Science.gov

Sample records for community action model

  1. ACTION: application and extension of the GENESIS community analysis model.

    PubMed

    Russell, C K; Gregory, D M; Wotton, D; Mordoch, E; Counts, M M

    1996-06-01

    GENESIS (General Ethnographic and Nursing Evaluation Studies In the State) is a tested and proven community analysis strategy that integrates ethnographic and epidemiologic data to arrive at a comprehensive, holistic description of the health of a community and its residents. Communities analyzed in most project GENESIS studies have been rural or semirural. ACTION (Assessing Communities Together in the Identification Of Needs) is an extension of the GENESIS community analysis model that was developed to meet the unique needs of community-level research and analysis in an urban, multicultural setting. Significant differences in the context in which the ACTION projects took place necessitated extensions in specific components of the GENESIS model. Application of the GENESIS model by the ACTION team is described. Based on the experiences with ACTION, recommendations are offered for future urban, multicultural community analysis projects.

  2. Community Reintegration: The Value of Educational-Action-Training Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versluys, Hilda P.

    1984-01-01

    The article describes the principles that guide program development, the use of therapeutic and educational activities, and the components of transitional program models for disabled individuals re-entering the community following discharge from rehabilitation facilities. The role of the occupatonal therapist in successful reintegration is…

  3. The Unified Core: A "Major" Learning Community Model in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.; Johnson, Corey W.; James, J. Joy; Dunlap, Rudy

    2011-01-01

    The Unified Core is an innovative approach to higher education that blends content through linked courses within a major to create a community of learners. This article offers the theoretical background for the approach, describes the implementation, and offers suggestions to educators who would like to design their own version of this innovative…

  4. The Charlotte Action Research Project: A Model for Direct and Mutually Beneficial Community-University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Janni; Howarth, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Charlotte Action Research Project (CHARP), a community-university partnership founded in 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and focuses particularly on the program's unique organizational structure. Research findings of a project evaluation suggest that the CHARP model's unique…

  5. Exporting the Buyers Health Care Action Group purchasing model: lessons from other communities.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Jon B; Feldman, Roger

    2005-01-01

    When first implemented in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, the Buyers Health Care Action Group's (BHCAG) purchasing approach received considerable attention as an employer-managed, consumer-driven health care model embodying many of the principles of managed competition. First BHCAG and, later, a for-profit management company attempted to export this model to other communities. Their efforts were met with resistance from local hospitals and, in many cases, apathy by employers who were expected to be supportive. This experience underscores several difficulties that appear to be inherent in implementing purchasing models based on competing care systems. It also, once again, suggests caution in drawing lessons from community-level experiments in purchasing health care.

  6. Community Action for Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    For citizens who want to participate in practical action to make their communities better places for living, this guide considers numerous approaches for community involvement. It stresses not only comprehensive planning but also the importance of getting action started. A rough order of business is suggested. First, considered are the various…

  7. Developing Educational Leaders. A Working Model: The Learning Community in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cynthia J.; Barnett, Bruce G.; Basom, Margaret R.; Yerkes, Diane M.

    In this book, a working model for leadership development is presented, resulting from groundbreaking work with learning communities in educational leadership preparation programs. Chapter 1 develops the concept of a learning community as both a structure for the delivery of course content (the product) and a laboratory for promoting collaborative…

  8. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  9. Empowering communities: action research through healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, B C; Ray, D W; Rider, M S

    1994-01-01

    The Healthy Cities process uses action research to empower communities to take action for health. Five concepts that link community empowerment and action research are: focus on community, citizen participation, information and problem solving, sharing of power, and quality of life. Two city examples from Healthy Cities Indiana, a pilot program of CITYNET Healthy Cities, provide illustrations of these concepts. The dynamics of community participation in action research and the successes and barriers to community participation are presented. Outcomes that empowered the community are suggested: the extent to which Healthy City projects are initiated, their progress monitored, continued action in health supported, resources obtained, and policies promoted that contribute equity in health.

  10. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  11. Community action and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordner, James P.

    2017-03-01

    President Obama's rejection of the Keystone XL pipeline in 2015 established the viability of grassroots mobilization modelled on the social movement organization Bold Nebraska. This set a precedent for communities fighting energy projects that threaten natural resources and contribute to climate change.

  12. Community outreach: a call for community action.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Paul; Maxey, Randall; Dacosta, Keith

    2002-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, end-stage renal disease disproportionately affects minority populations. Factors such as socioeconomic status, cultural differences, and genetic variations, are all involved. In addition, there are often real and perceived barriers for these patient groups in fully accessing the healthcare system. Thus, there is a real need for the development of specific outreach programs that target these high-risk communities. In developing such programs, it is important to realize that there is not a homogeneous 'ethnic community', but rather, like any large demographic grouping, a diverse population. These differing communities will all have different requirements and needs and, thus, outreach programs need to be wide-ranging and adapted for individual, local communities, to ensure that all target audiences are reached. The core aims for these outreach programs must be raising disease awareness and education among minority patients. To achieve this goal, a wide range of organizations need to be actively involved, including national and--importantly--local, community-based patient organizations, and hospital management corporations, as well as local radio and television companies to advertise the outreach initiatives. However, any outreach campaign will need to be combined with policy changes and further research into kidney disease among minority groups if real improvements in outcomes are to be achieved. PMID:12152914

  13. Evolution of models to support community and policy action with science: Balancing pastoral livelihoods and wildlife conservation in savannas of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Reid, R S; Nkedianye, D; Said, M Y; Kaelo, D; Neselle, M; Makui, O; Onetu, L; Kiruswa, S; Kamuaro, N Ole; Kristjanson, P; Ogutu, J; BurnSilver, S B; Goldman, M J; Boone, R B; Galvin, K A; Dickson, N M; Clark, W C

    2016-04-26

    We developed a "continual engagement" model to better integrate knowledge from policy makers, communities, and researchers with the goal of promoting more effective action to balance poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation in 4 pastoral ecosystems of East Africa. The model involved the creation of a core boundary-spanning team, including community facilitators, a policy facilitator, and transdisciplinary researchers, responsible for linking with a wide range of actors from local to global scales. Collaborative researcher-facilitator community teams integrated local and scientific knowledge to help communities and policy makers improve herd quality and health, expand biodiversity payment schemes, develop land-use plans, and fully engage together in pastoral and wildlife policy development. This model focused on the creation of hybrid scientific-local knowledge highly relevant to community and policy maker needs. The facilitation team learned to be more effective by focusing on noncontroversial livelihood issues before addressing more difficult wildlife issues, using strategic and periodic engagement with most partners instead of continual engagement, and reducing costs by providing new scientific information only when deemed essential. We conclude by examining the role of facilitation in redressing asymmetries in power in researcher-community-policy maker teams, the role of individual values and character in establishing trust, and how to sustain knowledge-action links when project funding ends.

  14. Evaluation of Community-Based Program as a Model for Early Childhood Education Programs and Social Action Programs Involving Children, Parents, and Community Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyen, Gary V.

    The Community-Based Program (CBP) Model was developed to achieve several major goals: 1) to provide learning experiences to children that are functional for them at the time, 2) to emphasize family and community participation and development, 3) to emphasize broad service delivery to the family (as opposed to educational service to one child), and…

  15. Volunteerism: 'community mothers' in action.

    PubMed

    Downie, Jill; Clark, Kim; Clemenston, Katy

    Volunteers represent a growing, but often undervalued, section of service delivery in many areas in the community, particularly in health care. This paper is centred on volunteers' perceptions and experiences of home visiting gained through the implementation of the Community Mothers (CM) program in Western Australia (WA). Further, the paper aims to inform debate about the issue of professional versus non-professional home visitors and offers a perspective on the issue that may provide direction for policy makers and practitioners. This qualitative study involved individual telephone interviews with a volunteer sample of 12 participants, purposefully selected. Transcription data from each interview were examined and coded utilising an adapted method of content analysis described by Burnard (1991). Three main themes emerged in the findings as to why volunteers became involved in the Community Mothers Program: (1) Empathetic concern; (2) Contribution to community life; and (3) Lifecourse issues and personal development. With experiences of volunteers in home visiting, four main themes reflected the participants' views: (1) Facilitating client empowerment; (2) Facilitating personal empowerment; (3) Promoting social connectedness; and (4) Enabling goal setting. Although programs such as the Community Mothers Program aim to benefit and support mothers in the parenting role it is clear that there are benefits that emerge also for the individual volunteer, such as increased self-esteem, self-efficacy and satisfaction. Hence, measuring the overall outcomes that result from such program remains a major challenge.

  16. Action Learning: Student Community Service Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronstein, Laurence W.; Olsen, Edward G.

    By engaging students in community service projects, action learning uses resources of the real world to give students opportunities to participate in performing tasks and making decisions that confront societal problems. Such projects should be decided on after a study of the needs of the community. After a project is selected, all relevant…

  17. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Preventing the use of alcohol and other drugs by young people is a critical issue for all Americans. This action guide is designed to help communities create programs that prevent the tragedies caused by underage drinking. It is intended as a tool that communities can use to create a broad-based public education program in which they can…

  18. Evolution of models to support community and policy action with science: Balancing pastoral livelihoods and wildlife conservation in savannas of East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reid, R. S.; Nkedianye, D.; Said, M. Y.; Kaelo, D.; Neselle, M.; Makui, O.; Onetu, L.; Kiruswa, S.; Kamuaro, N. Ole; Kristjanson, P.; Ogutu, J.; BurnSilver, S. B.; Goldman, M. J.; Boone, R. B.; Galvin, K. A.; Dickson, N. M.; Clark, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a “continual engagement” model to better integrate knowledge from policy makers, communities, and researchers with the goal of promoting more effective action to balance poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation in 4 pastoral ecosystems of East Africa. The model involved the creation of a core boundary-spanning team, including community facilitators, a policy facilitator, and transdisciplinary researchers, responsible for linking with a wide range of actors from local to global scales. Collaborative researcher−facilitator community teams integrated local and scientific knowledge to help communities and policy makers improve herd quality and health, expand biodiversity payment schemes, develop land-use plans, and fully engage together in pastoral and wildlife policy development. This model focused on the creation of hybrid scientific−local knowledge highly relevant to community and policy maker needs. The facilitation team learned to be more effective by focusing on noncontroversial livelihood issues before addressing more difficult wildlife issues, using strategic and periodic engagement with most partners instead of continual engagement, and reducing costs by providing new scientific information only when deemed essential. We conclude by examining the role of facilitation in redressing asymmetries in power in researcher−community−policy maker teams, the role of individual values and character in establishing trust, and how to sustain knowledge-action links when project funding ends. PMID:19887640

  19. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  20. Student Action in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Erin

    1995-01-01

    Contends that there is a perception that young people are angry, and responsible for the growing violence problem. Asserts that young people need educational programs that teach them how to be safe and programs that provide opportunities to apply this information to their schools and communities. (CFR)

  1. Affirmative Action, Delivered Equality and the Concept of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalman, Ralph

    This paper describes three models of society: (1) the gemeinschaft, (2) the gesellschaft, and (3) the pseudo-gemeinschaft, and examines the affirmative action process and its relationship to the utopian ideals of equality of opportunity and delivered equality. In a gemeinschaft community, members look out for one another and the community exists…

  2. Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition.

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Aida L.; Arrom, Jose O.; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V.; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina

    2003-01-01

    To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementation. Capacity building activities included training on: diabetes, coalition building, research methods, and action planning. Other activities sought to increase coalition members' understanding of the social causes and potential solutions for health disparities related to diabetes. Trained coalition members conducted epidemiologic analyses, focus groups, a telephone survey, and a community inventory. All coalition members participated in decisions. The participatory process led to increased awareness of the complexities of diabetes in the community and to a state of readiness for social action. Data documented disparities in diabetes. The participatory action research approach (a) encouraged key stakeholders outside of the health care sector to participate (e.g., business sector, church groups); (b) permitted an examination of the sociopolitical context affecting the health of the community; (c) provided an opportunity to focus on preventing the onset of diabetes and its complications; (d) increased understanding of the importance of community research in catalyzing social action aimed at community and systems change and change among change agents. PMID:12815078

  3. Some values guiding community research and action

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Stephen B.

    1991-01-01

    The dual purposes of applied research—contributing to understanding and improvement—are only partially served by method systems that encourage studying (with increasing precision) a narrow range of questions of modest societal importance. To optimize contributions to challenging societal problems, a field's cherished standards should be adapted to support more adventuresome forms of community research and action. This paper outlines 10 values for community research and action, based on insights from the fields of behavioral and community psychology. These values—reflect the goals and challenges of establishing collaborative relationships with research participants, determining research goals and methods, designing and disseminating interventions, communicating research findings, and advocating for community change. Critical challenges are outlined, and implications for the field and its clients are discussed. PMID:16795759

  4. Turtle Watch: Community Engagement and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elaine; Baudains, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Many threats face the freshwater turtle, Chelodina colliei, also known as the oblong turtle. A community education project, Turtle Watch, focused on this target species and enabled effective conservation action to be implemented. Turtle Watch was conducted in the Perth Metropolitan Area of Western Australia, as the oblong turtle inhabits the…

  5. A Telecommunications-Infused Community Action Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Thomas; Puma, Jessica

    1996-01-01

    The Nonprofit Prophets, a telecommunications-infused community action project, was designed for high school students. Students were teamed with a nonprofit organization and produced videoconferences or Web sites for them. Although specific skills were acquired, students also gained confidence and self-esteem as well as a belief that they…

  6. Community Action Volunteers in Education (CAVE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Janet R.

    The Community Action Volunteers in Education (CAVE), which is described in this report, is a co-curricular learning, non-profit agency offering over 16 programs to children, the elderly, special populations, and low-income residents in the Chico, California, area and in three state institutions in the Napa and Sonoma Valleys. Based at California…

  7. Endangered Threads: Socially Committed Community Art Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm-Bottos, Janis

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a 9-month community action project that took the form of an art studio located in a thrift store. The purpose of the project was to creatively reduce clothing fabric waste from unused donations, and also to document the social justice and ecological issues involved in clothing production and distribution. Collaboration with…

  8. Development of a model of dementia support and pathway for culturally and linguistically diverse communities using co-creation and participatory action research

    PubMed Central

    Goeman, Dianne; King, Jordan; Koch, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop an inclusive model of culturally sensitive support, using a specialist dementia nurse (SDN), to assist people with dementia from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities and their carers to overcome barriers to accessing health and social care services. Design Co-creation and participatory action research, based on reflection, data collection, interaction and feedback from participants and stakeholders. Setting An SDN support model embedded within a home nursing service in Melbourne, Australia was implemented between October 2013 and October 2015. Participants People experiencing memory loss or with a diagnosis of dementia from CALD backgrounds and their carers and family living in the community setting and expert stakeholders. Data collection and analysis Reflections from the SDN on interactions with participants and expert stakeholder opinion informed the CALD dementia support model and pathway. Results Interaction with 62 people living with memory loss or dementia from CALD backgrounds, carers or family members receiving support from the SDN and feedback from 13 expert stakeholders from community aged-care services, consumer advocacy organisations and ethnic community group representatives informed the development and refinement of the CALD dementia model of care and pathway. We delineate the three components of the ‘SDN’ model: the organisational support; a description of the role; and the competencies needed. Additionally, we provide an accompanying pathway for use by health professionals delivering care to consumers with dementia from CALD backgrounds. Conclusions Our culturally sensitive model of dementia care and accompanying pathway allows for the tailoring of health and social support to assist people from CALD backgrounds, their carers and families to adjust to living with memory loss and remain living in the community as long as possible. The model and accompanying pathway also have the potential to be rolled out

  9. Implementation of an Evidence-Based, High-Impact Practice: An Integrated Learning Community Model in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Karla S.; King, Claire; Moore, Randolph; Saint-Louis, Nicole; Tyner-Mullings, Alia R.

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges continue to grapple with low rates of degree completion and transfer issues, with a national three-year completion rate of 22 percent (Community College Research Center). However, through the implementation of high-impact practices, many schools and programs have found levels of success. The City University of New York's (CUNY)…

  10. Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Angela R.; Buchanan, Natasha D.; Fairley, Temeika L.; Smith, Judith Lee

    2016-01-01

    Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors’ mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641

  11. Participatory Evaluation with Youth Leads to Community Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Carolyn; Arnold, Mary E.; Wells, Elissa E.

    2010-01-01

    4-H has long emphasized the importance of civic engagement and community service for positive youth development. One pathway to this ideal is youth action research and evaluation. This article demonstrates how participatory youth research and evaluation can lead to the successful implementation of community action projects. It describes the…

  12. Improving Educational Aspirations and Outcomes through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a community action research approach supported the implementation of an educational support programme for children, parents and local educators. The aim was the creation of a learning community that acknowledged, valued and used the expertise and experience of all involved. The action reflection cycle informed the…

  13. A Career Development Plan for Community Action Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Alan; Jones, Nina

    A system for career advancement in the community action agency must be based on the fundamental principle that it is the responsibility of the community action agency to develop the full potential of the nonprofessional staff. The agency must take the initiative on several aspects of its policy and program. Nonprofessional employees must be able…

  14. Linking Knowledge and Action: PRI's Community Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Gregory P.

    Within the Partnership for Rural Improvement (PRI), community consultants operate within three complex sets of relationships: client groups, the organizational structure of PRI, and the local operational base. Community consultants are responsible for developing and facilitating rural development and for providing assistance in community and…

  15. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  16. Community-based knowledge transfer and exchange: Helping community-based organizations link research to action

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR) given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together); a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary Through this type of strategy

  17. Practical suggestions for community interventions using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J

    2005-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.

  18. WORKING WITH PEOPLE IN COMMUNITY ACTION, AN INTERNATIONAL CASEBOOK FOR TRAINED COMMUNITY WORKERS AND VOLUNTEER COMMUNITY LEADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KING, CLARENCE

    DRAWING EXAMPLES OF COMMUNITY PROBLEMS AND COMMUNITY ACTION FROM THE UNITED STATES, PUERTO RICO, IRAN, INDIA, KENYA, AND 14 OTHER COUNTRIES (MOSTLY DEVELOPING NATIONS), THIS CASEBOOK STRESSES COOPERATION BY TRAINED COMMUNITY WORKERS AND VOLUNTEER COMMUNITY LEADERS FOR COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT. SEPARATE SECTIONS DEAL WITH MEANS OF DEVELOPING RAPPORT…

  19. Community Involvement Activities: Research into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Beverly; Rich, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    The Home and School Institute operates to develop specific, easy, low cost, practical ways to share educational accountability between home and school, and to develop ways in which schools can enhance school-community interaction. (MB)

  20. The Shape We're In: Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    "The Shape We're In" is a national public education initiative that places a media spotlight on physical activity and obesity to promote public awareness and spark dialogue and action across the country. The centerpiece is a five-part newspaper series delivered to newspapers nationwide. This community action guide begins by describing…

  1. Building Civic Bridges: Community-Centered Action Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCompte, Karon; Blevins, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning is an example of powerful social studies learning in which student engage in active inquiry. Action civics is a relatively new educational practice in which students "act as citizens" through a cycle of research, action, and reflection about problems they care about in their community. "Building Civic…

  2. Mt. Dioxin: "Clean Up" Action Threatens Florida Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Lois

    1995-01-01

    Addresses citizen action taken by African American communities in Pensacola, Florida located in close proximity to a Superfund site. Discusses how the community is organizing to stop site clean-up efforts that residents claim have unjustly increased their already high exposure to toxins such as dioxin. (LZ)

  3. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  4. Literacy Learning within Community Action Projects for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dana E.; Mahiri, Jabari

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the literacy development of a struggling reader over a seven-month period as he engaged in a youth-led participatory action research (PAR) project. The project's goal was for youth participants to develop a proposal for productive change in their local community and present it to community stakeholders. The study focused…

  5. Mutual moral caring actions: a framework for community nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    A community practice framework is presented as the synthesis of research findings from the analysis of a critical ethnonursing study of women in recovery from chemical dependence. Critical Social Theory is used to examine the paradoxical experiences of women from their lifeworld and system within the community. The framework focuses on the mutual moral caring actions of the community nurse and the women in the recovery. It is supported by the concepts of transcultural nursing ethics. The utility of the framework is to promote clarity of speech and parity of community membership for women in recovery from chemical dependence and their return to the community.

  6. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael; Matthews, H. Scott; Sharrard, Aurora L.; Hendrickson, Chris T.; Lima Azevedo, Inês

    2011-07-01

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  7. Christian Community in Action: Bruderhof Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielhagen, Frances R.; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    The Bruderhof communities in the United States have organized their own private schools with a distinctly Christian philosophy of education, adding to the interesting mix of American private and religious schools. Rooted in early 20th century German pedagogy, romanticism, and shared responsibility, Bruderhof schools represent the essence of a…

  8. Community Nutrition Action for Child Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This publication is designed for use by managers of community-based nutrition programs. The training modules included in this manual were produced and field-tested by the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) as a special project providing focused technical assistance and project support to CEDPA training graduates. CEDPA…

  9. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  10. Launching Professional Learning Communities: Beginning Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Tara; Cowan, D'Ette

    2000-01-01

    A Professional Learning Community (PLC) is a school where administrators and teachers continuously seek and share learning to increase their effectiveness for students and act on what they learn. PLCs are characterized by five dimensions: shared and supportive leadership, shared values and vision, collective learning and application of learning,…

  11. Community College Model Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    This paper argues that community college models, especially in developing countries, can be victims of the vocational school fallacy, which holds that that two-year vocational/technical schools that ignore a general education foundation may not be an optimal means for solving worker needs. In addition, globalization has hastened a mirroring of the…

  12. Professional Learning Communities: A Middle School Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, David N.

    2010-01-01

    This research project explored the transition from a traditional model to a Professional Learning Community model in a NJ Middle School. The administration overcame obstacles during the transition such as scheduling conflicts, teacher apathy, and resistance. This action research study gathered data to determine how to best structure the…

  13. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  14. Building Nuclear Communities: The Hanford Education Action League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Jeanne; Salvador, Michael

    Many scholars have examined the jeremiad in American rhetoric and political discourse. The Hanford Education Action League (HEAL), which influenced policy changes in the operations of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington, is a social movement organization whose founding members used the jeremiad to create a symbolic community which…

  15. Taking Action in the Community. Leadership Pamphlet #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education Association of U.S.A., Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet on taking action in the community is the third of 16 in a series to provide leaders in adult activities with sound introductory material to give practical help in using a method of adult education or working in a particular area. Its objective is to help leaders plan and carry out a constructive program of social change. Eleven…

  16. The Biodiversity Community Action Project: An STS Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidin, Amirshokoohi; Mahsa, Kazempour

    2010-01-01

    The Biodiversity Community Action Project is a stimulating and vigorous project that allows students to gain an in-depth understanding of the interconnection between organisms and their environments as well as the connection of science to their lives and society. It addresses key content standards in the National Science Education Standards and…

  17. Youth for Community Action: Leadership for Inner-City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Barry L.

    Nine of the 12 principles for effective leadership programs suggested by R. Woyach and K. Cox (1997) were used in the creation of a teen leadership program in Fort Worth, Texas. With support from several sources, the Texas Agricultural Extension Service in Tarrant County created 4-H Youth for Community Action (4-HYCA), an after-school leadership…

  18. Empowering Communities in Educational Management: Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon

    2015-01-01

    The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…

  19. "Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durden, Jared; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2012-02-01

    We present "Implicit Action", a discourse management tool, through a qualitative video analysis of a Florida International University Modeling Instruction Introductory Physics I class. Implicit Action in Modeling Instruction is where instructors deliberately create intellectual space in which students ideally see value and need for the construction of new classroom norms and tools that are productive in developing a learning community. This space is created by the implications expressed through the instructors' deliberate actions. Discourse Management is a technique to moderate student discourse in Modeling Instruction classes at the university level that was initially described by Desbien [1]. Implicit Action is one of 9 Modeling Discourse Management tools that we have identified. By means of qualitative analysis we illustrate the effectiveness of Implicit Action in implementing the Modeling Theory of Instruction.

  20. Partnering for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study of a University's Participation in the Community Action for a Renewed Environment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarleta, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines an important policy initiative that creates self-sustaining partnerships among community stakeholders, including academic institutions. The Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) model of collaborative problem-solving (CPS) builds community capacity and knowledge while addressing the challenges of toxic pollution…

  1. Community-Based Programming in Action: The Experiences of Five Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Edgar J., Ed.; Pettitt, John M., Ed.; Weisman, Iris M., Ed.

    Intended for community college administrators, governing boards, and other leaders interested in strengthening their institutions and communities, this monograph chronicles the experiences of five pilot colleges implementing the community-based programming (CBP) model of the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and…

  2. From Service to Action? Students, Volunteering and Community Action in Mid Twentieth-Century Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewis, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering by higher education students in the UK has a long history which remains largely unexplored despite recent research and policy attention. This article offers a brief overview of the development of student volunteering before the 1960s and then discusses a shift from student social service to Student Community Action in the late 1960s…

  3. Doing Poverty: Learning Outcomes among Students Participating in the Community Action Poverty Simulation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Laura West; Engler, Jennifer N.; Ligon, Mary; Druen, Perri B.; Cosgrove, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an application of the Lewinian/Kolb experiential learning model in the context of undergraduate participation in the Missouri Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS) program. CAPS is designed to simulate common, everyday experiences among people living in poverty as participants take on the roles of family members working…

  4. Sowing the Seeds of Social Change: The Outcomes and Impact of a Social Action Model of Community Education. Research Report AONTAS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Natasha; Ward, Mark; Goodrick, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The research described in this report is a companion piece of research to one conducted by AONTAS from 2009-2010 about the outcomes and impact of Department of Education and Skills (DES) funded community education. It answers a call in that research to isolate and investigate the outcomes of community education not wholly funded through DES. This…

  5. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    Māori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities.

  6. Communities of clinical practice in action: Doing whatever it takes.

    PubMed

    Young, Jessica; Jaye, Chrystal; Egan, Tony; Williamson, Martyn; Askerud, Anna; Radue, Peter; Penese, Maree

    2017-01-01

    Burgeoning numbers of patients with long-term conditions requiring complex care have placed pressures on healthcare systems around the world. In New Zealand, complex patients are increasingly being managed within the community. The Community of Clinical Practice concept identifies the network of carers around an individual patient whose central participants share a common purpose of increasing that patient's well-being. We conducted a focused ethnography of nine communities of clinical practice in one general practice setting using participant observation and interviews, and examined the patients' medical records. Data were analysed using a template organising style. Communities of clinical practice were interprofessional and included informal supports, services and non-professionals. These communities of clinical practice mediate practice, utilising informal networks to cut across boundaries, bureaucracy, mandated clinical pathways and professional jurisdictions to achieve optimum patient-centred care. Communities of clinical practice's repertoires are characterised by care and are driven by the moral imperative to care. They do 'whatever it takes', although there is a cost to this form of care. Well-functioning communities of clinical practice use patient's well-being as a guiding light and, by sharing a vision of care through trusting and respectful relationships, avoid fragmentation of care. The Community of Clinical Practice (CoCP) model is particularly useful in accounting for the 'messiness' of community-based care.

  7. Sharing Control: Developing Research Literacy through Community-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergensmeyer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…

  8. Failing better: The stochastic art of evaluating community-led environmental action programs.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, Ria A; Franklin, Alex

    2017-02-01

    This article provides insights into the evaluation of a government-funded action for climate change program. The UK-based program aimed to reduce CO2 emissions and encourage behavioral change through community-led environmental projects. It, thus, employed six community development facilitators, with expertise in environmental issues. These facilitators supported and learnt from 18 community groups over an 18-month period. The paper explores the narratives of the six professional facilitators. These facilitators discuss their experiences of supporting community groups. They also explain their contribution to the wider evaluation of the community-led projects. This paper reflects on the facilitator experience of the program's outcome-led evaluation process. In turn, it also explores how the groups they supported experienced the process. The facilitator's narratives reveal that often community-group objectives did not align with predefined outcomes established through theory of change or logic model methodologies, which had been devised in attempt to align to program funder aims. Assisting community action emerges in this inquiry as a stochastic art that requires funder and facilitator willingness to experiment and openness to the possibilities of learning from failure. Drawing on in-depth accounts, the article illustrates that a reflexive, interpretive evaluation approach can enhance learning opportunities and provides funders with more trustworthy representations of community-led initiatives. Yet, it also addresses why such an approach remains marginal within policy circles.

  9. After epidemiological research: what next? Community action for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, J G

    1994-01-01

    The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological

  10. Food and Nutritional Improvement Action of Communities in Japan: Lessons for the World.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Midori; Kusama, Kaoru; Shikanai, Saiko

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the national health policy "Healthy Japan 21 (second term)" was introduced in 2013 to support prevention of lifestyle-related disease. Policy has also been recently revised on the promotion of nutrition education (shokuiku). Community-based food and nutrition actions were developed based on those policies and aimed to reinforce the linkages across the food chain, looking along its length "from field to food", including production, processing, preparation, eating and disposal. Local government is responsible for identifying the important food and nutritional problems, to devise and group effective actions on the basis of local health issues. The National Institute of Public Health (NIPH) is responsible for carrying out public health staff training on policy-based health issues. Training carried out by the NIPH, the Japan Dietetic Association and the Japan Public Health Association was designed to create an enabling environment for nutrition action. The community-based actions, including nutrition education and information, are carried out by several bodies, including local government, schools, facilities, volunteer groups, residents' associations, and commercial companies, to establish sustainable food systems promoting healthy diets. The community-empowering actions and effective cooperation are reported as good practice models in an annual white paper by the Cabinet Office. Japanese dieticians are expected to share their experiences of local nutrition improvement activities in Japan with international colleagues. Experience from elsewhere, including from Japanese dieticians working in developing countries, should also be applied on their return.

  11. An Initial Attempt at Operationalizing and Testing the Community Coalition Action Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Swan, Deanne W.

    2011-01-01

    The Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT) blends practice wisdom with empirical data to explain how community coalitions achieve community change and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of 20 "California Healthy Cities" and "Communities" coalitions to test relationships between…

  12. The Engaged Community College: Supporting the Institutionalization of Engagement through Collaborative Action Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Jennifer W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to explore how community colleges increase their capacity for community engagement. Faculty and staff members who were identified as community engagement leaders within a public community college participated in a series of interventions to improve community engagement practices within the college. The…

  13. Curvature and gravity actions for matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Daniel N.; Steinacker, Harold

    2010-08-01

    We show how gravitational actions, in particular the Einstein-Hilbert action, can be obtained from additional terms in Yang-Mills matrix models. This is consistent with recent results on induced gravitational actions in these matrix models, realizing spacetime as four-dimensional brane solutions. It opens up the possibility for a controlled non-perturbative description of gravity through simple matrix models, with interesting perspectives for the problem of vacuum energy. The relation with UV/IR mixing and non-commutative gauge theory is discussed.

  14. Awareness, Solidarity, and Action: An Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenbach, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    How Extension fosters social change and innovation can be improved through the use of theory-based educational models. Educational models can serve as foundations for the conceptual designs of educational interventions. I describe, using examples from my own work, one such model: the awareness, solidarity, and action model. This three-part model…

  15. A neural network model of causative actions

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to “do” anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the “causative actions” circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in “functional” actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013). PMID:26175685

  16. Ethics, "Vulnerability," and Feminist Participatory Action Research With a Disability Community.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Diana L; Brunger, Fern

    2014-07-01

    We consider the work of research ethics boards and funding models for research that at times are incompatible with the relationship building required for feminist participatory action research with a disability community. We explore the barriers that emerged for university- and community-based partners as they asserted individual and collective identities, and negotiated boundaries, access, and power relations in the process of designing and conducting research. This critical reflection contributes to our understanding of the structures of academic research funding, ethics approval, and how problematic conceptualizations of vulnerability embedded in the Tri-Council Policy Statement and research ethics board practices impact on relationship building and the research process. Recommendations for change will be helpful to researchers studying disability, those using participatory action research, and individuals serving on ethics review boards.

  17. For Better or For Worse: Environmental Health Promotion in Support of Community Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Health Education (EHE) is most effective when it incorporates environmental science, risk education, and health education. When paired with the local knowledge of community members, EHE can promote health equity and community action, especially for socially disadvan...

  18. Structural issues affecting creation of a community action and advocacy board

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M. R.; Abbott, M.; Hilario, H.; Radda, K.; Medina, Z.; Prince, M.; Li, J.; Kaplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The most effective woman-initiated method to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted infections is the female condom (FC). Yet, FCs are often difficult to find and denigrated or ignored by community health and service providers. Evidence increasingly supports the need to develop and test theoretically driven, multilevel interventions using a community-empowerment framework to promote FCs in a sustained way. We conducted a study in a midsized northeastern US city (2009–2013) designed to create, mobilize and build capacity of a community group to develop and implement multilevel interventions to increase availability, accessibility and support for FCs in their city. The Community Action and Advocacy Board (CAAB) designed and piloted interventions concurrently targeting community, organizational and individual levels. Ethnographic observation of the CAAB training and intervention planning and pilot implementation sessions documented the process, preliminary successes, challenges and limitations of this model. The CAAB demonstrated ability to conceptualize, plan and initiate multilevel community change. However, challenges in group decision-making and limitations in members’ availability or personal capacity constrained CAAB processes and intervention implementation. Lessons from this experience could inform similar efforts to mobilize, engage and build capacity of community coalitions to increase access to and support for FCs and other novel effective prevention options for at-risk women. PMID:23660461

  19. Catalyzing community action within a national campaign: VERB community and national partnerships.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer-Mueller, Rosemary; Berkowitz, Judy M; Thomas, Melonie; McCarthy, Susan; Green, Lula Anna; Melancon, Heidi; Courtney, Anita H; Bryant, Carol A; Dodge, Kristin

    2008-06-01

    The VERB campaign used a social marketing approach to deliver its message through the mass media, school and community promotions, and partnerships to encourage children aged 9-13 years (tweens) to be physically active every day. This paper presents the VERB campaign's community and national partnership strategy, highlights three successful partnerships, and discusses challenges associated with the efforts. The national advertising generated awareness of and affinity for the product's brand and motivated the primary audience to seek out the product. The campaign's national and community partners were engaged to facilitate a product-distribution channel. The campaign developed a three-pronged partnership strategy to integrate the promotion with the placement of the campaign's product (physical activity): (1) reframe the way physical activity is positioned and delivered; (2) connect the brand to the point-of-purchase; and (3) refer (or drive) the audience to the action outlets, opportunities, places, spaces and programs to purchase the product. The VERB campaign provided partners with marketing training and resources to assist them as they leveraged tweens' brand awareness and supported regular physical activity among tweens. The method of technical assistance and the types of marketing tools were provided in relationship to four characteristics of the partner: (1) partner's network, (2) leaders and champions in the network, (3) partner's financial resources for community campaigns; and (4) partner's understanding of the marketing mindset. Coordinated, collaborative, and strong mass-media and community-based interventions within a national social marketing campaign can sustain the immediate effects of such campaigns.

  20. Learning from a Community Action Plan to Promote Safe Sexual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Josie A.; Dwonch-Schoen, Kathy; Howard-Barr, Elissa M.; Panella, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    The well-being of a community is only as good as the well-being of the individuals who reside in the community. A group of citizens, concerned about the welfare of their community, recognized the high rates of HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in their south Florida county and decided to take action. Supported by community leaders and using available…

  1. Action-learning collaboratives as a platform for community-based participatory research to advance obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation.

  2. Action principles for extended magnetohydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keramidas Charidakos, I.; Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.; White, R. L.; Wurm, A.

    2014-09-01

    The general, non-dissipative, two-fluid model in plasma physics is Hamiltonian, but this property is sometimes lost or obscured in the process of deriving simplified (or reduced) two-fluid or one-fluid models from the two-fluid equations of motion. To ensure that the reduced models are Hamiltonian, we start with the general two-fluid action functional, and make all the approximations, changes of variables, and expansions directly within the action context. The resulting equations are then mapped to the Eulerian fluid variables using a novel nonlocal Lagrange-Euler map. Using this method, we recover Lüst's general two-fluid model, extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and electron MHD from a unified framework. The variational formulation allows us to use Noether's theorem to derive conserved quantities for each symmetry of the action.

