Science.gov

Sample records for community environmental monitoring

  1. The community environmental monitoring program: a historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, L.H.; Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Giles, K.

    2007-07-01

    With the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) entering its 26. year of monitoring the offsite areas around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a look back on the history and the hows and whys of its formation is in order. In March of 1979, the accident at Three-Mile Island Nuclear Power Generating Plant near Middletown, Pennsylvania occurred, and Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV), along with other governmental agencies such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), was requested to provide monitoring personnel. Public concerns over the accident were high, especially for those living around the power plant. It was found that involving the local community in the sample collection process helped to ease some of the concerns, and the Citizens Monitoring Program (CMP) was instituted. This idea was brought back to Las Vegas and in 1981, the NTS Community Monitoring Program was started to involve the communities surrounding and downwind of the NTS, who were experiencing many of the same concerns, in the monitoring of the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program. By reviewing the history of the CEMP, one can see what the concerns of the local communities were, how they were addressed, and the effect this has had on them. From the standpoint of stakeholders, getting information on radiation safety issues from an informed local citizen rather than from a government agency official living elsewhere can only have a positive effect on how the public views the reliability of the monitoring data. (authors)

  2. Comfort monitoring? Environmental assessment follow-up under community-industry negotiated environmental agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Bram; Birk, Jasmine

    2011-01-15

    Negotiated environmental agreements are becoming common practice in the mining industry. In principle, negotiated environmental agreements are said to respond to many of the shortcomings of environmental impact assessment by providing for improved follow-up of project impacts through, among other things, data provision, engaging stakeholders in the monitoring and management of project impacts, and building capacity at the local level to deal with project-induced environmental change. In practice, however, little is known about the efficacy of follow-up under negotiated environmental agreements between proponents and communities and the demonstrated value added to project impact management. This paper examines follow-up practice under negotiated environmental agreements with a view to understanding whether and how community-based monitoring under privatized agreements actually contributes to improved follow-up and impact management. Based on lessons emerging from recent experiences with environmental agreements in Canada's uranium industry, we show that follow-up under negotiated agreements may be described as 'comfort monitoring'. While such monitoring does improve community-industry relations and enhance corporate image, it does little to support effects-based management. If follow-up under negotiated agreements is to be credible over the long term, there is a need to ensure that monitoring results are useful for, and integrated with, regulatory-based monitoring and project impact management practices.

  3. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-07-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  4. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program in the 21st Century: The Evolution of a Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.

    2007-01-19

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the various operational aspects of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) network following the transfer of program administration from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education in 1999-2000. The CEMP consists of a network of 29 fixed radiation and weather monitoring stations located in Nevada, Utah, and California. Its mission is to involve stakeholders directly in monitoring for airborne radiological releases to the off site environment as a result of past or ongoing activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and to make data as transparent and accessible to the general public as feasible. At its inception in 1981, the CEMP was a cooperative project of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), DRI, and EPA. In 1999-2000, technical administration of the CEMP transitioned from EPA to DRI. Concurrent with and subsequent to this transition, station and program operations underwent significant enhancements that furthered the mission of the program. These enhancements included the addition of a full suite of meteorological instrumentation, state-of-the-art electronic data collectors, on-site displays, and communications hardware. A public website was developed. Finally, the DRI developed a mobile monitoring station that can be operated entirely on solar power in conjunction with a deep-cell battery, and includes all meteorological sensors and a pressurized ion chamber for detecting background gamma radiation. Final station configurations have resulted in the creation of a platform that is well suited for use as an in-field multi-environment test-bed for prototype environmental sensors and in interfacing with other scientific and educational programs. Recent and near-future collaborators have included federal, state, and local agencies in both the government and private sectors. The CEMP also serves as a model for other programs wishing to

  5. Community Environmental Monitoring Program: a case study of public education and involvement in radiological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shafer, David S; Hartwell, William T

    2011-11-01

    The public's trust in the source of information about radiation is a key element of its acceptance. The public tends to trust two groups where risk communication is concerned: (1) scientists with expertise who are viewed as acting independently; and (2) friends, family, and other close associates who are viewed as sharing the same interests and concern, even if they have less knowledge of the subject. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) bridges both of these groups by having members of the public help operate and communicate results of a network of 29 radiation monitoring stations around the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the principal continental location where the United States conducted nuclear tests. The CEMP stations, spread across a 160,000 km area, help provide evidence to the public that no releases of radiation of health concern are occurring from the NNSS to public receptors. The stations provide continuous measurements of gamma radiation and collect air particulate samples that are analyzed for radioactivity and meteorological measurements that aid in interpreting variations in background radiation. A public website (http://cemp.dri.edu) provides data for most instruments. Twenty-three of the 29 stations upload their data in near-real time to a public website as well as to digital readout displays at the stations, both of which are key elements in the CEMP's transparency. The remaining six stations upload their data hourly. Public stakeholders who are direct participants provide the most significant element of the CEMP. The "Community Environmental Monitors," who are residents of towns where the stations are located, are part of the chain-of-custody for the air samples, perform minor station maintenance, and most significantly in terms of trust, serve as lay experts on issues concerning the NNSS and on ionizing radiation and nuclear technologies in general. The CEMP meets nearly all

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR PUBLIC ACCESS AND COMMUNITY TRACKING (EMPACT) PROGRAM MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECREATIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended microbiological monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated ...

  7. Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) Data related to Air, Soil, and Water Monitoring around the Nevada Test Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) is a network of 29 monitoring stations located in communities surrounding and downwind of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that monitor the airborne environment for manmade radioactivity that could result from NTS activities. The network stations, located in Nevada, Utah, and California are comprised of instruments that collect a variety of environmental radiological and meteorological data. The emphasis of the CEMP is to monitor airborne radioactivity and weather conditions, and make the results available to the public. Instrumentation that records these data is connected to a datalogger, and real-time radiation levels or weather conditions can immediately and easily be seen on a display at each station. These data are transmitted via direct or wireless internet connection, landline or cellular phone, or satellite transmission to DRI's Western Regional Climate Center in Reno, Nevada, and are updated as frequently as every 10 minutes on the World Wide Web at http://www.cemp.dri.edu. DOE and DRI also publish the results of the monitoring program and distribute these reports throughout the network community. The reports provide summaries of average values for each station and the entire network, and show deviations from the expected range values. [Copied from the CEMP website (Introduction) at http://www.cemp.dri.edu/cemp/moreinfo.html

  8. Developing a wintering waterfowl community baseline for environmental monitoring of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Kreakie, Betty J.; Winiarski, Kristopher; McKinney, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the Atlantic Ecology Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development began an annual winter waterfowl survey of Rhode Island’s Narragansett Bay. Herein, we explore the survey data gathered from 2004 to 2011 in order to establish a benchmark understanding of our waterfowl communities and to establish a statistical framework for future environmental monitoring. The abundance and diversity of wintering waterfowl were relatively stable during the initial years of this survey, except in 2010 when there was a large spike in abundance and a reciprocal fall in diversity. There was no significant change in ranked abundance of most waterfowl species, with only Bufflehead ( Bucephala albeola) and Hooded Merganser ( Lophodytes cucllatus) showing a slight yet significant upward trend during the course of our survey period. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to examine the community structure of wintering waterfowl. The results of the NMDS indicate that there is a spatial structure to the waterfowl communities of Narragansett Bay and this structure has remained relatively stable since the survey began. Our NMDS analysis helps to solidify what is known anecdotally about the bay’s waterfowl ecology, and provides a formalized benchmark for long-term monitoring of Narragansett Bay’s waterfowl communities. Birds, including waterfowl, are preferred bioindicators and we propose using our multivariate approach to monitor the future health of the bay. While this research focuses on a specific area of New England, these methods can be easily applied to novel areas of concern and provide a straightforward nonparametric approach to community-level monitoring. The methods provide a statistic test to examine potential drivers of community turnover and well-suited visualization tools. PMID:27019692

  9. A systems approach to modeling Community-Based Environmental Monitoring: a case of participatory water quality monitoring in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Ana; Páez, Rosaura; Carmona, Estela; Rivas, Hilda

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Environmental Monitoring (CBM) is a social practice that makes a valuable contribution to environmental management and construction of active societies for sustainable future. However, its documentation and analysis show deficiencies that hinder contrast and comparison of processes and effects. Based on systems approach, this article presents a model of CBM to orient assessment of programs, with heuristic or practical goals. In a focal level, the model comprises three components, the social subject, the object of monitoring, and the means of action, and five processes, data management, social learning, assimilation/decision making, direct action, and linking. Emergent properties were also identified in the focal and suprafocal levels considering community self-organization, response capacity, and autonomy for environmental management. The model was applied to the assessment of a CBM program of water quality implemented in rural areas in Mexico. Attributes and variables (indicators) for components, processes, and emergent properties were selected to measure changes that emerged since the program implementation. The assessment of the first 3 years (2010-2012) detected changes that indicated movement towards the expected results, but it revealed also the need to adjust the intervention strategy and procedures. Components and processes of the model reflected relevant aspects of the CBM in real world. The component called means of action as a key element to transit "from the data to the action." The CBM model offered a conceptual framework with advantages to understand CBM as a socioecological event and to strengthen its implementation under different conditions and contexts.

  10. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  11. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  12. ABSTRACT: The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hartwell

    2007-02-28

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies

  13. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  14. 1984 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program has been designed to ensure that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. A listing, as required by DOE Order 5484.1 of BNL facilities, of environmental agencies and permits is provided in the Environmental Program Information Section 3.0, Table B. Since the aquifer underlying Long Island has been designated a ''sole source'' aquifer, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking Water Standards have been used in the assessment of ground water data. However, the limits prescribed in the regulations are not directly applicable to the monitoring well data since (1) the standards apply to a community water supply system, i.e., one serving more than 25 individuals, and (2) the standards represent an annual average concentration. Since the monitoring wells are not components of the Laboratory's water supply system, the EPA drinking water standards are employed as reference criteria to which the surveillance well data is compared. The standards also serve as guidance levels for any appropriate remedial action. 36 refs., 9 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. National environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Findings of the Council of Environmental Quality's interagency task force on environmental data and monitoring are summarized and the degree of followup on its recommendations is assessed. The quality of the data, coordination of environmental monitoring and data activities, and major issues that need to be addressed regarding monitoring of air and water quality are examined. Participation of the private sector in toxic monitoring is considered.

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  17. Environmental monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Environmental monitoring through protist next-generation sequencing metabarcoding: assessing the impact of fish farming on benthic foraminifera communities.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Cedhagen, Tomas; Wilding, Thomas A

    2014-11-01

    The measurement of species diversity represents a powerful tool for assessing the impacts of human activities on marine ecosystems. Traditionally, the impact of fish farming on the coastal environment is evaluated by monitoring the dynamics of macrobenthic infaunal populations. However, taxonomic sorting and morphology-based identification of the macrobenthos demand highly trained specialists and are extremely time-consuming and costly, making it unsuitable for large-scale biomonitoring efforts involving numerous samples. Here, we propose to alleviate this laborious task by developing protist metabarcoding tools based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) of environmental DNA and RNA extracted from sediment samples. In this study, we analysed the response of benthic foraminiferal communities to the variation of environmental gradients associated with salmon farms in Scotland. We investigated the foraminiferal diversity based on ribosomal minibarcode sequences generated by the Illumina NGS technology. We compared the molecular data with morphospecies counts and with environmental gradients, including distance to cages and redox used as a proxy for sediment oxygenation. Our study revealed high variations between foraminiferal communities collected in the vicinity of fish farms and at distant locations. We found evidence for species richness decrease in impacted sites, especially visible in the RNA data. We also detected some candidate bioindicator foraminiferal species. Based on this proof-of-concept study, we conclude that NGS metabarcoding using foraminifera and other protists has potential to become a new tool for surveying the impact of aquaculture and other industrial activities in the marine environment.

