediately overlying roof thrusts. Within the parautochthon, the Kayak, Lisburne, and Siksikpuk-equivalent Echooka Formation form a duplex identical to that in the allochthon. This duplex is succeeded abruptly northward by detachment folds in Lisburne. These folds are parasitic to an anticlinorium interpreted to reflect a fault-bend folded horse in North Slope "basement," with a roof thrust in Kayak and a floor thrust at depth. These structures constitute two northward tapered, internally deformed wedges that are juxtaposed at the base of the allochthon. Within each wedge, competent units have been shortened independently between detachments, located mainly in incompetent units. The basal detachment of each wedge cuts upsection forward (northward) to define a wedge geometry within which units dip regionally forward. These dips reflect forward decrease in internal structural thickening by forward vergent folds and hindward dipping thrust faults. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Habitat preferences of Ukrainian brook lamprey Eudontomyzon mariae ammocoetes in the lowland rivers of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Jażdżewski, M; Marszał, L; Przybylski, M

    2016-02-01

    The pattern of microhabitat preferences of Ukrainian brook lamprey Eudontomyzon mariae ammocoetes was examined in two rivers of central Poland: the Pilica River (the Vistula River basin) and the Grabia River (the Odra River basin). A comparison of abiotic factors of the rivers revealed differences in water speed and principal components: PC1 (determining gradient from decreasing medium sand to the increasing share of three fractions of gravel), PC2 (a gradient from the declining share of very coarse and coarse sand fractions to the growing content of fine sand) and PC3 (correlated with an increasing proportion of silt). The sites did not differ significantly in terms of water depth. Relative abundance and frequency of ammocoete occurrence in the Grabia River were higher than in the Pilica River. Only speed, PC1 and PC2 made a significant contribution to the prediction of larval occurrence. Eudontomyzon mariae larvae preferred substrata with a reduced amount of medium sand and increased content of gravel (PC1) as well as with a lower content of coarse sand and higher proportion of fine-grained sand (PC2). The ammocoetes also preferred areas with a water speed of 0·2 m s(-1) but avoided speeds ≥ 0·6 m s(-1). The abundance of E. mariae was affected by water speed, as well as by all PCs. The mean ± s.e. optimal current speed was 0·265 ± 0·007 m s(-1), while abundance decreased with increasing amounts of gravel (PC1) and increased with increasing amounts of fine sand and silt in the bottom substratum (PC2 and PC3). Comparison of ammocoete microhabitat use in the Pilica and Grabia Rivers showed the lack of differences in distribution in the preferred values of current speed, PC1 and PC2.

  8. Sex Chromosome Evolution, Heterochiasmy, and Physiological QTL in the Salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ben J.G.; Rico, Ciro; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) can have large impacts on genome evolution, and much remains unknown about these impacts. This includes the mechanisms of coping with a duplicated sex determination system and whether this has an impact on increasing the diversity of sex determination mechanisms. Other impacts include sexual conflict, where alleles having different optimums in each sex can result in sequestration of genes into nonrecombining sex chromosomes. Sex chromosome development itself may involve sex-specific recombination rate (i.e., heterochiasmy), which is also poorly understood. The family Salmonidae is a model system for these phenomena, having undergone autotetraploidization and subsequent rediploidization in most of the genome at the base of the lineage. The salmonid master sex determining gene is known, and many species have nonhomologous sex chromosomes, putatively due to transposition of this gene. In this study, we identify the sex chromosome of Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis and compare sex chromosome identities across the lineage (eight species and four genera). Although nonhomology is frequent, homologous sex chromosomes and other consistencies are present in distantly related species, indicating probable convergence on specific sex and neo-sex chromosomes. We also characterize strong heterochiasmy with 2.7-fold more crossovers in maternal than paternal haplotypes with paternal crossovers biased to chromosome ends. When considering only rediploidized chromosomes, the overall heterochiasmy trend remains, although with only 1.9-fold more recombination in the female than the male. Y chromosome crossovers are restricted to a single end of the chromosome, and this chromosome contains a large interspecific inversion, although its status between males and females remains unknown. Finally, we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 21 unique growth, reproductive, and stress-related phenotypes to improve knowledge of the genetic architecture of these

  9. Experimental test of genetic rescue in isolated populations of brook trout.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Zachary L; Coombs, Jason A; Hudy, Mark; Nislow, Keith H; Letcher, Benjamin H; Whiteley, Andrew R