  3. Evaluating models of community psychology: social transformation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Tricket (1996) described community psychology in terms of contexts of diversity within a diversity of contexts. As abstract representations of reality, various community psychological models provide further diverse contexts through which to view the diversity of community psychological reality. The Zululand Community Psychology Project is a South African initiative aimed at improving community life. This includes treating the violent sequelae of the unjust Apartheid system through improving relationships among communities divided in terms of historical, colonial, racial, ethnic, political, gender, and other boundaries as well as promoting health and social change. The aim of this article is to evaluate the applicability of various models of community psychology used in this project. The initial quantitative investigation in the Zululand Community Psychology Project involved five coresearchers, who evaluated five community psychology models--the mental health, social action, organizational, ecological, and phenomenological models--in terms of their differential applicability in three partnership centers, representing health, education, and business sectors of the local community. In all three contexts, the models were rank ordered by a representative of each center, an intern community psychologist, and his supervisor in terms of the models' respective applicability to the particular partnership center concerned. Results indicated significant agreement with regard to the differential applicability of the mental health, phenomenological, and organizational models in the health, education, and business centers respectively, with the social action model being most generally applicable across all centers. This led to a further qualitative individual and focus group investigation with eight university coresearchers into the experience of social transformation with special reference to social changes needed in the South African context. These social transformation

  4. Community Service Models for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic relapsing and remitting mental illness with lifetime prevalence between 0.40 to 1.4 percent. Most people with schizophrenia are treated in psychiatric units of local general hospitals for short periods of time when acutely ill. With the worldwide trend toward closure of asylums and institutions in the 1950s, there has been an increasing focus on treatment in the community. Community mental health teams (CMHT) are the kernel of community treatment. Although their composition and modus operandi differ according to patient need, all models claim superiority over outcomes of long inpatient stay. Case management, assertive outreach, and crisis resolution sometimes compete for resources. What is the evidence for their efficacy? What is the right mix of their use? As we discuss these, we propose that there may be room for the application of established industry models of service delivery, such as Just-in-Time (JIT), in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21179632

  5. Nisqually Community Forest VELMA modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of modeling tools to support community-based forest management and salmon-recovery planning in Pacific Northwest watersheds. Here we describe how these tools are being applied to the Mashel River Watershed in collaboration with the Board of Directors of the Nis...

  6. Modelling the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed Central

    Beek, P J; Dessing, J C; Peper, C E; Bullock, D

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, several phenomenological dynamical models have been formulated that describe how perceptual variables are incorporated in the control of motor variables. We call these short-route models as they do not address how perception-action patterns might be constrained by the dynamical properties of the sensory, neural and musculoskeletal subsystems of the human action system. As an alternative, we advocate a long-route modelling approach in which the dynamics of these subsystems are explicitly addressed and integrated to reproduce interceptive actions. The approach is exemplified through a discussion of a recently developed model for interceptive actions consisting of a neural network architecture for the online generation of motor outflow commands, based on time-to-contact information and information about the relative positions and velocities of hand and ball. This network is shown to be consistent with both behavioural and neurophysiological data. Finally, some problems are discussed with regard to the question of how the motor outflow commands (i.e. the intended movement) might be modulated in view of the musculoskeletal dynamics. PMID:14561342

  7. Building Action Principles for Extended MHD Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keramidas Charidakos, Ioannis; Lingam, Manasvi; Morrison, Philip; White, Ryan; Wurm, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The general, non-dissipative, two-fluid model in plasma physics is Hamiltonian, but this property is sometimes lost in the process of deriving simplified two-fluid or one-fluid models from the two-fluid equations of motion. One way to ensure that the reduced models are Hamiltonian is to derive them from an action. We start with the general two-fluid action functional for an electron and an ion fluid interacting with an electromagnetic field, expressed in Lagrangian variables. We perform a change of variables and make various approximations (eg. quasineutrality and ordering of the fields) and small parameter expansions directly in the action. The resulting equations of motion are then mapped to the Eulerian fluid variables using a novel nonlocal Lagrange-Euler map. The correct Eulerian equations are obtained after we impose locality. Using this method and the proper approximations and expansions, we recover Lust's general two-fluid model, extended MHD, Hall MHD, and Electron MHD from a unified framework. The variational formulation allows us to use Noether's theorem to derive conserved quantities for each symmetry of the action. U.S. Dept. of Energy Contract # DE-FG05-80ET-53088, Western New England University Research Fund.

  8. Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

  9. Community Cleanup. Youth in Action Bulletin, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    Every community has areas--public parks, schoolyards, sidewalks--that are neglected, vandalized, or just plain run down. Young people can help clean up those places by getting involved in a community cleanup project. As explained in this bulletin, a community cleanup is a project in which volunteers of all ages work together to spruce up a chosen…

  10. Community Service Projects: Citizenship in Action. Fastback 231.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Richard P.; And Others

    This booklet examines the theory and practice of projects that involve secondary students in community services. Through such involvement, young people will develop positive attitudes toward community participation that will persist throughout their adult lives. Community service projects represent an important and exciting way to bring democracy…

  11. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  12. Rochester's Healthy Home: A community-based innovation to promote environmental health action.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Kuholski, Kate

    2008-09-16

    Environmental hazards in the home can contribute significantly to disease. These hazards disproportionately affect low income, urban, and minority children. Childhood lead poisoning and asthma are prime examples of health concerns to which poor housing conditions may contribute significantly. A community-academic partnership in Rochester, New York created a model Healthy Home, an interactive museum in a typical city home, to help residents, property owners, contractors, and community groups reduce environmental hazards. The Healthy Home project educates visitors about home environmental health hazards, demonstrates low-cost methods for reducing home hazards, and helps visitors develop individualized strategies for action. In its first year of operation, over 700 people visited the Healthy Home. Evaluation surveys indicate that the Healthy Home experience motivated visitors to take action to reduce environmental hazards in their homes. Follow-up phone interviews indicate that most visitors took some action to reduce home environmental hazards. The Healthy Home has established a diverse Advisory Council to share its messages more broadly, invite input into future directions, and recruit visitors. This paper presents experiences from the Healthy Home's first year, highlighting the partnership principles that guided its development and lessons learned from the process.

  13. Rochester’s Healthy Home: A community-based innovation to promote environmental health action

    PubMed Central

    Kuholski, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Environmental hazards in the home can contribute significantly to disease. These hazards disproportionately affect low income, urban, and minority children. Childhood lead poisoning and asthma are prime examples of health concerns to which poor housing conditions may contribute significantly. A community-academic partnership in Rochester, New York created a model Healthy Home, an interactive museum in a typical city home, to help residents, property owners, contractors, and community groups reduce environmental hazards. The Healthy Home project educates visitors about home environmental health hazards, demonstrates low-cost methods for reducing home hazards, and helps visitors develop individualized strategies for action. In its first year of operation, over 700 people visited the Healthy Home. Evaluation surveys indicate that the Healthy Home experience motivated visitors to take action to reduce environmental hazards in their homes. Follow-up phone interviews indicate that most visitors took some action to reduce home environmental hazards. The Healthy Home has established a diverse Advisory Council to share its messages more broadly, invite input into future directions, and recruit visitors. This paper presents experiences from the Healthy Home’s first year, highlighting the partnership principles that guided its development and lessons learned from the process. PMID:20634943

  14. A cooperative inquiry into action learning and praxis development in a community nursing module.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emrys R; Mabbett, Gaynor M; Surridge, Andrea G; Warring, Joanna; Gwynn, Elizabeth D

    2009-09-01

    As nurse lecturers we investigated practice development and action learning approaches aimed at enabling postregistration bachelor's- and master's-level nursing students (Community Health Studies, Nursing in the Home) to advance practice in the context of policy and professional developments. A patchwork text was used to assess summatively what students achieved (practice change/development) and how this was informed critically, via an extended epistemology. First-person inquiry supplemented by cooperative inquiry postcourse completion (including reflective discussions with 16 students and 16 practice mentors) were used to assist coresearcher constructions of meaning. A relational, tripartite approach to learning and assessment (students', teachers', and practice mentors' collective contributions) depends on continuing reflective attention. Action learning enhances interrelation of experience with dialectic thinking. The patchwork text functions to promote creative writing, evaluative thinking, and praxis development. Role modeling by all, being genuine and not just "talking" genuine, is challenging yet crucial if people are to function as mutual resources for learning.

  15. Healthy Weight for Life: Actions for Communities, Individuals, and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Management Veteran Resources Community Health Behavioral Health Environmental Health Health Communications Health Promotion Injury Prevention School Health Sustainability Visualizing Data Contacts Career Opportunities Ambassador Program Applicant ...

  16. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  17. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  18. School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joyce L.; Coates, Lucretia; Salinas, Karen Clark; Sanders, Mavis G.; Simon, Beth S.

    This handbook serves as a guide for state, district, and school leaders to organize and implement positive and permanent programs of school, family, and community partnerships. The book's eight chapters offer step-by-step strategies to improve school-family-community connections. Chapter 1 summarizes the theory and research on which the handbook…

  19. Improving Numeracy Outcomes for Children through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Virtue, according to Aristotle, is doing the right things at the right time with the right people for the right end and in the right way. This concept is central to the work of the Early Learning Initiative, an Irish community-based educational initiative. This paper describes how a community of parents, early childhood care and education…

  20. Scaling Innovation for Community Colleges: A Guide to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soricone, Lisa; McDonnell, Rachel Pleasants

    2016-01-01

    As community colleges across the country look for ways to promote student success, the need for scaling effective approaches is critical. This guide builds on a framework of four phases of scaling developed in Job For the Future's (JFF's) previous publication, "Thinking Big: A Framework for States on Scaling Up Community College…

  1. Moving from Complaints to Action: Oppositional Consciousness and Collective Action in a Political Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Soo Ah

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the process of youth political activism and development by drawing on ethnographic research on Asian and Pacific Islander youth activists. Young people revealed that collective action begins with a critical analysis of their lived experiences with inequalities. Their actions also involved oppositional consciousness that was…

  2. Moving Science off the "Back Burner": Meaning Making within an Action Research Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnough, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the participants conceptualized and implemented an action research project that focused on the infusion of inquiry principles into a neglected science curriculum. Specific objectives were to find (a) What factors challenge and support the evolution of an action research community of practice? (b) How are teachers' beliefs about…

  3. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Community Mural Making and Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetto, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study of interview data from 8 community artists, the author sought to discover commonalities and differences in the worldviews and philosophies of self that underlie community mural making as they relate to art therapy as social action and art therapy practice within a traditional Western cultural framework.…

  4. Pennsylvania Youth in Action: 4-H Community Development. Adult Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. of Agricultural and Extension Education.

    Designed to assist leaders in their roles as catalysts, advisors, and resource persons for the Pennsylvania Youth in Action 4-H Community Development program, the guide provides complementary educational, craft, and recreation suggestions to enhance student workbooks for three community development activity units. The first section focuses on the…

  5. Participatory action research (PAR): an approach for improving black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project.

  6. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.

  7. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (≥ 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research. PMID:20686675

  8. Heroin Use: What Communities Should Know. Monthly Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This action kit was created in response to a rise in heroin use. Facts are provided about the scope of heroin use since it is the one illegal drug that is growing in popularity in some areas among young people. A brief explanation of some treatment options is provided including detoxification, methadone treatment, other medications, and behavioral…

  9. Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

  10. Pupil and Teacher Perceptions of Community Action: An English Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrant, Ian; Peterson, Andrew; Hoult, Elizabeth; Leith, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Background: In England over the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in the role of English schools in developing, facilitating and supporting young people's community participation. A number of policy initiatives have sought to build the capacity and opportunities for youth participation. Research suggests, however, that pupils and…

  11. Action and Words. Sharing Literacy Skills in Community Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit, London (England).

    This book is intended for people who want to organize their own learning either individually or as a member of a community group rather than fit into a more predetermined and perhaps more formal educational experience. Section 1 focuses on learning to a purpose. Section 2 discusses getting going. In the next section are suggestions for finding…

  12. The "Affirmative Action Hire": Leading Inclusively in Diverse Religious Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.; Marsh, Tyson E. J.

    2016-01-01

    This case tells the story of a new principal who wants to lead inclusively by including people of all religious and non-religious beliefs. When she questions some of the existing practices in her school, she faces resistance from school members and from the community, who question her identity, her intentions, and her authority. The case is…

  13. Embodying Women's Stories for Community Awareness and Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieves, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights four concepts related to embodied knowledge for community awareness: (1) possibilities; (2) risk; (3) collective engagement; and (4) performance. It examines the author's narrative study investigation manifested in a performance text as a case study on how women embodied repressed knowledge and released it through…

  14. Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding; Community Action in the War on Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Daniel P.

    In reviewing the attempts to conduct Federal antipoverty programs with "maximum feasible participation" by residents of the communities involved, Daniel Moynihan describes the origin of this provision in sociological theory, then discusses the nature and the internal contradictions of the great national effort at social change conceived under the…

  15. The Navy Human Resource Officer Community: Assessment and Action Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    asset. The relationship between senior Navy leaders (predominately male warriors) and female Officers was as an invisible partnership that was made......could not be considered gender neutral, as it indeed was. Men in the community were few and were considered poor in health or performance; they were

  16. Communities in Action: Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Fumiko; Guevara, Jose Roberto; Yorozu, Rika

    2015-01-01

    This handbook identifies principles and policy mechanisms to advance community-based learning for sustainable development based on the commitments endorsed by the participants of the "Kominkan-CLC International Conference on Education for Sustainable Development," which took place in Okayama City, Japan, in October 2014. To inform…

  17. Moving Science Off the ``Back Burner'': Meaning Making Within an Action Research Community of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodnough, Karen

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the participants conceptualized and implemented an action research project that focused on the infusion of inquiry principles into a neglected science curriculum. Specific objectives were to find (a) What factors challenge and support the evolution of an action research community of practice? (b) How are teachers’ beliefs about science teaching and learning transformed? and (c) How does teachers’ knowledge of curriculum, instruction, assessment, and student learning change as a result of learning within a community of practice? In this instrumental case study (Stake 2000, In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 435-454). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage), a range of data collection sources and methods were adopted. Outcomes focus on how the design principles for cultivating a community of practice emerged in the action research group, as well as the types of teacher learning that occurred by engaging in action research.

  18. Modeling Community through Cohort Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basom, Margaret R.; Yerkes, Diane M.

    This paper explores the nature of the curriculum within learning communities, specifically, learning communities in leadership preparation programs. It also addresses how cohorts of learning communities operate effectively as cohesive groups, and how they, in turn, promote the enhancement of individuals. The process curriculum advocated in this…

  19. Integrating Research and Action: A Systematic Review of Community-based Participatory Research To Address Health Disparities In Environmental and Occupational Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Integrating research and action represents a goal and key principles of CBPR, but there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate if such integration is occurring. Objectives 1) To examine the extent to which CBPR integrates action to effect community-level change; and 2) to ascertain factors that facilitates such integration. Methods Original articles reporting on CBPR in environmental and occupational health in the United States were identified primarily through a MEDLINE search. Inceptions, processes, methods, and outcomes of the projects were reviewed. Results In fourteen of the twenty studies reviewed, CBPR led to community-level action to improve the health and well-being of the community members. Observational studies that investigated problems posed by the affected community and that incorporated qualitative methods were more likely to lead to action. The collaboration among government scientists, university researchers, and community partners emerged as a new model of CBPR partnerships that effectively integrates research and action. Conclusions To help CBPR better integrate research and action, a shift towards community-initiated and action-oriented observational studies might be needed. PMID:18621950

  20. Is the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Actions Enough to Describe Nursing Actions?

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the applicability of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Reference terminology model (RTM) for nursing action to describe Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs) for nursing action. All verb and target terms were mapped to 'Action' and 'Target' category of RTM for nursing actions. Among 72 attributes qualifying the verb terms, 50 attributes were mapped to Means, Route, Timing, or Site categories of the nursing action model. Among 142 attributes qualifying the target terms, 20 attributes were mapped to Means, Timing, or Site categories of the nursing action model and 6 attributes were mapped to Degree or Judgment categories of the nursing diagnosis model. The findings suggest the need for an integrated RTM for nursing.

  1. Power and action in critical theory across disciplines: implications for critical community psychology.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Heather; Evans, Scot; Ganote, Cynthia; Henrickson, Jorie; Jacobs-Priebe, Lynette; Jones, Diana L; Prilleltensky, Isaac; Riemer, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    Although critical scholarship and community psychology share similar aspirations, the links between them remain unexplored and under-theorized. In this article we explore the implications of critical scholarship in various specialties for the field of community psychology. To understand the contributions of critical scholarship to a theory of power and action for social change, we conducted a systematic analysis of a ten-year period of publications in seven journals associated with the critical scholarship tradition. We created precise criteria for the concepts of power and action and applied them to the publications. Results indicate an interesting paradox at play. Whereas community psychology is more action oriented than critical scholarship, its actions fall short of challenging institutionalized power structures and the status quo; and whereas critical scholarship is more challenging of the status quo than community psychology in theory, it has failed to produce viable actions that challenge the status quo. We discuss the implications of this state of affairs for the development of a more critical community psychology.

  2. The Jeffrey Town Model for Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ivy Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The Jeffrey Town model for community development has been effectively applied to the rural community of Jeffrey Town in Jamaica with Information and Computer Technology (ICT) as a key element. The farmer's association is the vehicle that has driven the change. Included is a brief outline of the community plus highlights of the tangible and…

  3. Community Capacity and Resource Mapping: Model Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedrick, Angie; Mitchell, Graham

    This document explains the use of a model for mapping community capacity and resources that was developed by the community development office of a health group in Edmonton, Alberta, and applied in a collaborative pilot project in preparation for development of a community health plan. A brief discussion of the factors leading to development of the…

  4. Deconstructing an Online Community of Practice: Teachers' Actions in the Edmodo Math Subject Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust, Torrey

    2015-01-01

    New technologies seem to have expanded traditional face-to-face communities of practice across spatial and temporal boundaries into "online communities of practice." However, these virtual landscapes are significantly different from the context of face-to-face communities of practice that Lave and Wenger (1991) observed. This study…

  5. Visions along the Trail: Community Action and Visitor Employed Photography in Two Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Dorothy I.; Jenkins, Quentin A. L.

    Rural community development is undergoing changing visions, activities, and methodologies. Factors impacting this change include decentralization, budget reduction in the public sector, and globalization and downsizing in the private sector. Community "building" (community-generated change and emphasis on capacities rather than…

  6. Partnering to Reduce Environmental Hazards Through a Community-Based “Healthy Home Museum”:Education for Action

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Garrison, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Home environmental hazards can pose health threats, particularly to low-income children living in substandard housing. National agencies urge integrated treatment of such hazards; locally, however, home hazard reduction is often managed issue-by-issue. Helping diverse local groups understand the sources, health impacts, and solutions to home hazards is a critical first step toward action. Rochester's Healthy Home was a hands-on museum operated by a community-university partnership from 2006–2009 with the goal of supporting community members' and groups' efforts to address key environmental health hazards in high-risk housing. A secondary goal was to build connections between interest groups, government, and academic stakeholders to advance systems changes in support of environmental justice. Rochester's Healthy Home educated nearly 3,500 visitors about reducing home environmental hazards, served as a focal point for community action, and integrated over 30 local groups into the Healthy Home Partnership, which continues to meet regularly. Over 75% of visitors reported taking an action to improve their home's health following their visit. This hands-on and action-oriented training model generated attention and interest in replication in other cities. This collaboration showed that a collaboratively operated, interactive “healthy home museum” can build residents' capacity to reduce home health hazards while changing local policies and practices to sustainably promote healthier homes. PMID:25897345

  7. [Development of model communities (Cool Communities)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This report covers progress in the Cool Communities program and is intended to detail specific accomplishments during the year and to provide a limited amount of background information about the program and its progress over the past three years. The Cool Communities project is driven by local partnerships among business, citizens, government, and guided by a Local Advisory Committee of representatives from these organizations. A national overview of the program is given in the first section. The second section describes specific accomplishments in each of the model communities in Dade County, Atlanta, Frederick, Tucson, Springfield, Austin, and the Davis Monthan Air Force Base.

  8. Remedial action selection using groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, B.I.; Parish, G.B.; Hauge, L.

    1996-12-31

    An environmental investigation uncovered petroleum contamination at a gasoline station in southern Wisconsin. The site was located in part of the ancestral Rock River valley in Rock County, Wisconsin where the valley is filled with sands and gravels. Groundwater pump tests were conducted for determination of aquifer properties needed to plan a remediation system; the results were indicative of a very high hydraulic conductivity. The site hydrogeology was modeled using the U.S. Geological Survey`s groundwater model, Modflow. The calibrated model was used to determine the number, pumping rate, and configuration of recovery wells to remediate the site. The most effective configuration was three wells pumping at 303 liters per minute (1/m) (80 gallons per minute (gpm)), producing a total pumping rate of 908 l/m (240 gpm). Treating 908 l/min (240 gpm) or 1,308,240 liters per day (345,600 gallons per day) constituted a significant volume to be treated and discharged. It was estimated that pumping for the two year remediation would cost $375,000 while the air sparging would cost $200,000. The recommended remedial system consisted of eight air sparging wells and four vapor recovery laterals. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) approved the remedial action plan in March, 1993. After 11 months of effective operation the concentrations of removed VOCs had decreased by 94 percent and groundwater sampling indicated no detectable concentrations of gasoline contaminants. Groundwater modeling was an effective technique to determine the economic feasibility of a groundwater remedial alternative.

  9. Community Health Workers-Promotores de Salud in Mexico: History and Potential for Building Effective Community Actions.

    PubMed

    Balcazar, Hector; Perez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Izeta, Ericka Escalante; Villanueva, Maria Angeles

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a historical perspective combining 3 illustrative examples of the origins of the community health worker (CHW) model in Mexico, as a community-based participatory strategy. Three examples were identified from the sparse literature about CHWs in Mexico emphasizing their key roles and functions in various community settings. The CHW models illustrate what is known of training-development and planning, implementation, and evaluation of the CHWs model in different settings addressing cardiovascular disease and risk factors. The potential exists for integrating CHW projects to expand the health promotion model with new emphasis on municipality and regional participation.

  10. Ethical dilemmas in participatory action research: a case study from the disability community.

    PubMed

    Minkler, Meredith; Fadem, Pamela; Perry, Martha; Blum, Klaus; Moore, Leroy; Rogers, Judith

    2002-02-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a collaborative approach to inquiry for education and social change that is gaining increasing prominence in health education. This case study explores the use of PAR by and with a community of people with disabilities in addressing a polarizing issue in that community: death with dignity or physician-assisted suicide legislation. Following a brief review of the debate within the community about this issue and the goals, methods, and findings of this project, the authors examine four key ethical challenges. These are dilemmas in issue selection when the community is deeply divided over a problem area, inclusion and exclusion in study team makeup and sample selection, insider/outsider issues, and how best to use findings in ways that can unite and strengthen the community. The implications of these issues for health educators and others engaged in community-based PAR efforts are presented.

  11. Micro grants as a stimulus for community action in residential health programmes: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Plochg, T; Harting, J; Klazinga, N S; Stronks, K

    2009-09-01

    This paper aimed to explore the contribution of a micro grant financing scheme to community action in terms of residential health-promoting initiatives, interorganizational collaboration and public participation. The scheme was two-fold, consisting of (i) micro grants of 500-3500 Euros, which were easily obtainable by local organizations and (ii) neighbourhood health panels of community and health workers, functioning as a distributing mechanism. Data were collected using three methods: (i) observations of the neighbourhood-based health panels, (ii) in-depth interviews with policy-makers and professionals and (iii) analyses of documents and reports. This study demonstrated the three-fold role of micro grants as a vehicle to enable community action at an organizational level in terms of increased network activities between the local organizations, to set an agenda for the 'health topic' in non-traditional health agencies and to enable a number of health-promoting initiatives. Although these initiatives were attended by small groups of residents normally considered hard to reach, the actual public participation was limited. In their role as a distributing mechanism, the health panels were vital with regard to the achieved impact on the community action. However, certain limitations were also seen, which were related to the governance of the panels. This case study provides evidence to suggest that micro grants have the potential to stimulate community action at an organizational and a residential level, but with the prerequisite that grants be accompanied by increased investments in infrastructure.

  12. Performance Engineering in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, P; Mirin, A; Drake, J; Sawyer, W

    2006-05-30

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is the atmospheric component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and is the primary consumer of computer resources in typical CCSM simulations. Performance engineering has been an important aspect of CAM development throughout its existence. This paper briefly summarizes these efforts and their impacts over the past five years.

  13. Community and Videos: An Action Plan to Increase Success Rates in California Community College Developmental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Success rates in California community college developmental mathematics courses have hovered around 50% for decades. These gatekeeper courses have prevented many students from earning college degrees. Since community college is the starting point for the majority of California's potential college graduates and the majority of these students…

  14. Detecting communities in clustered networks based on group action on set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhanli; Jiang, Xin; Ma, Lili; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a well targeted algorithm (GAS algorithm) for detecting communities in high clustered networks by presenting group action technology on community division. During the processing of this algorithm, the underlying community structure of a clustered network emerges simultaneously as the corresponding partition of orbits by the permutation groups acting on the node set are achieved. As the derivation of the orbit partition, an algebraic structure r-cycle can be considered as the origin of the community. To be a priori estimation for the community structure of the algorithm, the community separability is introduced to indicate whether a network has distinct community structure. By executing the algorithm on several typical networks and the LFR benchmark, it shows that this GAS algorithm can detect communities accurately and effectively in high clustered networks. Furthermore, we compare the GAS algorithm and the clique percolation algorithm on the LFR benchmark. It is shown that the GAS algorithm is more accurate at detecting non-overlapping communities in clustered networks. It is suggested that algebraic techniques can uncover fresh light on detecting communities in complex networks.

  15. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-01-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  16. The Search Conference as a Method in Planning Community Health Promotion Actions

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Eva; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Wist, Guri; Weiss, Daniel; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives. Significance for public health This article describe and discuss how the Search conference can be used as a method when working with knowledge based health promotion actions in local communities. The article describe the sequences of the conference and shows how this have been adapted when planning and prioritizing health promotion actions in three Norwegian municipalities. The significance of the article is that it shows how central elements in the planning of health promotion actions, as participation and involvements as well as evidence was a fundamental thinking in how the conference were accomplished. The article continue discussing how the method function as both a top-down and a bottom-up strategy, and in what way working evidence based can be in conflict with a bottom-up strategy. The experiences described can be used as guidance planning knowledge based health promotion actions in communities. PMID:27747199

  17. An initial attempt at operationalizing and testing the Community Coalition Action Theory.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W

    2011-06-01

    The Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT) blends practice wisdom with empirical data to explain how community coalitions achieve community change and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of 20 California Healthy Cities and Communities coalitions to test relationships between coalition factors and outcomes as predicted by CCAT in two stages of coalition development. Data are from two rounds of coalition member surveys, interviews with local coalition coordinators, and semiannual progress reports. Consistent with CCAT predictions and prior research, shared decision making and leadership were correlated with participation; staff competence, task focus, and cohesion were correlated with member satisfaction. Coalition size was associated with participation and dollars leveraged. Also, consistent with CCAT, diversity of funding sources was associated with new leadership opportunities and program expansion; dollars leveraged was correlated with new leadership opportunities and new partners. Findings provide preliminary support for many, but not all, of the relationships predicted by CCAT.

  18. THE ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAM IN THE SOLUTION OF RURAL YOUTH MANPOWER PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILLIAMS, J. EARL

    SUBSTANTIAL POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS HAS BEEN CAUSED BY UNEMPLOYMENT DUE TO THE TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION WHICH HAS MECHANIZED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN THE EXCLUSIVE DOMAIN OF THE FARM LABORER. A WELL-ORGANIZED COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAM PROVIDES A MEANS OF EFFECTIVELY COMBATING THE RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT WHICH IS ESPECIALLY HIGH AMONG…

  19. Save Lives! Recommendations To Reduce Underage Access to Alcohol & Action Steps for Your Community. Update 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Each year thousands of young people are killed and injured in alcohol-related crashes. In 1992, Join Together, convened a national policy panel on underage drinking in direct response to communities' demands for action. This document is a product of the panel's findings. Section 1, Recommendations to Reduce Underage Access to Alcohol, made five…

  20. The DiabetAction Program: Implementation in Community-Based Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Brochu, Martin; Beliveau, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Developed for specialists who want to increase the physical activity (PA) level of type 2 diabetic and at-risk individuals, the 10-week DiabetAction program introduced participants to a wide variety of cardiovascular, resistance, balance, and flexibility exercises. Thirty-three of 48 individuals completed the intervention in community-based…

  1. Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work™ (Second Edition)-- Action Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solution Tree, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This action guide is intended to assist in the reading of and reflection upon "Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work, Second Edition" by Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour, Richard Eaker, and Thomas Many. The guide can be used by an individual, a small group, or an entire faculty to identify key points,…

  2. Using Participatory Analysis for Community Action: Idea Book. Information Collection and Exchange Publication No. M0086

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This idea book addresses key concepts in two earlier Peace Corps' publications, "Participatory Analysis for Community Action (PACA) Manual" [ICE No. M0053], and the "Gender and Development Training Manual" [ICE No. M0054]. These previous resources were large training manuals that introduced PACA to staff and Volunteers in the context of the Peace…

  3. COMMUNITIES IN ACTION, VOLUME 2, NUMBER 4, AUGUST-SEPTEMBER 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC. Community Action Program.

    THIS ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL, WHICH IS DEVOTED TO COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAMS, CONTAINS INTERVIEWS, INFORMAL REPORTS, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS MATERIAL ABOUT THE TYPES OF PROGRAMS WHICH HAVE BEEN INSTITUTED BY THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY (OEO) FOR THE DISADVANTAGED POPULATION IN THE LOWER EAST SIDE SECTION OF NEW YORK CITY, PARTICULARLY DURING THE…

  4. THE ROLE OF GUIDANCE SERVICES IN COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAMS COMBATING POVERTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GUIDANCE OBJECTIVES TO BE INCLUDED IN A COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAM COMBATING PROVERTY ARE PRESENTED. THE OBJECTIVES INCLUDE EARLY ADJUSTMENT OF STUDENTS, EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF ABILITIES, EDUCATIONAL AND CAREER PLANS BASED ON ABILITIES AND SKILLS, PARENT UNDERSTANDING OF OPPORTUNITIES, ENCOURAGEMENT OF REALISTIC GOALS IN LINE…

  5. A Community Organizes for Action: A Case Study of the Mon-Yough Region in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Robert W.; Chesler, Herbert A.

    This case study examines the development and problems of the Mon-Yough Community Action Committee, Inc. (MYCAC), one of the local anti-poverty agencies in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The agency's major effort is to overcome problems created by the decline of the local steel industry by supporting existing welfare agencies, and through such…

  6. Civic Participation and Community Action Sourcebook: A Resource for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Andy, Ed.

    This guide is a combination of very up-to-date English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) standards and curricula text and a radical, community organization and action guidebook. The guide's aim is to help people learn English so that they can participate actively in American democracy and to assert their rights and extract a larger share of power and…

  7. A Guide for Training Neighborhood Workers in a Community Action Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on Employment of Youth, New York, NY.

    One of a pair of publications prepared under contract with the Office of Economic Opportunity, this guide is designed to help trainers, administrators, and other Community Action Agency staff prepare themselves and their agencies for the recruitment, selection, training, and supervision of neighborhood workers. Topics covered include developing an…

  8. Community Service and University Roles: An Action Research Based on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    This study employs action research to develop community service through university roles by applying the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to fulfill villagers' way of life. Participatory learning, seminar, field trip and supervision were employed for strategic plan. Data were collected by participatory…

  9. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  10. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  11. "Raising the Point!": An Artistic Approach in Supporting a Community's Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the notion of action and personal agency. The author discusses his experiences constructing an arts installation that supported a grassroots effort to revitalize Hunts Point, a community in the South Bronx that is home to 11,000 families, eighteen waste transfer stations, 40% of New York City's sewage, all of the Bronx's…

  12. Community College Strategies: Creating a Culture of Action Using Mission-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, John J.; McDoniel, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how St. Louis Community College has created a culture of action using mission-based assessment. By directly linking assessment processes to mission areas such as transfer education, the college has created a central, unifying theme for assessment. Because the mission is everyone's business, assessment in turn becomes…

  13. Locating Community Action Outreach Projects in the Scholarship of Media Literacy Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares frameworks in recent critical media literacy scholarship with trends found in eight semesters of media literacy community action outreach assignments to explore how these frameworks can function as curricular tools for media literacy practitioners. Besides potential tools for media literacy pedagogy, this examination of recent…

  14. Seven Action Plans for Tightening School-Community Connections: A Roll-Up-Your Sleeves Series for Home, School, and Community Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Describes the School-Community Connection Conference held in Flint (Michigan) on October 11-13, 1992, and the action plans that seven participating schools devised to improve the relationship between schools and their communities. The conference paired representatives from the state departments of education with school-based action teams to…

  15. Processing Community Model Output: An Approach to Community Accessibility (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, D.; Haley, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. The major components are models of the atmosphere, land, ocean and sea-ice. In both the development and production phases, the model output must be analyzed by developers and a diverse community of climate researchers. To facilitate community accessibility to the data, two decisions were made: (a) each component model would archive results in netCDF format (b) a supported and portable software analysis tool would be made available. NetCDF (network Common Data Format) is a set of software libraries and machine-independent data formats that support the creation, access, and sharing of array-oriented scientific data. It is available for a large variety of programming languages and many software tools can be used to manipulate and display data in netCDF files. After a 'competition' which included commercial and public domain software products, the NCAR Command Language (NCL) was selected as the 'official' analysis tool for CCSM analysis. NCL is a portable, supported software product for file handling, computations and high-quality graphics. Subsequently, a development team consisting of software engineers and scientists was created to collaborate to develop a tool capable of addressing the evolving and diverse needs of the climate modeling and observational research communities. The process of educating the user community about netCDF and NCL includes hundreds of online examples and numerous 'hands-on' workshops. The latter are held 3-to-5 times per year at NCAR and external locations.

  16. Project Northland high school interventions: community action to reduce adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Williams, C L; Komro, K A; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Forster, J L; Bernstein-Lachter, R; Pratt, L K; Dudovitz, B; Munson, K A; Farbakhsh, K; Finnegan, J; McGovern, P

    2000-02-01

    Project Northland is a randomized community trial initially implemented in 24 school districts and communities in northeastern Minnesota, with goals of delaying onset and reducing adolescent alcohol use using community-wide, multiyear, multiple interventions. The study targets the Class of 1998 from the 6th to 12th grades (1991-1998). The early adolescent phase of Project Northland has been completed, and reductions in the prevalence of alcohol use at the end of 8th grade were achieved. Phase II of Project Northland, targeting 11th- and 12th-grade students, uses five major strategies: (1) direct action community organizing methods to encourage citizens to reduce underage access to alcohol, (2) youth development involving high school students in youth action teams, (3) print media to support community organizing and youth action initiatives and communicate healthy norms about underage drinking (e.g., providing alcohol to minors is unacceptable), (4) parent education and involvement, and (5) a classroom-based curriculum for 11th-grade students. This article describes the background, design, implementation, and process measures of the intervention strategies for Phase II of Project Northland.

  17. Participatory action research: community diagnosis and intervention in controlling urinary schistosomiasis in an urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olaseha, I O; Sridhar, M K C

    Schistosomiasis is second only to malaria and is endemic in Nigeria. It has been reported that the infection is more prevalent, irrespective of gender, in the age group 5 to 14 years. It is least among the age group 26 and 55 and occurs mostly in the rural areas in the country. The infection is spreading from the rural areas to various urban communities, particularly the agricultural and fishing populations. In Ibadan, capital of Oyo State in southwestern Nigeria where the focus of this study is made, the infection has been reported among children and adolescents in six Local Government Areas. Students of Advanced Diploma in Health Education (ADHE) of the Department of Health Promotion and Education, during a community diagnosis exercise among primary schools in two communities in Ibadan, met with this problem. The purpose of this study is to mobilize the affected communities, with both internal and external resources through a participatory-action process, to combat the infection which is one of their major problems. Since the providence of schistosomiasis in target communities is age related, investigations were concentrated in 17 Primary Schools in the two communities. The investigation involved laboratory confirmation by collecting 147 urine samples from a total population of 676 children and examining them microscopically for the schistosoma ova. In addition, the quality of stream water and their vector presence were assessed. The key intervention strategy used was community mobilization of both internal and external resources of targeted communities. The striking outcome of the intervention study is that the outbreak of schistosomiasis in the communities was formally reported to the Federal Ministry of Health and the Oyo State Ministry of Health. All infected pupils were treated, the long awaited water scheme to replace the broken pipes was completed, and two new water supply schemes were implemented by the communities. Further, the communities displayed sign

  18. Professional Learning Communities: Concepts in Action in a Principal Preparation Program, an Elementary School Team, a Leadership Team, and a Business Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servais, Kristine; Derrington, Mary Lynne; Sanders, Kellie

    2009-01-01

    The Professional Learning Community (PLC) model has moved to the forefront in the field of education as one of the most effective frameworks to improve student achievement and overall school success. The research conducted for this paper provides evidence for systemic and action based improvement using the PLC model in four diverse venues:…

  19. The Search Conference as a Method in Planning Community Health Promotion Actions.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Eva; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Wist, Guri; Weiss, Daniel; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-08-19

    Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives.