  19. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N

    2005-11-23

    The purpose of the environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with DOE operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from DOE activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of the DOE activity. In addition, the EMP addresses the analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of radionuclide samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until recently, environmental monitoring at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was required by DOE Order 5400.1, which was canceled in January 2003. LLNL is in the process of adopting the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, which contains requirements to perform and document environmental monitoring. The ISO 14001 standard is not as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, which expressly required an EMP. LLNL will continue to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that the work is conducted appropriately. The environmental monitoring addressed by the plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, and effluent and surveillance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of the compliance with the

  20. A New Arduino Datalogger Board for Simple, Low Cost Environmental Monitoring and the EnviroDIY Web Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Montgomery, D. S.; Damiano, S. G.; Brooks, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists and educators around the world have been building their own dataloggers and devices using a variety of boards based on the Arduino open source electronics platform. While there have been several useful boards on the market in the past few years, they still required significant modification or additional components in order to use them with various sensors or deploy them in remote areas. Here we introduce our new custom datalogger board that makes it very easy to build a rugged environmental monitoring system. These custom boards contain all of the essential features of a solar-powered datalogger with radio telemetry, plus they have a very convenient and modular method for attaching a wide variety of sensors and devices. Various deployment options and installations are shown, as well as the online database that is used for capturing the live streaming data from the loggers and displaying graphs on custom web pages. Following the introduction last year of the EnviroDIY online community (http://enviroDIY.org), it continues to gain new members and share new ideas about open-source hardware and software solutions for observing our environment. EnviroDIY members can showcase their gadgets or describe their projects, ask questions, or follow along with helpful tutorials. Our new datalogger board, together with the EnviroDIY website, will make it easy for anyone to build and deploy their own environmental monitoring stations.

  1. Developing a wintering waterfowl community baseline for environmental monitoring of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2004, the Atlantic Ecology Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development began an annual winter waterfowl survey of Rhode Island’s Narragansett Bay. Herein, we explore the survey data gathered from 2004 to 2011 in order to establish ...

  2. Environmental Monitoring without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kaseke, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of environmental variables is essential in most environmental projects. However, due to economic constraints, many students from underrepresented groups and developing countries often have limited access to "standardized" data logging and monitoring techniques. We assessed the student's learning in rural settings and worked with student without strong science background to utilize various environmental sensors to conduct innovative projects. We worked with students in Namibia and a minority high school student in Indianapolis to conduct relative humidity monitoring in creative ways. This high school student is from Indianapolis Project Seed program (sponsored by American Chemical Society, http://www.indyprojectseed.org) and worked in Wang's lab for two months in summer 2014. The experience showed us the potential of working with people with minimum exposure to modern scientific instrumentation to carry out innovative projects.

  3. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  4. 1985 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program is designed to determine that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. The data were evaluated using the appropriate environmental regulatory criteria. The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1985 are summarized in this report. Detailed data are not included in the main body of the report, but are tabulated and presented in Appendix D. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the water quality of the potable supply wells; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratoy; concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory; and the 1984 strontium-90 data which was not available for inclusion in the 1984 Environmental Monitoring Report. In 1985, the results of the surveillance program demonstraed that the Laboratory has operated within the applicable environmental standards.

  5. Environmental monitoring plan - environmental monitoring section. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, G.C.; Tate, P.J.; Brigdon, S.L.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the environmental monitoring plan for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A site characterization is provided along with monitoring and measurement techniques and quality assurance measures.

  6. Environmental Monitoring Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Coombs, Jason R.

    2004-04-21

    A set of database management tools, data processing tools, and auxiliary support functionality for processing and handling semi-structured environmental monitoring data. The system provides a flexible description language for describing the data, allowing the database to store disparate data from many different sources without changes to the configuration. The system employs XML to support unlimited named allribute/value pairs for each object defined in the system.

  7. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Biermann, A; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Gouveia, F J; Grayson, A; Harrach, R J; Hoppes, W G; Jones, H; Mathews, S; Merrigan, J R; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M; Rueppel, D; Sanchez, L; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, B; Williams, R

    2006-01-10

    Environmental monitoring personnel from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) prepared this ''Environmental Monitoring Plan'' (EMP) to meet the requirements in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' (DOE 1991) and applicable portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 (see WSS B93 and B94 in Appendix B). ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' is followed as a best management practice; under Work Smart Standards, LLNL complies with portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 as shown in Appendix B. This document is a revision of the May 1999 EMP (Tate et al. 1999) and is current as of March 1, 2002. LLNL is one of the nation's premier applied-science national security laboratories. Its primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable, and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. LLNL's programs in advanced technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and basic science apply LLNL's unique capabilities and enhance the competencies needed for this national security mission. LLNL's mission also involves working with industrial and academic partners to increase national competitiveness and improve science education. LLNL's mission is dynamic and has changed over the years to meet new national needs. In keeping with the Laboratory's mission, the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) have top priority. LLNL's policy is to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage. The environment, safety, and health are to be priority considerations in the planning and execution of all work activities at the Laboratory (LLNL 2001). Furthermore, it is the policy of LLNL to comply with applicable ES&H laws, regulations, and requirements

  8. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  9. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting

  10. MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview chapter examines the roles that environmental monitoring and assessment can play in the development of environmental policy. It takes a case study approach, focusing on the key roles played by monitoring data in policy formulation in acid deposition, stratospheric...

  11. Environmental Monitoring Plan - February 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G. M.; Bertoldo, N. A.; Blake, R. G.; Fish, C. B.; Grayson, A. R.; Griffin, D. M.; Jones, H. E.; Patterson, L. E.; Revelli, M. A.; Rosene, C. A.; Wegrecki, T M; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R

    2016-02-08

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection oft/ic Pubile and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the hiota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements.

  12. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  13. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  14. Environmental and human exposure assessment monitoring of communities near an abandoned mercury mine in the Philippines: a toxic legacy.

    PubMed

    Maramba, Nelia P C; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Dioquino, Carissa; Dando, Nerissa; Timbang, Rene; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Castillo, Ma Teresa; Quitoriano, Carmela; Afuang, Maredith; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Youko

    2006-10-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose real or potential threats to human safety and health including environmental damage/s. Very few countries had government mine regulation and reclamation policies until the latter part of the century where legal, financial and technical procedures were required for existing mining operations. Major reasons for mine closure may be mainly due to poor economies of the commodity making mining unprofitable, technical difficulties and national security. If the mine is abandoned, more often than not it is the government that shoulders the burden of clean-up, monitoring and remediation. The topic of abandoned mines is complex because of the associated financial and legal liability implications. Abandoned mercury mines have been identified as one of the major concerns because of their significant long-term environmental problems. Primary mercury production is still ongoing in Spain, Kyrgzystan, China, Algeria, Russia and Slovakia while world production declined substantially in the late 1980s. In the Philippines, the mercury mine located southeast of Manila was in operation from 1955 to 1976, before ceasing operation because of the decline in world market price for the commodity. During this time, annual production of mercury was estimated to be about 140,000 kg of mercury yearly. Approximately 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining and roughly 1,000,000 t of these calcines were dumped into nearby Honda Bay to construct a jetty to facilitate mine operations where about 2000 people reside in the nearby three barangays. In October, 1994 the Department of Health received a request from the Provincial Health Office for technical assistance relative to the investigation of increasing complaints of unusual symptoms (e.g. miscarriages, tooth loss, muscle weakness, paralysis, anemia, tremors, etc.) among residents of three barangays. Initial health reports revealed significant

  15. 1999 Environmental Monitoring Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    2000-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1999 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory management and operating contractor Environmental Monitoring Program. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1999 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the expectation of nitrogen in two disposal pond effluent streams iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal well, and coliform bacteria in drinking water systems at two facilities. Maintenance activities were performed on the two drinking water systems and tested prior to putting back into service. The monitoring and surveillance results demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  16. Metagenomic applications in environmental monitoring and bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has dramatically dropped and the scale of sequencing projects has increased accordingly. This has provided the opportunity for the routine use of sequencing techniques in the monitoring of environmental microbes. While metagenomic applications have been routinely applied to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes, their use in environmental monitoring and bioremediation is increasingly common. In this review we seek to provide an overview of some of the metagenomic techniques used in environmental systems biology, addressing their application and limitation. We will also provide several recent examples of the application of metagenomics to bioremediation. We discuss examples where microbial communities have been used to predict the presence and extent of contamination, examples of how metagenomics can be used to characterize the process of natural attenuation by unculturable microbes, as well as examples detailing the use of metagenomics to understand the impact of biostimulation on microbial communities.

  17. Polar Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.; Schulteis, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    The present and projected benefits of the polar regions were reviewed and then translated into information needs in order to support the array of polar activities anticipated. These needs included measurement sensitivities for polar environmental data (ice/snow, atmosphere, and ocean data for integrated support) and the processing and delivery requirements which determine the effectiveness of environmental services. An assessment was made of how well electromagnetic signals can be converted into polar environmental information. The array of sensor developments in process or proposed were also evaluated as to the spectral diversity, aperture sizes, and swathing capabilities available to provide these measurements from spacecraft, aircraft, or in situ platforms. Global coverage and local coverage densification options were studied in terms of alternative spacecraft trajectories and aircraft flight paths.

  18. Near-facility environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the routine near-facility environmental monitoring programs which are presently being conducted at the Hanford Site. Several types of environmental media are sampled near nuclear facilities to monitor the effectiveness of waste management and restoration activities, and effluent treatment and control practices. These media include air, surface water and springs, surface contamination, soil and vegetation, investigative sampling (which can include wildlife), and external radiation. Sampling and analysis information and analytical results for 1994 for each of these media are summarized in this section. Additional data and more detailed information may be found in Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring Annual Report, Calendar Year 1994.

  19. 1979 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1979 are summarized. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory.

  20. 1982 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Naidu, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1982 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. 30 references, 9 figures, 18 tables.

  1. 1981 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Olmer, L.L.

    1982-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1981 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. 28 references, 9 figures, 20 tables.

  2. Environmental Engineering Teaching Reference Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, John M.; Brenchley, David L.

    Dawson, Fairfax County/U.S.A. is a hypothetical community developed by the authors as a teaching aid for undergraduate and graduate courses in environmental engineering, providing a context for problem solving and role playing. It was contrived to provide students opportunities to: (1) identify important community relationships, (2) appreciate the…

  3. Environmental Scanning, Vancouver Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    This 1994 environmental scanning report from Vancouver Community College (VCC) reviews the expected effects of the separation of VCC into a new Vancouver Community College and Langara College (LC). The report examines the projected service area student-intake capacity; student characteristics; population growth trends; other postsecondary…

  4. Environmental Regulation of Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Leslie; DesMarais, D.; Heyenga, G.; Nelson, F.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Most naturally occurring microbes live in complex microbial communities consisting of thousands of phylotypes of microorganisms living in close proximity. Each of these draws nutrients from the environment and releases metabolic waste products, which may in turn serve as substrates for other microbial groups. Gross environmental changes, such as irradiance level, hydrodynamic flow regime, temperature or water chemistry can directly affect the productivity of some community members, which in turn will affect other dependent microbial populations and rate processes. As a first step towards the development of "standard" natural communities of microorganisms for a variety of potential NASA applications, we are measuring biogeochemical cycling in artificially structured communities of microorganisms, created using natural microbial mat communities as inoculum. The responses of these artificially assembled communities of microorganisms to controlled shifts in ecosystem incubation conditions is being determined. This research requires close linking of environmental monitoring, with community composition in a closed and controlled incubation setting. We are developing new incubation chamber designs to allow for this integrated approach to examine the interplay between environmental conditions, microbial community composition and biogeochemical processes.

  5. Monitoring environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, C.N.; Calder, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, billions of public and private dollars have been spent on pollution control and other costs of compliance with environmental regulations in coastal and estuarine areas of the US. Much of this investment has been made without comprehensive, high quality, and continuing information about the status and trends of environmental quality in these areas. Are general conditions getting better or worse. How do existing conditions among different estuaries and coastal areas compare. Are these conditions approaching or exceeding levels that are known to be harmful to living resources. Since 1984 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has conducted a national program that will answer these questions. Progress has been made on the cleanup of conventional pollutants (oxygen-demanding materials, particulate matter and nutrients) in the water column, and now increasing attention is being directed toward toxic substances in animals and sediments. Emphasis of the National Status and Trends Program is on the measurement of these chemicals and observations of the effects they may cause. The program is measuring existing levels of toxic chemical contaminants in bivalves (mussels and oysters), bottom-fish (flounders), and associated sediments.