    2017-09-01

    Genetic rescue is an increasingly considered conservation measure to address genetic erosion associated with habitat loss and fragmentation. The resulting gene flow from facilitating migration may improve fitness and adaptive potential, but is not without risks (e.g., outbreeding depression). Here, we conducted a test of genetic rescue by translocating ten (five of each sex) brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a single source to four nearby and isolated stream populations. To control for the demographic contribution of translocated individuals, ten resident individuals (five of each sex) were removed from each recipient population. Prior to the introduction of translocated individuals, the two smallest above-barrier populations had substantially lower genetic diversity, and all populations had reduced effective number of breeders relative to adjacent below-barrier populations. In the first reproductive bout following translocation, 31 of 40 (78%) translocated individuals reproduced successfully. Translocated individuals contributed to more families than expected under random mating and generally produced larger full-sibling families. We observed relatively high (>20%) introgression in three of the four recipient populations. The translocations increased genetic diversity of recipient populations by 45% in allelic richness and 25% in expected heterozygosity. Additionally, strong evidence of hybrid vigour was observed through significantly larger body sizes of hybrid offspring relative to resident offspring in all recipient populations. Continued monitoring of these populations will test for negative fitness effects beyond the first generation. However, these results provide much-needed experimental data to inform the potential effectiveness of genetic rescue-motivated translocations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), Sadlerochit Mountains, northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Wahoo Limestone forms the upper part of the Lisburne Group (Carboniferous) in the Sadlerochit Mountains. The Lisburne Group is a thick (> 600 m) sequence of platform carbonate rocks that extends across the Brooks Range of northern Alaska and beneath the North Slope. At Prudhoe Bay, the Lisburne Group forms a major hydrocarbon reservoir. In the easternmost Sadlerochit Mountains, the Wahool Limestone is divisible into informal lower (64 m) and upper (192 m) members. The basal 46 m is chiefly bryozoan and pelmatozoan packstone that formed on a relatively shallow platform during the latest Mississippian lower muricatus subzone (as shown by the occurrence of the zonal index with representatives of Cavusgnathus). Cavusgnathus is dominant in this part of the section and occurs with representatives of Kladognathus, Ghathodus, Adetognathus, Hindeodus, and Rhachistognathus (in order of decreasing abundance). Declinognathodus noduliferus, the index for the base of the Pennsylvanian, first occurs at 49 m above the base of the Wahoo and 1 m above a discontinuity surface that marks the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary. The unconformity represents the highest conodont subzone of the Mississippian and probably part of the earliest Pennsylvanian. Previously, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary was placed t the lower-upper Wahoo contact based on endothyroids; conodont data now indicate that this boundary is 15 m lower. The remaining lower Wahoo is possibly of noduliferus-primus zone age and chiefly yields, in order of decreasing abundance, species of Adetognathus, Declinognathodus, and Rhachistognathus, as well as redeposited Mississipian conodonts. The lower 15 m of the upper member of the Wahoo contains silty (5-40%) carbonate rock types that yield very few conodonts. Conodonts no older than the minutus-sinuatus zone are relatively abundant from 15 to 106 m above the base of the upper Wahoo.

  11. Decadal Patterns of Retention of N and S in the Experimental Bear Brook Watershed in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, J. S.; Diehl, M.; Norton, S.; Fernandez, I.; Nelson, S.; Webster, K.

    2008-12-01

    Watershed-scale experiments (typically substituting time-for-space) are complementary to regional gradient assessments (space-for-time) and plot-scale or laboratory-scale experiments. At the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), a whole watershed N+S addition experiment has been underway since 1989 to complement on-site plot experiments, and to assess the assumptions of models of acidification and recovery related to the original Clean Air Act (1970) and Amendments (1990). The 10 ha West Bear watershed has been experimentally acidified with 1800 eq dry (NH4)2SO4 /ha/yr, with the 11 ha East Bear watershed serving as the reference. Between 1989 and 2006, the reference site averaged less than 900 eq/ha/yr net export of SO4 when dry deposition was estimated as 130% of wet. West Bear export increased to 2000 eq/ha/yr five years after treatment began, and has retained an average 900 eq/ha/yr SO4, or about half of the experimental treatment since the peak export period. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen has been largely retained in both the reference (94%) and treated (84%) catchments despite high N loading in the experiment. Retention in the West Bear watershed has been higher than projections from MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) that indicated that stream concentration and mass export of SO4 would continue to increase to values much greater than observed at the peak five years into the experiment. The increase in SO4 flux slowed after the initial rapid increase from the start of the treatment, suggesting that a new steady-state has been reached. West Bear's apparent resistance to further change despite continued loading indicates an unexpectedly high SO4 retention. These results have implications for model assumptions and predictions of export and retention of SO4 under current scenarios of decreased acidic deposition.

  12. Depositional settings, correlation, and age carboniferous rocks in the western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Blome, Charles D.; Young, Lorne E.

    2004-01-01

    The Kuna Formation (Lisburne Group) in northwest Alaska hosts the Red Dog and other Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulfide deposits in the Red Dog district. New studies of the sedimentology and paleontology of the Lisburne Group constrain the setting, age, and thermal history of these deposits. In the western and west-central Brooks Range, the Lisburne Group includes both deep- and shallow-water sedimentary facies and local volcanic rocks that are exposed in a series of thrust sheets or allochthons. Deep-water facies in the Red Dog area (i.e., the Kuna Formation and related rocks) are found chiefly in the Endicott Mountains and structurally higher Picnic Creek allochthons. In the Red Dog plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, the Kuna consists of at least 122 m of thinly interbedded calcareous shale, calcareous spiculite, and bioclastic supportstone (Kivalina unit) overlain by 30 to 240 m of siliceous shale, mudstone, calcareous radiolarite, and calcareous lithic turbidite (Ikalukrok unit). The Ikalukrok unit in the Red Dog plate hosts all massive sulfide deposits in the area. It is notably carbonaceous, is generally finely laminated, and contains siliceous sponge spicules and radiolarians. The Kuna Formation in the Key Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon (60–110 m) resembles the Ikalukrok unit but is unmineralized and has thinner carbonate layers that are mainly organic-rich dolostone. Correlative strata in the Picnic Creek allochthon include less shale and mudstone and more carbonate (mostly calcareous spiculite). Conodonts and radiolarians indicate an age range of Osagean to early Chesterian (late Early to Late Mississippian) for the Kuna in the Red Dog area. Sedimentologic, faunal, and geochemical data imply that most of the Kuna formed in slope and basin settings characterized by anoxic or dysoxic bottom water and by local high productivity.