  20. Participatory action research in practice: a case study in addressing domestic violence in nine cultural communities.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne; Bhuyan, Rupaleem; Senturia, Kirsten; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Ciske, Sandy

    2005-08-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly recognized as a viable approach to developing relationships with communities and working closely with them to address complex public health problems. In the case of domestic violence research, where ensuring the safety of women participants who are battered is paramount, participatory approaches to research that include advocates and women who are battered in research design, implementation, analysis, and dissemination are critical to successful and mutually beneficial projects. This article presents a case study of a PAR project that conducted formative qualitative research on domestic violence in nine ethnic and sexual minority communities. The article describes the specific ways in which a PAR approach was operationalized and discusses in detail how community participation shaped various stages of the research. Furthermore, specific actions that resulted from the research project are reported.

  1. Small Business Training Models for Community Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellison, Holly M., Ed.

    Nine successful community college programs for small business management training are described in this report in terms of their college and economic context, purpose, offerings, delivery modes, operating and marketing strategies, community outreach, support services, faculty and staff, evaluation, and future directions. The model programs are…

  2. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are effect indicators that reflect the operation of a latent variable scale. We identify the issues when effect and causal indicators are present in a single analysis and conclude that both types of indicators can be incorporated in the analysis of data based on the reasoned action approach.

  3. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are effect indicators that reflect the operation of a latent variable scale. We identify the issues when effect and causal indicators are present in a single analysis and conclude that both types of indicators can be incorporated in the analysis of data based on the reasoned action approach. PMID:23243315

  4. Modeling Healthy Behavior: Actions and Attitudes in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Judy C.; Breighner, Kathryn W.

    This book notes that much of what children and adolescents know about life they learn from watching adult role models: teachers, parents, coaches, and clergy members. It was written to help adults examine their health-related beliefs and actions and evaluate how they model these beliefs and actions, consciously and unconsciously, to children. The…

  5. Visual Methodologies in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: Using Photography, Video, and New Media to Engage Communities in Research and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalani, Caricia Eleanora Celebes

    2009-01-01

    The challenges facing public health today are too vast, complex, and urgent to be met by public health professionals alone. To improve the health and wellbeing of diverse communities around the globe, public health leaders are developing tools that engage communities in research and action, most particularly community-based participatory research…

  6. Using the Community Readiness Model to select communities for a community-wide obesity prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Sarah; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Clark, Valerie; Collins, Jessica; Edwards, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond R; Junot, Bridgid; Nahar, Elizabeth; Nelson, Miriam E; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D

    2011-11-01

    To build on a growing interest in community-based obesity prevention programs, methods are needed for matching intervention strategies to local needs and assets. We used the Community Readiness Model (CRM), a structured interview guide and scoring system, to assess community readiness to act on childhood obesity prevention, furthering a replication study of a successful intervention. Using the CRM protocol, we conducted interviews with 4 stakeholders in each of 10 communities of similar size, socioeconomic status, and perceived readiness to implement a community-wide obesity prevention intervention. Communities were in California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. The 4 stakeholders were the mayor or city manager, the school superintendent, the school food service director, and a community coalition representative. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed. Pairs of trained reviewers scored the transcriptions according to CRM protocol. The CRM assesses 9 stages of readiness for 6 dimensions: existing community efforts to prevent childhood obesity, community knowledge about the efforts, leadership, community climate, knowledge about the issue, and resources. We calculated an overall readiness score for each community from the dimension scores. Overall readiness scores ranged from 2.97 to 5.36 on the 9-point scale. The mean readiness score, 4.28 (SD, 0.68), corresponds with a "preplanning" level of readiness. Of the 6 dimensions, community climate varied the least (mean score, 3.11; SD, 0.64); leadership varied the most (mean score, 4.79; SD, 1.13). The CRM quantified a subjective concept, allowing for comparison among 10 communities. Dimension scores and qualitative data from interviews helped in the selection of 6 communities for a replication study.

  7. Internal Control Weaknesses Contributed to the Mismanagement and Misuse of Federal Funds at Selected Community Action Agencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-10

    poverty and aiding the poor . At the 12 community action agencies reviewed, GAO found that over $11 million of such funds was being mis- managed or misused...action programs to encourage inno- vative approaches to attacking the causes of poverty and to stimu- late communities to use available resources more...effectively to help the poor become self-sufficient. The Community Services Ad- ministration (CSA) is responsible for administering these programs at

  8. Modeling the Value of Strategic Actions in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Thevarajah, Dhushan; Webb, Ryan; Ferrall, Christopher; Dorris, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In learning models of strategic game play, an agent constructs a valuation (action value) over possible future choices as a function of past actions and rewards. Choices are then stochastic functions of these action values. Our goal is to uncover a neural signal that correlates with the action value posited by behavioral learning models. We measured activity from neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain region involved in planning saccadic eye movements, while monkeys performed two saccade tasks. In the strategic task, monkeys competed against a computer in a saccade version of the mixed-strategy game ”matching-pennies”. In the instructed task, saccades were elicited through explicit instruction rather than free choices. In both tasks neuronal activity and behavior were shaped by past actions and rewards with more recent events exerting a larger influence. Further, SC activity predicted upcoming choices during the strategic task and upcoming reaction times during the instructed task. Finally, we found that neuronal activity in both tasks correlated with an established learning model, the Experience Weighted Attraction model of action valuation (Camerer and Ho, 1999). Collectively, our results provide evidence that action values hypothesized by learning models are represented in the motor planning regions of the brain in a manner that could be used to select strategic actions. PMID:20161807

  9. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action

  10. Image, word, action: interpersonal dynamics in a photo-sharing community.

    PubMed

    Suler, John

    2008-10-01

    In online photo-sharing communities, the individual's expression of self and the relationships that evolve among members is determined by the kinds of images that are shared, by the words exchanged among members, and by interpersonal actions that do not specifically rely on images or text. This article examines the dynamics of personal expression via images in Flickr, including a proposed system for identifying the dimensions of imagistic communication and a discussion of the psychological meanings embedded in a sequence of images. It explores how photographers use text descriptors to supplement their images and how different types of comments on photographs influence interpersonal relationships. The "fav"--when members choose an image as one of their favorites--is examined as one type of action that can serve a variety of interpersonal functions. Although images play a powerful role in the expression of self, it is the integration of images, words, and actions that maximize the development of relationships.

  11. A continuous-time neural model for sequential action

    PubMed Central

    Kachergis, George; Wyatte, Dean; O'Reilly, Randall C.; de Kleijn, Roy; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Action selection, planning and execution are continuous processes that evolve over time, responding to perceptual feedback as well as evolving top-down constraints. Existing models of routine sequential action (e.g. coffee- or pancake-making) generally fall into one of two classes: hierarchical models that include hand-built task representations, or heterarchical models that must learn to represent hierarchy via temporal context, but thus far lack goal-orientedness. We present a biologically motivated model of the latter class that, because it is situated in the Leabra neural architecture, affords an opportunity to include both unsupervised and goal-directed learning mechanisms. Moreover, we embed this neurocomputational model in the theoretical framework of the theory of event coding (TEC), which posits that actions and perceptions share a common representation with bidirectional associations between the two. Thus, in this view, not only does perception select actions (along with task context), but actions are also used to generate perceptions (i.e. intended effects). We propose a neural model that implements TEC to carry out sequential action control in hierarchically structured tasks such as coffee-making. Unlike traditional feedforward discrete-time neural network models, which use static percepts to generate static outputs, our biological model accepts continuous-time inputs and likewise generates non-stationary outputs, making short-timescale dynamic predictions. PMID:25267830

  12. The Community Sediment Transport Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    addition to wave processes, the model includes the influence of flocculation, hindered settling, rheology, and turbulence -suppression by stratification...The extensive upwelling event occurred in March 2002 is better reproduced with evident appearance of submesoscale spiral eddies all over the inner...THE COMMUNITY SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODELING SYSTEM W. Rockwell Geyer Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution MS 11, Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone

  13. Modeling actions and operations to support mission preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, D. P.; Schreckenghost, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two linked technology development projects to support Space Shuttle ground operations personnel, both during mission preparation analysis and related analyses in missions. The Space Propulsion Robust Analysis Tool (SPRAT) will provide intelligent support and automation for mission analysis setup, interpretation, reporting and documentation. SPRAT models the actions taken by flight support personnel during mission preparation and uses this model to generate an action plan. CONFIG will provide intelligent automation for procedure analyses and failure impact analyses, by simulating the interactions between operations and systems with embedded failures. CONFIG models the actions taken by crew during space vehicle malfunctions and simulates how the planned action sequences in procedures affect a device model. Jointly the SPRAT and CONFIG projects provide an opportunity to investigate how the nature of a task affects the representation of actions, and to determine a more general action representation supporting a broad range of tasks. This paper describes the problems in representing actions for mission preparation and their relation to planning and scheduling.

  14. Models of Reality: Shaping Thought and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jacques, Ed.

    The 21 essays in this two-part book provide conceptual and operational understanding of the nature of models as representations of reality and as tools for description, analysis, interpretation, and forecasting. Topic areas addressed in part 1 (concept) include: the nature of models; the earth as a system; the determination of form; some…

  15. A Model of Microevolution in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Larry A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity to help students understand the precepts of the Hardy-Weinberg principle and simultaneously permit observation of a model of evolution through natural selection in a nonthreatening setting. (PR)

  16. Prevalence of clinically actionable genotypes and medication exposure of older adults in the community

    PubMed Central

    Daneshi, Nilofar; Holliday, Elizabeth; Hancock, Stephen; Schneider, Jennifer J; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Milward, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed clinically actionable pharmacogenotypes for clopidogrel, warfarin, statins, thiopurines, and tacrolimus using microarray data for 2121 participants (55–85 years) from the Australian Hunter Community Study (HCS). At least 74% of participants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72%–76%) had strong level evidence for at least one medium- or high-risk actionable genotype that would trigger a change in standard therapy under current international recommendations. About 14% of these participants (95% CI: 12%–16%) were taking medication potentially affected by the genotype in question. Furthermore, ~2.6% of all participants with medication data (95% CI: 1.4%–3.8%) had a high-risk clinically actionable genotype for a medication to which they were exposed. This represents a considerable number of people at the population level. Although relationships between genotype and health outcomes remain contentious, pharmacogenotyping of multiple variants simultaneously may have considerable potential to improve medication safety and efficacy for older people in the community. PMID:28203101

  17. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Cope with a Literacy Intervention Program in a Remote Indigenous Community? The Community Action Support Program in the Northern Territory, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a new community education initiative, Community Action Support (CAS) that helps facilitate learning in Indigenous young people from Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory. CAS is an innovative partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the University of Western Sydney. The core aim of the…

  18. Complete graph model for community detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng Gang; Sun, Xiya

    2017-04-01

    Community detection brings plenty of considerable problems, which has attracted more attention for many years. This paper develops a new framework, which tries to measure the interior and the exterior of a community based on a same metric, complete graph model. In particular, the exterior is modeled as a complete bipartite. We partition a network into subnetworks by maximizing the difference between the interior and the exterior of the subnetworks. In addition, we compare our approach with some state of the art methods on computer-generated networks based on the LFR benchmark as well as real-world networks. The experimental results indicate that our approach obtains better results for community detection, is capable of splitting irregular networks and achieves perfect results on the karate network and the dolphin network.

  19. Modelling Team Adversarial Actions in UAV Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Petri - nets to this formalism. In [10], extending the HD- automata as supporting model, the authors define a logic for dynamic creation and...modular mix of capabilities into basic units (e.g. Platoons , regiments, etc…); 2) modular and nested composition of groups of units; 3) patterns of command

  20. COMMUNITY SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration and movement for an urban air toxics control strategy is toward a community, exposure and risk-based modeling approach, with emphasis on assessments of areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This strategy will requir...

  1. Community and In-Home Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jennie Chin

    2008-01-01

    Providing and coordinating cost-effective, comprehensive care for older adults who want to remain in the community but need long-term assistance are serious challenges for families and professionals. Addressing these issues will require a redesign of the care delivery system. This article describes two successful models for working with older…

  2. The Celebration School: A Model Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishler, Richard E.; Vogel, Bobbi

    1996-01-01

    A model professional development school (PDS) serves Celebration, Florida, a planned community built by the Disney Corporation. The K-12 Celebration School resulted from cooperation among the Osceola County School District, Stetson University, and Disney. In this PDS, featuring multiage groupings and individualized instruction, students, staff,…

  3. Effective action for noncommutative Bianchi I model

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, M.; Vergara, J. D.; Minzoni, A. A.

    2013-06-12

    Quantum Mechanics, as a mini-superspace of Field Theory has been assumed to provide physically relevant information on quantum processes in Field Theory. In the case of Quantum Gravity this would imply using Cosmological models to investigate quantum processes at distances of the order of the Planck scale. However because of the Stone-von Neuman Theorem, it is well known that quantization of Cosmological models by the Wheeler-DeWitt procedure in the context of a Heisenberg-Weyl group with piecewise continuous parameters leads irremediably to a volume singularity. In order to avoid this information catastrophe it has been suggested recently the need to introduce in an effective theory of the quantization some form of reticulation in 3-space. On the other hand, since in the geometry of the General Relativistic formulation of Gravitation space can not be visualized as some underlying static manifold in which the physical system evolves, it would be interesting to investigate whether the effective reticulation which removes the singularity in such simple cosmologies as the Bianchi models has a dynamical origin manifested by a noncommutativity of the generators of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as would be expected from an operational point of view at the Planck length scale.

  4. Effective action for noncommutative Bianchi I model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, M.; Vergara, J. D.; Minzoni, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Quantum Mechanics, as a mini-superspace of Field Theory has been assumed to provide physically relevant information on quantum processes in Field Theory. In the case of Quantum Gravity this would imply using Cosmological models to investigate quantum processes at distances of the order of the Planck scale. However because of the Stone-von Neuman Theorem, it is well known that quantization of Cosmological models by the Wheeler-DeWitt procedure in the context of a Heisenberg-Weyl group with piecewise continuous parameters leads irremediably to a volume singularity. In order to avoid this information catastrophe it has been suggested recently the need to introduce in an effective theory of the quantization some form of reticulation in 3-space. On the other hand, since in the geometry of the General Relativistic formulation of Gravitation space can not be visualized as some underlying static manifold in which the physical system evolves, it would be interesting to investigate whether the effective reticulation which removes the singularity in such simple cosmologies as the Bianchi models has a dynamical origin manifested by a noncommutativity of the generators of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as would be expected from an operational point of view at the Planck length scale.

  5. Falls prevention training for community health workers: strategies and actions for independent living (SAIL).

    PubMed

    Scott, Victoria J; Votova, Kristine; Gallagher, Elaine

    2006-10-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental study on falls prevention for clients of home support services in British Columbia, Canada. The study tested a nurse-designed multifactorial intervention, delivered by community health workers. The intervention consisted of 1 day of falls surveillance and prevention training for 51 community health workers, followed by 6 months of evidence-based interventions with their clients (n = 70) using a pretested Checklist and Action Plan. Study findings showed a 43% reduction (chi2 = 8.742, p < .01) in falls and a 44% reduction (chi2 = 5.739, p < .05) for fallers (those who fell once or more) from the 6-month preintervention period to postintervention. The proportion of falls resulting in any injury did not decrease; however, fractures were reduced from seven in the 6-month preintervention period to one following the intervention. The results indicate this intervention is an effective and inexpensive falls prevention strategy for frail recipients of home support services.

  6. Citizen action for environmental health: report on a survey of community organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, N

    1984-01-01

    A convenience sample of 242 community organizations involved in environmental health issues was surveyed regarding each group's goals, activities, and problems. The 110 groups that replied identified 153 health-threatening hazards including toxic waste dumps, pesticide spraying, and air or water pollution. The most common health conditions which respondents attributed to these hazards were cancer, respiratory problems, birth defects, and reproductive difficulties. The goal identified most frequently was the correction of the specific hazard facing their community. To achieve this aim, groups engaged in a variety of activities including research, public education, demonstrations, lobbying, and legal action. Most groups reported extensive and helpful interactions with scientists or health professionals. Respondents reported problems in obtaining information from local health officials, other government agencies, and industry. A majority of the groups rated their efforts at environmental health protection as being very or somewhat successful. The implications of these findings for local health officials are discussed. PMID:6711717

  7. Health, Traffic, and Environmental Justice: Collaborative Research and Community Action in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    Sciammas, Charlie; Seto, Edmund; Bhatia, Rajiv; Rivard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Health impacts on neighborhood residents from transportation systems can be an environmental justice issue. To assess the effects of transportation planning decisions, including the construction of an intraurban freeway, on residents of the Excelsior neighborhood in southeast San Francisco, PODER (People Organizing to Demand Environmental and Economic Rights), a local grassroots environmental justice organization; the San Francisco Department of Public Health; and the University of California, Berkeley, collaborated on participatory research. We used our findings regarding traffic-related exposures and health hazards in the area to facilitate community education and action to address transportation-related health burdens on neighborhood residents. PMID:19890147

  8. The Confluence of Race, Gender, and Class among Community College Students: Assessing Attitudes toward Affirmative Action in College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of baccalaureate aspiring community college students with regard to affirmative action in college admissions. Using data from UCLA's Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Annual Freshman Year Survey, the study assessed determinants of approval or disapproval of affirmative action for 20,339 community…

  9. Implementing Action Research and Professional Learning Communities in a Professional Development School Setting to Support Teacher Candidate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…

  10. Gauge invariant actions for string models

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, T.

    1986-06-01

    String models of unified interactions are elegant sets of Feynman rules for the scattering of gravitons, gauge bosons, and a host of massive excitations. The purpose of these lectures is to describe the progress towards a nonperturbative formulation of the theory. Such a formulation should make the geometrical meaning of string theory manifest and explain the many ''miracles'' exhibited by the string Feynman rules. There are some new results on gauge invariant observables, on the cosmological constant, and on the symmetries of interacting string field theory. 49 refs.

  11. Rethinking nursing best practices with aboriginal communities: informing dialogue and action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn; Edwards, Nancy; Peterson, Wendy; Jaglarz, Maria; Laplante, Dorothy; Estable, Alma

    2010-01-01

    This paper stems from findings of a literature review and consultation with key informants to explore nursing best practices in public health with rural and isolated Aboriginal communities. It summarizes background information on population distribution, the impact of colonization on Aboriginal health and the potential benefits for nurses and communities in adopting a partnership approach, rather than risking cultural imposition while applying best practices and knowledge derived from the dominant culture. The authors provide an alternative working definition for best practices in the context of public health nursing with Aboriginal communities based on findings from the literature review and key informant consultations. Findings include three principles for the development and assessment of nursing best practices with isolated Aboriginal communities: use of indigenous frameworks, capacity building and cultural safety. The discussion highlights examples that demonstrate the feasibility and strengths of these three principles across a selection of isolated, rural and national settings. Implications include a call for nursing leaders, managers and policy makers to take up this challenge and support wider dialogue and action to enable nursing practice that supports the efforts of Aboriginal people to improve health and social conditions.

  12. "Ordinary men" or "evil monsters"? An action systems model of genocidal actions and characteristics of perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Hollows, Kerrilee; Fritzon, Katarina

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to address the limitations of the existing genocide literature with the development of an empirically based classification system. Using Shye's (1985) action systems model, it was hypothesized that four types of perpetrators would exist and would be distinguishable by differences in the sources and target of individual criminal actions. Court transcripts from 80 perpetrators sentenced by the international courts were subject to content analysis and revealed 39 offense action variables, 17 perpetrator characteristic variables, and 6 perpetrator motive variables. A smallest space analysis using the Jaccard coefficient of association was conducted on the offense variables. The results supported the proposed framework, producing four distinct types of genocidal perpetrators. Correlational analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between each of the perpetrator types and the remaining variables. The results of those correlations provided further support for the proposed framework. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. A computational model of perception and action for cognitive robotics.

    PubMed

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    Robots are increasingly expected to perform tasks in complex environments. To this end, engineers provide them with processing architectures that are based on models of human information processing. In contrast to traditional models, where information processing is typically set up in stages (i.e., from perception to cognition to action), it is increasingly acknowledged by psychologists and robot engineers that perception and action are parts of an interactive and integrated process. In this paper, we present HiTEC, a novel computational (cognitive) model that allows for direct interaction between perception and action as well as for cognitive control, demonstrated by task-related attentional influences. Simulation results show that key behavioral studies can be readily replicated. Three processing aspects of HiTEC are stressed for their importance for cognitive robotics: (1) ideomotor learning of action control, (2) the influence of task context and attention on perception, action planning, and learning, and (3) the interaction between perception and action planning. Implications for the design of cognitive robotics are discussed.

  14. Toward a Shift in Expectations and Values: What We've Learned from Collaborative Action Research in Northern Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelly Stagg; Horton, Laura; Restoule, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose that collaborative action research values, goals and practices have much in common with guiding principles for conducting research with educators and community members in First Nation, Inuit and Metis communities, as outlined in the Task Force on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures'…

  15. Using Action Research to Stimulate Organisational Change within Health Services: Experiences from Two Community-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Helen; Lathlean, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The relevance of action research to organisational change within contemporary health services in the United Kingdom is discussed in this article. Two examples of collaborative community-based studies are presented: one exploring ways to encourage community participation within a health and regeneration programme and the other considering the types…

  16. Give Water a Hand. Leader Guidebook. Youth Action Program. Promoting Good Water Management Practices at Home and in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Educators of students grades 4-8 can use this guide to lead a community service project using the "Give Water a Hand" youth action program. Youth groups investigate water and water conservation within the home, farm, ranch, school, or community, with the help of local experts. The guide contains six chapters that cover: (1) an…

  17. Taking Research into Schools: The West Lothian Action Enquiry Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnie, Lynne M.; Allen, Kristen; Beck, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the efforts of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) to develop its practice in the area of research. It will argue that the Action Enquiry model of service delivery can empower teaching staff and may allow an effective means of change and improvement to take place in schools. This model steers research towards providing…

  18. Integrating Community Expertise into the Academy: South Los Angeles’ Community-Academic Model for Partnered Research

    PubMed Central

    del Pino, Homero E.; Jones, Loretta; Forge, Nell; Martins, David; Morris, D’Ann; Wolf, Kenneth; Baker, Richard; Lucas-Wright, Anna Aziza; Jones, Andrea; Richlin, Laurie; Norris, Keith C.

    2016-01-01

    The Problem Charles R. Drew University (CDU) and community partners wanted to create a structure to transcend traditional community–academic partnerships. They wanted community leaders integrated into CDU’s research goals and education of medical professionals. Purpose of Article To explain the establishment of the Community Faculty Program, a new model of community–academic partnership that integrates community and academic knowledge. Key Points Using CBPR principles, CDU and community partners re-conceptualized the faculty appointment process and established the Division of Community Engagement (DCE). CDU initially offered academic appointments to nine community leaders. Community Faculty contributes to CDU’s governance, education, research, and publication goals. This model engaged communities in translational research and transformed the education of future healthcare professionals. Conclusion The Community Faculty Program is a new vision of partnership. Using a CBPR approach with committed partners, a Community Faculty Program can be created that embodies the values of both the community and the academy. PMID:27346780

  19. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high

  20. National Black Nurses Association community collaboration model.

    PubMed

    Bolton, L B; Georges, C A

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the National Black Nurses Association was awarded a contract from the Division of Nursing, United States Department of Health and Human Services to develop a community education program addressing eight Healthy People 2000 objectives. Healthy People 2000 is the United States Public Health Services's statement of national priorities for improving the health of all Americans. It provides a framework to reduce preventable deaths and disabilities, and equalize disparities in health status for specific populations. The NBNA Board of Directors chose to address five priority areas: infant mortality, HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and recruitment and retention of Blacks in nursing. For each area, specific nursing responsibilities were identified: health promotion, health protection, disease prevention, preventive clinical services, and surveillance and data requirements. The authors developed a model for implementation of the NBNA's Healthy America Report recommendations. The model and data from program implementation are presented with commentary on the efficacy of community partnership models to achieve preventive health goals.

  1. Effectiveness and sustainability of remedial actions for land restoration in Abeokuta urban communities, Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawal-Adebowale, Okanlade

    2016-04-01

    Land as a major collective human property faces a great deal of threats and eventual degradation from both natural and human causal factors across the globe. But for the central role of land in human's sustenance and quality living, man cannot afford to lose its natural asset and as such takes mitigating or remedial actions to save and restore his land for sustainable use. In view of this, the study assessed the causal factors of land degradation in urban areas of Abeokuta and effectiveness and sustainability of the taken remedial actions to stem the tide of land degradation in the study area. The selected communities were purposively selected based on the observed prevalence of degraded lands in the areas. A qualitative research approach which encompasses observational techniques - participant/field observation, interactive discussion and photographic capturing, was used for collection of data on land degradation in the study area. A combination of phenomenological, inductive thematic analysis and conversation/discourse analysis was employed for data analysis. The results showed land gradients/slopes, rainfall, run-offs/erosion, land-entrenched foot impacts, sand scraping/mining, poor/absence of drainage system and land covers as causal factors of land degradation in the study area. The employed remedial actions for restoration of degraded land included filling of drenches with sand bags, wood logs, bricks and stones, and sand filling. The study though observed that filling of drenches caused by erosion with rubles/stones and construction of drainage were effective remedial actions, good drainage system was presumed to be the most appropriate and sustainable remedial action for land restoration in the study area.

  2. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control

    PubMed Central

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or ‘model-based’ choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour. PMID:25267822

  3. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control.

    PubMed

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-11-05

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or 'model-based' choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour.

  4. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  5. Validation of Space Weather Models at Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Hesse, M.; Chulaki, A.; Maddox, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multiagency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather modes. CCMC goal is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase space weather modeling capabilities and to facilitate advanced models deployment in forecasting operations. The CCMC conducts unbiased model testing and validation and evaluates model readiness for operational environment. The presentation will demonstrate the recent progress in CCMC metrics and validation activities.

  6. Microbial Community Metabolic Modeling: A Community Data-Driven Network Reconstruction: COMMUNITY DATA-DRIVEN METABOLIC NETWORK MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Christopher S.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; Taylor, Ronald C.; Lee, Joon-Yong; Zucker, Jeremy; Song, Hyun-Seob

    2016-06-02

    Metabolic network modeling of microbial communities provides an in-depth understanding of community-wide metabolic and regulatory processes. Compared to single organism analyses, community metabolic network modeling is more complex because it needs to account for interspecies interactions. To date, most approaches focus on reconstruction of high-quality individual networks so that, when combined, they can predict community behaviors as a result of interspecies interactions. However, this conventional method becomes ineffective for communities whose members are not well characterized and cannot be experimentally interrogated in isolation. Here, we tested a new approach that uses community-level data as a critical input for the network reconstruction process. This method focuses on directly predicting interspecies metabolic interactions in a community, when axenic information is insufficient. We validated our method through the case study of a bacterial photoautotroph-heterotroph consortium that was used to provide data needed for a community-level metabolic network reconstruction. Resulting simulations provided experimentally validated predictions of how a photoautotrophic cyanobacterium supports the growth of an obligate heterotrophic species by providing organic carbon and nitrogen sources.

  7. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    PubMed

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented.

  8. Community Mobilization Model Applied to Support Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jacque; Bruce, Ann; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly; Fruhauf, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the application of a community mobilization model through a case study of one community's response to address the needs of grandparents raising grandchildren. The community mobilization model presented is one that is replicable in addressing diverse community identified issues. Discussed is the building of the partnerships,…

  9. Opening Data in the Long Tail for Community Discovery, Curation and Action Using Active and Social Curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedstrom, M. L.; Kumar, P.; Myers, J.; Plale, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    In data science, the most common sequence of steps for data curation are to 1) curate data, 2) enable data discovery, and 3) provide for data reuse. The Sustainable Environments - Actionable Data (SEAD) project, funded through NSF's DataNet program, is creating an environment for sustainability scientists to discover data first, reuse data next, and curate data though an on-going process that we call Active and Social Curation. For active curation we are developing tools and services that support data discovery, data management, and data enhancement for the community while the data is still being used actively for research. We are creating an Active Content Repository, using drop box, semantic web technologies, and a Flickr-like interface for researchers to "drop" data into a repository where it will be replicated and minimally discoverable. For social curation, we are deploying a social networking tool, VIVO, which will allow researchers to discover data-publications-people (e.g. expertise) through a route that can start at any of those entry points. The other dimension of social curation is developing mechanisms to open data for community input, for example, using ranking and commenting mechanisms for data sets and a community-sourcing capability to add tags, clean up and validate data sets. SEAD's strategies and services are aimed at the sustainability science community, which faces numerous challenges including discovery of useful data, cleaning noisy observational data, synthesizing data of different types, defining appropriate models, managing and preserving their research data, and conveying holistic results to colleagues, students, decision makers, and the public. Sustainability researchers make significant use of centrally managed data from satellites and national sensor networks, national scientific and statistical agencies, and data archives. At the same time, locally collected data and custom derived data products that combine observations and

  10. Typologizing School-Community Partnerships: A Framework for Analysis and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valli, Linda; Stefanski, Amanda; Jacobson, Reuben

    2016-01-01

    School-community partnerships are currently in the forefront of place-based urban reform efforts. But the literature on these partnerships indicates a variety of models that require different commitments and resources. Through a close review of the literature, we developed a typology of four partnership categories organized from the least to the…

  11. Action Research on the Development of Chinese Communication in a Virtual Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Joni Tzuchen; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if language acquisition can occur in a virtual situation in the absence of explicit instruction. After spending 1 year establishing a virtual community, the authors observed and analyzed interpersonal interactions and the development of Chinese communication competence, communication models, and interaction…

  12. How does community context influence coalitions in the formation stage? a multiple case study based on the Community Coalition Action Theory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Community coalitions are rooted in complex and dynamic community systems. Despite recognition that environmental factors affect coalition behavior, few studies have examined how community context impacts coalition formation. Using the Community Coalition Action theory as an organizing framework, the current study employs multiple case study methodology to examine how five domains of community context affect coalitions in the formation stage of coalition development. Domains are history of collaboration, geography, community demographics and economic conditions, community politics and history, and community norms and values. Methods Data were from 8 sites that participated in an evaluation of a healthy cities and communities initiative in California. Twenty-three focus groups were conducted with coalition members, and 76 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local coordinators and coalition leaders. Cross-site analyses were conducted to identify the ways contextual domains influenced selection of the lead agency, coalition membership, staffing and leadership, and coalition processes and structures. Results History of collaboration influenced all four coalition factors examined, from lead agency selection to coalition structure. Geography influenced coalition formation largely through membership and staffing, whereas the demographic and economic makeup of the community had an impact on coalition membership, staffing, and infrastructure for coalition processes. The influence of community politics, history, norms and values was most noticeable on coalition membership. Conclusions Findings contribute to an ecologic and theory-based understanding of the range of ways community context influences coalitions in their formative stage. PMID:20178633

  13. Shocking a community into action: a social marketing approach to cardiac arrests.

    PubMed

    Ragin, Deborah Fish; Holohan, Jennifer A; Ricci, Edmund M; Grant, Chelsea; Richardson, Lynne D

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing techniques have enhanced the success of programs designed to improve the health outcomes of individuals or communities when adopting new health behaviors. Current research suggests, however, that behavior change models, when added to social marketing techniques, could result in even greater success in changing health behaviors and health outcomes. This retrospective analysis of the results of a Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) Trial, designed to improve a community's response to cardiac arrest, tests this proposition. Data from one of the 24 participating PAD Trial sites were analyzed and interpreted from a social marketing and behavior change model perspective, to assess the success in changing a community's response to cardiac arrest victims in 61 residential buildings that participated in the PAD Trial in New York City (NYC). The findings suggest that to improve the success of community-based, emergency response systems to cardiac arrest victims, health programs must first assess the community's awareness of the health problem and their willingness to change behaviors before designing and implementing social marketing programs for health behavior change.

  14. Model-based source localization of extracellular action potentials.

    PubMed

    Somogyvári, Zoltán; Zalányi, László; Ulbert, István; Erdi, Péter

    2005-09-30

    A new model-based analysis method was set up for revealing information encrypted in extracellular spatial potential patterns of neocortical action potentials. Spikes were measured by extracellular linear multiple microelectrode in vivo cat's primary auditory cortex and were analyzed based on current source density (CSD) distribution models. Validity of the monopole and other point source approximations were tested on the measured potential patterns by numerical fitting. We have found, that point source models could not provide accurate description of the measured patterns. We introduced a new model of the CSD distribution on a spiking cell, called counter-current model (CCM). This new model was shown to provide better description of the spatial current distribution of the cell during the initial negative deflection of the extracellular action potential, from the onset of the spike to the negative peak. The new model was tested on simulated extracellular potentials. We proved numerically, that all the parameters of the model could be determined accurately based on measurements. Thus, fitting of the CCM allowed extraction of these parameters from the measurements. Due to model fitting, CSD could be calculated with much higher accuracy as done with the traditional method because distance dependence of the spatial potential patterns was explicitly taken into consideration in our method. Average CSD distribution of the neocortical action potentials was calculated and spatial decay constant of the dendritic trees was determined by applying our new method.

  15. Community participation for transformative action on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Global strategy for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health (2016–2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals. PMID:27152056

  16. Community participation for transformative action on women's, children's and adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda

    2016-05-01

    The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals.

  17. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  18. How community action, science and common sense can work together to develop an alternative way to combat desertification.

    PubMed

    Bethune, Shirley; Schachtschneider, Klaudia

    2004-12-01

    The Spitzkoppe Community Campsite in western Namibia lies in an area with very limited water resources. Water scarcity places a constraint on community income generation and development opportunities. The existing water resources are overexploited and to ensure future water security, the community must take sustainable water management into consideration in their daily lives and business ventures, including tourism. This has been successfully achieved at the Spitzkoppe Community Campsite through a combination of high community motivation, organisation and action, the involvement of researchers and trainers in water resource management and support from developers. The most appropriate water management solutions were found through ongoing practical testing of different strategies and technologies over two years. This paper presents a case study of a community-based tourist camp at Spitzkoppe and traces the community's progress towards developing an alternative way to combat desertification and a potentially lucrative tourist business.

  19. The social and cultural context of coping: action, gender and symptoms in a southern black community.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    1985-01-01

    Research was conducted on the relationships of coping styles, chronic economic stressors and symptoms of distress in a black community in the rural South. It was found that the effect of an active coping style in moderating the effects of stressors was different for males and females. For females, active coping buffered the effects of stressors; for males, active coping exacerbated the effects of stressors. These results are consistent with the social and cultural context of the community, and with cultural norms governing gender roles within the community. This study demonstrates the need to systematically incorporate cultural and social structural factors in models of the stress process. Cultural norms and structural constraints interact to systematically alter the meaning of different factors in the stress process and in turn alter the effects of those factors on health.

  20. Partnering the University Field Experience Research Model with Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Donna; Painter, Diane D.

    This paper presents a collaborative action research partnership model that involved participation by graduate school of education preservice students, school and university teachers, and administrators. An elementary teacher-research group investigated what would happen when fourth graders worked in teams to research and produce a multimedia…

  1. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  2. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  3. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  4. Improving Community-Based Mental Health Care for Children: Translating Knowledge into Action

    PubMed Central

    Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Trask, Emily; Fawley-King, Kya

    2013-01-01

    There is urgent need for improvement in community-based mental health care for children and families. Multiple studies have documented serious limitations in the effectiveness of “usual care.” Fortunately, many empirically-supported strategies to improve care have been developed, and thus there is now a great deal of knowledge available to address this significant public health problem. The goal of this selective review is to highlight and synthesize that empirically-supported knowledge to stimulate and facilitate the needed translation of knowledge into action. The review provides a sound foundation for constructing improved services by consolidating descriptive data on the status quo in children’s mental health care, as well as evidence for an array of promising strategies to improve (a) Service access and engagement; (b) Delivery of evidence-based practices; and (c) Outcome accountability. A multi-level framework is used to highlight recommended care improvement targets. PMID:23212902

  5. Groundwater modeling in RCRA assessment, corrective action design and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rybak, I.; Henley, W.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater modeling was conducted to design, implement, modify, and terminate corrective action at several RCRA sites in EPA Region 4. Groundwater flow, contaminant transport and unsaturated zone air flow models were used depending on the complexity of the site and the corrective action objectives. Software used included Modflow, Modpath, Quickflow, Bioplume 2, and AIR3D. Site assessment data, such as aquifer properties, site description, and surface water characteristics for each facility were used in constructing the models and designing the remedial systems. Modeling, in turn, specified additional site assessment data requirements for the remedial system design. The specific purpose of computer modeling is discussed with several case studies. These consist, among others, of the following: evaluation of the mechanism of the aquifer system and selection of a cost effective remedial option, evaluation of the capture zone of a pumping system, prediction of the system performance for different and difficult hydrogeologic settings, evaluation of the system performance, and trouble-shooting for the remedial system operation. Modeling is presented as a useful tool for corrective action system design, performance, evaluation, and trouble-shooting. The case studies exemplified the integration of diverse data sources, understanding the mechanism of the aquifer system, and evaluation of the performance of alternative remediation systems in a cost-effective manner. Pollutants of concern include metals and PAHs.