  6. 1983 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Naidu, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1983 are summarized. The amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactivity of air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. The amounts of radioactivity released in airborne and liquid effluents from laboratory facilities to the environment were within allowable standards as stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1. Other pollutants, such as metals, organic compounds, etc., in the effluents released from the Laboratory were well below federal, state and local standards as applied to site specific conditions. 34 references, 9 figures, 17 tables.

  7. Environmental monitoring in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sol, S.; Garcia, R.; Sánchez, D.; Ramirez, G.; Chavarin, E. U.; Rivera, T.

    2017-01-01

    The procedures in Interventional Radiology involve long times of exposure and high number of radiographic images that bring higher radiation doses to patients, staff and environmental than those received in conventional Radiology. Currently for monitoring the dose, the thermoluminescent dosimetry use is recommended. The aim of this work was to carry out the monitoring of the environmental scattered radiation inside the IR room using two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD-100 (reference dosimeter), CaSO4:Dy (synthesized in our laboratory). The results indicate that the TLD-100 is not effective for the environmental monitoring of low-energy Rx rooms. The CaSO4:Dy presented good behaviour over the 6 months of study. The results will be specific to each room so it is recommended such studies as part of the program of quality control of each Rx room.

  8. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  9. Enlisting qualitative methods to improve environmental monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental monitoring tracks ecological changes in order to support environmental management decisions. Monitoring design is driven by natural scientists, usually lacking a formal social science basis. However, human perspectives drive environmental resource decisions, with ...

  10. Environmental Monitoring Plan: Environmental Monitoring Section. Appendix A, Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document presents information about the environmental monitoring program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics discussed include: air sampling; air tritium calibrations; storm water discharge; non-storm water discharge; sampling locations; ground water sampling; noise and blast forecasting; analytical laboratory auditing; document retention; procedure writing; quality assurance programs for sampling; soil and sediment sampling; sewage sampling; diversion facility tank sampling; vegetation and foodstuff sampling; and radiological dose assessments.

  11. BIRD COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST CONDITION IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  12. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  13. Metagenomic applications in environmental monitoring and bioremediation

    DOE PAGES

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has dramatically dropped and the scale of sequencing projects has increased accordingly. This has provided the opportunity for the routine use of sequencing techniques in the monitoring of environmental microbes. While metagenomic applications have been routinely applied to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes, their use in environmental monitoring and bioremediation is increasingly common. In this review we seek to provide an overview of some of the metagenomic techniques used in environmental systems biology, addressing their application and limitation. We will also provide several recent examples ofmore » the application of metagenomics to bioremediation. We discuss examples where microbial communities have been used to predict the presence and extent of contamination, examples of how metagenomics can be used to characterize the process of natural attenuation by unculturable microbes, as well as examples detailing the use of metagenomics to understand the impact of biostimulation on microbial communities.« less

  14. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2008-04-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  18. GIMS- technology for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, F. A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is directed to the widening of cumulative experience in the development of effective and reliable information modeling technologies for the equipping of microwave and optical monitoring of hydrological systems having different spatial scales. The problem urgency is caused by the necessity of perfecting the existing information technologies including Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) in the direction of broadening their functions and optimization of instrumental tools for hydrological monitoring with the orientation on the detection of extreme hydrological processes. GIMS - technology develops GIS technology towards the realization of the formula: GIMS = GIS + model. In other words, the functions of GIS enlivened by the introduction of a new grid-time scale. The result is a forecasting tool and, therefore, may carry out a dynamic integration of environmental information.

  19. Conductometric Microbiosensors for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2008-01-01

    This review presents the principles of conductometric measurements in ionic media and the equivalent electrical circuits of different designs for conductometric measurements. These types of measurements were first applied for monitoring biocatalytic reactions. The use of conductometric microtransducers is then presented and detailed in the case of pollutant detection for environmental monitoring. Conductometric biosensors have advantages over other types of transducers: they can be produced through inexpensive thin- film standard technology, no reference electrode is needed and differential mode measurements allow cancellation of a lot of interferences. The specifications obtained for the detection of different pesticides, herbicides and heavy metal ions, based on enzyme inhibition, are presented as well as those obtained for the detection of formaldehyde, 4- chlorophenol, nitrate and proteins as markers of dissolved organic carbon based on enzymatic microbiosensors. PMID:27879836

  20. Remote Environmental Monitoring System CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, R.D.

    2000-03-30

    The goal of the project was to develop a wireless communications system, including communications, command, and control software, to remotely monitor the environmental state of a process or facility. Proof of performance would be tested and evaluated with a prototype demonstration in a functioning facility. AR Designs' participation provided access to software resources and products that enable network communications for real-time embedded systems to access remote workstation services such as Graphical User Interface (GUI), file I/O, Events, Video, Audio, etc. in a standardized manner. This industrial partner further provided knowledge and links with applications and current industry practices. FM and T's responsibility was primarily in hardware development in areas such as advanced sensors, wireless radios, communication interfaces, and monitoring and analysis of sensor data. This role included a capability to design, fabricate, and test prototypes and to provide a demonstration environment to test a proposed remote sensing system. A summary of technical accomplishments is given.

  1. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  2. Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Robin, J. H.; Jeffries, M. O.; Gordon, L. S.; Verbyla, D. L.; Levine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC connects GLOBE students, teachers, and communities, with educators and scientists from three integrated Earth systems science programs: the International Arctic Research Center, and NASA Landsat Data Continuity and Terra Satellite Missions. The project organizes GLOBE schools by biomes into eight Global Learning Communities (GLCs) and students monitor their seasons through regional based field campaigns. The project expands the current GLOBE phenology network by adapting current protocols and making them biome-specific. In addition, ice and mosquito phenology protocols will be developed for Arctic and Tropical regions, respectively. Initially the project will focus on Tundra and Taiga biomes as phenological changes are so pronounced in these regions. However, our long-term goal is to determine similar changes in other biomes (Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grasslands, Rain Forest, Savannah and Shrubland) based upon what we learn from these two biomes. This project will also contribute to critically needed Earth system science data such as in situ ice, mosquito, and vegetation phenology measurements for ground validations of remotely sensed data, which are essential for regional climate change impact assessments. Additionally it will contribute environmental data critical to prevention and management of diseases such as malaria in Asian, African, and other countries. Furthermore, this project will enable students to participate in the International Polar Year (IPY) (2007-2009) through field campaigns conducted by students in

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  4. Environmental Monitoring Using Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Huang, Y.; Fu, S.; Acevedo, M. F.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental observatories, consisting of a variety of sensor systems, computational resources and informatics, are important for us to observe, model, predict, and ultimately help preserve the health of the nature. The commoditization and proliferation of coin-to-palm sized wireless sensors will allow environmental monitoring with unprecedented fine spatial and temporal resolution. Once scattered around, these sensors can identify themselves, locate their positions, describe their functions, and self-organize into a network. They communicate through wireless channel with nearby sensors and transmit data through multi-hop protocols to a gateway, which can forward information to a remote data server. In this project, we describe an environmental observatory called Texas Environmental Observatory (TEO) that incorporates a sensor network system with intertwined wired and wireless sensors. We are enhancing and expanding the existing wired weather stations to include wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and telemetry using solar-powered cellular modems. The new WSNs will monitor soil moisture and support long-term hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic models are helpful in predicting how changes in land cover translate into changes in the stream flow regime. These models require inputs that are difficult to measure over large areas, especially variables related to storm events, such as soil moisture antecedent conditions and rainfall amount and intensity. This will also contribute to improve rainfall estimations from meteorological radar data and enhance hydrological forecasts. Sensor data are transmitted from monitoring site to a Central Data Collection (CDC) Server. We incorporate a GPRS modem for wireless telemetry, a single-board computer (SBC) as Remote Field Gateway (RFG) Server, and a WSN for distributed soil moisture monitoring. The RFG provides effective control, management, and coordination of two independent sensor systems, i.e., a traditional datalogger-based wired

  5. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy... Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.53 Environmental monitoring. (a) At the time a... to provide basic environmental data on the disposal site characteristics. The applicant shall...

  6. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy... Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.53 Environmental monitoring. (a) At the time a... to provide basic environmental data on the disposal site characteristics. The applicant shall...

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  8. Microalgae as embedded environmental monitors.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, Zachary L; Vogt, Frank

    2017-02-15

    In marine ecosystems, microalgae are an important component as they transform large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass and thereby impact environmental chemistry. Of particular relevance is phytoplankton's sequestration of atmospheric CO2, a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algae blooms. On the other hand, microalgae sensitively respond to changes in their chemical environment, which initiates an adaptation of their chemical composition. Analytical methodologies were developed in this study that utilize microalgae's adaptation as a novel approach for in-situ environmental monitoring. Longterm applications of these novel methods are investigations of environmental impacts on phytoplankton's sequestration performance and their nutritional value to higher organisms feeding on them. In order to analyze the chemical composition of live microalgae cells (Nannochloropsis oculata), FTIR-ATR spectroscopy has been employed. From time series of IR spectra, the formation of bio-sediment can be monitored and it has been shown that the nutrient availability has a small but observable impact. Since this bio-sediment formation is governed by several biological parameters of the cells such as growth rate, size, buoyancy, number of cells, etc., this enables studies of chemical environment's impact on biomass formation and the cells' physical parameters. Moreover, the spectroscopic signature of these microalgae has been determined from cultures grown under 25 different CO2 and NO3(-) mixtures (200 ppm-600 ppm CO2, 0.35 mM-0.75 mM NO3(-)). A novel, nonlinear modeling methodology coined 'Predictor Surfaces' is being presented by means of which the nonlinear responses of the cells to their chemical environment could reliably be described. This approach has been utilized to measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the phytoplankton culture as well as the nitrate concentration dissolved in their growing environment. The achieved precision of

  9. Mobilizing the Black Community for Environmental Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Robert D.; Wright, Beverly H.

    1990-01-01

    Although Black communities bear a disproportionate environmental burden because of institutional and locational factors, few Blacks have joined the national environmental movement. Social justice and environmental equity are compatible goals, and the Black community could take advantage of indigenous resources to develop strategies. (FMW)

  10. Healthy Communities Grant Program | Urban Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The Healthy Communities Grant Program is EPA New England's main competitive grant program to work directly with communities to reduce environmental risks to protect and improve human health and the quality of life.

  11. Addressing Environmental Justice in EPA Brownfields Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Brownfields Program has a rich history rooted in environmental justice. The Brownfields Program and the environmental justice movement have evolved over a similar timeline, fueling one another and helping to build strong communities.

  12. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  13. Know your community - Biochar: agronomic and environmental uses community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “Biochar: Agronomic and Environmental Uses” Community was formed in November 2010 (https://www.agronomy.org/membership/communities/biochar-agronomic-and-environmental-uses). The community’s initial function has been providing a forum at the tri-society’s national meetings to fill the need for a ...

  14. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  15. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  16. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  17. Consequences of Incomplete Smoke-Free Legislation in the Republic of Korea: Results from Environmental and Biochemical Monitoring: Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Young; Yun, E Hwa; Lim, Min Kyung; Lee, Do-Hoon; Yang, Wonho; Jeong, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In some countries with high smoking prevalence, smoke-free legislation has only been implemented in specific public places, as opposed to a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places. The purpose of this study was to provide valid data on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure that reflect the consequences of incomplete smoke-free legislation, and provide a rationale for expanding this legislation. Materials and Methods Indoor and outdoor environmental exposure (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], air nicotine, and dust 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK]) was monitored in 35 public places where smoking is prohibited by law in Goyang, Republic of Korea. Biomarkers of SHS exposure (urinary cotinine, hair nicotine, and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) were measured in 37 non-smoking employees. Geometric means and standard deviations were used in comparison of each measure. Results Considerable exposure of SHS was detected at all indoor monitoring sites (PM2.5, 95.5 μg/m3 in private educational institutions; air nicotine, 0.77 μg/m3 in large buildings; and dust NNK, 160.3 pg/mg in large buildings); environmental measures were higher in private or closed locations, such as restrooms. Outdoor measures of SHS exposure were lowest in nurseries and highest in government buildings. Biochemical measures revealed a pattern of SHS exposure by monitoring site, and were highest in private educational institutions. Conclusion The evidence of SHS exposure in legislative smoke-free places in Korea suggests that incomplete smoke free legislation and lack of enforcement of it might not protect people from exposure to smoke. Therefore, active steps should be taken toward a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and its enforcement. PMID:25943320

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  19. The Environmental Crisis, Greens and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannan, Crescy

    2000-01-01

    Thought and practice from the green movement should be used to widen understanding of the environment and development of community projects for a sustainable economy and convivial communities. In turn, community development's expertise in democratic processes could inform environmental action. (SK)

  20. BNL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN TRIENNIAL UPDATE, JANUARY 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    2003-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Brookhaven Science Associates for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is located on a 5,265-acre site in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. BNL has a comprehensive Environmental Management System (EMS) in place, which meets the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization 14001 EMS Standard, as described in the BNL EMS Manual. BNL's extensive environmental monitoring program is one component of the EMS, and the BNL Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes this program in detail. The data derived from systematically monitoring the various environmental media on site enable BNL to make informed decisions concerning the protection of human health and the environment and to be responsive to community concerns.