  13. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    PubMed

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  14. Frozen debris lobe morphology and movement: an overview of eight dynamic features, southern Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrow, Margaret M.; Gyswyt, Nora L.; Simpson, Jocelyn M.; Daanen, Ronald P.; Hubbard, Trent D.

    2016-05-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are elongated, lobate permafrost features that mostly move through shear in zones near their bases. We present a comprehensive overview of eight FDLs within the Dalton Highway corridor (southern Brooks Range, Alaska), including their catchment geology and rock strengths, lobe soil characteristics, surface movement measurements collected between 2012 and 2015, and analysis of historic and modern imagery from 1955 to 2014. Field mapping and rock strength data indicate that the metasedimentary and metavolcanic bedrock forming the majority of the lobe catchments has very low to medium strength and is heavily fractured, thus easily contributing to FDL formation. The eight investigated FDLs consist of platy rocks typical of their catchments, organic debris, and an ice-poor soil matrix; massive ice, however, is present within FDLs as infiltration ice, concentrated within cracks open to the surface. Exposure of infiltration ice in retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) and associated debris flows leads to increased movement and various stages of destabilization, resulting in morphological differences among the lobes. Analysis of historic imagery indicates that movement of the eight investigated FDLs has been asynchronous over the study period, and since 1955, there has been an overall increase in movement rates of the investigated FDLs. The formation of surface features, such as cracks, scarps, and RTSs, suggests that the increased movement rates correlate to general instability, and even at their current distances, FDLs are impacting infrastructure through increased sediment mobilization. FDL-A is the largest of the investigated FDLs. As of August 2015, FDL-A was 39.2 m from the toe of the Dalton Highway embankment. Based on its current distance and rate of movement, we predict that FDL-A will reach the Dalton Highway alignment by 2023.

  15. Community and Virtual Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Oldridge, Rachel; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to virtual communities: (1) information and virtual community; (2) virtual communities and communities of practice; (3) virtual communities and virtual arenas, including virtual community networks; and (4) networked virtual communities. (Contains 175 references.) (MES)

  16. Stratigraphic controls on lateral variations in the structural style of northeastern Brooks range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L.

    1988-02-01

    The structural style of the range-front region of the northeastern Brooks Range in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is strongly controlled by (1) the existence of detachment horizons in both pre-Mississippian rocks and the unconformably overlying Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous cover sequence, and (2) lithology and structural competency of the pre-Mississippian rocks. These variables strongly influence lateral changes in structural style. The Brooks Range of northwestern ANWR is dominated by a series of narrow linear anticlinoria, whereas in northeastern ANWR the Brooks Range is characterized by only two broad and strongly arcuate anticlinoria. In both areas, the anticlinoria are controlled by the geometry of a duplex bounded by a floor thrust in pre-Mississippian rocks and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale, near the base of the cover sequence. In the west, where the pre-Mississippian partially consists of structurally competent carbonates, each anticlinorium marks a single horse in the duplex. However, in the east, pre-Mississippian rocks are relatively incompetent and each anticlinorium is cored by multiple horses. In the west, shortening above the roof thrust is by detachment folding, except where the shale detachment horizon is depositionally absent. In contrast, in eastern ANWR shortening above the roof thrust is by major thrust duplication of the entire cover sequence, perhaps due to lithology and thickness changes within the detachment horizon. A Devonian batholith marks the boundary between the eastern and western structural provinces. The thrust-controlled range front of eastern ANWR extends north of the batholith, suggesting that the batholith itself may be underlain by a thrust fault.

  17. ERDA/NASA 100 kilowatt mod-o wind turbine operations and performance. [at the NASA Plum Brook Station, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Richards, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA/NASA 100 kW Mod-0 wind turbine is operating at the NASA Plum Brook Station near Sandusky, Ohio. The operation of the wind turbine has been fully demonstrated and includes start-up, synchronization to the utility network, blade pitch control for control of power and speed, and shut-down. Also, fully automatic operation has been demonstrated by use of a remote control panel, 50 miles from the site, similar to what a utility dispatcher might use. The operation systems and experience with the wind turbine loads, electrical power and aerodynamic performance obtained from testing are described.