  6. A Development Center Through the Community Based Programming Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Donald L.; Wood, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the development of a leadership-training center at James Sprunt Community College. A community-based programming (CBP) model was followed to encourage community input, support, and participation in the process. CBP is recommended as a way for other colleges to collaborate with their communities on issue definition and resolution. (VWC)

  7. Using extracellular action potential recordings to constrain compartmental models.

    PubMed

    Gold, Carl; Henze, Darrell A; Koch, Christof

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the use of extracellular action potential (EAP) recordings for biophysically faithful compartmental models. We ask whether constraining a model to fit the EAP is superior to matching the intracellular action potential (IAP). In agreement with previous studies, we find that the IAP method under-constrains the parameters. As a result, significantly different sets of parameters can have virtually identical IAP's. In contrast, the EAP method results in a much tighter constraint. We find that the distinguishing characteristics of the waveform--but not its amplitude-resulting from the distribution of active conductances are fairly invariant to changes of electrode position and detailed cellular morphology. Based on these results, we conclude that EAP recordings are an excellent source of data for the purpose of constraining compartmental models.

  8. Validation of Space Weather Models at Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Berrios, D.; Zheng, Y.; MacNeice, P. J.; Shim, J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase space weather modeling capabilities and to facilitate advanced models deployment in forecasting operations. Space weather models and coupled model chains hosted at the CCMC range from the solar corona to the Earth's upper atmosphere. CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as a large number of modeling and data products tailored to address the space weather needs of NASA's robotic missions. The CCMC conducts unbiased model testing and validation and evaluates model readiness for operational environment. CCMC has been leading recent comprehensive modeling challenges under GEM, CEDAR and SHINE programs. The presentation will focus on experience in carrying out comprehensive and systematic validation of large sets of. space weather models

  9. Accounting for anthropogenic actions in modeling of stream flow at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The modeling of the horizontal movement of water from land to coasts at scales ranging from 10^5 km^2 to 10^6 km^2 has benefited from extensive research within the past two decades. In parallel, community technology for gathering/sharing surface water observations and datasets for describing the geography of terrestrial water bodies have recently had groundbreaking advancements. Yet, the fields of computational hydrology and hydroinformatics have barely started to work hand-in-hand, and much research remains to be performed before we can better understand the anthropogenic impact on surface water through combined observations and models. Here, we build on our existing river modeling approach that leverages community state-of-the-art tools such as atmospheric data from the second phase of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS2), river networks from the enhanced National Hydrography Dataset (NHDPlus), and observations from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) obtained through CUAHSI webservices. Modifications are made to our integrated observational/modeling system to include treatment for anthropogenic actions such as dams, pumping and divergences in river networks. Initial results of a study focusing on the entire State of California suggest that availability of data describing human alterations on natural river networks associated with proper representation of such actions in our models could help advance hydrology further. Snapshot from an animation of flow in California river networks. The full animation is available at: http://www.ucchm.org/david/rapid.htm.

  10. Influences of the Unified Service Action Model on the HL7 Reference Information Model.

    PubMed

    Russler, D C; Schadow, G; Mead, C; Snyder, T; Quade, L M; McDonald, C J

    1999-01-01

    Modeling information for the electronic medical record (EMR) builds on a century of study on information and its relationship to cost and quality improvement. An initiative to examine the focus of cost and quality improvement and its relationship to information modeling resulted in the development of the Unified Service Action Model of healthcare processes, which focuses on the action as the center of cost accounting, quality accounting and privacy management. The application of this model to the HL7 Reference Information Model produced a simplification of the HL7 model at the cost of increased reliance on vocabulary terms for actions.

  11. Impact of Community-Based Approach as Policy Tool: World Health Organization-Designated Safe Communities of Korea and Health Action Zones of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changhyun; Shin, Jihyung; Matthews, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to ascertain and identify the effectiveness of area-based initiatives as a policy tool mediated by societal and individual factors in the five World Health Organization (WHO)-designated Safe Communities of Korea and the Health Action Zones of the United Kingdom (UK). Methods The Korean National Hospital discharge in-depth injury survey from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and causes of death statistics by the Statistics Korea were used for all analyses. The trend and changes in injury rate and mortality by external causes were compared among the five WHO-designated Safe Communities in Korea. Results The injury incident rates decreased at a greater level in the Safe Communities compared with the national average. Similar results were shown for the changes in unintentional injury incident rates. In comparison of changes in mortality rate by external causes between 2005 and 2011, the rate increase in Safe Communities was higher than the national average except for Jeju, where the mortality rate by external causes decreased. Conclusion When the Healthy Action Zones of the UK and the WHO Safe Communities of Korea were examined, the outcomes were interpreted differently among the compared index, regions, and time periods. Therefore, qualitative outcomes, such as bringing the residents' attention to the safety of the communities and promoting participation and coordination of stakeholders, should also be considered as important impacts of the community-based initiatives. PMID:26981341

  12. Towards a community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Community Climate System Model, version 2 (CCSM2), was released in June 2002. CCSM2 has several new components and features, which I will discuss briefly. I will also show a few results from a multi-century equilibrium run with this model, emphasizing the improvements over the earlier simulation using the original CSM. A few flaws and inadequacies in CCSM2 have been identified. I will also discuss briefly work underway to improve the model and present results, if available. CCSM2, with improvements, will be the basis for the development of a Community Earth System Model (CESM). The highest priority for expansion of the model involves incorporation of biogeosciences into the coupled model system, with emphasis given to the carbon, nitrogen and iron cycles. The overall goal of the biogeosciences project within CESM is to understand the regulation of planetary energetics, planetary ecology, and planetary metabolism through exchanges of energy, momentum, and materials among atmosphere, land, and ocean, and the response of the climate system through these processes to changes in land cover and land use. In particular, this research addresses how biogeochemical coupling of carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles affects climate and how human perturbations of these cycles alter climate. To accomplish these goals, the Community Land Model, the land component of CCSM2, is being developed to include river routing, carbon and nitrogen cycles, emissions of mineral aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds, dry deposition of various gases, and vegetation dynamics. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are being implemented using parameterizations developed as part of a state-of-the-art ecosystem biogeochemistry model. The primary goal of this research is to provide an accurate net flux of CO2 between the land and the atmosphere so that CESM can be used to study the dynamics of the coupled climate-carbon system. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are also based on a

  13. Space Weather Modeling at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires dose collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide updates on CCMC status, on current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and on the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.

  14. Space Weather Modeling Services at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the Rapid Prototyping Centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide a description of the current CCMC status, discuss current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and describe the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.

  15. The Community Climate System Model: CCSM3

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W D; Blackmon, M; Bitz, C; Bonan, G; Bretherton, C S; Carton, J A; Chang, P; Doney, S; Hack, J J; Kiehl, J T; Henderson, T; Large, W G; McKenna, D; Santer, B D; Smith, R D

    2004-12-27

    A new version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) has been developed and released to the climate community. CCSM3 is a coupled climate model with components representing the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface connected by a flux coupler. CCSM3 is designed to produce realistic simulations over a wide range of spatial resolutions, enabling inexpensive simulations lasting several millennia or detailed studies of continental-scale climate change. This paper will show results from the configuration used for climate-change simulations with a T85 grid for atmosphere and land and a 1-degree grid for ocean and sea-ice. The new system incorporates several significant improvements in the scientific formulation. The enhancements in the model physics are designed to reduce or eliminate several systematic biases in the mean climate produced by previous editions of CCSM. These include new treatments of cloud processes, aerosol radiative forcing, land-atmosphere fluxes, ocean mixed-layer processes, and sea-ice dynamics. There are significant improvements in the sea-ice thickness, polar radiation budgets, equatorial sea-surface temperatures, ocean currents, cloud radiative effects, and ENSO teleconnections. CCSM3 can produce stable climate simulations of millenial duration without ad hoc adjustments to the fluxes exchanged among the component models. Nonetheless, there are still systematic biases in the ocean-atmosphere fluxes in western coastal regions, the spectrum of ENSO variability, the spatial distribution of precipitation in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the continental precipitation and surface air temperatures. We conclude with the prospects for extending CCSM to a more comprehensive model of the Earth's climate system.

  16. Multi-species occurrence models to evaluate the effects of conservation and management actions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, E.F.; Andrew, Royle J.; Dawson, D.K.; Bates, S.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation and management actions often have direct and indirect effects on a wide range of species. As such, it is important to evaluate the impacts that such actions may have on both target and non-target species within a region. Understanding how species richness and composition differ as a result of management treatments can help determine potential ecological consequences. Yet it is difficult to estimate richness because traditional sampling approaches detect species at variable rates and some species are never observed. We present a framework for assessing management actions on biodiversity using a multi-species hierarchical model that estimates individual species occurrences, while accounting for imperfect detection of species. Our model incorporates species-specific responses to management treatments and local vegetation characteristics and a hierarchical component that links species at a community-level. This allows for comprehensive inferences on the whole community or on assemblages of interest. Compared to traditional species models, occurrence estimates are improved for all species, even for those that are rarely observed, resulting in more precise estimates of species richness (including species that were unobserved during sampling). We demonstrate the utility of this approach for conservation through an analysis comparing bird communities in two geographically similar study areas: one in which white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities have been regulated through hunting and one in which deer densities have gone unregulated. Although our results indicate that species and assemblage richness were similar in the two study areas, point-level richness was significantly influenced by local vegetation characteristics, a result that would have been underestimated had we not accounted for variability in species detection.

  17. Sparse Modeling of Human Actions from Motion Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-02

    classification [23, 24], hyperspectral imag- ing [5, 6], among numerous other applications. It has also been applied recently for motion imagery analysis... CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 26 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT...Actions from Motion Imagery Alexey Castrodad and Guillermo Sapiro ∗ September 2, 2011 Abstract An efficient sparse modeling pipeline for the classification

  18. A network model for plant–pollinator community assembly

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Colin; Yang, Suann; Albert, Réka; Shea, Katriona

    2011-01-01

    Community assembly models, usually constructed for food webs, are an important component of our understanding of how ecological communities are formed. However, models for mutualistic community assembly are still needed, especially because these communities are experiencing significant anthropogenic disturbances that affect their biodiversity. Here, we present a unique network model that simulates the colonization and extinction process of mutualistic community assembly. We generate regional source pools of species interaction networks on the basis of statistical properties reported in the literature. We develop a dynamic synchronous Boolean framework to simulate, with few free parameters, the dynamics of new mutualistic community formation from the regional source pool. This approach allows us to deterministically map out every possible trajectory of community formation. This level of detail is rarely observed in other analytic approaches and allows for thorough analysis of the dynamical properties of community formation. As for food web assembly, we find that the number of stable communities is quite low, and the composition of the source pool influences the abundance and nature of community outcomes. However, in contrast to food web assembly, stable mutualistic communities form rapidly. Small communities with minor fluctuations in species presence/absence (self-similar limit cycles) are the most common community outcome. The unique application of this Boolean network approach to the study of mutualistic community assembly offers a great opportunity to improve our understanding of these critical communities. PMID:21173234

  19. Examining barriers and supports to community living and participation after a stroke from a participatory action research approach.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Joy; Jones, Robin; Gossett, Andrea; Morgan, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This participatory action research study focused on identifying community participation goals, barriers, and supports/strategies in partnership with people who have experienced a stroke. Goals demonstrate that participation is more than activity performance in context; instead, it relates to "being a part of" the community and having access to participation opportunities and supports. Results of community site audits from the first 20 participants document environmental (physical, cognitive, social) and system level barriers, as well as effective strategies for promoting participation via environmental modification and systems level changes. A consumer-directed, Web-based tool for documenting participation barriers and sharing strategies is discussed.

  20. A Community Mentoring Model for STEM Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a community mentoring model for UREs that avoids some of the common pitfalls of the traditional paradigm while harnessing the power of learning communities to provide young scholars a stimulating collaborative STEM research experience.

  1. The Rationale for Learning Communities and Learning Community Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Patrick

    The learning community movement is a response to several widespread educational problems, including the mismatched expectations of career-oriented students and research- and discipline-oriented faculty; the inadequate amount of intellectual interaction between students and between faculty and students; the lack of coherence among most of the…

  2. Diversity and Community: The Role of Agent-Based Modeling.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Alex

    2017-03-13

    Community psychology involves several dialectics between potentially opposing ideals, such as theory and practice, rights and needs, and respect for human diversity and sense of community. Some recent papers in the American Journal of Community Psychology have examined the diversity-community dialectic, some with the aid of agent-based modeling and concepts from network science. This paper further elucidates these concepts and suggests that research in community psychology can benefit from a useful dialectic between agent-based modeling and the real-world concerns of community psychology.

  3. Improving actions to control high blood pressure in Hispanic communities — Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Across the U.S. Project, 2009–2012☆

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Youlian; Siegel, Paul Z.; White, Shannon; Dulin, Rick; Taylor, April

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared with the general population in the United States (U.S.), Hispanics with hypertension are less likely to be aware of their condition, to take antihypertensive medication, and to adopt healthy lifestyles to control high blood pressure. We examined whether a multi-community intervention successfully increased the prevalence of actions to control hypertension among Hispanics. Methods Annual survey from 2009–2012 was conducted in six Hispanic communities in the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Across the U.S. project. The survey used address based sampling design that matched the geographies of intervention program. Results Age- and sex-standardized prevalences of taking hypertensive medication, changing eating habits, cutting down on salt, and reducing alcohol use significantly increased among Hispanics with self-reported hyper-tension in REACH communities. The 3-year relative percent increases were 5.8, 6.8, 7.9, and 35.2% for the four indicators, respectively. These favorable (healthier) trends occurred in both foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanics. Conclusion This large community-based participatory intervention resulted in more Hispanic residents in the communities taking actions to control high blood pressure. PMID:26656406

  4. Developing a Play-Based Communication Assessment through Collaborative Action Research with Teachers in Northern Canadian Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg Peterson, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of developing culturally appropriate approaches for assessing and supporting children's language use, teachers of 4-to 6-year-old children in northern Canadian rural and Indigenous communities are involved in a 6-year collaborative action research project. Teachers video record children's interactions during dramatic and construction…

  5. A Comprehensive Evaluation of OEO Community Action Programs on Six Selected American Indian Reservations. Report 4 - Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James G. E.; And Others

    The impact of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) Community Action Programs (CAP) on 6 selected American Indian reservations (Gila River and Papago, Arizona; Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico; Pine Ridge, South Dakota; Turtle Mountain, North Dakota, and White Earth Chippewa, Minnesota) are evaluated. After considering the development of Indian…

  6. Creating and Sustaining a Professional Learning Community to Impact Student Achievement on a High School Campus: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Dionne DeShall

    2013-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) have become one of the most talked about ideas in education today. Many K-12 schools are working to become PLCs in the hope that student learning will improve when adults commit themselves to talking collaboratively about teaching and learning and then take action that will improve student learning and…

  7. Five Ethical Paradigms for Community College Leaders: Toward Constructing and Considering Alternative Courses of Action in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Hilton, Adriel A.

    2012-01-01

    This article encourages community college leaders to employ ethical paradigms when constructing and considering alternative courses of action in decision-making processes. The authors discuss four previously articulated paradigms (e.g., ethic of justice, ethic of critique, ethic of care, and ethic of the profession) and propose an additional…

  8. Distinctiveness and Sense of Community in the Historical Center of Naples: A Piece of Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcidiacono, Caterina; Procentese, Fortuna

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the impact of an increase in tourism in the Old Center of Naples, Fondazione Laboratorio Mediterraneo, a nonprofit organization that promotes sustainable town development and encourages participation, has undertaken the participatory action research described in this article. The inhabitants' sense of community (McMillan & Chavis,…

  9. Building Communities of Support around a Child with Special Education Needs: The Effects of Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Over a period of a year, formal and informal interactions among members of the community around a four-year-old girl with special education needs were focused through participatory action research (PAR). The team included parents, kindergarten teachers, an education support worker, speech-language therapist, early intervention teacher and…

  10. BF actions for the Husain-Kuchař model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero G., J. Fernando; Villaseñor, Eduardo J.

    2001-04-01

    We show that the Husain-Kuchař model can be described in the framework of BF theories. This is a first step towards its quantization by standard perturbative quantum field theory techniques or the spin-foam formalism introduced in the space-time description of general relativity and other diff-invariant theories. The actions that we will consider are similar to the ones describing the BF-Yang-Mills model and some mass generating mechanisms for gauge fields. We will also discuss the role of diffeomorphisms in the new formulations that we propose.

  11. SIRT1 metabolic actions: Integrating recent advances from mouse models.

    PubMed

    Boutant, Marie; Cantó, Carles

    2014-02-01

    SIRT1 has attracted a lot of interest since it was discovered as a mammalian homolog of Sir2, a protein that influences longevity in yeast. Intensive early research suggested a key role of SIRT1 in mammalian development, metabolic flexibility and oxidative metabolism. However, it is the growing body of transgenic models that are allowing us to clearly define the true range of SIRT1 actions. In this review we aim to summarize the most recent lessons that transgenic animal models have taught us about the role of SIRT1 in mammalian metabolic homeostasis and lifespan.

  12. Reputation and competition in a hidden action model.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The economics models of reputation and quality in markets can be classified in three categories. (i) Pure hidden action, where only one type of seller is present who can provide goods of different quality. (ii) Pure hidden information, where sellers of different types have no control over product quality. (iii) Mixed frameworks, which include both hidden action and hidden information. In this paper we develop a pure hidden action model of reputation and Bertrand competition, where consumers and firms interact repeatedly in a market with free entry. The price of the good produced by the firms is contractible, whilst the quality is noncontractible, hence it is promised by the firms when a contract is signed. Consumers infer future quality from all available information, i.e., both from what they know about past quality and from current prices. According to early contributions, competition should make reputation unable to induce the production of high-quality goods. We provide a simple solution to this problem by showing that high quality levels are sustained as an outcome of a stationary symmetric equilibrium.

  13. Reputation and Competition in a Hidden Action Model

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The economics models of reputation and quality in markets can be classified in three categories. (i) Pure hidden action, where only one type of seller is present who can provide goods of different quality. (ii) Pure hidden information, where sellers of different types have no control over product quality. (iii) Mixed frameworks, which include both hidden action and hidden information. In this paper we develop a pure hidden action model of reputation and Bertrand competition, where consumers and firms interact repeatedly in a market with free entry. The price of the good produced by the firms is contractible, whilst the quality is noncontractible, hence it is promised by the firms when a contract is signed. Consumers infer future quality from all available information, i.e., both from what they know about past quality and from current prices. According to early contributions, competition should make reputation unable to induce the production of high-quality goods. We provide a simple solution to this problem by showing that high quality levels are sustained as an outcome of a stationary symmetric equilibrium. PMID:25329387

  14. COST Action FP1005 ``Fibre suspension flow modelling''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchioli, Cristian

    2013-11-01

    Fibre suspensions are extremely complex solid-liquid systems since their components (fibres, flocs, air bubbles and additives) interact mutually in a complex way. The dynamics of fibre suspensions are crucial in many real-life applications, such as pulp and paper production. Current understanding of suspension flow dynamics remains poor and incomplete, resulting in conservative design of industrial equipments, low energy efficiency and equipment oversizing. In this paper, the most recent advancements in modelling and experimentation of fibre suspensions dynamics are presented. These advancements have been obtained in the framework of Action FP1005, funded by the COST Programme (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) to coordinate nationally-funded research on a European level. The Action aims at developing and validating numerical models for prediction of fibre suspensions as well as measurement techniques. The Action offers a forum to solve test cases and to compare simulated results to experiments, resulting in more reliable simulation tools to industry. Successfull introduction of such tool into industrial practice is crucial to innovate and increase competitivity of papermaking industry.

  15. A Deep Stochastic Model for Detecting Community in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jingcheng; Wu, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    Discovering community structures is an important step to understanding the structure and dynamics of real-world networks in social science, biology and technology. In this paper, we develop a deep stochastic model based on non-negative matrix factorization to identify communities, in which there are two sets of parameters. One is the community membership matrix, of which the elements in a row correspond to the probabilities of the given node belongs to each of the given number of communities in our model, another is the community-community connection matrix, of which the element in the i-th row and j-th column represents the probability of there being an edge between a randomly chosen node from the i-th community and a randomly chosen node from the j-th community. The parameters can be evaluated by an efficient updating rule, and its convergence can be guaranteed. The community-community connection matrix in our model is more precise than the community-community connection matrix in traditional non-negative matrix factorization methods. Furthermore, the method called symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization, is a special case of our model. Finally, based on the experiments on both synthetic and real-world networks data, it can be demonstrated that our algorithm is highly effective in detecting communities.

  16. Evaluation of Community Land Model Hydrologic Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. Y.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Bohn, T.; Delire, C.

    2005-12-01

    Confidence in representation and parameterization of land surface processes in coupled land-atmosphere models is strongly dependent on a diversity of opportunities for model testing, since such coupled models are usually intended for application in a wide range of conditions (regional models) or globally. Land surface models have been increasing in complexity over the past decade, which has increased the demands on data sets appropriate for model testing and evaluation. In this study, we compare the performance of two commonly used land surface schemes - the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Community Land Model (CLM) with respect to their ability to reproduce observed water and energy fluxes in off-line tests for two large river basins with contrasting hydroclimatic conditions spanning the range from temperate continental to arctic, and for five point (column flux) sites spanning the range from tropical to arctic. The two large river basins are the Arkansas-Red in U.S. southern Great Plains, and the Torne-Kalix in northern Scandinavia. The column flux evaluations are for a tropical forest site at Reserva Jaru (ABRACOS) in Brazil, a prairie site (FIFE) near Manhattan, Kansas in the central U.S., a soybean site at Caumont (HAPEX-Monbilhy) in France, a meadow site at Cabauw in the Netherlands, and a small grassland catchment at Valday, Russia. The results indicate that VIC can reasonably well capture the land surface biophysical processes, while CLM is somewhat less successful. We suggest changes to the CLM parameterizations that would improve its general performance with respect to its representation of land surface hydrologic processes.

  17. Developing internet-based eHealth promotion programs: the Spiral Technology Action Research (STAR) model.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Harvey A; Maley, Oonagh; Norman, Cameron D

    2006-10-01

    Health education and health promotion have a tradition of using information and communication technology (ICT). In recent years, the rapid growth of the Internet has created innovative opportunities for Web-based health education and behavior change applications-termed eHealth promotion. However, many eHealth promotion applications are developed without an explicit model to guide the design, evaluation, and ongoing improvement of the program. The spiral technology action research (STAR) model was developed to address this need. The model comprises five cycles (listen, plan, do, study, act) that weave together technological development, community involvement, and continuous improvement. The model is illustrated by a case study describing the development of the Smoking Zine (www.SmokingZine.org), a youth smoking prevention and cessation Web site.

  18. Framing a Philosophy of Environmental Action: Aldo Leopold, John Muir, and the Importance of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goralnik, Lissy; Nelson, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    A philosophy of action consists of a theory about how and why we do things and what motivates us to act. By juxtaposing the theory of environmental action implied by the works and life of John Muir with the philosophy of action suggested by Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic, we will illuminate the importance of a philosophy of action in determining one's…

  19. Climate Justice: High-Status Ingroup Social Models Increase Pro-Environmental Action Through Making Actions Seem More Moral.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Joseph; Whitmarsh, Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that our cognitive biases and moral psychology may pose significant barriers to tackling climate change. Here, we report evidence that through status and group-based social influence processes, and our moral sense of justice, it may be possible to employ such characteristics of the human mind in efforts to engender pro-environmental action. We draw on applied work demonstrating the efficacy of social modeling techniques in order to examine the indirect effects of social model status and group membership (through perceptions of efficacy, pro-environmental social identity and moral judgments of how fair it is for individuals to perform particular pro-environmental actions) on pro-environmental action tendencies. We find evidence that high- (vs. low-) status models increase pro-environmental action, in part, through making such actions seem morally fairer to undertake. This effect of high-status models only occurs when they share a meaningful ingroup membership with the target of influence. Further, we find evidence that this conditional effect of high-status models may also have a direct impact on action tendencies. While the exact behaviors that are influenced may vary across student and non-student samples, we argue that a focus on the "justice pathway" to action and the social-cognitive features of models may offer a good opportunity for cognitive and behavioral scientists to integrate insights from basic research with those stemming from more applied research efforts.

  20. Communities Coping with Change: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail J.; Steed, Lyndall G.

    2004-01-01

    Changing economic, political, environmental, and social conditions continue to have a cumulative impact on Australian regional communities, and in many instances, rural communities are being forced to initiate their own strategies in order to remain economically and socially viable. However, while communities respond in differing ways to similar…

  1. Completing the Circle: A Model for Effective Community Review of Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Peggy Morrow; Corbin-Mark, Cecil D.

    2009-01-01

    While it is well understood that multiple and cumulative environmental stressors negatively impact health at the community level, existing ethical research review procedures are designed to protect individual research participants but not communities. Increasing concerns regarding the ethical conduct of research in general and environmental and genetic research in particular underscore the need to expand the scope of current human participant research regulations and ethical guidelines to include protections for communities. In an effort to address this issue, West Harlem Environmental Action (WE ACT), a nonprofit, community-based environmental justice organization in New York City that has been involved in community–academic partnerships for the past decade, used qualitative interview data to develop a pilot model for community review of environmental health science research. PMID:19890159

  2. A new dynamic null model for phylogenetic community structure.

    PubMed

    Pigot, Alex L; Etienne, Rampal S

    2015-02-01

    Phylogenies are increasingly applied to identify the mechanisms structuring ecological communities but progress has been hindered by a reliance on statistical null models that ignore the historical process of community assembly. Here, we address this, and develop a dynamic null model of assembly by allopatric speciation, colonisation and local extinction. Incorporating these processes fundamentally alters the structure of communities expected due to chance, with speciation leading to phylogenetic overdispersion compared to a classical statistical null model assuming equal probabilities of community membership. Applying this method to bird and primate communities in South America we show that patterns of phylogenetic overdispersion - often attributed to negative biotic interactions - are instead consistent with a species neutral model of allopatric speciation, colonisation and local extinction. Our findings provide a new null expectation for phylogenetic community patterns and highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for the dynamic history of assembly when testing the mechanisms governing community structure.

  3. Population health improvement: a community health business model that engages partners in all sectors.

    PubMed

    Kindig, David A; Isham, George

    2014-01-01

    Because population health improvement requires action on multiple determinants--including medical care, health behaviors, and the social and physical environments--no single entity can be held accountable for achieving improved outcomes. Medical organizations, government, schools, businesses, and community organizations all need to make substantial changes in how they approach health and how they allocate resources. To this end, we suggest the development of multisectoral community health business partnership models. Such collaborative efforts are needed by sectors and actors not accustomed to working together. Healthcare executives can play important leadership roles in fostering or supporting such partnerships in local and national arenas where they have influence. In this article, we develop the following components of this argument: defining a community health business model; defining population health and the Triple Aim concept; reaching beyond core mission to help create the model; discussing the shift for care delivery beyond healthcare organizations to other community sectors; examining who should lead in developing the community business model; discussing where the resources for a community business model might come from; identifying that better evidence is needed to inform where to make cost-effective investments; and proposing some next steps. The approach we have outlined is a departure from much current policy and management practice. But new models are needed as a road map to drive action--not just thinking--to address the enormous challenge of improving population health. While we applaud continuing calls to improve health and reduce disparities, progress will require more robust incentives, strategies, and action than have been in practice to date. Our hope is that ideas presented here will help to catalyze a collective, multisectoral response to this critical social and economic challenge.

  4. Network of communities in the fight against AIDS: local actions to address health inequities and promote health in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Edmundo, Kátia; Guimarães, Wanda; Vasconcelos, Maria do Socorro; Baptista, Ana Paula; Becker, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    When combined with major social inequities, the AIDS epidemic in Brazil becomes much more complex and requires effective and participatory community-based interventions. This article describes the experience of a civil society organisation, the Centre for Health Promotion (CEDAPS), in the slum communities (favelas) of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a community-based participatory approach, 55 community organisations were mobilised to develop local actions to address the increasing social vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of people living in squatter communities. This was done through on-going prevention initiatives based on the local culture and developed by a Network of Communities. The community movement has created a sense of "ownership" of social actions. The fight against AIDS has been a mobilising factor in engaging and organising communities and has contributed to raising awareness of health rights. Local actions included targeting the determinants of local vulnerability, as suggested by health promotion workers.

  5. CbN Community Forums: The Black Hawk College Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mary A.

    During 1977 and 1978, Black Hawk College, Moline, Illinois, served as one of eleven national demonstration models in the development of community college-coordinated, community-based discussion forums. In fall 1977 the college was joined by twenty-seven co-sponsoring community organizations in holding nine town meetings to discuss topics suggested…

  6. Using an academic-community partnership model and blended learning to advance community health nursing pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Ezeonwu, Mabel; Berkowitz, Bobbie; Vlasses, Frances R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a model of teaching community health nursing that evolved from a long-term partnership with a community with limited existing health programs. The partnership supported RN-BSN students' integration in the community and resulted in reciprocal gains for faculty, students and community members. Community clients accessed public health services as a result of the partnership. A blended learning approach that combines face-to-face interactions, service learning and online activities was utilized to enhance students' learning. Following classroom sessions, students actively participated in community-based educational process through comprehensive health needs assessments, planning and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion activities for community clients. Such active involvement in an underserved community deepened students' awareness of the fundamentals of community health practice. Students were challenged to view public health from a broader perspective while analyzing the impacts of social determinants of health on underserved populations. Through asynchronous online interactions, students synthesized classroom and community activities through critical thinking. This paper describes a model for teaching community health nursing that informs students' learning through blended learning, and meets the demands for community health nursing services delivery.

  7. Children's and Adults' Models for Predicting Teleological Action: The Development of a Biology-Based Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined models that preschoolers, fifth-graders, and adults use to guide predictions of self-beneficial, goal-directed action. Found that preschoolers' predictions were consistent with an animal-based model, fifth-graders' with biology-based and complexity-based models, and adults' predictions with a biology-based model. All age…

  8. Linking knowledge and action through mental models of sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Matthew; Lubell, Mark; Hillis, Vicken

    2014-09-09

    Linking knowledge to action requires understanding how decision-makers conceptualize sustainability. This paper empirically analyzes farmer "mental models" of sustainability from three winegrape-growing regions of California where local extension programs have focused on sustainable agriculture. The mental models are represented as networks where sustainability concepts are nodes, and links are established when a farmer mentions two concepts in their stated definition of sustainability. The results suggest that winegrape grower mental models of sustainability are hierarchically structured, relatively similar across regions, and strongly linked to participation in extension programs and adoption of sustainable farm practices. We discuss the implications of our findings for the debate over the meaning of sustainability, and the role of local extension programs in managing knowledge systems.

  9. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understanding Teen Pregnancy with American Indian Communities.

    PubMed

    Dippel, Elizabeth A; Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle B

    2017-02-25

    Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 16 focus groups with American Indian young people aged 16-24. Results Attitudes towards, perceived impact of, and perception of how others felt about teen pregnancy vary between American Indian parents and non-parents. Particularly, young American Indian parents felt more negatively about teen pregnancy. Participants also perceived a larger impact on female than male teen parents. Conclusions There are differences between American Indian parents and non-parents regarding attitudes towards, the perceived impact of, and how they perceived others felt about teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy prevention programs for American Indian youth should include youth parents in curriculum creation and curriculum that addresses normative beliefs about teen pregnancy and provides education on the ramifications of teen pregnancy to change attitudes.

  10. The Community Climate System Model Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Peter R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Donner, Leo J.; Holland, Marika M.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Jayne, Steve R.; Lawrence, David M.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Worley, Patrick; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-10-01

    The fourth version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) was recently completed and released to the climate community. This paper describes developments to all the CCSM components, and documents fully coupled pre-industrial control runs compared to the previous version, CCSM3. Using the standard atmosphere and land resolution of 1{sup o} results in the sea surface temperature biases in the major upwelling regions being comparable to the 1.4{sup o} resolution CCSM3. Two changes to the deep convection scheme in the atmosphere component result in the CCSM4 producing El Nino/Southern Oscillation variability with a much more realistic frequency distribution than the CCSM3, although the amplitude is too large compared to observations. They also improve the representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and the frequency distribution of tropical precipitation. A new overflow parameterization in the ocean component leads to an improved simulation of the deep ocean density structure, especially in the North Atlantic. Changes to the CCSM4 land component lead to a much improved annual cycle of water storage, especially in the tropics. The CCSM4 sea ice component uses much more realistic albedos than the CCSM3, and the Arctic sea ice concentration is improved in the CCSM4. An ensemble of 20th century simulations runs produce an excellent match to the observed September Arctic sea ice extent from 1979 to 2005. The CCSM4 ensemble mean increase in globally-averaged surface temperature between 1850 and 2005 is larger than the observed increase by about 0.4 C. This is consistent with the fact that the CCSM4 does not include a representation of the indirect effects of aerosols, although other factors may come into play. The CCSM4 still has significant biases, such as the mean precipitation distribution in the tropical Pacific Ocean, too much low cloud in the Arctic, and the latitudinal distributions of short-wave and long-wave cloud forcings.

  11. Fostering Wisdom-Based Action through Web 2.0 Communities of Practice: An Example of the Early Childhood Family Support Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gotto, George; Stowe, Matt; Beauchamp, Donna; Klein, Samara; Kyzar, Kathleen; Turnbull, Rud; Zuna, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a new approach to knowledge translation using Web 2.0 technologies in an online Community of Practice (CoP). The purpose of the CoP is to promote wisdom-based action, a process that encourages people to engage with knowledge, match it to their own values, vision, and contexts, make a well-informed decision, and act on that…

  12. The San Francisco Community Vital Signs: using web-based tools to facilitate the mobilizing for action through planning and partnerships process.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrey; Katz, Mitchell H

    2011-01-01

    A coalition of local public health system stakeholders in San Francisco developed a community assessment and strategic planning tool, the San Francisco Community Vital Signs (SFCVS). The SFCVS builds on the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) model by incorporating Internet-based technology into local public health system evaluation and strengthening. This article describes the overlap between the SFCVS and MAPP processes, the manner in which information technology facilitated the SFCVS process, and a template for infusing a Web-based platform into the MAPP model. Internet-based applications helped to implement many (16 of 41; 39%) of the components of the SFCVS process. Of these 16 process measures, the majority (10; 63%) required the use of Web-based technology. The SFCVS demonstrates that a MAPP-like process can leverage the Internet to augment the functionality of public health activities.

  13. GIS applications for community-based research and action: mapping change in a community-building initiative.

    PubMed

    Quon Huber, Melissa S; Van Egeren, Laurie A; Pierce, Steven J; Foster-Fishman, Pennie G

    2009-01-01

    In this article we review practical and research applications for the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in the program development and evaluation of a community-building initiative designed to improve economic and educational outcomes in a Midwestern city. We discuss the use of GIS for targeting neighborhoods for program selection, random selection of survey respondents, verification of stratification and representativeness of survey samples, and linking survey data to data regarding physical and demographic characteristics of the community. We explore the benefits and challenges of using GIS with community audiences and highlight additional quantitative analysis tools for future use in this ongoing initiative.