  1. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY84 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and PPPL's largest tokamak, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) had a complete year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak was in operation and the RF Test Facility came on-line. The phased approach of TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the addition of neutron monitors. During CY84 there were no adverse effects to the environment resulting from any operational program at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations.

  2. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY85 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. All of the tokamak machines, the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), has a full year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the RF Test Facility were in operation. The phased approach to TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the establishment of locations for off-site monitoring. An environmental committee established in December 1984 reviewed items of environmental importance. During CY85 no adverse effects to the environmental resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations.

  3. Community Environmental Study Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Environmental Sciences Foundation, Inc., Minneapolis.

    This booklet contains the final report of an environmental education project designed to make use of the local community as an environmental learning resource. This three year program was developed by the Minnesota Environmental Science Foundation, Inc. in conjunction with three local school systems. The booklet is divided into five major…

  4. Ecological monitoring: Outreach to educators in the community

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.A.; Haarmann, T.K.; Foxx, T.S.

    1997-04-01

    Reporting Environmental Data was a one-week institute for elementary and middle school teachers and principals. Participants gained insight into Los Alamos National Laboratory`s environmental monitoring programs through performing monitoring in the field. A teacher educator collaborated with a plant ecologist, an entomologist, and two master teachers to provide this institute. During the institute, there were field experiences with forest and insect sampling followed by research and summarizing results. The goals for the institute were all met. These included the following: have scientists lead field experiences with forest and insect sampling which mirror their actual laboratory practices; create understanding of the scope of the environmental monitoring program at Los Alamos National Laboratory; establish links between the professional standards for science and mathematics education and institute activities, use computer technology as both a research tool and to produce a technical summary; create educational environments. Los Alamos National Laboratory is very interested in continually improving communication with the surrounding community, especially when that communication deals with environmental surveillance. The summer institute was an effective way to involve teachers in hands-on experiences with environmental monitoring. This, in turn, taught those educators about the extent of environmental monitoring. Now those teachers are using their experiences to develop curriculum for students.

  5. Multimedia environmental monitoring: 50 years at Hanford.

    PubMed

    Gray, R H

    1993-07-01

    Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for almost 50 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of Site operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soil and vegetation. Data from monitoring effects are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1989, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradiological water quality in the Columbia River were in compliance with applicable standards. Foodstuffs irrigated with river water taken downstream of the Site showed radionuclide levels that were similar to those found in foodstuffs from control areas. Low levels of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in most onsite wildlife samples and concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation from on- and offsite locations were typical of those attributable to worldwide fallout. The calculated dose potentially received by a maximally exposed individual (i.e., based on hypothetical, worst-case assumptions for all routes of exposure) in 1989 (0.05 mrem/yr) was similar to those calculated for 1985 through 1988.In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. The Hanford Site currently serves as a refuge for Canada goose (Branta canadensis), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various plants and other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and coyotes (Canis latrans).

  6. Federal Environmental Monitoring: Will the Bubble Burst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stan

    1978-01-01

    A quality assurance program for environmental monitoring is identified as necesary for the collection of reliable, interchangeable, and legally defensible data. The article defines quality assurance and describes the EPA quality assurance program. (MA)

  7. BIOSEPARATION AND BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing use of antibody-based separation methods has paralleled the expansion of immunochemical detection methods in moving beyond the clinical diagnostic field to applications in environmental monitoring. In recent years high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography, which ...

  8. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  9. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE... surveillance of the disposal site shall maintain a monitoring system based on the operating history and...

  10. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE... surveillance of the disposal site shall maintain a monitoring system based on the operating history and...

  11. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE... surveillance of the disposal site shall maintain a monitoring system based on the operating history and...

  12. Community Action for Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    For citizens who want to participate in practical action to make their communities better places for living, this guide considers numerous approaches for community involvement. It stresses not only comprehensive planning but also the importance of getting action started. A rough order of business is suggested. First, considered are the various…

  13. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) collects data that are used to statistically assess the environmental condition of large geographic regions. These data are then posted on the EMAP web site so that anyone can use them. Databases used for the statistical ...

  14. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  15. Improving ecological response monitoring of environmental flows.

    PubMed

    King, Alison J; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D; Nielsen, Daryl L; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  16. Internet Monitoring in the HEP Community

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Warren

    1998-10-07

    The HEP Internet Monitoring Project (known as PingER) attempts to measure the performance of the Internet used by the High Energy Physics Research community and provide an accurate measurement of the end-to-end performance individuals may expect by monitoring the performance between a given monitoring node and remote node pair. This is achieved by monitoring the packet loss and round trip time (RTT) of ICMP Ping packets from 17 monitoring sites around the world to 373 nodes at 267 sites between 1084 monitoring-host-remote-site pairs, involving 27 countries. This paper details the current work and status of this on-going project. The architecture, methodology and nature of the problem will be reviewed, some trends will be discussed, and the direction of further work will be outlined.

  17. Environmental monitoring and surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1993 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1994-12-01

    Environmental monitoring and surveillance are conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its environs throughout the year. Environmental monitoring ensures that (1) the reservation is a safe place to work, (2) activities on the reservation do not adversely affect the neighboring communities, and (3) compliance is made with federal and state regulations. This document is a compilation of the monitoring and surveillance data for calendar year 1993. It is a tool for analysts in the fields of environmental monitoring and environmental restoration. The summary information found in the annual site environmental report was drawn from the contents of summary in this document.

  18. Environmental monitoring and surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 data

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.V.

    1996-10-01

    Environmental monitoring and surveillance are conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its environs throughout the year. Environmental monitoring ensures that (1) the reservation is a safe place to work, (2) activities on the reservation do not adversely affect the neighboring communities, and (3) compliance is made with federal and state regulations. This document is a compilation of the monitoring and surveillance data for calendar year 1995. It is a tool for analysts in the fields of environmental monitoring and environmental restoration. The summary information found in the annual site environmental report was drawn from the contents of this document.

  19. Community empowerment needs in the struggle for environmental justice

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The paper addresses the specific empowerment needs of communities and workers fighting for environmental justice. Thousands of people of color and poor communities throughout the United States are victimized by policies and practices of environmental racism which resulted in the disproportionate burden of exposure to environmental contamination where they live, work and play. Powerful interests who own and operate polluting industries and waste disposal facilities prey on poor, low income and non-white communities because they view them as areas of least resistance and {open_quotes}sacrifice zones.{close_quotes} Leaders and members of organizations from communities threatened or already devastated by contamination are waging determined, courageous and heroic struggles against giant corporate polluters. In many instances, the leaders and members of these grassroots environmental groups are literally sick and dying from contamination as they seek to organize for clean, safe and healthy communities. A key issue for communities and workers fighting for environmental justice is realizing true empowerment. Communities and workers must develop empowerment and capacity building skills in the areas of community and labor organizing; media relations and public education; legal advocacy; legislative and regulatory tracking; lobbying; health monitoring and health services; research; scientific technical needs (eg. air, water and soil testing); fundraising and economic sustainable development; institutional and organizational development; voter education and electoral politics; and youth and adult leadership training. When these empowerment skills are combined with a clear vision of justice for the future, communities will be able to fight cooporations armed with high-powered lawyers, lobbyists, public relations firms and bought-off politicians.

  20. TOR station for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Y.; Arshinova, V. G.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kovalevskii, Valentin K.; Plotnikov, Aleksandr P.; Pokrovskii, Evgenii V.; Rasskazchikova, T. M.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Sklyadneva, Tatyana K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    1997-05-01

    In December 1992 a station for atmospheric observations has been put into operation at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics within the frameworks of the program of ecological monitoring of Siberia. The station provides for acquiring data on gas and aerosol composition of the atmosphere, on meteorological quantities, and the background of gamma radiation. The station operates day and night and the whole year round. All the measurement procedures are fully automated. Readouts from the measuring devices are performed very hour 10 minutes averaged. In addition, synoptic information is also received at the station. Periodically gas chromatographic analysis is being done to determine concentrations of hydrocarbons from the methane row. Occasionally, chemical composition of suspended matter is determined relative to 39 ingredients. The station is located to the north-east of Tomsk, Akademgorodok. Therefore sometimes it measures air mass coming from Tomsk down town area and sometimes the air mass from rural areas. As a result information obtained at this station should be typical for recreation zones around Tomsk.

  1. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To amend the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 to require the Federal Government, before termination of Federal activities on any real property owned by the Government, to identify real property where no hazardous substance was stored, released, or disposed of.

  2. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    The results of the 1988 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three tokamak machines, the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), were in operation during the year. The Environmental Committee, which is a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB), continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY88 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Over the last two years the Department of Energy conducted major environmental audits at all of its facilities, including PPPL. No significant environmental concerns were noted as a result of the inspection and sampling at PPPL. 43 refs., 25 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Sascha

    2014-08-01

    In environmental radiation monitoring, the time-variable natural gamma radiation background complicates the nuclide identification and analysis of a gamma spectrum. A full spectrum analysis based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method for the description of the time-variable background and adjustment calculations is a possible analysis method, which may provide advantages compared with a peak-based analysis, if applied to a time series of gamma spectra. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental radiation monitoring.

  4. Environmental characterization of periphyton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Y. M.; Oh, J. M.; Yoo, J. G.

    2006-10-01

    The present paper deals with the behavior of the Attached Microbial Community (AMC) for water self-purification at different riverbeds in a typical local river. The study quantitatively investigated the problem starting with in-situ sampling. It was found that more biomass of AMC was at riffles with wider distribution than in pools. High current velocity (HCV) plays a negative role at the initial stage of attachment on the riverbed, but HCV aids the community proliferation after stable attachment. External disturbances such as rainfalls and discharges from dams or reservoirs would detach the periphyton depending on the intensity of turbulence in water. However, it was discovered that the flock of periphyton could be restored very quickly because it was not completely removed. Thus, in order to enhance self-purification by periphyton, a suitable configuration of the riverbed must be constructed, and occasional appropriate repair along the channels would improve the decontamination of the river.

  5. ICCP Environmental Monitoring Report CY-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.K.

    1993-07-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Department. This report is published in response to DOE Order 5400.1. This report covers the period from December 21, 1991 through December 20, 1992 and details airborne and liquid effluents from the Chemical Processing Plant.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

    1999-09-29

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures, which implement

  7. Environmental monitoring for Space Station WP01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    External contamination monitoring instrumentation for the Space Station work package one (WP01) elements, were imposed on the contractor as deliverable hardware. The monitoring instrumentation proposed by the WP01 contractor in response to the contract requirement includes both real time measurements and passive samples. Real time measurement instrumentation consists of quartz crystal microbalances for molecular deposition, ion gaseous species identification. Internal environmental contamination monitoring for particulates is included in both Lab and HAB modules. Passive samples consists of four sample mounting plates mounted external to the Space Station modules, two on the U.S. LAB, and two on the HAB module.

  8. FIBER OPTIC SENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to decades of neglect as well as ever-increasing industrial activity, environmental monitoring has become an important issue. Given the expense and time constraints associated with classical laboratory analysis, there exists a growing interest in cost-effective and real-time ...

  9. Annual environmental monitoring report: calendar year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, B.M.; Carfagno, D.G.

    1982-04-21

    The environment locally surrounding Mound was monitored primarily for tritium and plutonium-238. The results are reported for CY-1981. The environmental medium analyzed included air, water, vegetation, foodstuffs, and sediment. The average concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium were within the applicable standards (adopted by the US DOE) for radioactive species.