  18. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Suites, Final Feasibility Study Report, Cold Spring Brook Landfill Operable Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    depositional feature, is located south of Patton Road. Before construction of the landfill, a swampy area stretched from Cold Spring Brook to the base of...feet bgs. Rubble and construction debris have deformed and mixed with the peat layer forming a matrix of well- graded sand and gravel within the peat...8 is not constructed in landfill materials. Wells CSB-4 ABB Environmental Services, Inc. I W0029434.M80 7005-08 1-8 I ! i SECTION 1 I and CSB-5 are

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variation of an isolated population of the Adriatic brook lamprey Lampetra zanandreai (Agnatha: Petromyzontidae): phylogeographic and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Caputo, V; Giovannotti, M; Nisi Cerioni, P; Splendiani, A; Marconi, M; Tagliavini, J

    2009-12-01

    Two mitochondrial genes were examined to compare an isolated population of the Adriatic brook lamprey Lampetra zanandreai in central Italy with other populations in the species range (Po plain) and with parasitic and freshwater lampreys. A single haplotype, identical to one in a Venetian sample, was found in 10 individuals from the isolated population. The reduced variability is consistent with a history of dispersal after the Pleistocene expansion of the Po basin. The results support the hypothesis of an origin of L. zanandreai and L. fluviatilis-L. planeri from a common anadromous ancestor.

  20. Isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci in the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri (Petromyzontiformes) using 454 sequence data.

    PubMed

    Schedina, I M; Pfautsch, S; Hartmann, S; Dolgener, N; Polgar, A; Bianco, P G; Tiedemann, R; Ketmaier, V

    2014-09-01

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri through 454 sequencing and their usefulness was tested in 45 individuals of both L. planeri and the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis. The number of alleles per loci ranged between two and five; the Italian and Irish populations had a mean expected heterozygosity of 0·388 and 0·424 and a mean observed heterozygosity of 0·418 and 0·411, respectively. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Potential tight gas resources in a frontier province - Jurassic through Tertiary strata beneath the Brooks Range foothills, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Beneath the foothills of the Brooks Range, rocks of the Lower Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian and Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Beaufortian megasequences have been deeply buried and exhumed, and now exhibit characteristics of 'tight gas sandstones'. The data recovered from drilling, well tests, and cores exhibit the potential for substantial gas reserves over a large area. These data include recovery of gas from drillstem tests, indications of overpressure from well tests and mud weights, low porosity and permeability in sandstones, and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 percent throughout substantial depth intervals.

  2. Analysis of brook trout spatial behavior during passage attempts in corrugated culverts using near-infrared illumination video imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, Normand E.; Constantin, Pierre-Marc; Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    We used video recording and near-infrared illumination to document the spatial behavior of brook trout of various sizes attempting to pass corrugated culverts under different hydraulic conditions. Semi-automated image analysis was used to digitize fish position at high temporal resolution inside the culvert, which allowed calculation of various spatial behavior metrics, including instantaneous ground and swimming speed, path complexity, distance from side walls, velocity preference ratio (mean velocity at fish lateral position/mean crosssectional velocity) as well as number and duration of stops in forward progression. The presentation summarizes the main results and discusses how they could be used to improve fish passage performance in culverts.

  3. Level II scour analysis for bridge 2 (WODFTH00010002) on Town Highway 1, crossing Hell Hollow Brook, Woodford, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WODFTH00010002 on Town Highway 1 crossing Hell Hollow Brook, Woodford, Vermont (figures 1-8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  4. Fabrication of (U, Zr) C-fueled/tungsten-clad specimens for irradiation in the Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Fuel samples, 90UC - 10 ZrC, and chemically vapor deposited tungsten fuel cups were fabricated for the study of the long term dimensional stability and compatibility of the carbide-tungsten fuel-cladding systems under irradiation. These fuel samples and fuel cups were assembled into the fuel pins of two capsules, designated as V-2E and V-2F, for irradiation in NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility at a fission power density of 172 watts/c.c. and a miximum cladding temperature of 1823 K. Fabrication methods and characteristics of the fuel samples and fuel cups prepared are described.

  5. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE REACTOR BUILDING, HOT LABORATORY, PRIMARY PUMP HOUSE, AND LAND AREAS AT THE PLUM BROOK REACTOR FACILITY, SANDUSKY, OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    Erika N. Bailey

    2011-10-10

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  6. Seasonal changes in immune parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brook trout × Arctic charr hybrids (Salvelinus fontinalis × Salvelinus alpinus alpinus).

    PubMed

    Papežíková, Ivana; Mareš, Jan; Vojtek, Libor; Hyršl, Pavel; Marková, Zdeňka; Šimková, Andrea; Bartoňková, Jana; Navrátil, Stanislav; Palíková, Miroslava

    2016-10-01

    Despite the high number of studies concerning seasonality of immune response in fish, information for some fish species is still scarce. Here, we assess seasonal changes in leukocyte counts and several immune parameters in three groups of farmed salmonids, i.e. brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brook trout x Arctic charr hybrids (Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus alpinus alpinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared under the same conditions and fed with the same feed. Fish were sampled in five periods of the year (late April, early July, late August, early November and early February) and leukocyte counts, respiratory burst of blood phagocytes, lysozyme concentration in skin mucus and total complement activity were measured. Generalized linear models using fish body length as a continuous predictor and sampling period and fish species as categorical predictors, were significant for each of the parameters analysed. The highest seasonal variations in measured parameters were found in rainbow trout and lowest in hybrids. Our results confirm that measures of innate and adaptive immunity are strongly affected by season in all three groups of salmonids. The results will contribute to the improved assessment of immunocompetence in farmed fishes, essential for future sustainable development in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy (1808-1889), MD, FRS, LRCS Ed: Chemical pathologist, pharmacologist and pioneer in electric telegraphy.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Neil

    2015-09-18

    This article reviews the life and work of Sir William O'Shaughnessy Brooke (formerly Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy), an Edinburgh doctor of medicine and Fellow of the Royal Society who as a young doctor in London analysed the blood and excreta of cholera victims, an action which led to the first successful use of intravenous replacement therapy. His career in India was distinguished in several spheres: chemistry, pharmacology in which he introduced cannabis indica to Europe, and in the field of electric telegraphy where he became the superintendent of telegraphs for India.