  14. Alternative community structures in a kelp-urchin community: A qualitative modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in interaction patterns within a community may result from periodic disturbances and climate. The question arises as to the extent and significance of these shifting patterns. Using a novel approach to link qualitative mathematical models and field data, namely using the inverse matrix to identify the community matrix, we reconstructed community networks from kelp forests off the Oregon Coast. We simulated all ecologically plausible interactions among community members, selected the models whose outcomes match field observations, and identified highly frequent links to characterize the community network from a particular site. We tested all possible biologically reasonable community networks through qualitative simulations, selected those that matched patterns observed in the field, and further reduced the set of possibilities by retaining those that were stable. We found that a community can be represented by a set of alternative structures, or scenarios. From 11,943,936 simulated models, 0.23% matched the field observations; moreover, only 0.006%, or 748 models, were highly reliable in their predictions and met conditions for stability. Predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory relationships were consistently found in most of the 748 models. These highly frequent connections were useful to characterize the community network in the study site. We suggest that alternative networks provide the community with a buffer to disturbance, allowing it to continuously reorganize to adapt to a variable environment. This is possible due to the fluctuating capacities of foraging species to consume alternate resources. This suggestion is sustained by our results, which indicate that none of the models that matched field observations were fully connected. This plasticity may contribute to the persistence of these communities. We propose that qualitative simulations represent a powerful technique to raise new hypotheses concerning community dynamics and to

  15. What Does It Mean to Be a Friendly Outsider? Critical Reflection on Finding a Role as an Action Researcher with Communities Developing Renewable Energy Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jennifer; Convery, Ian; Simmons, Eunice; Weatherall, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a reflective account exploring the value of using action research in a relatively new context in the United Kingdom; the development of community renewable-energy projects. There is a strong rationale for using action research in this setting due to the synergies between the principles and practice of action research and localised…

  16. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-10-01

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w 1( t) , w 2( t) , w 3( t) , and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a 0 ,a 2 ,a 4 of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki's noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  17. Community-Engaged Teaching: A Project-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Carrie Ann

    2015-01-01

    The classroom offers a unique and effective venue for community engagement and an opportunity for teaching artists to dive into a topic on both practical and theoretical levels, resulting in well-informed input. That well-informed input is then translated into thoughtful action. It is exciting to engage students early on in shaping their community…

  18. Community Mental Health Model Applied to Student Personnel Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidorf, Louis J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes establishment and operation of a Student Service Center at San Fernando Valley State College, the intention of which is to assist students through active intervention to make a better adjustment to college environment. Center activities focus on research, community organization (campus), intervention, social action projects on campus,…

  19. Perception--action coupling model for human locomotor pointing.

    PubMed

    de Rugy, A; Taga, G; Montagne, G; Buekers, M J; Laurent, M

    2002-08-01

    How do humans achieve the precise positioning of the feet during walking, for example, to reach the first step of a stairway? We addressed this question at the visuomotor integration level. Based on the optical specification of the required adaptation, a dynamical system model of the visuomotor control of human locomotor pointing was devised for the positioning of a foot on a visible target on the floor during walking. Visuomotor integration consists of directly linking optical information to a motor command that specifically modulates step length in accordance with the ongoing dynamics of locomotor pattern generation. The adaptation of locomotion emerges from a perception-action coupling type of control based on temporal information rather than on feedforward planning of movements. The proposed model reproduces experimental results obtained for human locomotor pointing.

  20. Linking knowledge and action through mental models of sustainable agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew; Lubell, Mark; Hillis, Vicken

    2014-01-01

    Linking knowledge to action requires understanding how decision-makers conceptualize sustainability. This paper empirically analyzes farmer “mental models” of sustainability from three winegrape-growing regions of California where local extension programs have focused on sustainable agriculture. The mental models are represented as networks where sustainability concepts are nodes, and links are established when a farmer mentions two concepts in their stated definition of sustainability. The results suggest that winegrape grower mental models of sustainability are hierarchically structured, relatively similar across regions, and strongly linked to participation in extension programs and adoption of sustainable farm practices. We discuss the implications of our findings for the debate over the meaning of sustainability, and the role of local extension programs in managing knowledge systems. PMID:25157158

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity

    PubMed Central

    Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, JE.; Duran, B.; Tafoya, G.; Baker, EA.; Chan, D.; Chang, C.; Greene-Moton, E.; Kelley, M.; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A national community based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual/logic model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus-building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nation-wide. Participants validated and expanded upon existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on “real-world” praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792

  2. Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity.

    PubMed

    Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie E; Duran, Bonnie; Tafoya, Greg; Baker, Elizabeth A; Chan, Domin; Chang, Charlotte; Greene-Moton, Ella; Kelley, Michele A; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A national community-based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nationwide. Participants validated and expanded on existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on "real-world" praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals.

  3. Sustainable and Healthy Communities Strategic Research Action Plan 2016-2019

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This plan outlines the Office of Research and Development’s role in achieving EPA’s objectives for cleaning up communities, making a visible difference in communities, and working toward a sustainable future.

  4. The Study of Collective Actions in a University Anchored Community Wireless Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchibhotla, Hari N.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of wireless devices and the ease in setting up wireless devices has created opportunities for various entities, and in particular to universities, by partnering with their local communities in the form of a university anchored community wireless network. This provides opportunities for students to be part of the community-based…

  5. Community Mapping in Action: Uncovering Resources and Assets for Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario; Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Community mapping is a promising practice that can assist early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) professionals uncover the depth and diversity of community needs, resources, and learning opportunities, in the neighborhoods surrounding their schools. Community mapping is an inquiry-based method that situates learning in the…

  6. Investigating the Possibilities of Creating a Community of Practice. Action Research in Three Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flogaitis, Evgenia; Nomikou, Christina; Naoum, Elli; Katsenou, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The educational approach views the community of practice as a community of teachers and students who share common rules and values, information and experiences through dialogue and collaboration. Three doctoral theses are in progress at the University of Athens which study the possibilities of creating a community of practice in three different…

  7. Tackling inequity through a Photovoice project on the social determinants of health: translating Photovoice evidence to community action.

    PubMed

    Haque, Nasim; Eng, Brian

    2011-03-01

    St. Jamestown is the most densely populated vertical immigrant-receiving urban neighbourhood in Canada. The Photovoice project engaged and empowered immigrant residents of St. Jamestown to influence public policy and secure improved local services for promoting health and well-being. Twenty-seven residents used photography and storytelling to record neighbourhood characteristics and their implications on residents' health and well-being. Eight participants presented recommendations actionable at neighbourhood level to the councillor and worked with the city to carry out the recommendations made that were recognized as important for neighbourhood residents' health and well-being. The results indicate Photovoice can be used to generate dialogue on community concerns and priorities and promote community action.

  8. Community Work Development: A Marketing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Como, Perry; Hagner, David

    This manual is concerned with developing community-based work for persons with disabilities, particularly disabled workers in segregated settings and individuals who are considered not yet ready for or capable of work. The first part of the publication deals with the following topics: the concepts of community, work, and severe disabilities; the…

  9. A global electric circuit model within a community climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, G. M.; Baumgaertner, A. J. G.; Thayer, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    To determine the complex dependencies of currents and electric fields within the Global Electric Circuit (GEC) on the underlying physics of the atmosphere, a new modeling framework of the GEC has been developed for use within global circulation models. Specifically, the Community Earth System Modeling framework has been utilized. A formulation of atmospheric conductivity based on ion production and loss mechanisms (including galactic cosmic rays, radon, clouds, and aerosols), conduction current sources, and ionospheric potential changes due to the influence of external current systems are included. This paper presents a full description of the calculation of the electric fields and currents within the model, which now includes several advancements to GEC modeling as it incorporates many processes calculated individually in previous articles into a consistent modeling framework. This framework uniquely incorporates effects from the troposphere up to the ionosphere within a single GEC model. The incorporation of a magnetospheric potential, which is generated by a separate magnetospheric current system, acts to modulate or enhance the surface level electric fields at high-latitude locations. This produces a distinct phasing signature with the GEC potential that is shown to depend on the observation location around the globe. Lastly, the model output for Vostok and Concordia, two high-latitude locations, is shown to agree with the observational data obtained at these sites over the same time period.

  10. RiBAC: Role Interaction Based Access Control Model for Community Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youna; Masoumzadeh, Amirreza; Joshi, James B. D.; Kim, Minkoo

    Community computing is an agent-based development paradigm for ubiquitous computing systems. In a community computing system, ubiquitous services are provided by cooperation among agents. While agents cooperate, they interact with each other continuously to access data of other agents and/or to execute other agent’s actions. However, in cases of security-critical ubiquitous services such as medical or military services, an access control mechanism is necessary to prevent unauthorized access to critical data or action. In this paper, we propose a family of Role interaction Based Access Control (RiBAC) models for Community Computing, by extending the existing RBAC model to consider role interactions. As a basic model, we propose the core RiBAC model. For the convenience of management and to provide more fine-grained access control, we propose Hierarchical RiBAC (H-RiBAC), Constrained RiBAC (C-RiBAC), and Constrained Hierarchical RiBAC (CH-RiBAC) models. Finally, we extend the existing community computing framework to accommodate the specification and enforcement of RiBAC policies.

  11. ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMUNITY MODELING AND ANALYSIS SUPPORT MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the fall of 2001, a Cooperative Research Agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and MCNC began a Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS) center. The CMAS will foster development, distribution, and use of the Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multiscale ...

  12. A value-based practice model of rehabilitation: consumers' recommendations in action.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Karen K; Self, Hazel M; Renwick, Rebecca M; Forma, Laura L; King, Audrey J; Fell, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of rehabilitation practice that is based on the recommendations of consumers who used rehabilitation services and have a life-changing physical impairment (spinal cord injury - SCI). This value-based practice model is based on two qualitative studies. The first study developed the framework (social adaptation) for a new practice model based on values. The second study, described in this paper, used the framework to learn about recommendations for change in the rehabilitation process. Participants in the second study were 80 volunteers who live with a SCI in the community, across the province of Ontario, Canada. A snowball strategy was used to recruit interested participants. Participants were involved in face-to-face interviews which included questions on what helped and hindered their initial rehabilitation process, and their recommendations for change. In this paper, we described a model that demonstrates how consumer input is essential in shaping a comprehensive rehabilitation process. The model is based on overarching value statements that express the worthiness of all individuals, the value of the lived experience of disability and the responsibility of the rehabilitation process to enable client autonomy. Four "values in action" are articulated: caring and respect for the individual and his/her personhood; applying the lived experience of disability; fostering autonomy; and promoting hopefulness. These values have been initially described in another paper based on a specific subset of 15 women living with SCI related to body issues during rehabilitation. This paper builds on this value work and we develop key practices for a progressive rehabilitation culture and model, based on the larger study group of 80 participants (men and women with SCI). This value-based model, when integrated with traditional, physical improvement-focused rehabilitation, has the potential to create a more effective process by offering

  13. Integrating human and natural systems in community psychology: an ecological model of stewardship behavior.

    PubMed

    Moskell, Christine; Allred, Shorna Broussard

    2013-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) research on the natural environment lacks a theoretical framework for analyzing the complex relationship between human systems and the natural world. We introduce other academic fields concerned with the interactions between humans and the natural environment, including environmental sociology and coupled human and natural systems. To demonstrate how the natural environment can be included within CP's ecological framework, we propose an ecological model of urban forest stewardship action. Although ecological models of behavior in CP have previously modeled health behaviors, we argue that these frameworks are also applicable to actions that positively influence the natural environment. We chose the environmental action of urban forest stewardship because cities across the United States are planting millions of trees and increased citizen participation in urban tree planting and stewardship will be needed to sustain the benefits provided by urban trees. We used the framework of an ecological model of behavior to illustrate multiple levels of factors that may promote or hinder involvement in urban forest stewardship actions. The implications of our model for the development of multi-level ecological interventions to foster stewardship actions are discussed, as well as directions for future research to further test and refine the model.

  14. Two-Year Community: Time for Action: Vision and Change Implementation in an Online Biology Course at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The author discusses an Introduction to Biology course they created. The course was designed by following the recommendations from the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action report, which stresses the need for engaging students through hands-on and student-centered activities. In the course, students perform…

  15. An analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles; Mehta, Pankaj; Pankaj Mehta Biophysics Theory Group Team

    A fundamental problem in community ecology is to understand how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration yield observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we present an analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly and use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, diversity in competition, and stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In our PA model, we treat species as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent work on large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special (``critical'') point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. Our results suggest that the concepts of ``phases'' and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly. Pm was supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems and a Sloan Research Fellowship.

  16. Special action groups for policy change and infrastructure support to foster healthier communities on the Arizona-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stuart J; Meister, Joel S; deZapien, Jill G

    2004-01-01

    As part of efforts to help stem the rising tide of diabetes among Hispanic Americans living in Arizona-Mexico border communities, the Border Health Strategic Initiative was launched to foster community-based approaches to diabetes prevention and control. A major thrust of the initiative was establishment of special community action groups (SAGs) to help stimulate policy change and sustain interventions designed to reduce the risk of diabetes and its complications. The SAGs met regularly for more than two years, focusing primarily on policies that encourage development of an infrastructure to support physical activity and healthier nutrition. Through involvement with planning commissions, parks and recreation, and private companies, two community development block grants were obtained to support new walking trails. The SAGs also encouraged elementary schools to improve physical education and change vending machine products, and grocery store owners and managers to allow the demonstration and promotion of healthier foods. These groups, focused on policy and infrastructure change within their communities, may be the glue needed to hold comprehensive community health promotion efforts together.

  17. Special action groups for policy change and infrastructure support to foster healthier communities on the Arizona-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stuart J.; Meister, Joel S.; deZapien, Jill G.

    2004-01-01

    As part of efforts to help stem the rising tide of diabetes among Hispanic Americans living in Arizona-Mexico border communities, the Border Health Strategic Initiative was launched to foster community-based approaches to diabetes prevention and control. A major thrust of the initiative was establishment of special community action groups (SAGs) to help stimulate policy change and sustain interventions designed to reduce the risk of diabetes and its complications. The SAGs met regularly for more than two years, focusing primarily on policies that encourage development of an infrastructure to support physical activity and healthier nutrition. Through involvement with planning commissions, parks and recreation, and private companies, two community development block grants were obtained to support new walking trails. The SAGs also encouraged elementary schools to improve physical education and change vending machine products, and grocery store owners and managers to allow the demonstration and promotion of healthier foods. These groups, focused on policy and infrastructure change within their communities, may be the glue needed to hold comprehensive community health promotion efforts together. PMID:15147648

  18. When a Model Needs a Model: Convincing Skeptics of Counterintuitive Results--An Example from Affirmative Action Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, William E.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a monte carlo computer simulation of affirmative action employment policies. The counterintuitive results of the model are explained through a thought device involving urns and marbles. States that such model simulations have implications for social policy. (BSR)

  19. Survivor voices: co-learning, re-connection, and healing through community action research and engagement (CARE).

    PubMed

    Cortez, Patricia; Dumas, Tracey; Joyce, Jeneka; Olson, Deborah; Peters, Sharon; Todahl, Jeff; Walters, Elaine; Wilde, Rose

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Trauma Healing Project (THP: www.http//healingattention.org), the Survivor Voices study (n = 351), and the complementary nature of community- campus partnerships (CCP) and community-based participatory action research methodology (PAR). Survivor Voices-a random digit telephone survey developed by, conducted, analyzed, and disseminated by survivors of abuse and violence, university researchers, and students-was designed to learn from survivors about what hurt and about what helped with regard to how people responded to their trauma, and what they recommend for trauma healing. We feature our CCP, including challenges faced, how we have addressed those challenges, and profile our current findings. We describe how PAR and CCPs can be very useful tools toward the development of a community-wide effort to reduce violence and support trauma healing.

  20. Community, Self and Identity: Participatory Action Research and the Creation of a Virtual Community across Two South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohleder, Paul; Swartz, Leslie; Bozalek, Vivienne; Carolissen, Ronelle; Leibowitz, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Fourth year students in psychology and social work from two South African universities worked together across boundaries of race and class in a course which required them to engage in a personal reflexive way with issues of community and identity. A combination of face-to-face workshops and online tutorial groups was used. The course was demanding…

  1. Community action for preventing HIV in Cambodia: evaluation of a 3-year project.

    PubMed

    Sopheab, Heng; Fylkesnes, Knut; Lim, Yi; Godwin, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The 'Community Action for Preventing HIV/AIDS Project' was implemented in four provinces in Cambodia (2001-04) to support a comprehensive set of HIV prevention efforts. Implementation was strictly monitored in terms of inputs, outputs and outcomes. We examine changes in these variables during the project period to assess the extent to which they were related to the project. Inputs and outputs were monitored regularly by supervision and quarterly project reports. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted on 10 target groups to measure changes in outcome indicators related to sexual risk behaviours, uses of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other indicators. The analyses use data from surveys and from project monitoring. Spending on HIV-related work at provincial level increased markedly, including investments in VCT, STI facilities and staff training. Yearly expenditure increased about 7-fold compared with years immediately preceding the project. VCT centres increased from 3 to 12, numbers of counsellors from 10 to 27, and numbers of client visits more than doubled. STI laboratory facilities increased from 0 to 6 with coverage of STI check-ups among sex workers increasing from 70% to 93% and a decline in men attending STI clinics. The survey results indicate significant changes in a number of major outcome indicators such as consistent condom use related to sex work (>80%), HIV testing and counselling after HIV tests, especially among police (42 to 72%, P < 0.001) and brothel-based sex workers (48 to 89%, P < 0.001). Self-reported STIs declined in most groups. Finally, the programmatic systems for planning, managing and monitoring implementation of activities at both central and provincial level, as well as technical guidelines, developed under the project have become the standard for the national programme. In conclusion, the project appears to have been comprehensive and a number of favourable

  2. CMIP5 Simulations with the Community Earth System Model - Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. J.; Marsh, D. R.; CalvoFernandez, N.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.

    2011-12-01

    We have used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to simulate the Earth's climate from pre-industrial conditions to the end of the 21st Century in several experiments following the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) protocols. We present preliminary analysis of these coupled experiments, highlighting the effects of chemistry and physics above the troposphere on climate. WACCM was developed to understand the couplings between atmospheric layers, the role of chemical and physical processes in defining these couplings, and the interaction between the Earth's atmosphere and the Sun. The current version of WACCM spans the range of altitude from the Earth's surface to the lower thermosphere (~140 km) and is based on version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM-1). WACCM has been used to predict the evolution of ozone and other radiatively active species in the middle and upper atmosphere; to study effects of the stratosphere on tropospheric climate, including the response to increased greenhouse gases; and for independent investigations. We compare climate trends in CMIP5 experiments from WACCM to those in the low-top version of CESM. We examine the coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere, including the quasi-biennial oscillation, sudden stratospheric warmings, the solar cycle, and surface climate.

  3. Analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles K.; Mehta, Pankaj

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental problem in community ecology is understanding how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration give rise to observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we analyze a recently introduced, analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly, and we use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, the amount of diversity, and demographic and environmental stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In the PA model, species are treated as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Building upon previous work, we show that, despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent studies of large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special ("critical") point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. These results suggest that the concepts of ecological "phases" and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology, and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly.

  4. The minigrant model: a strategy to promote local implementation of state cancer plans in Appalachian communities.

    PubMed

    Bounds, Toni Herring; Bumpus, Jill L; Behringer, Bruce A

    2011-07-01

    East Tennessee State University (ETSU) was awarded a grant through an interagency agreement between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Appalachian Regional Commission to promote cancer control activities between state comprehensive cancer control (CCC) coalitions and local Appalachian communities. We invited representatives from CCC coalitions and Appalachian communities to a forum to develop a plan of action. The attendees recommended a minigrant model that uses a request for proposals (RFP) strategy to encourage CCC coalitions and Appalachian communities to collaboratively conduct forums and roundtables locally. They set criteria to guide the development of the RFPs and the agendas for the roundtables and forums that ensured new communication and collaboration between the CCC coalitions and the Appalachian communities. We established the roundtable agenda to focus on the presentation and discussion of state and local Appalachian community cancer risk, incidence, and death rates and introduction of state cancer plans. The forums had a more extensive agenda to present cancer data, describe state cancer plans, and describe successful cancer control programs in local Appalachian communities. This article describes the ETSU minigrant model that supports forums and roundtables and reports how this strategy improves cooperative partnerships between CCC coalitions and Appalachian communities in the local implementation of state cancer plans in Appalachia.

  5. Animal models to study thyroid hormone action in cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2009-06-01

    Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system including the cerebellum. To study the molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action, various animal models have been used. These are classified: (1) congenital hypothyroid animals due to thyroid gland dysgenesis or thyroid dyshormonogenesis, (2) thyroid hormone receptor (TR) gene-mutated animals, and (3) thyroid hormone transport or metabolism-modified animals. TR is a ligand-activated transcription factor. In the presence of ligand, it activates transcription of target gene, whereas it represses the transcription without ligand. Thus, phenotype of TR-knockout mouse is different from that of hypothyroid animal (low thyroid hormone level), in which unliganded TR actively represses the transcription. On the other hand, human patient harboring mutant TR expresses different phenotypes depending on the function of mutated TR. To mimic this phenotype, other animal models are generated. In addition, recent human studies have shown that thyroid hormone transporters such as monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8 may play an important role in thyroid hormone-mediated brain development. However, MCT8 knockout mouse show different phenotypes from a human patient. This article introduces representative animal models currently used to study various aspects of thyroid hormone, particularly to study the involvement of the thyroid hormone system on the development and functional maintenance of the cerebellum.

  6. Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

  7. A risk management model for securing virtual healthcare communities.

    PubMed

    Chryssanthou, Anargyros; Varlamis, Iraklis; Latsiou, Charikleia

    2011-01-01

    Virtual healthcare communities aim to bring together healthcare professionals and patients, improve the quality of healthcare services and assist healthcare professionals and researchers in their everyday activities. In a secure and reliable environment, patients share their medical data with doctors, expect confidentiality and demand reliable medical consultation. Apart from a concrete policy framework, several ethical, legal and technical issues must be considered in order to build a trustful community. This research emphasises on security issues, which can arise inside a virtual healthcare community and relate to the communication and storage of data. It capitalises on a standardised risk management methodology and a prototype architecture for healthcare community portals and justifies a security model that allows the identification, estimation and evaluation of potential security risks for the community. A hypothetical virtual healthcare community is employed in order to portray security risks and the solutions that the security model provides.

  8. Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities.

    PubMed

    Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Wang, Steve C; Hertog, Rachel

    2007-09-07

    Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have emphasized potential abiotic causes and their direct biotic effects. Less attention has been devoted to secondary extinctions resulting from ecological crises and the effect of community structure on such extinctions. Here we use a trophic network model that combines topological and dynamic approaches to simulate disruptions of primary productivity in palaeocommunities. We apply the model to Permian and Triassic communities of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, and show that while Permian communities bear no evidence of being especially susceptible to extinction, Early Triassic communities appear to have been inherently less stable. Much of the instability results from the faster post-extinction diversification of amphibian guilds relative to amniotes. The resulting communities differed fundamentally in structure from their Permian predecessors. Additionally, our results imply that changing community structures over time may explain long-term trends like declining rates of Phanerozoic background extinction.

  9. Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities

    PubMed Central

    Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Wang, Steve C; Hertog, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have emphasized potential abiotic causes and their direct biotic effects. Less attention has been devoted to secondary extinctions resulting from ecological crises and the effect of community structure on such extinctions. Here we use a trophic network model that combines topological and dynamic approaches to simulate disruptions of primary productivity in palaeocommunities. We apply the model to Permian and Triassic communities of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, and show that while Permian communities bear no evidence of being especially susceptible to extinction, Early Triassic communities appear to have been inherently less stable. Much of the instability results from the faster post-extinction diversification of amphibian guilds relative to amniotes. The resulting communities differed fundamentally in structure from their Permian predecessors. Additionally, our results imply that changing community structures over time may explain long-term trends like declining rates of Phanerozoic background extinction PMID:17609191

  10. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  11. Artificial neural networks and ecological communities (Book Review: Modelling community structure in freshwater ecosystems)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    Review info: Modeling community structure in freshwater ecosystems. Edited by Sovan Lek, Michele Scardi, Piet F.M. Verdonschot, Jean-Pierre Descy, and Young-Seuk Park, 2005. ISBN: 3-540-23940-5, 518 pp.

  12. The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level.

    PubMed

    Tonglet, R; Mudosa, M; Badashonderana, M; Beghin, I; Hennart, P

    1992-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action.

  13. The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level.

    PubMed Central

    Tonglet, R.; Mudosa, M.; Badashonderana, M.; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action. PMID:1486667

  14. Increasing Baccalaureate Degree Attainment in Louisville: A Proposed Blueprint for Community Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, cities and regions have used community-wide partnerships to improve the educational attainment of their citizens. The most established of these partnerships have seen substantial education gains during their tenure. The community of Louisville, Kentucky has embarked on a similar effort to improve educational attainment. Nearly…

  15. Partnership in Action: Examples of Employer/Faith-Based and Community Organization Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication builds on the "Making a Difference Through Strategic Business Partnerships: A Guide for Faith-Based and Community Organizations" guidebook by providing a series of snapshots of partnerships between employers and faith-based and community organizations (FBCOs). FBCOs bring unique assets to the task of assisting…

  16. From Disenchantment to Dialogue and Action: The "Transforming Community" Project at Emory University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Leslie M.; Usher, Jody

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the "Transforming Community Project" (TCP) at Emory University. Emory University is large and dispersed: It comprises approximately 2,700 faculty, 6,400 staff members, and 12,300 students across nine academic divisions. The Transforming Community Project is oriented to both process and product. The…

  17. Research, Policy, and Practice in Action: The Office of Community College Research and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.; Bragg, Debra D.

    2015-01-01

    The Office for Community College Research and Leadership (OCCRL) founded in 1989 focuses on P-20 education and the role of community colleges in facilitating educational access and equity. This article highlights the work of OCCRL as a research center that bridges inquiry, policy, and practice in contributing to the national dialogue on relevant…

  18. The Pratt Center for Community Improvement: A University Urban Action Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, George M.; Shiffman, Ronald

    The Pratt Center for Community Improvement was founded in Brooklyn in 1963 by Pratt Institute. Its aim was to help equalize the knowledge level of city and community representatives concerning issues in urban renewal, and to gain the confidence of local residents and enhance their participation in decision making. Participant education and…

  19. Presence without Being Present: Reflection and Action in a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Mark; Stasz, Bird

    2011-01-01

    Reflection and Communities of Practice are common constructs in teacher education. Co-teaching is often seen as beneficial, yet teacher education students rarely have experiences being co-taught. Thus, reflection, communities of practice, and co-teaching, deserve careful consideration in designing teacher education learning experiences. Based on…

  20. Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace

    2011-01-01

    Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

  1. Participatory Action Research with "Minority Communities" and the Complexities of Emancipatory Tensions: Intersectionality and Cultural Affinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallah, Momodou

    2014-01-01

    Conducting research with communities constructed as the "other" from a purely positivist paradigm can often be replete with colossal flaws with enormous potential to oppress the researched--especially minority communities in this case. This article presents an analysis of the cultural and experiential affinity experiences of the author…

  2. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food.

  3. Generalized iterative annealing model for the action of RNA chaperones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyeon, Changbong; Thirumalai, D.

    2013-09-01

    As a consequence of the rugged landscape of RNA molecules their folding is described by the kinetic partitioning mechanism according to which only a small fraction (ϕF) reaches the folded state while the remaining fraction of molecules is kinetically trapped in misfolded intermediates. The transition from the misfolded states to the native state can far exceed biologically relevant time. Thus, RNA folding in vivo is often aided by protein cofactors, called RNA chaperones, that can rescue RNAs from a multitude of misfolded structures. We consider two models, based on chemical kinetics and chemical master equation, for describing assisted folding. In the passive model, applicable for class I substrates, transient interactions of misfolded structures with RNA chaperones alone are sufficient to destabilize the misfolded structures, thus entropically lowering the barrier to folding. For this mechanism to be efficient the intermediate ribonucleoprotein complex between collapsed RNA and protein cofactor should have optimal stability. We also introduce an active model (suitable for stringent substrates with small ϕF), which accounts for the recent experimental findings on the action of CYT-19 on the group I intron ribozyme, showing that RNA chaperones do not discriminate between the misfolded and the native states. In the active model, the RNA chaperone system utilizes chemical energy of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to repeatedly bind and release misfolded and folded RNAs, resulting in substantial increase of yield of the native state. The theory outlined here shows, in accord with experiments, that in the steady state the native state does not form with unit probability.

  4. A Kinetic Model for the Enzymatic Action of Cellulase

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Christina L.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2009-01-01

    We develop a mechanochemical model for the dynamics of cellulase, a two-domain enzyme connected by a peptide linker, as it extracts and hydrolyzes a cellulose polymer from a crystalline substrate. We consider two random walkers, representing the catalytic domain (CD) and the carbohydrate binding module (CBM), whose rates for stepping are biased by the coupling through the linker and the energy required to lift the cellulose polymer from the crystalline surface. Our results show that the linker length and stiffness play a critical role in the cooperative action of the CD and CBM domains and that, for a given linker length, the steady state hydrolysis shows a maximum at some intermediate linker stiffness. The maximum hydrolysis rate corresponds to a transition of the linker from a compressed to an extended conformation, where the system exhibits maximum fluctuation, as measured by the variance of the separation distance between the two domains and the dispersion around the mean hydrolysis speed. In the range of experimentally known values of the parameters of our model, improving the intrinsic hydrolytic activity of the CD leads to a proportional increase in the overall hydrolysis rate. PMID:19292431

  5. Community Health Aides in Grenada: A Proposed Experimental Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Manjit; Mayfield, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Key factors of a model for training community health aides are (1) extended time for updating and reinforcing skills; (2) relevance to local situations; (3) group process and interpersonal communication training; (4) practical materials; and (5) participation of physicians, local health workers, and community leaders in rural health policy…

  6. Community Colleges and Economic Development: Models of Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Lacey, Vincent A.

    An overview is provided of the nontraditional, direct involvement of community colleges in economic development activities. While a review of the literature and a discussion of the factors leading to community colleges' participation in economic development are included, the primary focus of the monograph is on seven models of nontraditional…

  7. Child Abuse & Neglect in the Mexican American Community. Course Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Rosie Lee

    Consisting of three units, the course model aims to prepare students to address the problem of abuse and/or neglect in the Mexican American community. Unit one focuses on the two major parts of the informal helping system in the Mexican American community, the barrio and the family. Unit two concentrates on the traditional child welfare system and…

  8. Models, Definitions, and Outcome Variables of Action Learning: A Synthesis with Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenhall, Everon C.; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of action learning based on an examination of four reviewed action learning models, definitions, and espoused outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: A clear articulation of the strengths and limitations of each model was essential to developing an integrated model, which could be…

  9. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  10. Action-Based Dynamical Modelling For The Milky Way Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Wilma; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bovy, Jo

    2016-09-01

    We present Road Mapping, a full-likelihood dynamical modelling machinery, that aims to recover the Milky Way's (MW) gravitational potential from large samples of stars in the Galactic disk. Road Mapping models the observed positions and velocities of stars with a parameterized, action-based distribution function (DF) in a parameterized axisymmetric gravitational potential (Binney & McMillan 2011, Binney 2012, Bovy & Rix 2013).In anticipation of the Gaia data release in autumn, we have fully tested Road Mapping and demonstrated its robustness against the breakdown of its assumptions.Using large suites of mock data, we investigated in isolated test cases how the modelling would be affected if the data's true potential or DF was not included in the families of potentials and DFs assumed by Road Mapping, or if we misjudged measurement errors or the spatial selection function (SF) (Trick et al., submitted to ApJ). We found that the potential can be robustly recovered — given the limitations of the assumed potential model—, even for minor misjudgments in DF or SF, or for proper motion errors or distances known to within 10%.We were also able to demonstrate that Road Mapping is still successful if the strong assumption of axisymmetric breaks down (Trick et al., in preparation). Data drawn from a highresolution simulation (D'Onghia et al. 2013) of a MW-like galaxy with pronounced spiral arms does neither follow the assumed simple DF, nor does it come from an axisymmetric potential. We found that as long as the survey volume is large enough, Road Mapping gives good average constraints on the galaxy's potential.We are planning to apply Road Mapping to a real data set — the Tycho-2 catalogue (Hog et al. 2000) —very soon, and might be able to present some preliminary results already at the conference.

  11. Restoring our urban communities: A model for an empowered America

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This booklet tells the story of how two very different types of organizations - Bethel New Life and Argonne National Laboratory - have forged a partnership to rebuild West Garfield Park. This unique Partnership blends Bethel`s theological and sociological roots with Argonne`s scientific and technological expertise. Together they hope to offer the community fresh, transferable approaches to solving urban socio-economic and environmental problems. The Partnership hopes to address and solve the inner city`s technological problems through community participation and collaborative demonstrations - without losing sight of the community`s social needs. The key themes throughout this booklet - jobs, sustainable community development, energy efficiency, and environment - highlight challenges the partners face. By bringing people and technologies together, this Partnership will give West Garfield Park residents a better life -- and, perhaps, offer other communities a successful model for urban renewal.

  12. The Revised European Social Fund and Action to Combat Unemployment in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandamme, Francois

    1984-01-01

    The tasks of the European Social Fund, the European Economic Community's social policy instrument, were reviewed in l983 in the light of the worsening unemployment situation and the priority placed on employment and vocational training policies. (Author/SSH)

  13. The Community Coordinated Modeling Center - An Evolving Cyberinfrastructure for the Space Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, M. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Rastaetter, L.; Mays, M. L.; MacNeice, P. J.; Zheng, Y.; Chulaki, A.; Shim, J. S.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mullinix, R.; Boblitt, J.; Bakshi, S. S.; Patel, K.; Pembroke, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center was established in 2000 as an essential element of the National Space Weather Program and was designed to be a long-term & flexible solution to the Research-to-Operations (R2O) transition problem. Over its 15-year existence, the CCMC has changed how state-of-the-art space weather models are utilized in research, and has also facilitated the transition of many research models into operational environments. The CCMC currently hosts a large and expanding collection of physics-based space weather models that have been developed by the international research community, and has amassed a peta-byte of model simulation output that represents advances in space weather modeling and space science research for the past 15 years.The ability of the CCMC to engage the international research community and support community challenges, campaigns, studies, and general research is vital to its success - so a flexible cyberinfrastructure that facilitates data discovery and interoperability with external systems is a necessity. There are many challenges associated with supporting a large number of disparate, physics-based models and the computational infrastructure to support them. This paper will highlight the CCMC's past, present, and future computational infrastructure, and showcase several examples of how the CCMC continues to support many self-organized efforts in the space science community.

  14. Sustainability of Tailored Goal Oriented Community Brief Intervention Model among risky drinkers in community in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Areesantichai, Chitlada; Perngparn, Usaneya; Pilley, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Tailored Goal Oriented Community Brief Intervention Model (TGCBI), first implemented as culturally secure and acceptable to communities in Thailand, is designed in 2 stages or levels: community level, a culturally secure approach to motivate participants to reconsider their drinking behavior; individual level, involved in the key messages received from the community level together with additional input focused towards individuals. TGCBI's effectiveness was measured by the number of abstinent drinkers and number of alcohol-free months among those who continued to drink at followup in two communities that originally had high prevalence of risky drinking. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to investigate the intervention effect. Results indicated that the number of participants who stopped drinking 6 months later and the number of alcohol-free months during followup were significantly greater (P < 0.05) for 47 participants in the intervention group compared to the control group (n = 50). TGCBI results in sustainable drinking cessation.

  15. The Reflective Teacher Leader: An Action Research Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Leena; Anderson, Dawnette

    2012-01-01

    This study presents four teacher reflections from action research projects ranging from kindergarten to adult school improvements. A teacher leadership matrix guided participants to connect teaching and learning theory to best practices by exploring uncharted territory within an iterative cycle of research and action. Teachers developed the…

  16. The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, Jim; Holland, Marika M.; Gent, Peter R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Kay, Jennifer; Kushner, P.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Large, William G.; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Lipscomb, William; Long , Matthew; Mahowald, N.; Marsh, D.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Bader, David C.; Collins, William D.; Hack, James; Kiehl, J. T.; Marshall, Shawn

    2013-09-30

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model is a natural evolution from its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, following the incorporation of new earth system capabilities. These include the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, ice sheets, and a high-top atmosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new predictive capabilities and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broader community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for earth system studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth modeling system, its various possible configurations, and illustrate its capabilities with a few science highlights.

  17. Improved community model for social networks based on social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an improved community model for social networks based on social mobility. The relationship between the group distribution and the community size is investigated in terms of communication rate and turnover rate. The degree distributions, clustering coefficients, average distances and diameters of networks are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the small-world property and can reproduce social networks effectively and efficiently.

  18. Building a community of practice for sustainability: strengthening learning and collective action of Canadian biosphere reserves through a national partnership.