  10. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  11. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites` HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, routines for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this

  12. Citizen Science Air Monitoring in the Ironbound Community ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) mission is to protect human health and the environment. To move toward achieving this goal, EPA is facilitating identification of potential environmental concerns, particularly in vulnerable communities. This includes actively supporting citizen science projects and providing communities with the information and assistance they need to conduct their own air pollution monitoring efforts. The Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists1 was developed as a resource to meet stakeholder needs. Examples of materials developed for the Toolbox and ultimately pilot tested in the Ironbound Community in Newark, New Jersey are reported here. The Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists is designed as an online resource that provides information and guidance on new, low-cost compact technologies used for measuring air quality. The Toolbox features resources developed by EPA researchers that can be used by citizens to effectively collect, analyze, interpret, and communicate air quality data. The resources include information about sampling methods, how to calibrate and validate monitors, options for measuring air quality, data interpretation guidelines, and low-cost sensor performance information. This Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) project provided an opportunity for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) to work collaboratively with EPA Region 2 to provide the Ironbound Community with a “Toolbox” specific for c

  13. Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

  14. Routine Operational Environmental Monitoring schedule, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This document provides Health Physics (HP) a schedule in accordance with the Environmental Compliance Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) Program during calendar year (CY) 1994. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of EES and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive waste sites are scheduled to be surveyed annually at a minimum. Any newly discovered waste sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995. This schedule does not discuss the manpower needs nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines.

  15. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance.

  16. ISFET Based Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Orozco, Jahir; Baldi, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The use of microsensors for in-field monitoring of environmental parameters is gaining interest due to their advantages over conventional sensors. Among them microsensors based on semiconductor technology offer additional advantages such as small size, robustness, low output impedance and rapid response. Besides, the technology used allows integration of circuitry and multiple sensors in the same substrate and accordingly they can be implemented in compact probes for particular applications e.g., in situ monitoring and/or on-line measurements. In the field of microsensors for environmental applications, Ion Selective Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) have a special interest. They are particularly helpful for measuring pH and other ions in small volumes and they can be integrated in compact flow cells for continuous measurements. In this paper the technologies used to fabricate ISFETs and a review of the role of ISFETs in the environmental field are presented. PMID:22315527

  17. Human rights monitoring in virtual community.

    PubMed

    El Morr, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BENTHIC COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN A GREAT LAKES EMBAYMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Intensified Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) sampling grid in the St. Louis River estuary of western Lake Superior was used toassess the relationship between surficial sediment characteristics and benthic community structure. Ninety sites within two habit...

  19. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  20. Operational Environmental Monitoring Program Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.J.

    1994-08-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and operational environmental monitoring performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company as it implements the Operational Environmental Monitoring program. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company in implementing the Operational Environmental Monitoring program at the Hanford Site.

  1. Open Marriage: Community Development and Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klessig, Lowell L.

    1977-01-01

    The author describes the Wisconsin Lake Management Program, the conflict between economic growth and environmental quality, and the role of the University of Wisconsin-Extension in a nontraditional area of public service education in bringing together county agents and lakeshore community leaders. (MF)

  2. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    The results of the 1987 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three large tokamak machines, the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) were in operation during the year. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the Radio-Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) were operated on a limited basis in 1987. The Environmental Committee which is a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB) continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY87 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations. 41 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. Environmental monitoring report for Calendar Year 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The results of the 1986 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three large tokamak machines, the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) were in operation during the year. The Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) was shut down in December 1985 to undergo major modifications, and will recommence operations in 1987. PLT was shut down in December 1986. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the Radio-Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) were operated on a limited basis in 1986. The Environmental Committee became a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB) and continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY86 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental regulations.

  4. ICPP environmental monitoring report for CY-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Affairs Department. This report is published in response to DOE Order 5400.1. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE in accordance with the Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) as presented in DOE Order 5400.5. The State of Idaho regulates nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including airborne, liquid, and solid waste. Quality Assurance activities have resulted in the ICPP`s implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no EPA methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) methods were used.

  5. SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

  6. Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental monitoring plan for Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.; Lee, R.

    1996-10-01

    As required by DOE Order 5400.1, each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials shall provide a written Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) covering effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, provides specific guidance regarding environmental monitoring activities.

  7. Environmental monitoring for nuclear safeguards. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    To assure that states are not violating their Non-Proliferation Treaty commitments, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must verify that states do not possess convert nuclear facilities-a mission that prior to the 1991 Gulf War, it had neither the political backing nor the resources to conduct. The IAEA recognizes the importance of this new mission and is in the process of assuming it. One of the tools it is exploring to provide some indication of the presence of secret, or undeclared, nuclear activities and facilities is environmental monitoring. Modern sampling and analysis technologies provide powerful tools to detect the presence of characteristic substances that are likely to be emitted by such illicit activities. This background paper examines the prospects for such technologies to improve nuclear safeguards. It concludes that environmental monitoring can greatly increase the ability to detect undeclared activity at declared, or known, sites, and it can significantly increase the chances of detecting and locating undeclared sites.

  8. Evaluating the efficiency of environmental monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, Carrie R.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Lampman, Gregory G.; Burns, Douglas A.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lynch, Jason; Schoch, Nian

    2014-01-01

    Statistical uncertainty analyses can be used to improve the efficiency of environmental monitoring, allowing sampling designs to maximize information gained relative to resources required for data collection and analysis. In this paper, we illustrate four methods of data analysis appropriate to four types of environmental monitoring designs. To analyze a long-term record from a single site, we applied a general linear model to weekly stream chemistry data at Biscuit Brook, NY, to simulate the effects of reducing sampling effort and to evaluate statistical confidence in the detection of change over time. To illustrate a detectable difference analysis, we analyzed a one-time survey of mercury concentrations in loon tissues in lakes in the Adirondack Park, NY, demonstrating the effects of sampling intensity on statistical power and the selection of a resampling interval. To illustrate a bootstrapping method, we analyzed the plot-level sampling intensity of forest inventory at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, to quantify the sampling regime needed to achieve a desired confidence interval. Finally, to analyze time-series data from multiple sites, we assessed the number of lakes and the number of samples per year needed to monitor change over time in Adirondack lake chemistry using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. Evaluations of time series and synoptic long-term monitoring data can help determine whether sampling should be re-allocated in space or time to optimize the use of financial and human resources.

  9. Monitoring the Response of Butterfly Communities to Prescribed Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleishman, Erica

    2000-12-01

    Federal land managers in the western United States are interested in the potential of prescribed fire as a tool to decrease fuel loads, increase vegetational heterogeneity, and increase faunal diversity in various ecosystems. I tested whether implementation of a prescribed fire program by the US Forest Service in a watershed in the central Great Basin had significant effects on butterfly species richness and composition. I monitored butterfly communities during the first two years after implementation in five to seven burn units and controls in the watershed. To estimate baseline spatial and temporal variation in butterfly communities in the greater ecosystem, I also monitored butterflies in five untreated canyons outside the project area. Butterfly species richness and butterfly species composition (measured as community similarity) did not differ significantly between burn units and controls. Geographic location had statistically significant effects on species richness. Butterfly species composition of individual locations varied over time, as did the magnitude of that variation. These results emphasize that standardized, repeatable monitoring protocols are vital for evaluating the effects of experimental management treatments and for predicting and assessing the effects of future management strategies and environmental changes.

  10. A continuation of base-line studies for environmentally monitoring Space Transportation System (STS) at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 1: Terrestrial community analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, I. J.

    1979-01-01

    Vegetation and small mammal populations in or around the Merritt Island area were studied. Thirty sites were selected from plant communities which were relatively free of logging, grazing, and clearing operations. The vegetative analysis was designed to yield a quantitative description and ecological explanation of the major types of upland vegetation in order to determine the possible future effects of NASA space activities on them. Changes in the relative abundance of small mammal populations, species diversity, standing crop biomass, reproductive activity, and other demographic features were documented in order to gather sufficient information on these populations so that it would be possible to detect even the smaller nonnatural behavior changes in the mammals which might be attributable to NASA space activities.

  11. Environmental justice, regulation, and the local community

    SciTech Connect

    Capek, S.M. )

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the sociological significance of the concept of environmental justice' for grassroots groups responding to toxic contamination in their local communities. Taking into account nationwide mobilization patterns in such communities, the author documents a precedent-setting episode in the city of Jacksonville, Arkansas, where citizen protests and support from national environmental groups led the Environmental Protection Agency to withdraw three Technical Assistance Grants inappropriately awarded to a group with links to a polluting industry, and subsequently to rewrite the rules for participation in such grants. As the first such challenge nationally, the Jacksonville scenario is an important test case' and permits a theoretical and practical evaluation of the relationship between social groups, technology, and the governmental regulatory process. More particularly, it gives insight into the Technical Assistance Grants program, which was set up to enable citizens living close to contaminated sites to interpret and evaluate technical information relating to such sites, but which has been undercut by a weak EPA and cooperative efforts by industries. The article concludes with an exploration of the concept of community in relation to the new construction of environmental justice engaged in by grassroots groups fighting contamination locally and nationally.

  12. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  13. Environmental Monitoring of Microbe Metabolic Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad (Inventor); Fleming, Erich (Inventor); Piccini, Matthew (Inventor); Beasley, Christopher (Inventor); Bebout, Leslie (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Mobile system and method for monitoring environmental parameters involved in growth or metabolic transformation of algae in a liquid. Each of one or more mobile apparati, suspended or partly or wholly submerged in the liquid, includes at least first and second environmental sensors that sense and transmit distinct first and second environmental, growth or transformation parameter values, such as liquid temperature, temperature of gas adjacent to and above the exposed surface, liquid pH, liquid salinity, liquid turbidity, O.sub.2 dissolved in the liquid, CO.sub.2 contained in the liquid, oxidization and reduction potential of the liquid, nutrient concentrations in the liquid, nitrate concentration in the liquid, ammonium concentration in the liquid, bicarbonate concentration in the liquid, phosphate concentration in the liquid, light intensity at the liquid surface, electrical conductivity of the liquid, and a parameter.alpha.(alga) associated with growth stage of the alga, using PAM fluorometry or other suitable parameter measurements.

  14. Environmental remediation monitoring using chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong X. Li

    1996-12-31

    Monitoring is one of the most critical steps in environmental site remediation. However, the conventional technique of monitoring {open_quotes}inlet{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outlet{close_quotes} of a process stream is no longer applicable in many in-situ remedial processes such as bioventing, biosparging, and intrinsic bioremediation. Traditional soil sampling and analysis is also unsuitable for monitoring biodegradation process because of chemical and biological inhomogeneity in soil. Soil gas measurement, on the other hand, is one of the few techniques available which is ideally suited for monitoring in-situ processes, since bioremediation processes involve gaseous components such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. In addition to oxygen and carbon dioxide, contaminant vapors and other trace gaseous components found in the pores of unsaturated soils also provide information on the spatial distribution and the extent of biodegradation. These gaseous components are very mobile, which are ideal analytes for chemical sensors. In this study, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon subsurface chemical sensors were employed for monitoring in-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

  15. Quartz crystal microbalance immunosensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Shigeru; Park, Jong-Won; Aizawa, Hidenobu; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Tao, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents discussion of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensors for environmental monitoring. Factors limiting the practical application of antibodies to analytical problems are also presented. Among several candidates for the QCM immunosensor device, selected QCM devices and oscillating circuits were tested thoroughly and developed to obtain highly stable and sensitive frequency signals. The biointerface of QCM immunosensor was designed and controlled to immobilize antibody on the QCM surface, to reduce non-specific binding and to suppress denaturation of immobilizing antibody by self-assembled monolayer technique and artificial phospholipid (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)) polymer. MPC polymer as a antibody-stabilizing reagent was added to reduce non-specific binding of the antigen solution and stabilize the immunologic activity of the antibody-immobilized QCM. In addition, it provides examples for detection and quantitation of environmental samples using QCM immunosensors. The analytical results for fly ash extracted samples of dioxins using the QCM immunosensor indicated a good relationship with GC/MS methods. The integrating protocols of the competitive immunoassay and signal-enhancing step are for detecting low molecular analytes with extremely low detection limits using an QCM immunosensor. Furthermore, its detect limitation was extended from 0.1 to 0.01 ng/ml by the signal-enhancing step when the anti-bisphenol-A antibody conjugated MPC polymeric nanoparticles was used. The QCM immunosensor method has demonstrated its effectiveness as an alternative screening method for environmental monitoring because these results were compared with results obtained through environmental monitoring methods such as ELISA and GC/MS.