  8. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Farm Brook Site 2B Dam (CT 01547), Connecticut Coastal Basin, Hamden, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    E. EDGAR , III As stated Colonel, Corps of Engineers Division Engineer S-. 10 5 I FARM BROOK SITE 2B DAM CT 01547 I iCONNECTICUT COASTAL BASIN HAMDEN...construction is complete. Prepared by: Edgar P. Steele T. R. Wire Subj: Connecticut WP-08, Farm Brook, Site 2B Reviewed and Approved by: lorn P...30𔃻 D. REa-NFORC.EQ ~ZNCETE IPE OP BERM ELEV. 64.0 50LE0, 00 - ORINAL (5ROUND LINE 0ow~~l;Dow REAM ANE 3-0-005 FT/FT.- CONCRETE CRADLE -~GROUT R

  9. Light sensitivity and substrate penetration by eleutheroembryos of brook (Salvelinus fontinalis) and lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) and their F1 hybrid, splake.

    PubMed

    Nunan, C P; Noakes, D L

    1985-01-01

    Critical light levels necessary to produce avoidance movements in photonegative free embryos (eleutheroembryos) of the lake and brook charr and their F1 hybrid splake, (S. namaycush X S. fontinalis) were determined and compared to previously studied movement patterns within artificial substrate systems. Light sensitivity was inversely related to depth of penetration into artificial substrates. As well, brook charr held in vertical profile tanks under either 14 : 10 h light : dark cycles or total darkness showed similar movement patterns. These results do not support previous hypotheses concerning the role of ambient light in the initial downward movement of eleutheroembryonic salmonids within spawning redds.

  10. A Qualitative Analysis of a "Bora-Brook Rearrangement": The Ambident Reactivity of Boryl-Substituted Alkoxide Including the Carbon-to-Oxygen Migration of a Boryl Group.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Haruki; Sakaino, Hirotoshi; Ito, Fumihiro; Yamashita, Makoto; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2016-03-16

    A bora-Brook rearrangement, i.e., the migration of boryl group from a carbon to an oxygen atom in an isolated α-boryl-substituted alkoxide, was examined, and decisive factors for the acceleration of this reaction are disclosed. In this rearrangement, the boryl-substituted alkoxide exhibited ambiphilic reactivity toward electrophiles to afford two types of products, which are electrophiles bound either at the oxygen or at the carbon atom. Using polar solvents, a saturated backbone of the boron-containing heterocycle, or larger alkali metal cations resulted in a significantly increased reaction rate of base-catalyzed isomerization of α-borylbenzyl alcohol including the bora-Brook rearrangement.

  11. Streamflow augmentation at Fosters Brook, Long Island, New York; a hydraulic feasibility study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, Keith R.

    1984-01-01

    A 27-day streamflow augmentation test was conducted in December 1979 at Fosters Brook, near the south shore of Long Island, to investigate the hydraulic feasibility of pumping ground water to supply flow to an ephemeral stream during dry periods. Measurements of soil moisture in the unsaturated zone beneath the streambed indicate that infiltration rate and soil-moisture content are interrelated. Initial infiltration was measured with a neutron logger; the wetting front traversed the unsaturated zone at an average of 11.2 inches per hour and reached the water table in 5.5 hours. Soil moisture in the unsaturated zone ranged from 20 percent at the start of the test to nearly 41 percent, nearly the saturation point, 20 days later. Stream discharge was measured at four sites along the stream channel, and the augmentation rate was monitored continuously at the starting point. Infiltration rates increased steadily in all reaches during the first 12 days of the test, but from the 12th to the 20th day, when discharge was increased by 50 percent, infiltration rates decreased along the two upstream reaches but continued to increase along the three downstream reaches. Infiltration rates remained constant from days 20 through 26. During the first 24 hours of the test, the stream reached a maximum length of 2,050 feet, but after 13 days, it had shortened to 1,300 feet as a result of seepage losses. The relationship between discharge and stream length was linear within the range of discharge investigated (0.54-1.63 cubic feet per second). Ground-water levels rose in response to flow augmentation and reached a maximum rise of about 6.5 feet in a well situated 14 feet from the center of the streambed and 225 feet downstream from the start of the flow. Measured water-level response was compared to levels predicted by a one-dimensional analytical model and a three-dimensional mathematical model; results indicate that ground-water response is determined principally by streambed

  12. A 2000 year varve-based climate record from the central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, BW; Abbott, MB; Finney, BP; Kutchko, B