    PubMed

    Reed, Maureen G; Godmaire, Hélène; Abernethy, Paivi; Guertin, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Deliberation, dialogue and systematic learning are now considered attributes of good practice for organizations seeking to advance sustainability. Yet we do not know whether organizations that span spatial scales and governance responsibilities can establish effective communities of practice to facilitate learning and action. The purpose of this paper is to generate a framework that specifies actions and processes of a community of practice designed to instill collective learning and action strategies across a multi-level, multi-partner network. The framework is then used to describe and analyze a partnership among practitioners of Canada's 16 UNESCO biosphere reserves, and additional researchers and government representatives from across Canada. The framework is a cycle of seven action steps, beginning and ending with reflecting on and evaluating present practice. It is supported by seven characteristics of collaborative environmental management that are used to gauge the success of the partnership. Our results show that the partnership successfully built trust, established shared norms and common interest, created incentives to participate, generated value in information sharing and willingness to engage, demonstrated effective flow of information, and provided leadership and facilitation. Key to success was the presence of a multi-lingual facilitator who could bridge cultural differences across regions and academia-practitioner expectations. The project succeeded in establishing common goals, setting mutual expectations and building relations of trust and respect, and co-creating knowledge. It is too soon to determine whether changes in practices that support sustainability will be maintained over the long term and without the help of an outside facilitator.

  19. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments.

  20. Communities that care for families: the LINC Model for enhancing individual, family, and community resilience.

    PubMed

    Landau, Judith

    2010-10-01

    The resilience of families and communities is inextricably linked. Their healthy functioning relies on a balance of stressors and resources. Both can be jeopardized by major challenges such as socioeconomic change or natural and man-made disasters. Such events can cause increased incidences of physical and mental problems such as addiction, posttraumatic stress syndrome, and heart disease. Trauma breeds marginalization, abuse of power, and prejudice. How these stressors are handled is profoundly influenced by the degree of connectedness-attachment-to family and culture of origin. Connectedness can be enhanced by mobilizing support systems, facilitating access to resources, strengthening family, community and cultural ties, and fostering resilience. The LINC Model increases connectedness at the individual, family, and community levels. This article includes methods for designing interventions, studies and clinical vignettes that illustrate the application of the LINC Model, and examples of communities that have overcome major stress.

  1. Investigating Indoor Air Quality Using a Community-based Participatory Research Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, A. M.; Ware, G. E.; Iwasaki, P. G.; Main, D.; Billingsley, L. R.; Pandya, R.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our project seeks to expand scientific knowledge of air pollutant screening methods while also gathering data a community group can use to improve local health outcomes. Working with Taking Neighborhood Health to Heart (TNH2H), a Denver-based neighborhood group with significant experience doing community-based participatory research (CBPR) related to improving individual and community health, we designed a project to help residents test their homes for two contaminants of interest: radon and perchloroethylene. Radon is naturally occurring and commonly found across Colorado. Perchloroethylene contamination has been discovered in other parts of Denver and residents of Northeast Denver would like to learn more about its possible presence in their neighborhood. Additionally while radon is simple to test for, the same cannot be said for perchloroethylene. This project provides an opportunity to pilot a low-cost sampling method for perchloroethylene, apply TNH2H's CBPR model to an environmental health issue, adapt it for the geosciences, and engage the community in education around air quality issues. Data collected during the project will be shared with participating homes and the larger community. Community members will also participate in understanding and interpreting the data, and together community members and scientists will plan possible next steps, which may involve conducting further research, taking community action, or recommending changes in policy and practice. Beyond the local impacts, we are testing an air quality sampling method that could make sampling more accessible to a broader range of communities. We are also learning more about how communities and scientists can best work together and what additional resources can help facilitate and ensure successful implementation of these types of projects. Our partner, the Thriving Earth Exchange, will use what we learn to facilitate scientist-community partnerships like this in other communities around the

  2. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ model research and development is currently following two tracks at the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the USEPA. Public releases of the community model system for research and policy analysis is continuing on an annual interval with the latest release scheduled for Augus...

  3. An Empirical Model for Formulating Operational Missions for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.; Doucette, Donald S.

    A research project was conducted to develop and implement a model for community college missions. The new model would depart from existing models, which utilize a hierarchy of decreasing levels of generality beginning with institutional missions and culminating in objectives. In contrast, this research defined institutional mission in terms of…

  4. Building beyond the Evaluation Of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development in African Schools and Communities: The Women Global Green Action Network (WGGAN) Africa Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enie, Rosemary Olive Mbone

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Community Health Education and School Sanitation (CHESS) Project, an initiative by the Women Global Green Action Network International to support community-based environmental projects in Africa. The CHESS Project uses women, children and youth to develop more sustainable health and sanitation systems in urban and rural…

  5. Action of a fluoranthene-utilizing bacterial community on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components of creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Chapman, P.J.; Pritchard, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Cultures enriched by serial transfer through a mineral salts medium containing fluoranthene were used to establish a stable, 7-membered bacterial community from a sandy soil highly contaminated with coal-tar creosote. This community exhibited an ability to utilize fluoranthene as sole carbon source for growth as demonstrated by increases in protein concentration and changes in absorption spectra when grown on fluoranthene in liquid culture. Biotransformation of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were verified by demonstrating their disappearance from an artificial PAH mixture using capillary gas chromatography. When grown on fluoranthene as sole carbon source and subsequently exposed to fluoranthene plus 16 additional PAHs typical of those found in creosote, this community transformed all PAHs present in this defined mixture. Continued incubation resulted in extensive degradation of the remaining 4 compounds.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Microbial Community Dynamics: A Methodological Review

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Cannon, William R.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan

    2014-10-17

    Microorganisms in nature form diverse communities that dynamically change in structure and function in response to environmental variations. As a complex adaptive system, microbial communities show higher-order properties that are not present in individual microbes, but arise from their interactions. Predictive mathematical models not only help to understand the underlying principles of the dynamics and emergent properties of natural and synthetic microbial communities, but also provide key knowledge required for engineering them. In this article, we provide an overview of mathematical tools that include not only current mainstream approaches, but also less traditional approaches that, in our opinion, can be potentially useful. We discuss a broad range of methods ranging from low-resolution supra-organismal to high-resolution individual-based modeling. Particularly, we highlight the integrative approaches that synergistically combine disparate methods. In conclusion, we provide our outlook for the key aspects that should be further developed to move microbial community modeling towards greater predictive power.

  7. Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CMAQ model is a Eulerian model that produces gridded values of atmospheric concentration and deposition. Recent updates to the model are highlighted that impact estimates of dry and wet deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and base cations. Output from the CMAQ model is used in the measurement-model fusion method used to create the National Atmospheric Program's (NADP) Total Deposition (TDEP) map product. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  8. [Supporting local communities in their actions for children living in a situation of poverty].

    PubMed

    Brunet, Lyse

    2014-03-01

    Avenir d’Enfants [Future of Children] emerged from a partnership between the government of Quebec and the Lucie and André Chagnon Foundation. The organization aims to provide local communities with resources, in order to support synergy between the principal early childhood organizations: childcare services, healthcare services, schools, family community organizations and municipalities. This article presents the context in which Avenir d’Enfants came into being, explains how the organization helps create the right conditions for local and regional initiatives to have an impact on the development of children living in a situation of poverty, and presents the challenges and success factors of this approach.

  9. Participatory Action Research and the Quest for Teacher Educator Community Solidarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Draper, Roni Jo; Hall, Kendra; Smith, Leigh K.; Young, Janet; Sabey, Brenda; Brooks, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    Desiring to overcome sharp feelings of disconnection, a year-long participatory action research seminar involving both clinical and tenure-track teacher education faculty was formed. Working in teams with tenure-track faculty support, clinical faculty set research questions but they were reluctant to assume project leadership. In part, because of…

  10. Addressing Teen Dating Violence within a Rural Community: A Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Teen Dating Violence (TDV) has become a pervasive problem for youth in the United States, with 10% to 25% of high school students engaging in physical and sexual dating violence, and with even a greater percentage of youth experiencing some form of psychological maltreatment (Kervin & Obinna, 2010, "Youth action strategies in the primary…

  11. Organizing Community-Wide Dialogue for Action and Change: A Step-by-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sarah vL.; Malick, Amy; Landesman, John; Barrett, Molly Holme; Leighninger, Matt; McCoy, Martha L.; Scully, Patrick L.

    This document is a step-by-step guide to organizing a study circle program to serve as a vehicle to achieve communitywide dialogue for action and change. Part 1 provides an overview of communitywide study circle programs, with special emphasis on their operation and impact. Part 2 details the following steps in organizing a communitywide study…

  12. Mental Health Literacy: Empowering the Community to Take Action for Better Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorm, Anthony F.

    2012-01-01

    For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…

  13. Health Action Theatre by Seniors: Community Development and Education with Groups of Diverse Languages and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmar, Isabel; Nascimento, Odete

    2002-01-01

    Describes St. Christopher House Health Action Theatre by Seniors in Toronto, which uses interactive theater to address such issues as elder abuse, mental health, substance abuse, and other health care issues. Includes information about the lack of appropriate culturally sensitive healthcare and home care support services. (JOW)

  14. Applying Knowledge to Generate Action: A Community-Based Knowledge Translation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Practical strategies are needed to translate research knowledge between researchers and users into action. For effective translation to occur, researchers and users should partner during the research process, recognizing the impact that knowledge, when translated into practice, will have on those most affected by that research.…

  15. School Bond Issues: Pass-Fail. Community Plan of Action in Support of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Montgomery; Clocksin, Virginia

    This booklet deals with ideas, plans, and activities that have worked to gain election successes; and it discusses the pitfalls and problems that have produced election failures. The report tells how to organize people and jobs, and provides a timetable for actions during the last 12 weeks of a campaign. The authors suggest that most successful…

  16. Seeking New Ways of Living Community in the Classroom and the World: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Action research is a method of examining one's own practice through reflection and critical self-study. In this paper, the author considers her experience teaching a two-day lesson on connections and relationships in William Forsythe's dance "One Flat Thing, reproduced" (2000) and the accompanying website, Synchronous Objects. The author reviews…

  17. Policy actions to achieve integrated community-based mental health services.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, Mary; Samele, Chiara; Saxena, Shekhar; Patel, Vikram; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    Globally, the majority of people with mental health problems do not receive evidence-based interventions that can transform their lives. We describe six mental health policy actions adopted at the World Innovation Summit for Health in 2013. For each policy action, we offer real-world examples of mental health innovations that governments and health care providers can implement to move toward universal health coverage for mental health. The six policy actions are empowering people with mental health problems and their families, building a diverse mental health workforce, developing collaborative and multidisciplinary mental health teams, using technology to increase access to mental health care, identifying and treating mental health problems early, and reducing premature mortality in people with mental health problems. Challenges to implementing these policy actions include the lack of recognition of mental health as a global health priority and the resulting lack of investment in mental health, the difficulties of integrating mental health into primary care health services because of a scarcity of human and financial resources, and the lack of evidence on the effectiveness and costs of taking innovations to a national scale.

  18. A Functional Test Platform for the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Thornton, Peter E; King, Anthony Wayne; Steed, Chad A; Gu, Lianhong; Schuchart, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A functional test platform is presented to create direct linkages between site measurements and the process-based ecosystem model within the Community Earth System Models (CESM). The platform consists of three major parts: 1) interactive user interfaces, 2) functional test model and 3) observational datasets. It provides much needed integration interfaces for both field experimentalists and ecosystem modelers to improve the model s representation of ecosystem processes within the CESM framework without large software overhead.

  19. Action Algebras and Model Algebras in Denotational Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Luiz Carlos Castro; Haeusler, Edward Hermann

    code for arrays in the same way as that for functional denotational types. For example, PASCAL arrays belong to the “language inherent” aspect, while the Store domain seems to belong to the “model dependent” aspect. This distinction was important because it focussed attention on optimizing the model dependent semantic domains to obtain a more efficient implementation.) The research led to a nice conclusion: The guidelines of Action Semantics induce a clear separation of the model and language inherent aspects of a language’s semantics. A good implementation of facets, particularly the model dependent ones, leads to generation of an efficient compiler. In this article we discuss the separation of the language inherent and model-inherent domains at the theoretical and conceptual level. In doing so, the authors hope to show how Professor Mosses’s influence extended beyond his technical advice to his professional and personal examples on the supervision of PhD research.

  20. Observing and modelling phytoplankton community structure in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David A.; van der Molen, Johan; Hyder, Kieran; Bacon, John; Barciela, Rosa; Creach, Veronique; McEwan, Robert; Ruardij, Piet; Forster, Rodney

    2017-03-01

    Phytoplankton form the base of the marine food chain, and knowledge of phytoplankton community structure is fundamental when assessing marine biodiversity. Policy makers and other users require information on marine biodiversity and other aspects of the marine environment for the North Sea, a highly productive European shelf sea. This information must come from a combination of observations and models, but currently the coastal ocean is greatly under-sampled for phytoplankton data, and outputs of phytoplankton community structure from models are therefore not yet frequently validated. This study presents a novel set of in situ observations of phytoplankton community structure for the North Sea using accessory pigment analysis. The observations allow a good understanding of the patterns of surface phytoplankton biomass and community structure in the North Sea for the observed months of August 2010 and 2011. Two physical-biogeochemical ocean models, the biogeochemical components of which are different variants of the widely used European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), were then validated against these and other observations. Both models were a good match for sea surface temperature observations, and a reasonable match for remotely sensed ocean colour observations. However, the two models displayed very different phytoplankton community structures, with one better matching the in situ observations than the other. Nonetheless, both models shared some similarities with the observations in terms of spatial features and inter-annual variability. An initial comparison of the formulations and parameterizations of the two models suggests that diversity between the parameter settings of model phytoplankton functional types, along with formulations which promote a greater sensitivity to changes in light and nutrients, is key to capturing the observed phytoplankton community structure. These findings will help inform future model development, which should be coupled

  1. Growing network model for community with group structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jae Dong; Jeong, Hyeong-Chai; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Jeong, Hawoong

    2005-03-01

    We propose a growing network model for a community with a group structure. The community consists of individual members and groups, gatherings of members. The community grows as a new member is introduced by an existing member at each time step. The new member then creates a new group or joins one of the groups of the introducer. We investigate the emerging community structure analytically and numerically. The group size distribution shows a power-law distribution for a variety of growth rules, while the activity distribution follows an exponential or a power law depending on the details of the growth rule. We also present an analysis of empirical data from online communities the “Groups” in http://www.yahoo.com and the “Cafe” in http://www.daum.net, which show a power-law distribution for a wide range of group sizes.

  2. Handbook and Guidelines for Community Action Programs, June 1965-June 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond Public Schools, VA. Dept. of Human Development Programs.

    Described are three components of community-school programs in Richmond, Virginia, public schools. The document presents the general guidelines for development and implementation of these programs which operate with Office of Economic Opportunity funding. Discussed are the remedial reading, early childhood education, and school-community…

  3. For Better or For Worse: Environmental Health Promotion in Support of Community Action Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altgeld Gardens-Murray Homes is a public housing development situated within a toxic doughnut (surrounded by landfills, hazardous waste sites, and heavy manufacturing facilities) in the Riverdale Community of Chicago IL, USA. Concerned about high rates of environmentally-related...

  4. Perception of Policy and Environmental Action to Promote Healthy Behaviors in African American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Clifton; Jenkins, Brenda W. Campbell; White, Monique; Henderson, Frances; McGill, Dorothy J.; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Payton, Marinelle

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the perceptions of African American communities regarding the involvement of political leaders in facilitating policy and environmental change promoting healthy eating and physical activity. We selected the Metro Jackson Area comprised of Hinds, Madison and Rankin Counties because it is a combination of urban and rural communities. The sample consisted of 70 participants from seven sites. A total of seven focus groups were asked to respond to one question to assess political leaders’ involvement in healthy living: “When you think about your political leaders that you have in the Jackson, Mississippi area, do any of them promote healthy eating and physical activity?” Focus groups consisted of six to 12 participants and were asked to comment on their participation in physical activity. The focus group interviews were digitally recorded. The recorded interviews were transcribed by a professional transcriptionist. Community members could not recollect much participation from political leaders in the health prevention/intervention efforts. In each of the counties, there was evidence that there was some involvement by local politicians in health promotion issues, but not on a large scale. In conclusion, making healthy foods and products available in neighborhood stores has long been associated with healthy behaviors and positive health outcomes. This can make a difference in the Mississippi communities where supermarkets are not accessible and health disparities abound. PMID:28272378

  5. Drawing toward Transformation and Action in a Forgotten Barrio: Cultivating a Learning and Planning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Peter; Malvicini, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study supported the emergence of a transformative learning and planning community among marginalized informal settlers in Manila, Philippines. The research was rooted in transformative learning theory while drawing from systems theory, planning, and development participation. We adapted the Search Conference (SC) to examine the process of…

  6. School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joyce L.; Sanders, Mavis G.; Simon, Beth S.; Salinas, Karen Clark; Jansorn, Natalie Rodriguez; Van Voorhis, Frances L.

    Despite strong agreement on the importance of parent involvement, most schools, districts, and states still need help in developing comprehensive programs of school, family, and community partnerships. This revised handbook translates lessons learned over 20 years of research and fieldwork into practical solutions for program development. The book…

  7. Discovering Effective Student Equity Practices in California Community Colleges: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Pamela T.

    2010-01-01

    California Community Colleges face unique challenges and opportunities in serving the state's largest new majority students who are also the state's most at-risk students. These students are the primary driver of the new economy, however they arrive at college with significant educational and economic disadvantages (Woodlief, Thomas, & Orozco,…

  8. Discrimination against differently abled children among rural communities in India: Need for action

    PubMed Central

    Janardhana, N.; Muralidhar, D.; Naidu, D. M.; Raghevendra, Guru

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons with disabilities comprise at least 4 to 8 percent of the Indian population. Children with disabilities in India are subject to multiple deprivations and limited opportunities in several dimensions of their lives. Their families and caregivers also go through lot of stress and challenges in having a person with disability at home which ultimately leads to grave discriminatory practices towards these children. Materials and Methods: The article attempts to analyze and describe the common discriminatory grounds that children with disabilities commonly face from their immediate families and from the larger community through analyzing the filed visit reports of the Basic Needs India Staff providing on job training (handholding support) for the community based rehabilitation workers. Results: The case studies describes the various ugly forms of the discriminatory practices seen in the community towards differently abled children, same been categorized as denial of disability, physical restraints, social boycott, denial of property rights, decreased marital life prospects due to disabled member in family, implications on sexuality of people with disability, women with disability, discrepancies in state welfare programs, and problems in measuring disabilities. Conclusion: During the last two decades, there has been a growing realization that institutional care for the disabled is not entirely suitable for their individual needs, dignity and independence. A movement towards community based rehabilitation has picked up pace and contribute toward greater independence and self sustainability of the disabled. PMID:25810627

  9. From Data to Action: A Community Approach to Improving Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey, Ed.; London, Rebecca A., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book is a welcome guide for educators, civic leaders, and researchers looking for ways to leverage data to identify the most effective policies, interventions, and use of resources for their communities. In the current era of reform, much has been made of the fact that there are many influences that shape children beyond the walls of the…

  10. Preparing Communities for Re-Entry of Offenders with Mental Illness: The ACTION Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Wendy M.; Noether, Chan D.; Steadman, Henry J.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 900,000 people with active symptoms of serious mental illness are booked annually into U.S. jails. Of these, about three quarters have a co-occurring substance use disorder. When these people return to the community they have multiple, complex and interrelated treatment needs, which are often exacerbated by release into the…

  11. Fostering Teacher Learning Communities: A Case Study of a School-Based Leadership Team's Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kenneth Brian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how a school-based leadership team identifies and alters school conditions to foster the development of TLCs. Many educators, school leaders, and politicians have embraced teacher learning communities (TLCs) as a vehicle for school reform. Despite the considerable documentation of the capability for TLCs to…

  12. Getting Ideas into Action: Building Networked Improvement Communities in Education. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryk, Anthony S.; Gomez, Louis M.; Grunow, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    In this Carnegie essay by Anthony Bryk, Louis Gomez and Alicia Grunow, the authors argue that the social organization of the research enterprise is badly broken and a very different alternative is needed. They instead support a science of improvement research and introduce the idea of a networked improvement community that creates the purposeful…

  13. Community Nutrition Action Kit: For People Where They Live, Learn & Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This kit is a tool for enabling communities to work together to motivate children and families to make food choices for healthy diets. Team Nutrition is the implementation tool for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Its goal is to empower schools to serve healthy meals and motivate students to make…

  14. Rural Policy Matters: A Newsletter of Rural School & Community Action, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Policy Matters, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the 10 issues of the newsletter Rural Policy Matters published in 1999. The newsletter seeks to promote understanding of the complex issues affecting rural schools and communities, to inform the public debate over rural education policy, and to report what rural people are doing to shape education policy in their state.…

  15. Learning in Action: Academic Communities and First-Year Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Kristie; Demarest, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Carroll Community College connects students to their peers and to educators who share similar academic, personal, and career interests. Students get involved in hands-on experiences inside and outside of the classroom. The results include higher retention, reduced student anonymity, and an institutional commitment to student success.

  16. Ensuring Community and Staff Support in Budget Adjustments: Participatory Management in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Ruth E.; DeLong, James

    A school district in Rosemont, Minnesota, cut 2.4 million dollars from its general fund budget in 1982-83, a cut of almost 10 percent. Instead of splitting the community, the district emerged from the process stronger than before. This was accomplished through a 4-month participatory management process involving staff, citizens, parents, and…

  17. Discovering Actionable Knowledge about Community Telecommunications Systems: Concepts and Case Applications of Design Studio Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Kimberly; Horan, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Explores the potential utility of design principles and the design studio for enacting information infrastructures essential for individuals and communities to thrive in the knowledge economy. The proposed approach, Digital Places Design, furnishes those engaged in planning and managing telecommunications infrastructure with a tool to realize…

  18. Participation As Relational Process: Unpacking Involvement in Social Action and Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffrey N.; Bench, Joshua H.; Warnaar, Bethany L.; Stroup, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Educators, policymakers, and other concerned adults share an interest in promoting lifelong patterns of community service in youth. Practitioners and researchers alike highlight the importance of youth participation in afterschool service activities so the author's focus in this paper is on youth involved in PeaceJam, an innovative…

  19. How We Formed Our Community: Lights and Cameras are Optional, but Action Is Essential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Becky

    2002-01-01

    Describes how one elementary principal created a professional learning community within her school. The process involved providing times for teachers to collaborate, determining how to spend the time, ensuring communication, building on what already existed, and focusing on creating a collaborative culture in order to have a positive impact on…

  20. A Cybernetic Approach to the Modeling of Agent Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Karlin, Jay

    2000-01-01

    In an earlier paper [1] examples of agent technology in a NASA context were presented. Both groundbased and space-based applications were addressed. This paper continues the discussion of one aspect of the Goddard Space Flight Center's continuing efforts to develop a community of agents that can support both ground-based and space-based systems autonomy. The paper focuses on an approach to agent-community modeling based on the theory of viable systems developed by Stafford Beer. It gives the status of an initial attempt to capture some of the agent-community behaviors in a viable system context. This paper is expository in nature and focuses on a discussion of the modeling of some of the underlying concepts and infrastructure that will serve as the basis of more detailed investigative work into the behavior of agent communities. The paper is organized as follows. First, a general introduction to agent community requirements is presented. Secondly, a brief introduction to the cybernetic concept of a viable system is given. This concept forms the foundation of the modeling approach. Then the concept of an agent community is modeled in the cybernetic context.

  1. A conceptual model to be used for community-based drinking-water improvements.

    PubMed

    Anstiss, Richard G; Ahmed, Mushfique

    2006-09-01

    A conceptual model that can be applied to improve community-based drinking-water in crisis-type situations has been developed from the original general science and technology/development bridging concept and from a case study in Northwest Bangladesh. The main feature of this model is the strengthened role of communities in identifying and implementing appropriate drinking-water improvements with facilitation by multi-disciplinary collaborative regional agency networks. These combined representative community/regional agency networks make decisions and take actions that involve environmental and health data, related capacity factors, and appropriateness of drinking-water improvements. They also progressively link regional decisions and actions together, expanding them nationally and preferably within a sustainable national policy-umbrella. This use of the model reflects stronger community control and input with more appropriate solutions to such drinking-water crisis situations and minimization of risk from potentially-inappropriate 'externally-imposed' processes. The application here is not intended as a generic or complete poverty-alleviation strategy by itself but as a crisis-solving intervention, complementary to existing and developing sustainable national policies and to introduce how key principles and concepts can relate in the wider context. In terms of the Bangladesh arsenic crisis, this translates into community/regional networks in geographic regions making assessments on the appropriateness of their drinking-water configuration. Preferred improvement options are decided and acted upon in a technological framework. Options include: pond-sand filters, rainwater harvesting, dugwell, deep-protected tubewell, and shallow tubewell with treatment devices. Bedding in the regional drinking-water improvement configuration protocols then occurs. This involves establishing ongoing representative monitoring and screening, clear delineation of arsenic

  2. Professional Learning Communities in Partnership: A 3-Year Journey of Action and Advocacy to Bridge the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Patricia; Dahlman, Anne; Zierdt, Ginger

    2009-01-01

    This article details a strategic planning model and concurrent 3-year research study focusing on the benefits of preK-16 professional development school learning communities for the participating preK-16 educational leaders in a midwestern school-university partnership network. Results of the study, along with the strategic plan's success at…

  3. Atomistic modeling of IR action spectra under circularly polarized electromagnetic fields: toward action VCD spectra.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Florent

    2015-03-01

    The nonlinear response and dissociation propensity of an isolated chiral molecule, camphor, to a circularly polarized infrared laser pulse was simulated by molecular dynamics as a function of the excitation wavelength. The results indicate similarities with linear absorption spectra, but also differences that are ascribable to dynamical anharmonic effects. Comparing the responses between left- and right-circularly polarized pulses in terms of dissociation probabilities, or equivalently between R- and S-camphor to a similarly polarized pulse, we find significant differences for the fingerprint C = O amide mode, with a sensitivity that could be sufficient to possibly enable vibrational circular dichroism as an action technique for probing molecular chirality and absolute conformations in the gas phase.

  4. Next generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven; Langan, Liam

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are a powerful tool to project the past, current and future distribution of vegetation and associated water and carbon fluxes. However, most models are limited by how they define vegetation and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve vegetation models. We further present a new trait- and individual-based dynamic vegetation model (the aDGVM2) that allows each individual plant to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how each individual plant grows and competes with other plants under given environmental conditions. The performance of individual plants in turn drives the assembly of a plant community. A genetic optimisation algorithm is used to simulate the inheritance of traits and different levels of reproductive isolation between individuals. Together these model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are well adapted to a site's biotic and abiotic conditions. Simulated communities can be classified into different plant functional types or biome types by using trait data bases. We illustrate that the aDGVM2 can simulate (1) how environmental conditions and changes in these conditions influence the trait spectra of assembled plant communities, (2) that fire selects for traits that enhance fire protection and reduces trait diversity, and (3) the emergence of communities dominated by life history strategies that are suggestive of colonisation-competition trade-offs. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current dynamic vegetation models. We argue that this approach will yield novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change and we believe that it could foster fruitful collaborations between research communities that focus on plant functional traits, plant competition, plant physiology, systems ecology and earth system

  5. A logic model framework for community nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Lydia C; Butkus, Sue Nicholson; Chipman, Helen; Cox, Ruby H; Jones, Larry; Little, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Logic models are a practical method for systematically collecting impact data for community nutrition efforts, such as the Food Stamp Nutrition Education program. This report describes the process used to develop and test the Community Nutrition Education Logic Model and the results of a pilot study to determine whether national evaluation data could be captured without losing flexibility of programming and evaluation at the state level. The objectives were to develop an evaluation framework based on the Logic Model to include dietary quality, food safety, food security, and shopping behavior/food resource management and to develop a training mechanism for use. The portability feature of the model should allow application to a variety of community education programs.

  6. Coastal Hazards Maps: Actionable Information for Communities Facing Sea-Level Rise (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibeaut, J. C.; Barraza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier islands along the U.S. Gulf coast remain under increasing pressure from development. This development and redevelopment is occurring despite recent hurricanes, ongoing erosion, and sea-level rise. To lessen the impacts of these hazards, local governments need information in a form that is useful for informing the public, making policy, and enforcing development rules. We recently completed the Galveston Island Geohazards Map for the city of Galveston, Texas and are currently developing maps for the Mustang and South Padre Island communities. The maps show areas that vary in their susceptibility to, and function for, mitigating the effects of geological processes, including sea-level rise, land subsidence, erosion and storm-surge flooding and washover. The current wetlands, beaches and dunes are mapped as having the highest geohazard potential both in terms of their exposure to hazardous conditions and their mitigating effects of those hazards for the rest of the island. These existing “critical environments” are generally protected under existing regulations. Importantly, however, the mapping recognizes that sea-level rise and shoreline retreat are changing the island; therefore, 60-year model projections of the effects of these changes are incorporated into the map. The areas that we project will become wetlands, beaches and dunes in the next 60 years are not protected. These areas are the most difficult to deal with from a policy point of view, yet we must address what happens there if real progress is to be made in how we live with sea-level rise. The geohazards maps draw on decades of geological knowledge of how barrier islands behave and put it in a form that is intuitive to the public and directly useful to planners. Some of the “messages” in the map include: leave salt marshes alone and give them room to migrate inland as sea level rises; set back and move development away from the shoreline to provide space for beaches and protective dunes

  7. Development of an in vitro Hepatocyte Model to Investigate Chemical Mode of Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a clear need to identify and characterize the potential of liver in vitro models that can be used to replace animals for mode of action analysis. Our goal is to use in vitro models for mode of action prediction which recapitulate critical cellular processes underlying in...

  8. Modeling Public School Partnerships: Merging Corporate and Community Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia E.; Brill, Dale A.

    This paper describes a model that merges corporate community relations strategy and public relations pedagogy to accelerate the rate at which Internet-based technologies are integrated into the public schools system. The model provides Internet-based training for a select group of Key Contacts drawn from two urban middle schools. Training is…

  9. 2012 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial - Proposal to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Marika; Bailey, David A

    2013-03-18

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .

  10. Know your community: Model applications in field research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this community is to promote the application of cropping or range system models in field research to help evaluate and develop optimum agricultural systems and management to achieve long-term economic and environmental sustainability under a changing climate. Model applications to a var...

  11. Community College Models: Myths and Realities of Access and Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    The community college model was developed in response to the inability of universities to meet economic needs and the demand for higher education. Configurations of this model include multipurpose institutions, combing academic, pre-university, technical, remedial, and continuing education; specialized orientations, offering 2 to 3 years of…

  12. A Tiered Model for Linking Students to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Laura Landry; Gerard, Jean M.; Sturm, Michael R.; Wooldridge, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    A tiered practice model (introductory, pre-internship, and internship) embedded in the curriculum facilitates community engagement and creates relevance for students as they pursue a professional identity in Human Development and Family Studies. The tiered model integrates high-impact teaching practices (HIP) and student engagement pedagogies…

  13. Retro-action model for the erosion of rocky coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapoval, B.; Baldassarri, A.

    2009-12-01

    Rocky coasts are estimated to represent 75% of the world’s shorelines [1]. We discuss various situations where the formation of rocky coast morphology could be attributed to the retro-action of the coast morphology on the erosive power of the see. In the case of rocky coasts, erosion can spontaneously create irregular seashores. But, in turn, the geometrical irregularity participates to the damping of sea-waves, decreasing the average wave amplitude and erosive power. There may then exist a mutual self-stabilization of the waves amplitude together with the irregular morphology of the coast. A simple model of such stabilization is discussed. It leads, through a complex dynamics of the earth-sea interface, to the spontaneous appearance of an irregular sea-shore. The final coast morphology is found to depend on the morphology/damping coupling of the coast and on the possible existence of built-in correlations within the coast lithologic properties. This is illustrated in the figure. In the limit case where the morphology/damping coupling is weak and when the earth lithology distribution exhibit only short range correlations, the process spontaneously build fractal morphologies with a dimension close to 4/3 [2]. It is shown that this dimension refers to the dimension of the so-called accessible perimeter in gradient percolation. However, even rugged but non-fractal sea-coasts morphology may emerge for strong damping or during the erosion process. When the distributions of the lithologies exhibit long range correlations, a variety of complex morphologies are obtained which mimics observed coastline complexity, well beyond simple fractality. On a somewhat different perspective, the design of breakwaters is suggested to be improved by using global irregular geometry with features sizes of the order of the wave-length of the sea oscillations. [1] R. A. Davis, Jr, D. M. Fitzgerald, Beaches and Coasts,(Blackwell, Oxford 2004). [2] B. Sapoval, A. Baldassarri, A. Gabrielli

  14. Green Action through Education: A Model for Fostering Positive Attitudes about STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheland, Ethel R.; Donovan, William J.; Dukes, J. Thomas; Qammar, Helen K.; Smith, Gregory A.; Williams, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative collaboration between instructors of non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses and scientists who teach STEM courses in the GATE (Green Action Through Education) learning community. The scientists in this project presented engaging science--in such diverse locations as a sewage…

  15. Space Weather Products at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Berrios, D.; MacNeice, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions, the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second CCMC activity is to support Space Weather forecasting at national Space Weather Forecasting Centers. This second activity involves model evaluations, model transitions to operations, and the development of space weather forecasting tools. Owing to the pace of development in the science community, new model capabilities emerge frequently. Consequently, space weather products and tools involve not only increased validity, but often entirely new capabilities. This presentation will review the present state of space weather tools as well as point out emerging future capabilities.

  16. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  17. Educating the Community: A Watershed Model Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryess, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the construction and use of a schoolyard model of the Morrow Bay watershed in California. Describes the design and use of materials that include styrofoam insulation, crushed granite, cement, and stucco. (DDR)

  18. Chiropractic care and public health: answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession to public health? What public health roles can chiropractic interns perform for underserved communities in a collaborative environment? Can the chiropractic profession contribute to community health? What opportunities do doctors of chiropractic have to be involved in health care reform in the areas of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?

  19. [The circulation of influenza virus in human communities subjected to the action of noxious chemical substances].

    PubMed

    Moisa, I; Petrescu, A; Pârvu, C; Bârnaure, F; Sîrbu, D

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were conducted during 1985 and 1986 years on the effect of some noxious chemicals on the influenza virus circulation in an industrial enterprise community. The presence of influenza virus type A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B was revealed by immunofluorescence in exfoliated cells collected from nasopharynx. The kinetic of type specific hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies was followed monthly. Chick embryos were used to isolate influenza virus strains. Meaning of the results is discussed from an epidemiological point of view.

  20. Microbial Community Metabolic Modeling: A Community Data‐Driven Network Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Christopher S.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; Taylor, Ronald C.; Lee, Joon‐Yong; Zucker, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network modeling of microbial communities provides an in‐depth understanding of community‐wide metabolic and regulatory processes. Compared to single organism analyses, community metabolic network modeling is more complex because it needs to account for interspecies interactions. To date, most approaches focus on reconstruction of high‐quality individual networks so that, when combined, they can predict community behaviors as a result of interspecies interactions. However, this conventional method becomes ineffective for communities whose members are not well characterized and cannot be experimentally interrogated in isolation. Here, we tested a new approach that uses community‐level data as a critical input for the network reconstruction process. This method focuses on directly predicting interspecies metabolic interactions in a community, when axenic information is insufficient. We validated our method through the case study of a bacterial photoautotroph–heterotroph consortium that was used to provide data needed for a community‐level metabolic network reconstruction. Resulting simulations provided experimentally validated predictions of how a photoautotrophic cyanobacterium supports the growth of an obligate heterotrophic species by providing organic carbon and nitrogen sources. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2339–2345, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27186840

  1. Transforming Community Access to Space Science Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter; Heese, Michael; Kunetsova, Maria; Maddox, Marlo; Rastaetter, Lutz; Berrios, David; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Researching and forecasting the ever changing space environment (often referred to as space weather) and its influence on humans and their activities are model-intensive disciplines. This is true because the physical processes involved are complex, but, in contrast to terrestrial weather, the supporting observations are typically sparse. Models play a vital role in establishing a physically meaningful context for interpreting limited observations, testing theory, and producing both nowcasts and forecasts. For example, with accurate forecasting of hazardous space weather conditions, spacecraft operators can place sensitive systems in safe modes, and power utilities can protect critical network components from damage caused by large currents induced in transmission lines by geomagnetic storms.