  16. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  17. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Multimedia Environmental Assessment of Existing Materials Management Approaches for Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sustainable and Healthy Communities Program has a mission to develop data and tools that enable community leaders to integrate environmental, societal, and economic factors into their decision-making processes and thus foster community sustainability. This report examines on...

  19. Magnetoelastic sensors for remote query environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Ong, K. G.; Loiselle, K.; Stoyanov, P. G.; Kouzoudis, D.; Liu, Y.; Tong, C.; Tefiku, F.

    1999-10-01

    Magnetoelastic thin film sensors can be considered the magnetic analog of surface acoustic wave sensors, with the characteristic resonant frequency of the magnetoelastic sensor changing in response to different environmental parameters. We report on the application of magnetoelastic sensors for remote query measurement of pressure, temperature, liquid viscosity and, in combination with a glucose-responding mass-changing polymer, glucose concentrations. The advantage of using magnetoelastic sensors is that no direct physical connections, such as wires or cables, are required to obtain sensor information allowing the sensor to be monitored from inside sealed containers. Furthermore since it is the frequency response of the sensor that is monitored, rather than the amplitude, the relative orientation of the sensor with respect to the query field is unimportant.

  20. Method for monitoring environmental and corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1995-08-01

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figs.

  1. Method for monitoring environmental and corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1995-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  2. Interferometric atmospheric refractive-index environmental monitor.

    PubMed

    Ludman, J E; Ludman, J J; Callahan, H; Caulfield, H J; Watt, D; Sampson, J L; Robinson, J; Davis, S; Hunt, A

    1995-06-20

    Long, open-path, outdoor interferometric measurement of the index of refraction as a function of wavelength (spectral refractivity) requires a number of innovations. These include active compensation for vibration and turbulence. The use of electronic compensation produces an electronic signal that is ideal for extracting data. This allows the appropriate interpretation of those data and the systematic and fast scanning of the spectrum by the use of bandwidths that are intermediate between lasers (narrow bandwidth) and white light (broad bandwidth). An Environmental Interferometer that incorporates these features should be extremely valuable in both pollutant detection and pollutant identification. Spectral refractivity measurements complement the information available from spectral absorption instruments (e.g., a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer). The Environmental Interferometer currently uses an electronic compensating device with a 1-kHz response time, and therefore rapid spectral scans are feasibe so that it is possible to monitor the time evolution of pollutant events.

  3. Space in environmental diplomacy: Exploring the role of earth observing satellites for monitoring international environmental agreements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Shaida Sahami

    This research determines under what conditions, and for what types of environmental treaties, Earth observation (EO) is useful for monitoring international environmental agreements. The research extracts specific monitoring requirements from nine multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and explores how satellite EO data can be used to support them. The technical characteristics of the sensor systems and science data products associated with current and planned EO satellites were analyzed and mapped to the MEA requirements, providing a significant step toward linking the EO community with the international treaty community implementing these environmental agreements. The research results include a listing and analysis of the positive and negative factors that influence whether EO data are useful for monitoring and verifying MEAs, analysis of existing international EO institutions, and a set of key findings describing the conditions under which EO data are most useful to the treaties. The use of EO data in various treaty phases is also analyzed, drawing the conclusion that EO data are most useful for monitoring and treaty refinement and not very useful for compliance verification or enforcement. MEAs manage compliance using governance structures that offer expertise and resources to assist states that are reported to be in non-compliance, rather than enforce compliance with sanctions or other punishments. In addition, the temporal and spatial resolution of the current and planned fleet of satellites does not provide the required detail needed for MEA verification. Identifying specific treaty implementation deficiencies requires additional information that cannot be gathered from EO data; on-site economic, social, and environmental conditions are critical elements in assessing compliance verification. But for environmental monitoring and assessments, MEA effectiveness reviews, and national reporting required for each MEA, EO data are very useful. They provide

  4. Community Air Monitoring Where You Live in EPA Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community air monitoring projects that are using air sensor technology to monitor air quality in states in EPA’s Region 5 are providing the public with more information on the quality of the air they breathe.

  5. Community Air Monitoring Where You Live in EPA Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community air monitoring projects that are using air sensor technology to monitor air quality in states in EPA’s Region 8 are providing the public with more information on the quality of the air they breathe.

  6. Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Richard O.

    1987-01-01

    The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.

  7. Evaluating the communication of environmental permitting decisions in diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Rezaee, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental communication plays a critical role in addressing the public's growing awareness and apprehension about environmental health risks. Although opportunities for public participation in environmental health assessments have greatly increased, environmental communication among key stakeholders is an evolving process. The authors evaluated the communication that occurred among a state environmental agency, six Title V operating facilities, and the public concerning environmental permitting decisions perceived to impact environmental and human health. The authors identify environmental concerns of diverse communities, analyze communication among key stakeholders regarding environmental permitting decisions, and propose recommendations for practitioners to improve environmental communication strategies among these key stakeholders in either urban or rural communities.

  8. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  9. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  10. Environmental monitoring: civilian applications of remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.; Lapp, M.; Vitko, J. Jr.; Phipps, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to explore how best to utilize Sandia`s defense-related sensing expertise to meet the Department of Energy`s (DOE) ever-growing needs for environmental monitoring. In particular, we focused on two pressing DOE environmental needs: (1) reducing the uncertainties in global warming predictions, and (2) characterizing atmospheric effluents from a variety of sources. During the course of the study we formulated a concept for using unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) for making key 0798 climate measurements; designed a highly accurate, compact, cloud radiometer to be flown on those UAVs; and established the feasibility of differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) to measure atmospheric effluents from waste sites, manufacturing processes, and potential treaty violations. These concepts have had major impact since first being formulated in this ,study. The DOE has adopted, and DoD`s Strategic Environmental Research Program has funded, much of the UAV work. And the ultraviolet DIAL techniques have already fed into a major DOE non- proliferation program.

  11. Innovative Sensors for Environmental Monitoring in Museums.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Mencaglia, Andrea Azelio; Mignani, Anna Grazia

    2008-03-22

    Different physical and chemical factors, such as light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and so on, can affect works of art on display. Each factor does not act individually, but its effect can be enhanced or accelerated by the presence of other factors. Accordingly, an evaluation of the impact of the whole environment on art objects is recognized as an essential requirement for conservation purposes. To meet the most up-todate guidelines on preventive conservation, in recent years several scientific projects supported by the EC were aimed at developing innovative tools that could complement the standard methods for environmental monitoring in museums. These research projects produced a new generation of passive sensors that are capable of taking into account the overall environmental effects by mimicking in some way the behaviour of real works of art. The main goal of the present paper is to provide a survey of these sensors, which represent a new frontier in the environmental control in museums. Furthermore, the use of optical fibres, as both intrinsic sensors and devices for interrogating sensors, will also be illustrated, and examples of their use in the cultural heritage field will be reported.

  12. Innovative Sensors for Environmental Monitoring in Museums

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Mencaglia, Andrea Azelio; Mignani, Anna Grazia

    2008-01-01

    Different physical and chemical factors, such as light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and so on, can affect works of art on display. Each factor does not act individually, but its effect can be enhanced or accelerated by the presence of other factors. Accordingly, an evaluation of the impact of the whole environment on art objects is recognized as an essential requirement for conservation purposes. To meet the most up-to-date guidelines on preventive conservation, in recent years several scientific projects supported by the EC were aimed at developing innovative tools that could complement the standard methods for environmental monitoring in museums. These research projects produced a new generation of passive sensors that are capable of taking into account the overall environmental effects by mimicking in some way the behaviour of real works of art. The main goal of the present paper is to provide a survey of these sensors, which represent a new frontier in the environmental control in museums. Furthermore, the use of optical fibres, as both intrinsic sensors and devices for interrogating sensors, will also be illustrated, and examples of their use in the cultural heritage field will be reported. PMID:27879807

  13. Determining ecoregions for environmental and GMO monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Graef, F; Schmidt, G; Schröder, W; Stachow, U

    2005-09-01

    A representative environmental monitoring network at the regional scale cannot use raster-based or random sampling designs, but requires a stratified sampling procedure integrating different information layers, and it has to occur in ecologically differing homogeneous regions (ecoregions). These we have determined using a set of spatial strata with ecological variables which we analysed with classification and regression trees (CART). We present a framework for environmental monitoring, that covers different scales, and we transfer the framework to a potential GMO (genetically modified organisms) monitoring network. We use ecoregion and other environmental strata together with existing environmental monitoring networks to determine GMO monitoring sites more precisely.

  14. Citizen Science Air Monitoring in the Ironbound Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) mission is to protect human health and the environment. To move toward achieving this goal, EPA is facilitating identification of potential environmental concerns, particularly in vulnerable communities. This includes actively supportin...

  15. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities or systems: (1) Temperature and humidity controls; (2) Ventilation and air filtration; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195... control and monitoring. (a) Environmental control. Where environmental conditions could reasonably...

  16. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities or systems: (1) Temperature and humidity controls; (2) Ventilation and air filtration; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195... control and monitoring. (a) Environmental control. Where environmental conditions could reasonably...

  17. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities or systems: (1) Temperature and humidity controls; (2) Ventilation and air filtration; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195... control and monitoring. (a) Environmental control. Where environmental conditions could reasonably...

  18. Environmental monitoring of North Merritt Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poonai, P.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental impact of the space shuttle operation on North Merritt Island was studied mainly by means of color infrared photos and field visits. An attempt was also made to generate character maps of the Island using LANDSAT data with a view to decreasing the cost of monitoring and making the process more flexible in terms of rapid estimation of the extent of selected ground features. It seems possible that the IMAGE-100 output can be improved by using it in conjunction with software systems which are used for generating character maps. All the methods for generating maps show six main plant associations on North Merritt Island. It was shown that the six associations are related by ecological succession, merge into their neighbors in terms of component species and can be observed for changes in terms of component species.

  19. A Microinstrumentation System for Remote Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Andrew; Baer, Wayne G.; Wise, Kensall D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on a hybrid micro-instrumentation system that includes a embedded micro-controller, transducers for monitoring environmental parameters, interface/readout electronics for linking the controller and the transducers, and custom circuitry for system power management. Sensors for measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration are included in the initial system, which operates for more than 180 days and dissipates less than 700 microW from a 6V battery supply. The sensor scan rate is adaptive and can be event triggered. The system communicates internally over a 1 MHz, nine-line intramodule sensor bus and outputs data over a hard-wired serial interface or a 315MHz wireless link. The use of folding platform packaging allows an internal system volume as small as 5 cc.

  20. Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Sensors for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    As a one dimensional material, a Single-walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) is made of a rolled up graphene sheet. With a diameter of 1˜2 nm, the SWNTs exhibit many unique properties, such as high aspect ratios, ballistic carrier transport, high mechanical strength and thermal stability. These properties enable SWNTs to have superior performances in various applications including electronics and sensors. SWNT based sensors are extremely sensitive to slight electrostatic changes in their environment and have a fast response where conductance of an SWNT is observed to change in less than 2 sec upon exposure. In addition, SWNT sensors have size advantage over traditional sensors. Hence, SWNTs have been widely explored as active sensing elements for chemical and biomolecule detection. Despite high sensitivities observed from nanotube sensors, one drawback is their lack of selectivity. The conductance of SWNTs is susceptible to many gas molecules in air, including oxygen and moisture which are abundantly present in the ambient environment. Due to this nonspecificity, the presence of any type of gas vapors can possibly interfere with the induced signals from the target gas vapors and hence reduce S/N ratio during detection. To minimize the effects of undesirable interference signals from the environment, several functionalization methods have been developed to customize the affinities of SWNTs to specific targets, including metal nano particles, conducting polymers and biomolecules. The objective of this thesis is to utilize SWNTs in environmental applications. The proposed research topics include: investigating the sensing characteristics of RNA oligomers on carbon nanotubes; analyzing the sensing characteristics of DNA with different sequence lengths on carbon nanotubes; integration of DNA decorated SWNTs onto CMOS chip for toxic and explosive gas monitoring; building nanosensor array based on multi-functionalized SWNTs for air quality monitoring and exploring the sensing

  1. Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Weibring, Petter; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune

    2003-06-20

    A mobile lidar (light detection and ranging) system for environmental monitoring is described. The optical and electronic systems are housed in a truck with a retractable rooftop transmission and receiving mirror, connected to a 40-cm-diameter vertically looking telescope. Two injection-seeded Nd:YAG lasers are employed in connection with an optical parametric oscillator-optical parametric amplification transmitter, allowing deep-UV to mid-IR wavelengths to be generated. Fast switching that employs piezoelectric drivers allows multiwavelength differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of several spectrally overlapping atmospheric species. The system can also be used in an imaging multispectral laser-induced fluorescence mode on solid targets. Advanced LabVIEW computer control and multivariate data processing render the system versatile for a multitude of measuring tasks. We illustrate the monitoring of industrial atmospheric mercury and hydrocarbon emissions, volcanic sulfur dioxide plume mapping, fluorescence lidar probing of seawater, and multispectral fluorescence imaging of the facades of a historical monument.