    2009-01-01

    Varved minerogenic sediments from glacial-fed Blue Lake, northern Alaska, are used to investigate late Holocene climate variability. Varve-thickness measurements track summer temperature recorded at Atigun Pass, located 41 km east at a similar elevation (r (2) = 0.31, P = 0.08). Results indicate that climate in the Brooks Range from 10 to 730 AD (varve year) was warm with precipitation inferred to be higher than during the twentieth century. The varvetemperature relationship for this period was likely compromised and not used in our temperature reconstruction because the glacier was greatly reduced, or absent, exposing sub-glacial sediments to erosion from enhanced precipitation. Varve-inferred summer temperatures and precipitation decreased after 730 AD, averaging 0.4A degrees C above the last millennial average (LMA = 4.2A degrees C) from 730 to 850 AD, and 0.1A degrees C above the LMA from 850 to 980 AD. Cooling culminated between 980 and 1030 AD with temperatures 0.7A degrees C below the LMA. Varve-inferred summer temperatures increased between 1030 and 1620 AD to the LMA, though the period between 1260 and 1350 AD was 0.2A degrees C below the LMA. Although there is no equivalent to the European Medieval Warm Period in the Blue Lake record, two warm intervals occurred from 1350 to 1450 AD and 1500 to 1620 AD (0.4 and 0.3A degrees C above the LMA, respectively). During the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1620 to 1880 AD), inferred summer temperature averaged 0.2A degrees C below the LMA. After 1880 AD, inferred summer temperature increased to 0.8A degrees C above the LMA, glaciers retreated, but aridity persisted based on a number of regional paleoclimate records. Despite warming and glacial retreat, varve thicknesses have not achieved pre-730 AD levels. This reflects limited sediment availability and transport due to a less extensive retreat compared to the first millennium, and continued relative aridity. Overall, the Blue Lake record is similar to varve records from the

  13. Population response to habitat fragmentation in a stream-dwelling brook trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.; Coombs, J.A.; O'Donnell, M. J.; Dubreuil, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation can strongly influence population persistence and expression of life-history strategies in spatially-structured populations. In this study, we directly estimated size-specific dispersal, growth, and survival of stream-dwelling brook trout in a stream network with connected and naturally-isolated tributaries. We used multiple-generation, individual-based data to develop and parameterize a size-class and location-based population projection model, allowing us to test effects of fragmentation on population dynamics at local (i.e., subpopulation) and system-wide (i.e., metapopulation) scales, and to identify demographic rates which influence the persistence of isolated and fragmented populations. In the naturally-isolated tributary, persistence was associated with higher early juvenile survival (-45% greater), shorter generation time (one-half) and strong selection against large body size compared to the open system, resulting in a stage-distribution skewed towards younger, smaller fish. Simulating barriers to upstream migration into two currently-connected tribuory populations caused rapid (2-6 generations) local extinction. These local extinctions in turn increased the likelihood of system-wide extinction, as tributaries could no longer function as population sources. Extinction could be prevented in the open system if sufficient immigrants from downstream areas were available, but the influx of individuals necessary to counteract fragmentation effects was high (7-46% of the total population annually). In the absence of sufficient immigration, a demographic change (higher early survival characteristic of the isolated tributary) was also sufficient to rescue the population from fragmentation, suggesting that the observed differences in size distributions between the naturally-isolated and open system may reflect an evolutionary response to isolation. Combined with strong genetic divergence between the isolated tributary and open system, these results

  14. Population Response to Habitat Fragmentation in a Stream-Dwelling Brook Trout Population

    PubMed Central

    Letcher, Benjamin H.; Nislow, Keith H.; Coombs, Jason A.; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Dubreuil, Todd L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation can strongly influence population persistence and expression of life-history strategies in spatially-structured populations. In this study, we directly estimated size-specific dispersal, growth, and survival of stream-dwelling brook trout in a stream network with connected and naturally-isolated tributaries. We used multiple-generation, individual-based data to develop and parameterize a size-class and location-based population projection model, allowing us to test effects of fragmentation on population dynamics at local (i.e., subpopulation) and system-wide (i.e., metapopulation) scales, and to identify demographic rates which influence the persistence of isolated and fragmented populations. In the naturally-isolated tributary, persistence was associated with higher early juvenile survival (∼45% greater), shorter generation time (one-half) and strong selection against large body size compared to the open system, resulting in a stage-distribution skewed towards younger, smaller fish. Simulating barriers to upstream migration into two currently-connected tributary populations caused rapid (2–6 generations) local extinction. These local extinctions in turn increased the likelihood of system-wide extinction, as tributaries could no longer function as population sources. Extinction could be prevented in the open system if sufficient immigrants from downstream areas were available, but the influx of individuals necessary to counteract fragmentation effects was high (7–46% of the total population annually). In the absence of sufficient immigration, a demographic change (higher early survival characteristic of the isolated tributary) was also sufficient to rescue the population from fragmentation, suggesting that the observed differences in size distributions between the naturally-isolated and open system may reflect an evolutionary response to isolation. Combined with strong genetic divergence between the isolated tributary and open system, these