  2. A decision model for community nurses providing bereavement care.

    PubMed

    Brownhill, Suzanne; Chang, Esther; Bidewell, John; Johnson, Amanda

    2013-03-01

    Community (district) nurses play a significant role in assisting and supporting bereaved informal carers (family members and friends) of recently decease clients of palliative care. Bereavement care demands a wide range of competencies including clinical decision-making. To date, little has been known about the decision-making role of community nurses in Australia. The aim of this study was to conduct in-depth examination of an existing data set generated from semi-structured interviews of 10 community nurses providing follow-up bereavement care home visits within an area health service of a metropolitan region of Sydney, Australia. A grounded theory approach to data analysis generated a model, which highlights an interaction between 'the relationship','the circumstances' (surrounding the bereavement),'the psychosocial variant', 'the mix of nurses', 'the workload', and 'the support' available for the bereaved and for community nurses, and elements of 'the visit' (central to bereavement care). The role of community nurses in bereavement care is complex, particularly where decision-making is discretionary and contingent on multiple variables that effect the course of the family's grief. The decision model has the potential to inform community nurses in their support of informal carers, to promote reflective practice and professional accountability, ensuring continuing competence in bereavement care.

  3. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  4. The Social Production of Altruism: Motivations for Caring Action in a Low-Income Urban Community

    PubMed Central

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Grayman, Nyasha; Bonacci, Meredith; Brennan, William; Cowie, Sheri-Ann; Ladyzhenskaya, Lina; So, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary social science paints a bleak picture of inner-city relational life. Indeed, the relationships of low-income, urban-residing Americans are represented as rife with distress, violence and family disruption. At present, no body of social scientific work systematically examines the factors that promote loving or selfless interactions among low-income, inner-city American individuals, families and communities. In an effort to fill that gap, this ethnographic study examined the motivations for altruism among a sample of adults (n = 40) who reside in an economically distressed housing community (i.e., housing project) in New York City. Content analyses of interviews indicated that participants attributed altruism to an interplay between 14 motives that were then ordered into four overarching categories of motives: (1) needs-centered motives, (2) norm-based motives deriving from religious/spiritual ideology, relationships and personal factors, (3) abstract motives (e.g., humanism), and (4) sociopolitical factors. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19156513

  5. Turning Awareness into Action: What Your Community Can Do about Drug Use in America = De La Toma de Conciencia a la Accion: Que Puede Hacer la Comunidad Respecto al Consumo de Drogas en America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This booklet gives examples of successful community drug abuse prevention programs, as well as guidelines for finding out more about a community's prevention needs and taking action. The first section discusses taking action against drug abuse. It presents examples which illustrate the different approaches communities have taken. Ten steps to help…

  6. A Community Terrain-Following Ocean Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    ways to incorporate wetting and drying effects. 4. A new NPZD biological model have been added using the formulation proposed by Powell et al. (2006...A Community Terrain-Following Ocean Modeling System Hernan G. Arango Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University 71 Dudley Road...generation primitive equation, Terrain-following Ocean Modeling System (TOMS) for high-resolution scientific and operational applications. This

  7. A model for evaluating the activities of a coalition-based policy action group: the case of Hermosa Vida.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Lisa Jane; Wertheim, Peter; Bohan, Kyle; Quezada, Julio Cesar; Henley, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Scholars and clinicians are increasingly recognizing the complexity of social contexts of health and the need for multifunctioning approaches to health care problems including community- and policy-level strategies. Barriers to change in health care policy can sometimes be attributed to the actions of advocacy coalitions who operate from a limited view of "policy change." Advocates have a tendency to pressure stakeholders to mandate laws as a final resolution of a movement, often leading to failure or, worse, stigmatizing of issues. A more inclusive focus on health policy change as an ongoing process increases the efficacy of advocacy and outcomes measurement. This article presents a tool for policy action that coalition members developed through the implementation of a 3-year grant to improve the safety net for preventing childhood obesity. Scholars and policy makers developed the Policy Coalition Evaluation Tool with the intent to create a model to guide and measure efforts and outcomes of a local community-based policy coalition. The authors suggest using community-based participatory research approaches for developing a coalition-specific Policy Coalition Evaluation Tool to increase the effectiveness of advocacy groups and the documentation of coalition activities over time.

  8. Tianeptine in an experimental medicine model of antidepressant action.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Charlotte M; Whiting, Daniel A; Cowen, Philip J; Harmer, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    Changes in emotional processing have been shown following acute administration of a range of monoaminergic antidepressants, and may represent an important common neuropsychological mechanism underpinning their therapeutic effects. Tianeptine is an agent that challenges the traditional monoaminergic hypothesis of antidepressant action, though its exact mode of action remains controversial. Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive a single dose of tianeptine (12.5 mg) or placebo, and subsequently completed a battery of tasks measuring emotional processing, including facial expression recognition, emotional memory and attentional vigilance, as well as working and verbal memory. Tianeptine-treated subjects were less accurate at identifying facial expressions, though this was not valence specific. The tianeptine group also showed reduced positive affective memory and reduced attentional vigilance to positive stimuli. There were no effects on emotional categorization or non-emotional cognition. The negative biases in aspects of emotional processing observed following acute tianeptine administration are at variance with the positive biases generally seen after acute administration of conventional antidepressant drugs, despite tianeptine's putative antidepressant efficacy. This is an intriguing finding in the context of the lack of consensus regarding tianeptine's mechanism of action; however, it may be consistent with the reported ability of acute tianeptine to increase the re-uptake of serotonin.

  9. An airport community noise-impact assessment model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1980-01-01

    A computer model was developed to assess the noise impact of an airport on the community which it serves. Assessments are made using the Fractional Impact Method by which a single number describes the community aircraft noise environment in terms of exposed population and multiple event noise level. The model is comprised of three elements: a conventional noise footprint model, a site specific population distribution model, and a dose response transfer function. The footprint model provides the noise distribution for a given aircraft operating scenario. This is combined with the site specific population distribution obtained from a national census data base to yield the number of residents exposed to a given level of noise. The dose response relationship relates noise exposure levels to the percentage of individuals highly annoyed by those levels.

  10. [Lysozyme-antilysozyme interactions in protozoa-bacteria communities (a model Tetrahymena-Escherichia community)].

    PubMed

    Bukharin, O V; Nemtseva, N V

    2001-01-01

    Lysozyme and antilysozyme activities present in a wide range of microorganisms determine the so-called lysozyme-antilysozyme system of hydrobionts, which greatly contribute to the formation of aquatic biocenoses. However, the mechanism of the functioning of this system in natural freshwater communities remains obscure. The experimental investigation of lysozyme-antilysozyme interactions in a model Tetrahymena--Escherichia community showed that the antilysozyme activity of Escherichia coli leads to incomplete phagocytosis, thus enhancing bacterial survival in a mixed culture with infusoria. The selection and reproduction of bacterial cells resistant to grazing by infusoria determine the character of host-parasite interactions and allow bacteria to survive. It was demonstrated that the antilysozyme activity of microorganisms, which is responsible for bacterial persistency in natural biocenoses, is involved in the maintenance of protozoa-bacteria communities in bodies of water.

  11. Bayesian Action-Perception loop modeling: Application to trajectory generation and recognition using internal motor simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilet, Estelle; Diard, Julien; Palluel-Germain, Richard; Bessière, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    This paper is about modeling perception-action loops and, more precisely, the study of the influence of motor knowledge during perception tasks. We use the Bayesian Action-Perception (BAP) model, which deals with the sensorimotor loop involved in reading and writing cursive isolated letters and includes an internal simulation of movement loop. By using this probabilistic model we simulate letter recognition, both with and without internal motor simulation. Comparison of their performance yields an experimental prediction, which we set forth.

  12. Pedagogies in Action: A Community Resource Linking Teaching Methods to Examples of their Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S. P.; Iverson, E. A.; Kirk, K.; Ormand, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Pedagogies in Action portal (http://serc.carleton.edu/sp) provides access to information on more than 40 teaching methods with examples of their use in geoscience and beyond. Each method is described with pages addressing what the method is, why or when it is useful, and how it can be implemented. New methods added this year include Teaching with Google Earth, Jigsaw, Teaching the Process of Science, Guided Discovery Problems, Teaching Urban Students, and Using ConceptTests. Examples then show specifically how the method has been used to teach concepts in a variety of disciplines. The example collection now includes 775 teaching activities of which more than 550 are drawn from the geosciences. Geoscience faculty are invited to add their own examples to this collection or to test examples in the collection and provide a review. Evaluation results show that the combination of modules and activities inspires teachers at all levels to use a new pedagogy and increases their confidence that they can use it successfully. In addition, submitting activities to the collection, including writing summary information for other instructors, helps them think more carefully about the design of their activity. The activity collections are used both for ready to use activities and to find ideas for new activities. The portal provides overarching access to materials developed by a wide variety of collaborating partners each of which uses the service to create a customized pedagogic portal addressing a more specific audience. Of interest to AGU members are pedagogic portals on Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo); On the Cutting Edge (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops); Enduring Resources for Earth System Education (http://earthref.org/ERESE) Microbial Life Educational Resources (http://serc.carleton.edu/microbe_life); the National Numeracy Network (http://serc.carleton.edu/nnn/index.html); CAUSE: The Consortium for

  13. Modeling the Spread of Tuberculosis in Semiclosed Communities

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Mauricio; Bosch, Paul; Nájera, Manuel; Aguilera, Ximena

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of long-term dynamics of tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis (LTB) in semiclosed communities. These communities are congregate settings with the potential for sustained daily contact for weeks, months, and even years between their members. Basic examples of these communities are prisons, but certain urban/rural communities, some schools, among others could possibly fit well into this definition. These communities present a sort of ideal conditions for TB spread. In order to describe key relevant dynamics of the disease in these communities, we consider a five compartments SEIR model with five possible routes toward TB infection: primary infection after a contact with infected and infectious individuals (fast TB), endogenous reactivation after a period of latency (slow TB), relapse by natural causes after a cure, exogenous reinfection of latently infected, and exogenous reinfection of recovered individuals. We discuss the possible existence of multiple endemic equilibrium states and the role that the two types of exogenous reinfections in the long-term dynamics of the disease could play. PMID:23762194

  14. Improving community health through marketing exchanges: A participatory action research study on water, sanitation, and hygiene in three Melanesian countries.

    PubMed

    Barrington, D J; Sridharan, S; Saunders, S G; Souter, R T; Bartram, J; Shields, K F; Meo, S; Kearton, A; Hughes, R K

    2016-12-01

    Diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) are major causes of mortality and morbidity. While pursuing marketing approaches to WaSH to improve health outcomes is often narrowly associated with monetary exchange, marketing theory recognises four broad marketing exchange archetypes: market-based, non-market-based, command-based and culturally determined. This diversity reflects the need for parameters broader than monetary exchange when improving WaSH. This study applied a participatory action research process to investigate how impoverished communities in Melanesian urban and peri-urban informal settlements attempt to meet their WaSH needs through marketing exchange. Exchanges of all four archetypes were present, often in combination. Motivations for participating in the marketing exchanges were based on social relationships alongside WaSH needs, health aspirations and financial circumstances. By leveraging these motivations and pre-existing, self-determined marketing exchanges, WaSH practitioners may be able to foster WaSH marketing exchanges consistent with local context and capabilities, in turn improving community physical, mental and social health.

  15. Actions in the Eye: Dynamic Gaze Datasets and Learnt Saliency Models for Visual Recognition.

    PubMed

    Mathe, Stefan; Sminchisescu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Systems based on bag-of-words models from image features collected at maxima of sparse interest point operators have been used successfully for both computer visual object and action recognition tasks. While the sparse, interest-point based approach to recognition is not inconsistent with visual processing in biological systems that operate in `saccade and fixate' regimes, the methodology and emphasis in the human and the computer vision communities remains sharply distinct. Here, we make three contributions aiming to bridge this gap. First, we complement existing state-of-the art large scale dynamic computer vision annotated datasets like Hollywood-2 [1] and UCF Sports [2] with human eye movements collected under the ecological constraints of visual action and scene context recognition tasks. To our knowledge these are the first large human eye tracking datasets to be collected and made publicly available for video, vision.imar.ro/eyetracking (497,107 frames, each viewed by 19 subjects), unique in terms of their (a) large scale and computer vision relevance, (b) dynamic, video stimuli, (c) task control, as well as free-viewing. Second, we introduce novel dynamic consistency and alignment measures, which underline the remarkable stability of patterns of visual search among subjects. Third, we leverage the significant amount of collected data in order to pursue studies and build automatic, end-to-end trainable computer vision systems based on human eye movements. Our studies not only shed light on the differences between computer vision spatio-temporal interest point image sampling strategies and the human fixations, as well as their impact for visual recognition performance, but also demonstrate that human fixations can be accurately predicted, and when used in an end-to-end automatic system, leveraging some of the advanced computer vision practice, can lead to state of the art results.

  16. From Experiential Knowledge to Public Participation: Social Learning at the Community Fisheries Action Roundtable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jennifer F.

    2013-08-01

    Extensive research demonstrates that public participation in environmental decision making can increase understanding of diverse worldviews and knowledge bases, public faith in governance institutions, and compliance with resulting rules. Concerns linger around costs, possibilities of polarization and decreased legitimacy in cases of poorly executed processes, and the ability of newly empowered groups to gain political leverage over others. If participants in public processes can bracket their personal experience to better assess other viewpoints, establishing mutual respect and understanding through deliberative exchange, they increase the likelihood of maximizing participatory benefits and minimizing risks. Such reflexivity indicates double-loop social learning, change undertaken through collective discussion and interaction. A capacity-building workshop program aims to foster such learning within the Maine fishing industry. Case material draws primarily on participant observation and interview data, using a grounded theory approach to qualitative analysis. Evidence indicates that in social contexts removed from the norms of daily life and the frustrations of past fishery management confrontations, harvesters acquire knowledge and skills that facilitate more strategic and productive behavior in formal and informal marine resource decision venues. Suspensions of longstanding spatio-temporal assumptions around the prosecution and management of fisheries comprise key learning moments, and yield corresponding changes in industry attitudes and actions. With heightened appreciation for a diversity of experiences and management priorities, harvesters can better mobilize a broad spectrum of local knowledge to develop viable regulatory proposals and collaborative decision processes.

  17. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 1: MODEL DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerosol component of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is designed to be an efficient and economical depiction of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdis...

  18. Teens as Community Resources: A Model of Youth Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstaff, Deborah G.

    This manual describes Teens As Community Resources, Incorporated (TCR) in Boston (Massachusetts) for those interested in how to start youth-run philanthropic efforts, using a peer leadership model or for those wanting to incorporate youth leadership and empowerment in a youth services organization. The introduction provides a brief description of…

  19. A Model for Art Therapists in Community-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Awais, Yasmine J.

    2016-01-01

    With growing trends toward preventative, community-based health care, art therapists must expand their scope of practice beyond the medical model and individual psychodynamics in order to serve, include, and empower those in need. In this article the authors review literature that illustrates the unique qualities art therapists can contribute to…

  20. Modeling Pollinator Community Response to Contrasting Bioenergy Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ashley B.; Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation. PMID:25365559

  1. Micmac medical student becomes role model for his community.

    PubMed

    Robb, N

    1997-01-01

    When Robert Johnson graduates from medical school in 1998, he will become Canada's first Micmac physician. For him, going to medical school is a major responsibility because he is a role model for an entire community. He hopes he is only the first of many Micmacs to make this career choice.

  2. Micmac medical student becomes role model for his community

    PubMed Central

    Robb, N

    1997-01-01

    When Robert Johnson graduates from medical school in 1998, he will become Canada's first Micmac physician. For him, going to medical school is a major responsibility because he is a role model for an entire community. He hopes he is only the first of many Micmacs to make this career choice. PMID:9006570

  3. A Model Community College Grievance Procedure for Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    Through a review of the literature, analysis of eleven Title IX grievance plans, and interviews with four compliance officers, twelve criteria essential to an effective grievance procedure for use by students were identified and incorporated into a model Title IX grievance procedure for Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois). The twelve…

  4. Beacons for Change: An Innovative Outcome Model for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, John E.; Baker, George A.

    The participatory, outcome-centered model of college governance described in this book focuses on recruitment, rewards, and retention of both students and professional staff. An introduction examines the history and current status of community colleges, presents existing and proposed patterns of administrative and faculty relationships, and…

  5. Comprehensive Community Model for Physical Processes in the Nearshore Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    community model that predicts Nearshore hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and seabed morphology changes given offshore wave conditions and initial...and morphological evolution Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13

  6. Developing Intercultural Competence through the Learning Community Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Mills, Susana V.

    2010-01-01

    Learning Communities (LC) represent an alternative model of teaching and learning in higher education that can foster intercultural competence and knowledge. "Some of the distinctive features of LCs are that they are usually smaller than most units on campus, they help overcome the isolation of faculty members from one another and their…

  7. Models of Organization and Governance at the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael

    In order to provide the best management model for the effective and efficient operation of community colleges, it is useful to look briefly at management theories. The three principle theories in use in corporate management are: (1) theory X, involving an autocratic supervisor allowing for minimal group influence; (2) theory Y, in which…

  8. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ashley B; Meehan, Timothy D; Gratton, Claudio; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation.

  9. Space Weather Products at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In addition to supporting space research in the international community, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has as its second objective to bring to apply the power of modern research models toward space weather specification and forecasting. Initially motivated by the objective to test models and to ease the transition of research models to space weather forecasting organization, the CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as large number of modeling and data products for space weather forecasting. Over time, these activities have evolved into tailored products for partners, as well as into a direct support of the space weather needs within NASA robotic mission community. Accessible through a customizable interface, users within the US or at partnering institutions internationally have access to space weather tools driven by the most advanced space research models. Through partnering with agencies and institutions in the US and abroad, the CCMC strives to set up further data sharing agreements to the benefit of all participating institutions. In this presentation, we provide an overview of existing CCMC space weather services and products, and we will explore additional avenues for international collaborations.

  10. Constraining soil C cycling with strategic, adaptive action for data and model reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, J. W.; Swanston, C.; Hugelius, G.

    2015-12-01

    Regional to global carbon assessments include a variety of models, data sets, and conceptual structures. This includes strategies for representing the role and capacity of soils to sequester, release, and store carbon. Traditionally, many soil carbon data sets emerged from agricultural missions focused on mapping and classifying soils to enhance and protect production of food and fiber. More recently, soil carbon assessments have allowed for more strategic measurement to address the functional and spatially explicit role that soils play in land-atmosphere carbon exchange. While soil data sets are increasingly inter-comparable and increasingly sampled to accommodate global assessments, soils remain poorly constrained or understood with regard to their role in spatio-temporal variations in carbon exchange. A more deliberate approach to rapid improvement in our understanding involves a community-based activity than embraces both a nimble data repository and a dynamic structure for prioritization. Data input and output can be transparent and retrievable as data-derived products, while also being subjected to rigorous queries for merging and harmonization into a searchable, comprehensive, transparent database. Meanwhile, adaptive action groups can prioritize data and modeling needs that emerge through workshops, meta-data analyses or model testing. Our continual renewal of priorities should address soil processes, mechanisms, and feedbacks that significantly influence global C budgets and/or significantly impact the needs and services of regional soil resources that are impacted by C management. In order to refine the International Soil Carbon Network, we welcome suggestions for such groups to be led on topics such as but not limited to manipulation experiments, extreme climate events, post-disaster C management, past climate-soil interactions, or water-soil-carbon linkages. We also welcome ideas for a business model that can foster and promote idea and data sharing.

  11. Community-Campus Partnership in Action: Lessons Learned from the DuPage County Patient Navigation Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Samaras, Athena T.; Murphy, Kara; Nonzee, Narissa J.; Endress, Richard; Taylor, Shaneah; Hajjar, Nadia; Bularzik, Rosario; Frankovich, Carmi; Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Using community-based participatory research (CBPR), the DuPage County Patient Navigation Collaborative (DPNC) developed an academic campus-community research partnership aimed at increasing access to care for underserved breast and cervical cancer patients within DuPage County, a collar county of Chicago. Given rapidly shifting demographics, targeting CBPR initiatives among underserved suburban communities is essential. Objectives To discuss the facilitating factors and lessons learned in forging the DPNC. Methods A patient navigation collaborative was formed to guide medically underserved women through diagnostic resolution and if necessary, treatment, following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening. Lessons Learned Facilitating factors included: (1) fostering and maintaining collaborations within a suburban context (2) a systems-based participatory research approach (3) a truly equitable community-academic partnership, (4) funding adaptability (5) culturally relevant navigation, and (6) emphasis on co-learning and capacity building. Conclusions By highlighting the strategies that contributed to DPNC success, we envision the DPNC to serve as a feasible model for future health interventions. PMID:24859105

  12. Modeling situated abstraction : action coalescence via multidimensional coherence.

    SciTech Connect

    Sallach, D. L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Situated social agents weigh dozens of priorities, each with its own complexities. Domains of interest are intertwined, and progress in one area either complements or conflicts with other priorities. Interpretive agents address these complexities through: (1) integrating cognitive complexities through the use of radial concepts, (2) recognizing the role of emotion in prioritizing alternatives and urgencies, (3) using Miller-range constraints to avoid oversimplified notions omniscience, and (4) constraining actions to 'moves' in multiple prototype games. Situated agent orientations are dynamically grounded in pragmatic considerations as well as intertwined with internal and external priorities. HokiPoki is a situated abstraction designed to shape and focus strategic agent orientations. The design integrates four pragmatic pairs: (1) problem and solution, (2) dependence and power, (3) constraint and affordance, and (4) (agent) intent and effect. In this way, agents are empowered to address multiple facets of a situation in an exploratory, or even arbitrary, order. HokiPoki is open to the internal orientation of the agent as it evolves, but also to the communications and actions of other agents.

  13. IMPACT: Interactive Model for Professional Action and Change for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Martha; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A model of classroom-based staff development for teachers at the high school level is described. The program incorporates the consulting teacher model and uses three kinds of inservice training: courses, consultations, and workshops. (JN)

  14. From favours to entitlements: community voice and action and health service quality in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Marta; Topp, Stephanie M; Ngulube, Moses

    2017-03-27

    Social accountability is increasingly invoked as a way of improving health services. This article presents a theory-driven qualitative study of the context, mechanisms and outcomes of a social accountability program, Citizen Voice and Action (CVA), implemented by World Vision (WV) in Zambia. Primary data were collected between November 2013 and January 2014. It included in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with program stakeholders. Secondary data were used iteratively-to inform the process for primary data collection, to guide primary data analysis and to contextualize findings from the primary data. CVA positively impacted the state, society, state-society relations and development coordination at the local level. Specifically, sustained improvements in some aspects of health system responsiveness, empowered citizens, the improved provision of public goods (health services) and increased consensus on development issues appeared to flow from CVA. The central challenge described by interviewees and FGD participants was the inability of CVA to address problems that required central level input. The mechanisms that generated these outcomes included productive state-society communication, enhanced trust, and state-society co-production of priorities and the provision of services. These mechanisms were activated in the context of existing structures for state-society interaction, willing political leaders, buy-in by traditional leaders, and WV's strong reputation and access to resources. Prospective observational research in multiple contexts would shed more light on the context, mechanisms and outcomes of CVA programs. In addition to findings that are intuitive and well supported in the literature we identified new areas that are promising areas for future research. These include (1) the context of organizational reputation by the organization(s) spearheading social accountability efforts; (2) the potential relationship between social accountability efforts

  15. Community Sediment Transport Modeling, National Ocean Partnership Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    processes, the model includes the influence of flocculation, hindered settling, rheology, and turbulence -suppression by stratification. Figure 8 indicates...been accomplished. The extensive upwelling event occurred in March 2002 is better reproduced with evident appearance of submesoscale spiral eddies all...To) 6/16/2006-9/30/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Community Sediment Transport Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBERS 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-06-1-0945 5c

  16. A systems approach to modeling Community-Based Environmental Monitoring: a case of participatory water quality monitoring in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Ana; Páez, Rosaura; Carmona, Estela; Rivas, Hilda

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Environmental Monitoring (CBM) is a social practice that makes a valuable contribution to environmental management and construction of active societies for sustainable future. However, its documentation and analysis show deficiencies that hinder contrast and comparison of processes and effects. Based on systems approach, this article presents a model of CBM to orient assessment of programs, with heuristic or practical goals. In a focal level, the model comprises three components, the social subject, the object of monitoring, and the means of action, and five processes, data management, social learning, assimilation/decision making, direct action, and linking. Emergent properties were also identified in the focal and suprafocal levels considering community self-organization, response capacity, and autonomy for environmental management. The model was applied to the assessment of a CBM program of water quality implemented in rural areas in Mexico. Attributes and variables (indicators) for components, processes, and emergent properties were selected to measure changes that emerged since the program implementation. The assessment of the first 3 years (2010-2012) detected changes that indicated movement towards the expected results, but it revealed also the need to adjust the intervention strategy and procedures. Components and processes of the model reflected relevant aspects of the CBM in real world. The component called means of action as a key element to transit "from the data to the action." The CBM model offered a conceptual framework with advantages to understand CBM as a socioecological event and to strengthen its implementation under different conditions and contexts.

  17. The effectiveness of the assertive community treatment model.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Evelyn J

    2002-07-01

    This study sought to determine the benefits of an assertive community treatment model (ACT) versus a continuing day-treatment program (CDTP) for the treatment of chronic mentally ill patients. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design with a matched-groups comparison of outcomes achieved by patients in two community mental health centers in the South Bronx area of New York City. The study assessed outcomes regarding hospital readmissions, quality of life, and housing and vocational rehabilitation. The sample size was 60, with 30 subjects in each group. Due to the small size and baseline differences between groups, nonparametric tests were the primary statistical analyses.

  18. Transition to Operations Support at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. This paper will focus on a status report on CCMC activities in support of model transition to operations at US space weather forecasting centers. In particular, an update will be given on past and present transition activities, on developments that address operational needs, and on future opportunities for transition-to-operations support.

  19. Action Generation Model Based on Changes in State Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouko, Manabu; Tomi, Naoki; Nagano, Tomoaki; Ito, Koji

    In this paper, we propose a self-organized learning model that can generate behaviors for successfully performing various tasks. The model memorizes various relationships between changes in a state pattern and a motor command through learning. After the learning, the model can perform various tasks by generating the various behaviors automatically. We confirmed the performance of the model by applying it to a mobile robot simulation. The results indicate that suitable behaviors for all the tasks generated spontaneously. Additionally, we propose a sequential learning method which modifies the memorized various relationships while the model executes the task. And we confirmed the effectiveness of the sequential learning by the simulation.

  20. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  1. Impacts of forest fragmentation on species richness: a hierarchical approach to community modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, Elise F.; DeWan, Amielle; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    1. Species richness is often used as a tool for prioritizing conservation action. One method for predicting richness and other summaries of community structure is to develop species-specific models of occurrence probability based on habitat or landscape characteristics. However, this approach can be challenging for rare or elusive species for which survey data are often sparse. 2. Recent developments have allowed for improved inference about community structure based on species-specific models of occurrence probability, integrated within a hierarchical modelling framework. This framework offers advantages to inference about species richness over typical approaches by accounting for both species-level effects and the aggregated effects of landscape composition on a community as a whole, thus leading to increased precision in estimates of species richness by improving occupancy estimates for all species, including those that were observed infrequently. 3. We developed a hierarchical model to assess the community response of breeding birds in the Hudson River Valley, New York, to habitat fragmentation and analysed the model using a Bayesian approach. 4. The model was designed to estimate species-specific occurrence and the effects of fragment area and edge (as measured through the perimeter and the perimeter/area ratio, P/A), while accounting for imperfect detection of species. 5. We used the fitted model to make predictions of species richness within forest fragments of variable morphology. The model revealed that species richness of the observed bird community was maximized in small forest fragments with a high P/A. However, the number of forest interior species, a subset of the community with high conservation value, was maximized in large fragments with low P/A. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the responses of both individual, and groups of species, to environmental heterogeneity while illustrating the utility

  2. Estimating transition probabilities among everglades wetland communities using multistate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotaling, A.S.; Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we were able to provide the first estimates of transition probabilities of wet prairie and slough vegetative communities in Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA3A) of the Florida Everglades and to identify the hydrologic variables that determine these transitions. These estimates can be used in management models aimed at restoring proportions of wet prairie and slough habitats to historical levels in the Everglades. To determine what was driving the transitions between wet prairie and slough communities we evaluated three hypotheses: seasonality, impoundment, and wet and dry year cycles using likelihood-based multistate models to determine the main driver of wet prairie conversion in WCA3A. The most parsimonious model included the effect of wet and dry year cycles on vegetative community conversions. Several ecologists have noted wet prairie conversion in southern WCA3A but these are the first estimates of transition probabilities among these community types. In addition, to being useful for management of the Everglades we believe that our framework can be used to address management questions in other ecosystems. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  3. A rabbit ventricular action potential model replicating cardiac dynamics at rapid heart rates.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Aman; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Sato, Daisuke; Baher, Ali; Olcese, Riccardo; Xie, Lai-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jim; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Restrepo, Juan G; Karma, Alain; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N

    2008-01-15

    Mathematical modeling of the cardiac action potential has proven to be a powerful tool for illuminating various aspects of cardiac function, including cardiac arrhythmias. However, no currently available detailed action potential model accurately reproduces the dynamics of the cardiac action potential and intracellular calcium (Ca(i)) cycling at rapid heart rates relevant to ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. The aim of this study was to develop such a model. Using an existing rabbit ventricular action potential model, we modified the L-type calcium (Ca) current (I(Ca,L)) and Ca(i) cycling formulations based on new experimental patch-clamp data obtained in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, using the perforated patch configuration at 35-37 degrees C. Incorporating a minimal seven-state Markovian model of I(Ca,L) that reproduced Ca- and voltage-dependent kinetics in combination with our previously published dynamic Ca(i) cycling model, the new model replicates experimentally observed action potential duration and Ca(i) transient alternans at rapid heart rates, and accurately reproduces experimental action potential duration restitution curves obtained by either dynamic or S1S2 pacing.

  4. A Rabbit Ventricular Action Potential Model Replicating Cardiac Dynamics at Rapid Heart Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Aman; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Sato, Daisuke; Baher, Ali; Olcese, Riccardo; Xie, Lai-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jim; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N.

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of the cardiac action potential has proven to be a powerful tool for illuminating various aspects of cardiac function, including cardiac arrhythmias. However, no currently available detailed action potential model accurately reproduces the dynamics of the cardiac action potential and intracellular calcium (Cai) cycling at rapid heart rates relevant to ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. The aim of this study was to develop such a model. Using an existing rabbit ventricular action potential model, we modified the L-type calcium (Ca) current (ICa,L) and Cai cycling formulations based on new experimental patch-clamp data obtained in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, using the perforated patch configuration at 35–37°C. Incorporating a minimal seven-state Markovian model of ICa,L that reproduced Ca- and voltage-dependent kinetics in combination with our previously published dynamic Cai cycling model, the new model replicates experimentally observed action potential duration and Cai transient alternans at rapid heart rates, and accurately reproduces experimental action potential duration restitution curves obtained by either dynamic or S1S2 pacing. PMID:18160660

  5. PHYSIOLOCIGALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELING AND MODE OF ACTION IN DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELING AND MODE OF ACTION IN DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT. Barton HA. Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA
    Dose-response analysis requires quantitatively linking infor...

  6. The Fanon Community-School Education Model (Formerly Urban Education Project). Final Report to National Institute of Education, DHEW, July 1974-June 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanon Research and Development Center, Los Angeles, CA.

    The Fanon Center Model was created to test and implement specific community based organizational strategies which would enable students and localities to identify and solve their educational problems. This report begins by summarizing the model from its inception. Following sections describe the processes and actions that took place in making the…

  7. Africa's orphan crisis: two community-based models of care.

    PubMed

    Kidman, R; Petrow, S E; Heymann, S J

    2007-03-01

    The AIDS epidemic has created a crisis for children, severely threatening the health and development of children whose parents are ill, have died and whose communities have lost a large percentage of their adults. Even when extended family can serve as guardians, their need to work in the context of widespread poverty decreases the amount of time they are able to spend with children. Other children live in child-headed households or with seniors unable to provide adequate care. Relative to the size of the need there are few interventions that provide support to orphans in sub-Saharan Africa. We report on two different models of community-based care that have emerged to fill this caregiving gap, and highlight the relative advantages of each. These programmes, one centralized and the other decentralized, are an effective means of caring for orphans and could be scaled up in other communities to meet the magnitude of the crisis.

  8. Peformance Tuning and Evaluation of a Parallel Community Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Worley, P.H.; Hammond, S.

    1999-11-13

    The Parallel Community Climate Model (PCCM) is a message-passing parallelization of version 2.1 of the Community Climate Model (CCM) developed by researchers at Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the early to mid 1990s. In preparation for use in the Department of Energy's Parallel Climate Model (PCM), PCCM has recently been updated with new physics routines from version 3.2 of the CCM, improvements to the parallel implementation, and ports to the SGIKray Research T3E and Origin 2000. We describe our experience in porting and tuning PCCM on these new platforms, evaluating the performance of different parallel algorithm options and comparing performance between the T3E and Origin 2000.

  9. a New Dynamic Community Model for Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Guo, Shi-Ze; Chen, Zhe; Song, Guang-Hua

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, based on the phenomenon that individuals join into and jump from the organizations in the society, we propose a dynamic community model to construct social networks. Two parameters are adopted in our model, one is the communication rate Pa that denotes the connection strength in the organization and the other is the turnover rate Pb, that stands for the frequency of jumping among the organizations. Based on simulations, we analyze not only the degree distribution, the clustering coefficient, the average distance and the network diameter but also the group distribution which is closely related to their community structure. Moreover, we discover that the networks generated by the proposed model possess the small-world property and can well reproduce the networks of social contacts.

  10. The evolution of the Fenway Community Health model.

    PubMed

    Mayer, K; Appelbaum, J; Rogers, T; Lo, W; Bradford, J; Boswell, S

    2001-06-01

    Fenway Community Health was founded by community activists in 1971 in the Fenway neighborhood of Boston, Mass, and within a decade had rapidly expanded its medical services for gay men in response to the AIDS epidemic. Increased expertise and cultural competence in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) care led to expansion of medical services to address broader community concerns, ranging from substance use to parenting issues to domestic and homophobic violence, as well as specialized programs for lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals. Fenway began as a grassroots neighborhood clinic. In 1975, the center recorded 5000 patient care visits; in 2000, Fenway's clinical departments recorded 50,850 visits by 8361 individuals, including more than 1100 individuals receiving HIV-associated care. The center now has more than 170 staff people responsible for clinical programs, community education, research, administration, planning, and development. Over the past few years, Fenway's annual budget has exceeded $10 million. Fenway has established standards for improved cultural competence about LGBT health issues for other health providers and has developed programs to educate the general community about specific LGBT health concerns. This health center may provide a model of comprehensive LGBT health services that have a local impact.

  11. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  12. Model-based action planning involves cortico-cerebellar and basal ganglia networks

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, Alan S. R.; Yoshida, Takehiko; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Makoto; Tanaka, Saori C.; Doya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Humans can select actions by learning, planning, or retrieving motor memories. Reinforcement Learning (RL) associates these processes with three major classes of strategies for action selection: exploratory RL learns state-action values by exploration, model-based RL uses internal models to simulate future states reached by hypothetical actions, and motor-memory RL selects past successful state-action mapping. In order to investigate the neural substrates that implement these strategies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment while humans performed a sequential action selection task under conditions that promoted the use of a specific RL strategy. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum increased activity in the exploratory condition; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum, and lateral cerebellum in the model-based condition; and the supplementary motor area, putamen, and anterior cerebellum in the motor-memory condition. These findings suggest that a distinct prefrontal-basal ganglia and cerebellar network implements the model-based RL action selection strategy. PMID:27539554

  13. Biotic Interactions in Microbial Communities as Modulators of Biogeochemical Processes: Methanotrophy as a Model System

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Adrian; Angel, Roey; Veraart, Annelies J.; Daebeler, Anne; Jia, Zhongjun; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Boon, Nico; Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial interaction is an integral component of microbial ecology studies, yet the role, extent, and relevance of microbial interaction in community functioning remains unclear, particularly in the context of global biogeochemical cycles. While many studies have shed light on the physico-chemical cues affecting specific processes, (micro)biotic controls and interactions potentially steering microbial communities leading to altered functioning are less known. Yet, recent accumulating evidence suggests that the concerted actions of a community can be significantly different from the combined effects of individual microorganisms, giving rise to emergent properties. Here, we exemplify the importance of microbial interaction for ecosystem processes by analysis of a reasonably well-understood microbial guild, namely, aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). We reviewed the literature which provided compelling evidence for the relevance of microbial interaction in modulating methane oxidation. Support for microbial associations within methane-fed communities is sought by a re-analysis of literature data derived from stable isotope probing studies of various complex environmental settings. Putative positive interactions between active MOB and other microbes were assessed by a correlation network-based analysis with datasets covering diverse environments where closely interacting members of a consortium can potentially alter the methane oxidation activity. Although, methanotrophy is used as a model system, the fundamentals of our postulations may be applicable to other microbial guilds mediating other biogeochemical processes. PMID:27602021

  14. Acting in solidarity: Testing an extended dual pathway model of collective action by bystander group members.

    PubMed

    Saab, Rim; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Cheung, Wing-Yee

    2015-09-01

    We examined predictors of collective action among bystander group members in solidarity with a disadvantaged group by extending the dual pathway model of collective action, which proposes one efficacy-based and one emotion-based path to collective action (Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Based on two proposed functions of social identity performance (Klein, Spears, & Reicher, 2007), we distinguished between the efficacy of collective action at consolidating the identity of a protest movement and its efficacy at achieving social change (political efficacy). We expected identity consolidation efficacy to positively predict collective action tendencies directly and indirectly via political efficacy. We also expected collective action tendencies to be positively predicted by moral outrage and by sympathy in response to disadvantaged outgroup's suffering. These hypotheses were supported in two surveys examining intentions to protest for Palestine in Britain (Study 1), and intentions to attend the June 4th vigil in Hong Kong to commemorate the Tiananmen massacre among a sample of Hong Kong citizens (Study 2). The contributions of these findings to research on the dual pathway model of collective action and the different functions of collective action are discussed.