  2. Shared Understandings: Environmental Perspectives of Kenyan Community Members and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigely, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are a shared human concern as communities in all nations and geographic regions are grappling with environmental degradation. Despite this concern, there are multiple different viewpoints on the current state of environmental issues and how to understand these problems. Understanding how different communities conceive of the…

  3. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1986 are presented and general trends are discussed. Topics include radiation monitoring, wastewater discharge monitoring, dose distribution estimates, and ground water monitoring. 9 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data on air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring for 1980 are presented, and general trends are discussed.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: AMBIENT AMMONIA MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2007-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2006 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  7. Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Sharon D.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) environmental surveillance is to characterize radiological and nonradiological conditions of the off-site environs and estimate public doses related to these conditions, confirm estimations of public dose based on effluent monitoring data, and, where appropriate, provide supplemental data to support compliance monitoring for applicable environmental regulations. This environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is intended to document the rationale, frequency, parameters, and analytical methods for the ORR environmental surveillance program and provides information on ORR site characteristics, environmental pathways, dose assessment methods, and quality management. ORR-wide environmental monitoring activities include a variety of media including air, surface water, vegetation, biota, and wildlife. In addition to these activities, site-specific effluent, groundwater, and best management monitoring programs are conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). This is revision 5.

  8. Environmental Shaping of Sponge Associated Archaeal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Turque, Aline S.; Batista, Daniela; Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Martins, Orlando B.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Background Archaea are ubiquitous symbionts of marine sponges but their ecological roles and the influence of environmental factors on these associations are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the diversity and composition of archaea associated with seawater and with the sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila, Paraleucilla magna and Petromica citrina in two distinct environments: Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the nearby Cagarras Archipelago. For this we used metagenomic analyses of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene libraries. Hymeniacidon heliophila was more abundant inside the bay, while P. magna was more abundant outside and P. citrina was only recorded at the Cagarras Archipelago. Principal Component Analysis plots (PCA) generated using pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances showed that the archaeal community structure of inner bay seawater and sponges was different from that of coastal Cagarras Archipelago. Rarefaction analyses showed that inner bay archaeaoplankton were more diverse than those from the Cagarras Archipelago. Only members of Crenarchaeota were found in sponge libraries, while in seawater both Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were observed. Although most amoA archaeal genes detected in this study seem to be novel, some clones were affiliated to known ammonia oxidizers such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Cenarchaeum symbiosum. Conclusion/Significance The composition and diversity of archaeal communities associated with pollution-tolerant sponge species can change in a range of few kilometers, probably influenced by eutrophication. The presence of archaeal amoA genes in Porifera suggests that Archaea are involved in the nitrogen cycle within the sponge holobiont, possibly increasing its resistance to anthropogenic impacts. The higher diversity of Crenarchaeota in the polluted area suggests that some marine sponges are able to change the composition of their associated

  9. Long-term environmental monitoring at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1990-11-01

    Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for over 45 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of Site operations (nuclear and nonnuclear) on air, surface and ground water, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils and vegetation. Data from monitoring efforts are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1988, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is increasing. The Hanford Site also serves as a refuge for Canada good (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various plants and other animals, e.g., (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyote (Canis latrans). 32 refs., 4 figs.

  10. High-throughput metabarcoding of eukaryotic diversity for environmental monitoring of offshore oil-drilling activities.

    PubMed

    Lanzén, Anders; Lekang, Katrine; Jonassen, Inge; Thompson, Eric M; Troedsson, Christofer

    2016-09-01

    As global exploitation of available resources increases, operations extend towards sensitive and previously protected ecosystems. It is important to monitor such areas in order to detect, understand and remediate environmental responses to stressors. The natural heterogeneity and complexity of communities means that accurate monitoring requires high resolution, both temporally and spatially, as well as more complete assessments of taxa. Increased resolution and taxonomic coverage is economically challenging using current microscopy-based monitoring practices. Alternatively, DNA sequencing-based methods have been suggested for cost-efficient monitoring, offering additional insights into ecosystem function and disturbance. Here, we applied DNA metabarcoding of eukaryotic communities in marine sediments, in areas of offshore drilling on the Norwegian continental shelf. Forty-five samples, collected from seven drilling sites in the Troll/Oseberg region, were assessed, using the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a taxonomic marker. In agreement with results based on classical morphology-based monitoring, we were able to identify changes in sediment communities surrounding oil platforms. In addition to overall changes in community structure, we identified several potential indicator taxa, responding to pollutants associated with drilling fluids. These included the metazoan orders Macrodasyida, Macrostomida and Ceriantharia, as well as several ciliates and other protist taxa, typically not targeted by environmental monitoring programmes. Analysis of a co-occurrence network to study the distribution of taxa across samples provided a framework for better understanding the impact of anthropogenic activities on the benthic food web, generating novel, testable hypotheses of trophic interactions structuring benthic communities.

  11. Bangladesh Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C.; Maurer, H.; Williams, M.; Kamowski, J.; Moore, T.; Maksimovich, W.; Obler, H.; Gilbert, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project (ACEMP) is based on a Participating Agency Service Agreement (PASA) between the Agency for International Development (AID) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In FY80, the Asia Bureau and Office of Federal Disaster Assistance (OFDA), worked closely to develop a funding mechanism which would meet Bangladesh's needs both for flood and cyclone warning capability and for application of remote sensing data to development problems. In FY90, OFDA provided for a High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving capability to improve their forecasting accuracy for cyclones, flooding and storm surges. That equipment is primarily intended as a disaster prediction and preparedness measure. The ACEM Project was designed to focus on the development applications of remote sensing technology. Through this Project, AID provided to the Bangladesh Government (BDG) the equipment, technical assistance, and training necessary to collect and employ remote sensing data made available by satellites as well as hydrological data obtained from data collection platforms placed in major rivers. The data collected will enable the BDG to improve the management of its natural resources.

  12. Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liang, Y.; Navarro, M.; Zhong, X.; Villalba, G.; Li, Y.; Davis, T.; Erratt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained an increasing interest in a broad range of new scientific research and applications. WSN technologies can provide high resolution for spatial and temporal data which has not been possible before, opening up new opportunities. On the other hand, WSNs, particularly outdoor WSNs in harsh environments, present great challenges for scientists and engineers in terms of the network design, deployment, operation, management, and maintenance. Since 2010, we have been working on the deployment of an outdoor multi-hop WSN testbed for hydrological/environmental monitoring in a forested hill-sloped region at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP), Pennsylvania, USA. The ASWP WSN testbed has continuously evolved and had more than 80 nodes by now. To our knowledge, the ASWP WSN testbed represents one of the first known long-term multi-hop WSN deployments in an outdoor environment. As simulation and laboratory methods are unable to capture the complexity of outdoor environments (e.g., forests, oceans, mountains, or glaciers), which significantly affect WSN operations and maintenance, experimental deployments are essential to investigate and understand WSN behaviors and performances as well as its maintenance characteristics under these harsh conditions. In this talk, based on our empirical studies with the ASWP WSN testbed, we will present our discoveries and investigations on several important aspects including WSN energy profile, node reprogramming, network management system, and testbed maintenance. We will then provide our insight into these critical aspects of outdoor WSN deployments and operations.

  13. Integrated particle detection chip for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Park, Dongho; Hwang, Jungho; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports an integrated particle detection chip for low-cost and point-of-interest environmental monitoring; it consists of a micro virtual impactor and a micro corona discharger. With this system, airborne particles are introduced into the micro virtual impactor of the chip where they are classified according to their aerodynamic diameters. The particles are then charged and their number-concentration is detected in the micro corona discharger from the electrical current carried by the charged particles. The characteristics of each component were first analyzed, and the components were then integrated into a single chip. The micro virtual impactor was designed to have a cut-off diameter of 600 nm or 1.0 microm. Its classification characteristics were examined by classifying polydisperse particles-dioctyl sebacate particles ranging in diameter from 100 to 600 nm and carbon particles ranging in diameter from 0.6 to 10 microm. From the classification results, the cut-off diameter of the micro virtual impactor was measured to be either 550 nm or 1.1 microm. The micro corona discharger was fabricated based on a sharp silicon tip and a planar electrode and charged particles at 1.3 kV. Using the integrated particle detection chip comprising the micro virtual impactor and the micro corona discharger, the sensitivity for monodisperse particles-500 nm dioctyl sebacate in diameter-was measured to be 8 x 10(-7) pA/(particle cm(-3)).

  14. Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program at Toolik Field Station, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, A.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Data Center at the Toolik Field Station, Alaska established a baseline environmental monitoring program in 2007 to provide a long-term record of key biotic and abiotic variables to the scientific community. We maintain a weather station for a long-term climate record at the field station and monitor the timing of key plant phenological events, bird migration and mammal sightings. With regards to plant phenology, we record event dates such as emergence of first leaves, open flowers and seed dispersal for twelve select species typical of the moist acidic tundra, following the ITEX plant phenology protocol. From 2007 to 2011, we observed earlier emergence of first leaves by approximately one week for species such as the dwarf birch Betula nana, sedge Carex bigelowii and evergreen lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea, while seed dispersal for some of these species was delayed by more than two weeks. We also monitor the arrival and departure dates of thirty bird species common to the Toolik area. Yearlong residents included species such as the common raven, rock and willow ptarmigan, and some migrants such as yellow-billed loons and American tree sparrows could be detected for about four months at Toolik, while long-distance traveling arctic terns stayed only two months during the summer. The timing of bird migration dates did not show any clear trends over the past five years for most species. For the past two decades, we recorded climate data such as air, soil and lake temperature, radiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and barometric pressure. During this time period, monthly mean air temperatures varied from -31.7 to -12.8 °C in January and from 8.3 to 13.1 °C in July, with no trend over time. Our baseline data on plant phenological changes, timing of bird migration and climate variables are valuable in the light of long-term environmental monitoring efforts as they provide the context for other seasonality projects that are

  15. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265

  16. Environmental Monitoring at the Savannah River Plant, Annual Report - 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, C.

    2001-07-26

    An environmental monitoring program has been in existence at SRP since 1951. The original preoperational surveys have evolved into an extensive environmental monitoring program in which sample types from approximately 500 locations are analyzed for radiological and/or nonradiological parameters. The results of these analyses for 1981 are presented in this report.

  17. 1996 LMITCO environmental monitoring program report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1996 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs are included in this report. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1996 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends.

  18. Near Facility Environmental Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNEY, S.M.

    2000-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near-facility environmental monitoring directed by Waste Management Technical Services and supersedes HNF-EP-0538-4. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Waste Management Technical Services in implementing near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1 (DOE 1990) as a part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE-RL 1997) and is used to define: Environmental measurement and sampling locations used to monitor environmental contaminants near active and inactive facilities and waste storage and disposal sites; Procedures and equipment needed to perform the measurement and sampling; Frequency and analyses required for each measurement and sampling location; Minimum detection level and accuracy; Quality assurance components; and Investigation levels. Near-facility environmental monitoring for the Hanford Site is conducted in accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1990), 5400.5 (DOE 1993), 5484.1 (DOE 1990), and 435.1 (DOE 1999), and DOE/EH-O173T (DOE 1991). It is Waste Management Technical Services' objective to manage and conduct near-facility environmental monitoring activities at the Hanford Site in a cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner that is in compliance with the letter and spirit of these regulations and other environmental regulations, statutes, and standards.