  15. Analysis of the shallow groundwater flow system near Connetqout Brook, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, K.R.; Reilly, T.E.; Franke, O.L.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow on Long Island is derived principally from shallow groundwater that flows above the deeper regional flow system. The movement of shallow groundwater was studied during 1975-1982 at Connetquot Brook - an undisturbed stream in Connetquot River State Park - in south-central Long Island. The investigation encompassed: (1) field studies of streamflow, groundwater levels, and age of water as indicated by tritium concentrations, and (2) numerical simulation of the shallow flow system to evaluate the hydraulic factors that influence groundwater flow near and beneath the stream. Analysis of water-level data indicates that groundwater flow is essentially horizontal throughout the drainage basin except near and beneath the stream, where it moves upward diagonally and discharges into the streambank at three sites were 1-2 ft higher than stream stage in the and in wells driven into the streambank at three sites were 1-2 ft higher than stream stage in the first 5 ft of penetration. Increases in head, which were detected to depths of 30 ft beneath the streambed, indicate upward movement of water above that depth. Water samples from selected wells were analyzed for tritium concentration to determine the relative age of water to locate the bottom boundary of the shallow flow system. Tritium concentrations indicate that the lower boundary is from 45 to 100 ft below the water table. A two-dimensional cross-sectional flow model of the shallow flow system indicated that: (1) stream width and streambed hydraulic conductivity influence heads mostly within about 50 ft of the stream; (2) the thickness of the shallow flow system influences heads more distant from the stream but has a negligible effect near the stream; and (3) the quantity of water entering the system as recharge from precipitation influences the heads throughout the area. Field measurements of hydraulic head indicate the shallow flow system to extend to about 30 ft below the stream channel. Results of the

  16. Organic matter and nutrient dynamics of the forest and forest floor in the Hubbard Brook forest.

    PubMed

    Gosz, James R; Likens, Gene E; Bormann, F Herbert

    1976-12-01

    The forest floor is a major reservoir of organic matter and nutrients for the ecosystem and as such it influences or regulates most of the functional processes occurring throughout the ecosystem. This study reports on the nutrient and organic matter content of the forest floor of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest during different seasons and attempts to correlate results from studies of vegetation, litter, decomposition, stemflow, throughfall, and soil. An organic matter budget is presented for an undisturbed watershed.Average weight of the forest floor on an undisturbed watershed ranged from 25,500 to 85,500 kg/ha. The weighted watershed average was 46,800 kg/ha. Although the F and H horizons did not vary significantly with time, the L horizon increased significantly during the period June to August largely as a result of a severe hail storm. The order of abundance of elements in the forest floor was Nτ;Ca≷Fe>S>P>Mn>K>Mg>Na>Zn>Cu. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mn decreased with depth in the forest floor while N, P, S, Na, Fe, Zn, and Cu concentrations increased. N:P ratios were similar in decomposing leaf tissue, the forest floor, litterfall, and net stemflow plus throughfall suggesting a similar pattern of cycling. S was proportional to N and P in decomposing leaf tissue, the forest floor, and litterfall. Net stemflow and throughfall were affected by a relatively large input of SO4=-S from the atmosphere. Residence times for elements in the forest floor were affected by inputs other than litterfall (precipitation, stemflow, and throughfall). Calculation of residence times using all inputs caused smaller values than if litterfall alone was used. While all residence times were reduced, the major differences occurred for K, S, and Na. N and P showed relatively long residence times as a result of retranslocation and immobilization by decomposers. The slow turnover rate because of the strong demand and retention by all biota must account for the efficiency

  17. Mutual in vivo interactions between benzo[a]pyrene and tributyltin in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Padros, J.; Pelletier, E.; Reader, S.; Denizeau, F.

    2000-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an organometal used as an antifouling biocide, has been reported to inhibit cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A isozyme. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a widespread carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is both metabolized and bioactivated to carcinogenic BaP diol-epoxide (BPDE) metabolites primarily by hepatic P450 1A. Hence, TBT may inhibit the metabolism and bioactivation of BaP. This study was therefore designed to examine the potential in vivo interactions between BaP and TBT in a model fish. Male brook trout (Salelinus fontinalis) were given a single intraperitoneal injection of either BaP, TBT, or both in combination. After 48 h, blood, bile, and liver samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers associated with P450 activity, BaP metabolism and bioactivation, and TBT metabolism. The results showed that TBT significantly inhibited (a) the induction of hepatic P450 1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and P450-mediated 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (CN-ECOD) activities by BaP, (b) the formation of biliary BaP metabolites, and (c) the formation of (+)-anti-BPDE-plasma albumin adducts as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence. Notably, TBT alone did not inhibit EROD activity but induced CN-ECOD activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the combined BaP + TBT dose resulted in higher levels of dibutyltin metabolites in the bite (p < 0.05). The present study supports the hypothesis that a single, high dose of TBT can antagonize the metabolism and bioactivation of BaP at least by inhibiting the induction of P4501A. On the other hand, BaP unexpectedly potentiated the metabolism of TBT, suggesting that hepatic isoforms other than P3501A may be responsible for TBT metabolism. Finally, this study supports the utility of a biomarker approach to screen potential xenobiotic interactions in aquatic organisms and to obtain mechanistic insights.