  15. Creating Open Education Resources for Teaching and Community Development through Action Research: An Overview of the Makerere AgShare Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneene, John B.; Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Kisaka, Stevens; Miller, RoseAnn; Kabasa, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The AgShare Phase I Program, conducted at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, was formed to create open education resources for teaching and community development through action research. The study was conducted by an interdisciplinary team of investigators from fields of veterinary medicine and agri-business. Two master of science students…

  16. Communities of Practice and Participatory Action Research: The Formation of a Synergy for the Development of Museum Programmes for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampartzaki, Maria; Kypriotaki, Maria; Voreadou, Catherine; Dardioti, Antonia; Stathi, Iasmi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the integration of two key ideas and working frameworks: a community of educational practice formed by the synergy between a natural history museum and a university department of pre-school education, which undertook participatory action research aimed at the creation of innovative museum programmes for young children. Data…

  17. Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

    The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people…

  18. National Evaluation of Community Action Programs, Report No. 2. The Culture of CAP. CAP Impact on Institutions. Phase I vs. Phase II. ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, W. C.; And Others

    An extension of an earlier study, this report begins by discussing attitude and behavior profiles of persons affiliated with the Community Action Program (CAP). Education, age, income, and other survey data on the poor and their leaders are analyzed to determine the possible impact of the CAP experience on their attitudes. Using reports from…

  19. It's Our Move Now: A Community Action Guide to the UN Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Joanne

    This community action guide was developed to implement the strategies for the advancement of women developed at the United Nations world conference in Nairobi that ended the Decade for Women in 1985. The guide is intended to: (1) increase understanding and awareness of the existence of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of…

  20. Combined hand gesture--speech model for human action recognition.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sheng-Tzong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Li, Jian-Pan

    2013-12-12

    This study proposes a dynamic hand gesture detection technology to effectively detect dynamic hand gesture areas, and a hand gesture recognition technology to improve the dynamic hand gesture recognition rate. Meanwhile, the corresponding relationship between state sequences in hand gesture and speech models is considered by integrating speech recognition technology with a multimodal model, thus improving the accuracy of human behavior recognition. The experimental results proved that the proposed method can effectively improve human behavior recognition accuracy and the feasibility of system applications. Experimental results verified that the multimodal gesture-speech model provided superior accuracy when compared to the single modal versions.

  1. [Dynamic modeling and simulating of squatting-standing action of human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; Xu, Xiulin; An, Meijun; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-12-01

    It is very difficult for stroke patients to complete the action of squatting-standing because their equilibrium function ability has been seriously declined. It was necessary, therefore, to do a deep research on the action of human squatting-standing and to set up an accurate model and simulation. In our modeling research, the movements of upper limbs and head was neglected, and a seven-segment model was developed to establish the coordinate system of human squatting-standing action. It calculated the knee joint moment and hip joint moment during squatting and standing by utilizing Lagrange method, and then simulated this mathematical model by utilizing Matlab. Geometric model of human squatting-standing was developed and simulated in ADAMS which proved that the established Lagrange model was reasonable. It would also provide significant theoretical references for further study and development of squatting-standing rehabilitation training equipment.

  2. Multiple ontologies in action: composite annotations for biosimulation models.

    PubMed

    Gennari, John H; Neal, Maxwell L; Galdzicki, Michal; Cook, Daniel L

    2011-02-01

    There now exists a rich set of ontologies that provide detailed semantics for biological entities of interest. However, there is not (nor should there be) a single source ontology that provides all the necessary semantics for describing biological phenomena. In the domain of physiological biosimulation models, researchers use annotations to convey semantics, and many of these annotations require the use of multiple reference ontologies. Therefore, we have developed the idea of composite annotations that access multiple ontologies to capture the physics-based meaning of model variables. These composite annotations provide the semantic expressivity needed to disambiguate the often-complex features of biosimulation models, and can be used to assist with model merging and interoperability. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of composite annotations for model merging by describing their use within SemGen, our semantics-based model composition software. More broadly, if orthogonal reference ontologies are to meet their full potential, users need tools and methods to connect and link these ontologies. Our composite annotations and the SemGen tool provide one mechanism for leveraging multiple reference ontologies.

  3. Interdisciplinary linkage of community psychology and cross-cultural psychology: history, values, and an illustrative research and action project on intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Glass, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    An analysis of the respective organizational histories, missions, and scholarly activity of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and the Society for Community Research and Action was conducted in order to inform the development of interdisciplinary linkages between members of the two organizations. The analysis revealed many points of shared values and actions, as well as some important differences. Both scholarly organizations developed out of a similar historical and cultural zeitgeist in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The missions emphasize the role of culture/diversity in psychological phenomena, adopting an interdisciplinary orientation, the value of collaboration, the importance of research method and ethics, and the value of action research. However, community psychology generally lacks an adequate treatment of cultural phenomena while cross-cultural psychology often fails to draw on community and participatory methods useful for understanding culture in context. These common roots and differences are examined. Finally, we describe a community based, participatory research and intervention project to address intimate partner violence among Latinos and European-Americans living in Oregon. Analysis of the research process and on some of our initial findings illustrates challenges and potential benefits of an interdisciplinary, cultural community psychology.

  4. Action models and verbal descriptions in object representations given through gestures by preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    Previous research suggests that young children have difficulty producing pantomimic gestures with imagined objects for which no substitute objects are presented. They frequently substitute specific body parts to represent the object through gestures involved in the action. This study examined whether adults' verbal descriptions or symbolic action models help to produce an imaginary-object gestural response. 53 children (26 4-yr.-olds, and 27 5-yr.-olds) performed gestural tasks in which they were asked to pretend to use common objects, e.g., "pretend to brush your teeth with a toothbrush." They were then given verbal descriptions or action models to perform those same tasks. Analysis indicated that providing verbal descriptions and action models helps to produce an imaginary-object response in 4- and 5-yr.-old children. Action models proved more effective than verbal descriptions among 4-yr.-old children. Results are discussed indicating that each verbal description and action model could be influenced by different mechanisms underlying preschool children's symbol production.

  5. A model for community representation and participation in HIV prevention trials among women who engage in transactional sex in Africa.

    PubMed

    Shagi, Charles; Vallely, Andrew; Kasindi, Stella; Chiduo, Betty; Desmond, Nicola; Soteli, Selephina; Kavit, Natujwa; Vallely, Lisa; Lees, Shelley; Hayes, Richard; Ross, David

    2008-10-01

    Actively engaging communities in effective partnerships for the design and implementation of HIV prevention research is vital to the successful conduct of ethically robust, locally-appropriate clinical trials in developing countries. This is especially true in vulnerable at-risk sub-populations, where definitions of "community", "participation" and "representation" can be difficult to apply. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a participatory model of community liaison among an occupational cohort of women at high-risk of HIV and sexually-transmitted infections in Mwanza City, northwest Tanzania in preparation for a Phase III vaginal microbicide trial. This approach was rooted in participatory action-orientated research and used tools adapted from participatory learning and action techniques. During the feasibility study, a mobile community-based sexual and reproductive health service for women working as informal food vendors or in traditional and modern bars, restaurants, hotels and guesthouses was established in 10 city wards. Participatory mapping was carried out by project fieldworkers and wards divided into 78 geographical clusters of facilities in consultation with community members and study participants. Representatives at cluster and ward level were elected in a process facilitated by the site Community Liaison Officer and a site-level Community Advisory Committee established. A logical framework was used to guide the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the community liaison system (CLS) within the broader feasibility study. The CLS was essential to the successful conduct of the feasibility study and has now been consolidated and expanded as part of the on-going MDP301 Phase III microbicide trial in Mwanza. The participatory model presented in this paper is likely to be generalisable to other vulnerable, stigmatised, at-risk study populations in resource-limited settings.

  6. Practical Software Sustainability Models for Geoscience Communities and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempler, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many, active Geoscience-related efforts around data support infrastructures, with an eye towards enabling improved access, usability, and sharing cross scientific disciplines. Beyond that and even beyond consistent and compatible interfaces between those data infrastructures and the software that relies on them, lies the challenge of sustainable and compatible software systems. There is a need to establish guidelines and mechanisms for collaboration and coordination around software interoperability within and between software communities. These software communities include multiple parties developing a full software stack: from operating systems and foundation infrastructure, to off-the-shelf vendor-supplied applications, to partner and community-developed codes, all the way to the end-user tools, used once or repeatedly. Expanding the scope of the challenge is the reality that users of these software stacks are no longer solely from the geoscience community; more and more research and industry disciplines and the general public are accessing and using data and tools previously contained to the geoscience arena. Finally, the increased focus on research transparency and reproducibility creates additional requirements that developers of software must design to, whether for desktop, mobile, cloud-based, or even instrument- and hardware-based software systems.This talk will discuss the challenges involved in developing sustainable software within and across communities, including the various types of users and use cases that will need to be taken into account to build a successful model. In addition, the talk will outline requirements and potential solutions for addressing and achieving the level and consistency of coordination and quality required to support and sustain enduring software and effective software communities that use and support it.

  7. Aquatic blues: modeling depression and antidepressant action in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michael; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2014-12-03

    Depression is a serious psychiatric condition affecting millions of patients worldwide. Unipolar depression is characterized by low mood, anhedonia, social withdrawal and other severely debilitating psychiatric symptoms. Bipolar disorder manifests in alternating depressed mood and 'hyperactive' manic/hypomanic states. Animal experimental models are an invaluable tool for research into the pathogenesis of bipolar/unipolar depression, and for the development of potential treatments. Due to their high throughput value, genetic tractability, low cost and quick reproductive cycle, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a promising new model species for studying brain disorders. Here, we discuss the developing utility of zebrafish for studying depression disorders, and outline future areas of research in this field. We argue that zebrafish represent a useful model organism for studying depression and its behavioral, genetic and physiological mechanisms, as well as for anti-depressant drug discovery.

  8. Action-Based Dynamical Modeling for the Milky Way Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Wilma H.; Bovy, Jo; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-10-01

    We present RoadMapping, a full-likelihood dynamical modeling machinery that aims to recover the Milky Way’s (MW) gravitational potential from large samples of stars in the Galactic disk. RoadMapping models the observed positions and velocities of stars with a parameterized, three-integral distribution function (DF) in a parameterized axisymmetric potential. We investigate through differential test cases with idealized mock data how the breakdown of model assumptions and data properties affect constraints on the potential and DF. Our key results are: (i) If the MW’s true potential is not included in the assumed model potential family, we can—in the axisymmetric case—still find a robust estimate for the potential, with only ≲ 10 % difference in surface density within | z| ≤slant 1.1 {kpc} inside the observed volume. (ii) Modest systematic differences between the true and model DF are inconsequential. E.g., when binning stars to define sub-populations with simple DFs, binning errors do not affect the modeling as long as the DF parameters of neighboring bins differ by \\lt 20 % . In addition, RoadMapping ensures unbiased potential estimates for either (iii) small misjudgements of the spatial selection function (i.e., ≲ 15 % at the survey volume’s edge), (iv) if distances are known to within 10%, or (v) if proper motion uncertainties are known within 10% or are smaller than δ μ ≲ 1 {mas} {{yr}}-1. Challenges are the rapidly increasing computational costs for large sample sizes. Overall, RoadMapping is well suited to making precise new measurements of the MW’s potential with data from the upcoming Gaia releases.

  9. A community diagnostic tool for chemistry climate model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettelman, A.; Eyring, V.; Fischer, C.; Shiona, H.; Cionni, I.; Neish, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Wood, S. W.; Li, Z.

    2012-09-01

    This technical note presents an overview of the Chemistry-Climate Model Validation Diagnostic (CCMVal-Diag) tool for model evaluation. The CCMVal-Diag tool is a flexible and extensible open source package that facilitates the complex evaluation of global models. Models can be compared to other models, ensemble members (simulations with the same model), and/or many types of observations. The initial construction and application is to coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs) participating in CCMVal, but the evaluation of climate models that submitted output to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is also possible. The package has been used to assist with analysis of simulations for the 2010 WMO/UNEP Scientific Ozone Assessment and the SPARC Report on the Evaluation of CCMs. The CCMVal-Diag tool is described and examples of how it functions are presented, along with links to detailed descriptions, instructions and source code. The CCMVal-Diag tool supports model development as well as quantifies model changes, both for different versions of individual models and for different generations of community-wide collections of models used in international assessments. The code allows further extensions by different users for different applications and types, e.g. to other components of the Earth system. User modifications are encouraged and easy to perform with minimum coding.

  10. A community diagnostic tool for Chemistry Climate Model Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettelman, A.; Eyring, V.; Fischer, C.; Shiona, H.; Cionni, I.; Neish, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Wood, S. W.; Li, Z.

    2012-05-01

    This technical note presents an overview of the Chemistry-Climate Model Validation Diagnostic (CCMVal-Diag) tool for model evaluation. The CCMVal-Diag tool is a flexible and extensible open source package that facilitates the complex evaluation of global models. Models can be compared to other models, ensemble members (simulations with the same model), and/or many types of observations. The tool can also compute quantitative performance metrics. The initial construction and application is to coupled Chemistry-Climate Models (CCMs) participating in CCMVal, but the evaluation of climate models that submitted output to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is also possible. The package has been used to assist with analysis of simulations for the 2010 WMO/UNEP Scientific Ozone Assessment and the SPARC Report on the Evaluation of CCMs. The CCMVal-Diag tool is described and examples of how it functions are presented, along with links to detailed descriptions, instructions and source code. The CCMVal-Diag tool is supporting model development as well as quantifying model improvements, both for different versions of individual models and for different generations of community-wide collections of models used in international assessments. The code allows further extensions by different users for different applications and types, e.g. to other components of the Earth System. User modifications are encouraged and easy to perform with a minimum of coding.

  11. Computational Model of Primary Visual Cortex Combining Visual Attention for Action Recognition.

    PubMed

    Shu, Na; Gao, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiangan; Liu, Haihua

    2015-01-01

    Humans can easily understand other people's actions through visual systems, while computers cannot. Therefore, a new bio-inspired computational model is proposed in this paper aiming for automatic action recognition. The model focuses on dynamic properties of neurons and neural networks in the primary visual cortex (V1), and simulates the procedure of information processing in V1, which consists of visual perception, visual attention and representation of human action. In our model, a family of the three-dimensional spatial-temporal correlative Gabor filters is used to model the dynamic properties of the classical receptive field of V1 simple cell tuned to different speeds and orientations in time for detection of spatiotemporal information from video sequences. Based on the inhibitory effect of stimuli outside the classical receptive field caused by lateral connections of spiking neuron networks in V1, we propose surround suppressive operator to further process spatiotemporal information. Visual attention model based on perceptual grouping is integrated into our model to filter and group different regions. Moreover, in order to represent the human action, we consider the characteristic of the neural code: mean motion map based on analysis of spike trains generated by spiking neurons. The experimental evaluation on some publicly available action datasets and comparison with the state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed model.

  12. Teachers' Practices and Mental Models: Transformation through Reflection on Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manrique, María Soledad; Sánchez Abchi, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    This contribution explores the relationship between teaching practices, teaching discourses and teachers' implicit representations and mental models and the way these dimensions change through teacher education (T.E). In order to study these relationships, and based on the assumptions that representations underlie teaching practices and that T.E…

  13. Building a Model PE Curriculum: Education Reform in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2012-01-01

    The blueprint to build a model physical education (PE) curriculum begins by establishing a sound curricular foundation based on a lesson plan template that incorporates clear and concise program goals, the alignment of lessons to state or national content standards, and the collection, analysis and use of objective assessment data that informs…

  14. Accountability: An Action Model for the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, Bill[ie; DeMont, Roger

    The model proposed in this book specifies that there are four types of interrelated practices that determine the extent to which accountability is realized. These are (1) the identification of primary accountability agents and their respective program responsibilities, (2) the execution of internal program reviews by those program officers, (3)…

  15. Quality of Community Life among Rural Residents: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auh, Seongyeon; Cook, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationships among housing satisfaction, community attachment and community satisfaction and the complex mechanisms involved in predicting community satisfaction among residents in rural communities. The role of housing satisfaction and community attachment in predicting community satisfaction was…

  16. Successful Strategies to Engage Research Partners for Translating Evidence into Action in Community Health: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Salsberg, Jon; Parry, David; Pluye, Pierre; Macridis, Soultana; Herbert, Carol P.; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To undertake a critical review describing key strategies supporting development of participatory research (PR) teams to engage partners for creation and translation of action-oriented knowledge. Methods. Sources are four leading PR practitioners identified via bibliometric analysis. Authors' publications were identified in January 1995–October 2009 in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and CAB databases, and books. Works were limited to those with a process description describing a research project and practitioners were first, second, third, or last author. Results. Adapting and applying the “Reliability Tested Guidelines for Assessing Participatory Research Projects” to retained records identified five key strategies: developing advisory committees of researchers and intended research users; developing research agreements; using formal and informal group facilitation techniques; hiring co-researchers/partners from community; and ensuring frequent communication. Other less frequently mentioned strategies were also identified. Conclusion. This review is the first time these guidelines were used to identify key strategies supporting PR projects. They proved effective at identifying and evaluating engagement strategies as reported by completed research projects. Adapting these guidelines identified gaps where the tool was unable to assess fundamental PR elements of power dynamics, equity of resources, and member turnover. Our resulting template serves as a new tool to measure partnerships. PMID:25815016

  17. Developing theory and practice: Creation of a Community of Practice through Action Research produced excellence in stroke care

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Cherry; Perry, Lin; Flatley, Mary; Turner, Emma; Meyer, Julienne

    2011-01-01

    Much emphasis is placed on expert knowledge like evidence-based stroke guidelines, with insufficient attention paid to processes required to translate this into delivery of everyday good care. This paper highlights the worth of creating a Community of Practice (CoP) as a means to achieve this. Drawing on findings from a study conducted in 20002002 of processes involved in establishing a nationally lauded high quality Stroke Unit, it demonstrates how successful development of a new service was linked to creation of a CoP. Recent literature suggests CoPs have a key in implementing evidence-based practice; this study supports this claim whilst revealing for the first time the practical knowledge and skills required to develop this style of working. Findings indicate that participatory and democratic characteristics of Action Research are congruent with the collaborative approach required for developing a CoP. The study is an exemplar of how practitioner researchers can capture learning from changing practice, thus contributing to evidence-based healthcare with theoretical and practical knowledge. Findings are relevant to those developing stroke services globally but also to those interested in evidence-based practice. PMID:20795828

  18. Mapping, Monitoring and Modeling Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Species and Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartis, Brett Michael

    Aquatic macrophyte communities are critically important habitat species in aquatic systems worldwide. None are more important than those found beneath the water's surface, commonly referred to as submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although vital to such systems, many native submersed plants have shown near irreversible declines in recent decades as water quality impairment, habitat destruction, and encroachment by invasive species have increased. In the past, aquatic plant science has emphasized the restoration and protection of native species and the management of invasive species. Comparatively little emphasis has been directed toward adequately mapping and monitoring these resources to track their viability over time. Modeling the potential intrusion of certain invasive plant species has also been given little attention, likely because aquatic systems in general can be difficult to assess. In recent years, scientists and resource managers alike have begun paying more attention to mapping SAV communities and to address the spread of invasive species across various regions. This research attempts to provide new, cutting-edge techniques to improve SAV mapping and monitoring efforts in coastal regions, at both community and individual species levels, while also providing insights about the establishment potential of Hydrilla verticillata, a noxious, highly invasive submersed plant. Technological advances in satellite remote sensing, interpolation and spatial analysis in geographic information systems, and state-of-the-art climate envelope modeling techniques were used to further assess the dynamic nature of SAV on various scales. This work contributes to the growing science of mapping, monitoring, and modeling of SAV

  19. Perspective: General Education at the Community College, 1952-1978. Comparing Two Reports: General Education in Action--B. Lamar Johnson [and] General Education in a Changing Society--Miami-Dade Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Donald R., Jr.

    The values, goals, and organization of general education have been highly controversial subjects in higher education for years. Two different perspectives are provided by B. Lamar Johnson's "General Education in Action" (1952) and Miami-Dade Community College's (MDCC's) "General Education in a Changing Society" (1978). Concerns…

  20. Geomagnetic Environment Modeling at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center: Successes, Challenges and Perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Maria; Toth, Gabor; Hesse, Michael; Rastaetter, Lutz; Glocer, Alex

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC, http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) hosts an expanding collection of modern space science and space weather models developed by the international space science community. The goals of the CCMC are to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day space environment modeling capability and to maximize scientific return on investments into model development. CCMC is servicing models through interactive web-based systems, supporting community-wide research projects and designing displays and tools customized for specific applications. The presentation will review the current state of the geomagnetic environment modeling, highlight resent progress, and showcase the role of state-of-the-art magnetosphere models in advancing our understanding of fundamental phenomena in magnetosphere plasma physics.

  1. Subcycled dynamics in the Spectral Community Atmosphere Model, version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark; Evans, Katherine J; Hack, James J; Worley, Patrick H

    2010-01-01

    To gain computational efficiency, a split explicit time integration scheme has been implemented in the CAM spectral Eulerian dynamical core. In this scheme, already present in other dynamical core options within the Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM), the fluid dynamics portion of the model is subcycled to allow a longer time step for the parameterization schemes. The physics parameterization of CAM is not subject to the stability restrictions of the fluid dynamics, and thus finer spatial resolutions of the model do not require the physics time step to be reduced. A brief outline of the subcycling algorithm implementation and resulting model efficiency improvement is presented. A discussion regarding the effect of the climate statistics derived from short model runs is provided.

  2. Is Action Research a Contradiction in Terms? Do Communities of Practice Mean the End of Educational Research as We Know It? Some Remarks Based on One Recent Example of Religious Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This article's point of departure is that the nature and merits of both action research and communities of practice are contested: for example, Martyn Hammersley has argued that action research may be a contradiction in terms and that communities of practice may mean the end of educational research as a discrete discipline. In response to his…

  3. Organizational analysis of three community support program models.

    PubMed

    Reinke, B; Greenley, J R

    1986-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the organizational and administrative characteristics of effective community support programs for the chronic mentally ill. The authors analyzed three successful support programs in Wisconsin that employ three different models of service delivery: one provides services through caseworkers who carry specialized caseloads, another through local nonprofessionals who work with a centrally located program coordinator, and the third through a team of various mental health workers. Each program has tailored its organizational process to suit the types of clients it sees, the size of its catchment area, and the availability of other professional resources. The interrelated strengths and weaknesses of each model are discussed.

  4. Model of human skin oxygenation under thermal actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, S. A.; Makhanek, A. A.; Shul'Man, Z. P.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of diffusion transfer of oxygen from an individual capillary into the surrounding skin with regard for the inhomogeneity of the blood composition in the vessel (plasma and erythrocytes) has been solved. The approximate dependence of the average concentration of oxygen in the tissue cylinder on its radius (density of active capillaries) and the circulation rate has been obtained. The model has been generalized to the macromolecule of a biotissue segment with a multitude of exchange vessels, and the dependence of the average concentration of oxygen in the biotissue bulk on the blood flow intensity (perfusion) has been obtained.

  5. Bessel functions in mass action modeling of memories and remembrances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Walter J.; Capolupo, Antonio; Kozma, Robert; Olivares del Campo, Andrés; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Data from experimental observations of a class of neurological processes (Freeman K-sets) present functional distribution reproducing Bessel function behavior. We model such processes with couples of damped/amplified oscillators which provide time dependent representation of Bessel equation. The root loci of poles and zeros conform to solutions of K-sets. Some light is shed on the problem of filling the gap between the cellular level dynamics and the brain functional activity. Breakdown of time-reversal symmetry is related with the cortex thermodynamic features. This provides a possible mechanism to deduce lifetime of recorded memory.

  6. Organizational capacity for community development in regional health authorities: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Germann, Kathy; Wilson, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The value of community development (CD) practices is well documented in the health promotion literature; it is a foundational strategy outlined in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Despite the importance of collaborative action with communities to enhance individual and community health and well-being, there exists a major gap between the evidence for CD and the actual extent to which CD is carried out by health organizations. In this paper it is argued that the gap exists because we have failed to turn the evaluative gaze inward-to examine the capacity of health organizations themselves to facilitate CD processes. This study was designed to explicate key elements that contribute to organizational capacity for community development (OC-CD). Twenty-two front-line CD workers and managers responsible for CD initiatives from five regional health authorities in Alberta, Canada, were interviewed. Based on the study findings, a multidimensional model for conceptualizing OC-CD is presented. Central to the model are four inter-related dimensions: (i) organizational commitment to CD, rooted in particular values and beliefs, leadership and shared understanding of CD; (ii) supportive structures and systems, such as job design, flexible planning processes, evaluation mechanisms and collaborative processes; (iii) allocation of resources for CD; and (iv) working relationships and processes that model CD within the health organization. These four dimensions contribute to successful CD practice in numerous ways, but perhaps most importantly by supporting the empowerment and autonomy of the pivotal organizational player in health promotion practice: the front-line worker.

  7. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    PubMed

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice.

  8. A neurocognitive model for understanding treatment action in depression.

    PubMed

    Warren, Matthew B; Pringle, Abbie; Harmer, Catherine J

    2015-09-19

    The way in which emotion is represented and processed in the human brain is an expanding area of research and has key implications for how we understand and potentially treat affective disorders such as depression. Characterizing the effects of pharmacological manipulations of key neurotransmitter systems can also help reveal the neurochemical underpinnings of emotional processing and how common antidepressant drugs may work in the treatment of depression and anxiety. This approach has revealed that depression is associated with both neural and behavioural biases towards negative over positive stimuli. Evidence from pharmacological challenge studies suggests that antidepressant treatment acts to normalize these biases early on in treatment, resulting in patients experiencing the world in a more positive way, improving their mood over time. This model is supported by evidence from both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. The unique perspective on antidepressant treatment offered by this approach provides some insights into individual response to treatment, as well as novel approaches to drug development.

  9. Education as Sustainability: An Action Research Study of the Burns Model of Sustainability Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Postsecondary teaching and learning must be reoriented to equip learners with the knowledge, skills, and values they will need for creating a more sustainable world. This action research study examined the effects of implementing the "Burns model of sustainability pedagogy" in university courses taught by the researcher. This model is comprised of…

  10. MOAtox: A Comprehensive Mode of Action and Acute Aquatic Toxicity Database for Predictive Model Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    tThe mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity andas an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development ofquantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limite...

  11. Operationalizing the Concept of Value--An Action Research-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naslund, Dag; Olsson, Annika; Karlsson, Sture

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: While the importance of measuring customer satisfaction levels is well established, less research exists on how organizations operationalize such knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to describe an action research (AR) case study resulting in a workshop model to operationalize the concept of value. The model facilitates organizational…

  12. Intraprofessional Practice Education using a community partnership model.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Caroline; Kuster-Orban, Cindy; Spooner, Crystal; Neudorf, Kim

    2013-02-01

    The Intraprofessional Practice Education (IPE) pilot project was designed to increase the number of high-quality practice education settings and to develop intraprofessional learning opportunities for nursing students from three different prelicensure programs. Students from the licensed practical nurse, registered nurse, and registered psychiatric nurse programs shared their practice education experience concurrently in a rural First Nations community. This project's framework, the Partnership Model for Community Health Nursing Education (PMCHNE), is described and includes an explanation of the planning and coordination that occurred prior to implementation of the pilot project. Various student practice education and cultural experiences are highlighted, and the results from the project's evaluation are discussed, including the utility of the PMCHNE and the benefits and challenges associated with implementing an IPE experience.

  13. Capacity-Related Innovations Resulting from the Implementation of a Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Lawson, Hal A.; Iachini, Aidyn; Bean, Gerald; Flaspohler, Paul D.; Zullig, Keith

    2010-01-01

    A new genus of district and school improvement models entails partnerships with other organizations and new working relationships with families, community leaders, and youths. The Ohio Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement (OCCMSI) is one such model. It enables partners to leverage family and community resources for learning,…

  14. Interactive Higher Education Instruction to Advance STEM Instruction in the Environmental Sciences - the Brownfield Action Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Bower, P.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that presently there are over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly in the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part or entirely online for more than 15 years in environmental science, engineering, and hydrology courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011, 2014; Liddicoat and Bower, 2015). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies with a peer chosen at random to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants and professionals, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue, and to acquire STEM knowledge that can be used constructively when confronted with such an issue.

  15. The sandwich model: the 'music and dance' of therapeutic action.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alexandra M

    2014-04-01

    My premise is that a 'layered' approach is necessary to understand the process of exchanges that result in therapeutic change. I imagine these processes occurring in three layers - although the number of domains in which change is taking place is actually infinite - such as in a sandwich. The top layer, or top slice of bread of the sandwich, represents a broad view of the change process; it is non-linear and includes the feature of uncertainty, a general principle of dynamic systems theory. The middle layer, or the meat of the sandwich, is explained by theories that are immediately and clinically useful to a therapist, such as psychoanalytic theories. These are primarily linear theories and use language and symbols to 'tell a story of what happened'. The bottom layer, or bottom slice of bread of the sandwich, is the micro-process; this layer includes the moment-to-moment patterns of coordinated rhythms that both communicate meaning and provide the essential scaffold for all higher-level change processes. The micro-process also requires a non-linear theory to make sense of its variability and emergent properties. Taking a bite out of the sandwich will include a 'polysemic bundle of communicative behaviors' (Harrison and Tronick, 2011). I will illustrate the 'sandwich model' with the clinical case of the analytic treatment of a 5 year-old boy.

  16. Carbon use efficiency of microbial communities: stoichiometry, methodology and modelling.

    PubMed

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Manzoni, Stefano; Moorhead, Daryl L; Richter, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE) is a fundamental parameter for ecological models based on the physiology of microorganisms. CUE determines energy and material flows to higher trophic levels, conversion of plant-produced carbon into microbial products and rates of ecosystem carbon storage. Thermodynamic calculations support a maximum CUE value of ~ 0.60 (CUE max). Kinetic and stoichiometric constraints on microbial growth suggest that CUE in multi-resource limited natural systems should approach ~ 0.3 (CUE max /2). However, the mean CUE values reported for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems differ by twofold (~ 0.26 vs. ~ 0.55) because the methods used to estimate CUE in aquatic and terrestrial systems generally differ and soil estimates are less likely to capture the full maintenance costs of community metabolism given the difficulty of measurements in water-limited environments. Moreover, many simulation models lack adequate representation of energy spilling pathways and stoichiometric constraints on metabolism, which can also lead to overestimates of CUE. We recommend that broad-scale models use a CUE value of 0.30, unless there is evidence for lower values as a result of pervasive nutrient limitations. Ecosystem models operating at finer scales should consider resource composition, stoichiometric constraints and biomass composition, as well as environmental drivers, to predict the CUE of microbial communities.

  17. A Logic Model for Community Engagement within the CTSA Consortium: Can We Measure What We Model?

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Milton Mickey; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hurd, Thelma C.; Rumala, Bernice B.; Wallerstein, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The Clinical Translation Science Award (CTSA) initiative calls upon academic health centers to engage communities around a clinical research relationship measured ultimately in terms of public health. Among a few initiatives involving university accountability for advancing public interests, a small CTSA workgroup devised a community engagement (CE) logic model that organizes common activities within a university-community infrastructure to facilitate community engagement in research. While the model focuses on the range of institutional CE inputs, it purposefully does not include an approach for assessing how community engagement influences research implementation and outcomes. Rather, with communities and individuals beginning to transition into new research roles, this article emphasizes studying community engagement through specific relationship types and assessing how expanded research teams contribute to the full spectrum of translational science. The authors propose a typology consisting of three relationship types—engagement, collaboration and shared leadership—to provide a foundation for investigating community–academic contributions to the new CTSA research paradigm. The typology shifts attention from specific community–academic activities and, instead, encourages analyses focused on measuring the strength of relationships through variables like synergy and trust. The collaborative study of CE relationships will inform an understanding of CTSA infrastructure development in support of translational research and its goal, which is expressed in the logic model: better science, better answers, better population health. PMID:23752038

  18. Linking river flow regimes to riparian plant guilds: a community-wide modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Lytle, David A; Merritt, David M; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Olden, Julian D; Reynolds, Lindsay V

    2017-03-06

    connected nodes) and biotic linkage (strong pairwise connections between nodes) under natural flow regime conditions. Both connectivity and linkage were substantially reduced under drought and other flow-alteration scenarios, suggesting that community structure is destabilized under such conditions. This structured population modeling approach provides a useful tool for understanding the community-wide effects of altered flow regimes due to climate change and management actions that influence river flow regime. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) created the first version of the Community Climate Model (CCM) in 1983 as a global atmosphere model. It was improved in 1994 when NCAR, with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed and incorporated a Climate System Model (CSM) that included atmosphere, land surface, ocean, and sea ice. As the capabilities of the model grew, so did interest in its applications and changes in how it would be managed. A workshop in 1996 set the future management structure, marked the beginning of the second phase of the model, a phase that included full participation of the scientific community, and also saw additional financial support, including support from the Department of Energy. In recognition of these changes, the model was renamed to the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). It began to function as a model with the interactions of land, sea, and air fully coupled, providing computer simulations of Earth's past climate, its present climate, and its possible future climate. The CCSM website at http://www2.cesm.ucar.edu/ describes some of the research that has been done since then: A 300-year run has been performed using the CSM, and results from this experiment have appeared in a special issue of theJournal of Climate, 11, June, 1998. A 125-year experiment has been carried out in which carbon dioxide was described to increase at 1% per year from its present concentration to approximately three times its present concentration. More recently, the Climate of the 20th Century experiment was run, with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols prescribed to evolve according to our best knowledge from 1870 to the present. Three scenarios for the 21st century were developed: a "business as usual" experiment, in which greenhouse gases are assumed to increase with no economic constraints; an experiment using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Scenario A1; and a "policy

  20. Model Dependency of TMAO's Counteracting Effect Against Action of Urea: Kast Model versus Osmotic Model of TMAO.

    PubMed

    Borgohain, Gargi; Paul, Sandip

    2016-03-10

    Classical molecular dynamics simulation of GB1 peptide (a 16-residue β-hairpin) in different osmotic environments is studied. Urea is used for denaturation of the peptide, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is used to offset the effect of urea. Protein-urea electrostatic interactions are found to play a major role in protein-denaturation. To emphasize on protein protecting action of TMAO against urea, two different models of TMAO are used, viz., the Kast model and the Osmotic model. We observe that the Osmotic model of TMAO gives the best protection to counteract urea's action when used in ratio 1:2 of urea:TMAO (i.e., reverse ratio). This is because the presence of TMAO makes urea-protein electrostatic interactions more unfavorable. Preferential solvation of TMAO molecules by urea (and water) molecules is also observed, which causes depletion in the number of urea molecules in the vicinity of the protein. The calculations of intraprotein hydrogen bonds between different residues of protein further reveal the breaking of backbone hydrogen bonds of residues 2 and 15 in the presence of urea, and the same is preserved in the presence of TMAO. Free energy landscapes show that the narrowest distribution is obtained for the osmotic TMAO model when used in reverse ratio.