  18. Response of Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani to springtime acid episodes in humic brooks.

    PubMed

    Andrén, C M; Eriksson Wiklund, A-K

    2013-10-01

    While chronic acidification of water bodies has been steadily decreasing, episodic acidification continues to affect stream biology by temporarily decreasing pH and mobilizing aluminum. These events are becoming more common as climate change renders more frequent and intense storms and flooding. Throughout Scandinavia, the effects of acidification have been mitigated by liming since the 1980s, but remediation efforts can now be reduced. While transient acidity may reduce fish populations, also other species in streams are affected. In this in-stream study, two macro-invertebrates (Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani), both known as salmonid prey organisms, were exposed to snowmelt in six humic brooks with a natural gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al(i)). We hypothesize that acid toxicity thresholds can be defined using lethal (mortality) and sublethal (changes in body elemental content) metrics. Periodic observations were made of mortality and whole body concentrations of base cations (BC: Ca, Mg, Na and K) and metals (Al, Fe, Zn and Mn). Mortality increased dramatically at pH<6.0 and Al(i)>15 μg/L for G. pulex and at pH<5.7 and Al(i)>20 μg/L for B. rhodani. No accumulation of Al was found. The invertebrate body Na concentration decreased when pH dropped, suggesting that osmoregulation in both species was affected. In contrast to general BC pattern, Ca concentration in G. pulex and Mg concentration in B. rhodani increased when pH decreased. Although Al(i) strongly correlates to pH, the Al composition of soil and bedrock also influences Al availability, potentially contributing to toxic Al(i) episodes. The estimated values calculated in this study can be used to improve water quality criteria and as thresholds to adjust doses of lime compared to old recommendations in ongoing liming programs. Such adjustments may be critical since both Al(i) and pH levels have to be balanced to mitigate damage to recovering stream ecosystems.

  19. Mafic and ultramafic rocks of the northwestern Brooks Range of Alaska produce nearly symmetric gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.L. )

    1993-04-01

    An arc of mafic and ultramafic rocks is mapped from Asik Mountain to Siniktanneyak Mountain in the northwestern Brooks Range of Alaska. Gravity data, although not very detailed, have been collected over the region and show some very conspicuous circular or oval gravity highs over portions of the mapped mafic-ultramafic bodies. Bodies which have large associated gravity anomalies are Asik Mountain (80 mGal), Avon Hills (20 mGal), Misheguk Mountain (30 mGal), and Siniktanneyak Mountain (20 mGal). Gabbros of the Siniktanneyak Mountain complex, where the gravity coverage is best, have densities of about 3.0 g/cm[sup 3] while the densities of the surrounding sedimentary rocks are about 2.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Volcanic rocks in the area have average densities of about 2.7 g/cm[sup 3]. Three-dimensional modeling indicates that the largest anomaly, on the southwestern part of the complex, could be caused by a polygonal prism of gabbro with vertical sides, about 6 km across and about 4.5 km deep. A smaller lobe of the anomaly on the northeast of the complex could be caused by another oblong polygonal prism about 4 km long and 2 km wide trending northeast and about 1.5 km deep. Modeling this anomaly with densities lower than gabbro would require greater thicknesses to produce the same anomaly. Modeling each anomaly along this arc in 2 1/2-dimensions shows many possible solutions using different body shapes and different density contrasts. There are several other gravity anomalies in this vicinity which could represent unexposed high density rocks. One such anomaly is in the Maiyumerak Mountains northeast of Asik Mountain (30 mGal). Another anomaly is to the northwest of Asik Mountain (20 mGal). There is also an anomaly at Uchugrak (20 mGal) east of Avan Hills. Although many of the anomalies in this region are poorly controlled, an attempt has been made to interpret the data to show possible solutions.

  20. K-Ar ages of allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes and their metamorphic aureoles, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, J.L.; Turner, D.L.; Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    New K-Ar ages from allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes of the western Brooks Range (Brooks Range ophiolite) show that igneous rocks yielded ages nearly identical to those of underlying metamorphic aureole rocks. Dated rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence from Tumit Creek consist of (1) hornblende gabbro with minor greenschist and lower grade alteration, hornblende age 147.2 +/- 4.4 Ma; and (2) hornblende-bearing diorite, also slightly altered, age 155.8 +/- 4.7 Ma. Both samples come from presumed higher levels of the Misheguk sequence. Dated samples of metamorphic aureole rocks come from outcrops near Kismilot Creek and lie structurally beneath the Iyikrok Mountain peridotite body. The rocks consist of amphibolite and garnet-bearing biotite-hornblende gneiss considered to be metamorphosed Copter igneous sequence and related sedimentary rocks. Hornblende ages are 154.2 +/- 4.6 Ma and 153.2 +/- 4.6 Ma. metamorphism is clearly related to the structurally overlying perioditite, as the degree of alteration decreases downward. The authors suggest that the K-Ar ages of these rocks represent the effects of thermal metamorphism post-dating igneous crystallization, and are related to tectonic emplacement of the complex. Earlier K-Ar data on igneous rocks give similar ages and have been interpreted as reflecting tectonothermal events. The age of igneous crystallization of the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence remains uncertain.