  19. The Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring Program CY-93

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    The Operational Environmental Monitoring Program (OEMP) provides facility-specific environmental monitoring to protect the environment adjacent to facilities under the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and assure compliance with WHC requirements and local, state, and federal environmental regulations. The objectives of the OEMP are to evaluate: compliance with federal (DOE, EPA), state, and internal WHC environmental radiation protection requirements and guides; performance of radioactive waste confinement systems; and trends of radioactive materials in the environment at and adjacent to nuclear facilities and waste disposal sites. This paper identifies the monitoring responsibilities and current program status for each area of responsibility.

  20. Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Clifford K.; Robinson, Alex; Miller, David R.; Davis, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. United States regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  1. Near-facility environmental monitoring quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near facility environmental monitoring performed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations and supersedes WHC-EP-0538-2. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by waste management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations in implementing facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site.

  2. Going Green and Renewing Life: Environmental Education in Faith Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitzhusen, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Faith communities, such as churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques, are providing new venues for innovative adult environmental education. As faith communities turn their concerns to issues of sustainability, environmental teaching is emerging in many forms across diverse religious traditions, as evidenced by the development of denominational…

  3. A Learning Dashboard to Monitor an Open Networked Learning Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippa, Francesca; Secundo, Giustina; de Maggio, Marco

    This chapter proposes an operational model to monitor and assess an Open Networked Learning Community. Specifically, the model is based on the Intellectual Capital framework, along the Human, Structural and Social dimensions. It relies on the social network analysis to map several and complementary perspectives of a learning network. Its application allows to observe and monitor the cognitive behaviour of a learning community, in the final perspective of tracking and obtaining precious insights for value generation.

  4. ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported increases in the incidence of endocrine-related conditions have led to speculation about environmental causes. Environmental scientists are focusing increased research effort into understanding the mechanisms by which endocrine disruptors affect human and ecological h...

  5. Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests.

    PubMed

    Suz, Laura M; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Fetzer, Karl Dieter; Fischer, Richard; García, Paloma; Gehrman, Joachim; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Manninger, Miklós; Neagu, Stefan; Nicolas, Manuel; Oldenburger, Jan; Raspe, Stephan; Sánchez, Gerardo; Schröck, Hans Werner; Schubert, Alfred; Verheyen, Kris; Verstraeten, Arne; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests, but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data are scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales, mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined with decreasing soil pH and root density, and with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Shifts in mycorrhizas with different functional traits were detected; mycorrhizas with structures specialized for long-distance transport related differently to most environmental variables than those without. The dominant oak-specialist Lactarius quietus, with limited soil exploration abilities, responds positively to increasing nitrogen inputs and decreasing pH. In contrast, Tricholoma, Cortinarius and Piloderma species, with medium-distance soil exploration abilities, show a consistently negative response. We also determined nitrogen critical loads for moderate (9.5-13.5 kg N/ha/year) and drastic (17 kg N/ha/year) changes in belowground mycorrhizal root communities in temperate oak forests. Overall, we generated the first baseline data for ectomycorrhizal fungi in the oak forests sampled, identified nitrogen pollution as one of their major drivers at large scales and revealed fungi that individually and/or in combination with others can be used as belowground indicators of environmental characteristics.

  6. Contested Environmental Hazards and Community Conflict over Relocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Dennis K.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the literature on contaminated communities indicates that environmental hazards lead to conflict and dissension. In this paper we examine the salient dimensions of conflict and factionalism in a rural Oklahoma community. The community is heavily contaminated from 80 years of commercial mining operations and was one of the first…

  7. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  8. Mapping, monitoring, and modeling Western Gateway Community landscape dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hester, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Federal public lands in the western United States are becoming increasingly surrounded by Gateway Communities. These communities are undergoing landscape change due to population growth, economic growth, and the resulting land-use development. Socioeconomic, demographic, and land-use changes in Gateway Communities are often perceived as threats to Federal land resources, natural amenities, cultural resources, and recreational opportunities. However, land-surface disturbances on Federal public lands, such as conventional and alternative energy development (which impact surrounding Gateway Communities), are also environmental and societal issues that Federal land and adjacent regional community planners need to consider in their long-range land-use planning.

  9. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  10. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  11. Environmental Scan for the Colorado Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document addresses an environmental scan done in the Colorado Community College System (CCCS). The goals of an environmental scan include collecting external information, predicting future trends, and analyzing how these trends might affect an organization. The environmental scan completed for the CCCS focused on emerging trends that may…

  12. Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM) - Realizing Integrated Environmental Monitoring Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosch, Thomas; Fietzek, Peer

    2016-04-01

    In a variety of scientific and industrial application areas, ranging i.e. from the supervision of hydrate fields over the detection and localization of fugitive emissions from subsea oil and gas production to fish farming, fixed point observatories are useful and applied means. They monitor the water column and/or are placed at the sea floor over long periods of time. They are essential oceanographic platforms for providing valuable long-term time series data and multi-parameter measurements. Various mooring and observatory endeavors world-wide contribute valuable data needed for understanding our planet's ocean systems and biogeochemical processes. Continuously powered cabled observatories enable real-time data transmission from spots of interest close to the shore or to ocean infrastructures. Independent of the design of the observatories they all rely on sensors which demands for regular maintenance. This work is in most cases associated with cost-intensive maintenance on a regular time basis for the entire sensor carrying fixed platform. It is mandatory to encounter this asset for long-term monitoring by enhancing hardware efficiency. On the basis of two examples of use from the area of hydrate monitoring (off Norway and Japan) we will present the concept of the Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM). The modular, scalable and networking capabilities of the MSM allow for an easy adaptation to different monitoring tasks. Providing intelligent power management, combining chemical and acoustical sensors, adaptation of the payload according to the monitoring tasks, autonomous powering, modular design for easy transportation, storage and mobilization, Vessel of Opportunity-borne launching and recovery capability with a video-guided launcher system and a rope recovery system are key facts addressed during the development of the MSM. Step by step the MSM concept applied to the observatory hardware will also be extended towards the gathered data to maximize the

  13. Targeting environmental beliefs in a community college environmental science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Mary K.

    This critical action research study was designed to address the practice-based problem of efficacy in adult environmental education. Due to the numerous environmental problems facing the earth, environmental educators have been called upon to design and implement educational programs that foster environmentally responsible behavior in learners. The environmental pedagogy developed for this study grounded the learners in their socio-cultural context and utilized techniques of transformative learning to encourage learners to address the environmental beliefs that result from this context. Reflective journals and essays, collaborative writings, individual interviews, and a pretest/posttest questionnaire were utilized to determine the nature of change in the learners that resulted from this educational intervention. The participant outcomes of this study include expanded environmental awareness, a more holistic environmental perspective, action on new understandings and a change in environmental beliefs. During the twelve-week timeframe of this study participant meaning-making was enhanced by critical reflection, integration of past and present experiences, reliance on 'expert' knowledge and exposure to multiple perspectives. The nature of change that occurred in the individuals in this study would suggest that contextualizing adult environmental education and applying transformative learning theory to practice can result in a more relevant, less abstract conception of the environment and less symbolic proenvironmental beliefs and attitudes. In addition, the findings of this study also indicate that environmental educators should consider the impact of epistemological beliefs on environmental learning, and the uniquely individual and time-consuming aspects of applying transformative learning to practice.

  14. 1997 LMITCO Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.; Street, L.; Wilhelmsen, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1997 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs and compares 1997 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standard, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends indicating a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. With the exception of one nitrogen sample in the disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond, compliance with permits and applicable regulations was achieved. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that public health and the environment were protected.

  15. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  16. Grand Portage Reservation Environmental Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    There are seven types of aquatic resources on the Grand Portage Reservation. An ecological monitoring program was proposed for these resources. Some of the resources are pristine, while others have been affected by development. Each type of resource has physical (habitat, sediment, and hydrology), chemical, and biological (fish, invertebrates, and algae) characteristics that are monitored in a consistent manner so that change may be detected. Not all aspects of the physical, chemical, and biotic components are monitored at each resource type. Monitoring is focused on those aspects most susceptible to change. Replication and comparison with pristine components are a significant part of the program so that actual change can be determined from natural temporal and spatial variability.

  17. Astronaut-Deployable Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S. D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Smith, M. D.; Khayat, A.; Conrad, P.

    2017-02-01

    Geophysical and environmental monitoring stations could be deployed by astronauts exploring Mars, the Moon, or asteroids, and create a broad network that would collect high-value scientific information while also enhancing astronaut safety.

  18. Environmental monitoring of natural waters in Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Matugina, E. G.; Bagamaev, B. M.; Tokhov, Yu M.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Gorchakov, E. V.; Sotnikova, T. V.; Shilova, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The environmental monitoring of natural waters in Krasnodar (Uspensky and Novokubansky districts) and Stavropol (Kochubeyevsky District) Territories was conducted. In the course of study, various elements and compounds harmful to animals and humans, which exceed maximum permissible concentrations, were identified.

  19. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  20. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  1. Estimation of change in populations and communities from monitoring survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring surveys provide fundamental information for use in environmental decision making by permitting assessment of both current population (or community) status and change in status, by providing a historical context of the present status, and by documenting response to ongoing management. Conservation of species and communities has historically been based upon monitoring information, and prioritization of species and habitats for conservation action often requires reliable, quantitative results. Although many monitoring programs exist for populations, species, and communities, as well as for biotic and abiotic features of the environment, estimation of population and community change from surveys can sometimes be controversial, and demands on monitoring information have increased greatly in recent years. Information is often required at multiple spatial scales for use in geographic information systems, and information needs exist for description of regional patterns of change in populations, communities, and ecosystems. Often, attempts are made to meet these needs using information collected for other purposes or at inappropriate geographic scales, leading to information that is difficult to analyze and interpret. In this chapter, we address some of the constraints and issues associated with estimating change in wildlife species and species groups from monitoring surveys, and use bird surveys as our primary examples.

  2. Multispectral image processing for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.; Lazaroff, Mark B.; Brennan, Mark W.

    1993-03-01

    New techniques are described for detecting environmental anomalies and changes using multispectral imagery. Environmental anomalies are areas that do not exhibit normal signatures due to man-made activities and include phenomena such as effluent discharges, smoke plumes, stressed vegetation, and deforestation. A new region-based processing technique is described for detecting these phenomena using Landsat TM imagery. Another algorithm that can detect the appearance or disappearance of environmental phenomena is also described and an example illustrating its use in detecting urban changes using SPOT imagery is presented.

  3. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    Results for 1981 of the LBL Environmental Monitoring Program are given. Data include monitoring results for accelerator-produced radiation, airborne and waterborne radionuclides, and nonradioactive pollutants. Population doses resulting from LBL operations are given in terms of accelerator-produced and airborne radioactivities. Trends in the environmental impacts of LBL operations are discussed in terms of accelerator-produced, airborne, and waterborne radionuclides. (ERB)

  4. Summary and results of the comprehensive environmental monitoring program at the INEL's Raft River geothermal site

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, R.A.; Thurow, T.L.; Cahn, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Program was designed to demonstrate that moderate temperature (approx. 150/sup 0/C) geothermal fluids could be used to generate electricity and provide an alternate energy source for direct-use applications. The environmental program was initiated soon after drilling began. The major elements of the monitoring program were continued during the construction and experimental testing of the 5-MW(e) power plant. The monitoring studies established pre-development baseline conditions of and assessed changes in the physical, biological, and human environment. The Physical Environmental Monitoring Program collected baseline data on geology, subsidence, seismicity, meteorology and air quality. The Biological Environmental Monitoring Program collected baseline data on the flora and fauna of the terrestrial ecosystem, studied raptor disturbances, and surveyed the aquatic communities of the Raft River. The Human Environmental Monitoring Program surveyed historic and archaeological sites, considered the socioeconomic environment, and documented incidences of fluorosis in the Raft River Valley. In addition to the environmental monitoring programs, research on biological direct applications using geothermal water was conducted at Raft River. Areas of research included biomass production of wetland and tree species, aquaculture, agricultural irrigation, and the use of wetlands as a treatment or pretreatment system for geothermal effluents.

  5. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTIC ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Databases designed for statistical analyses have characteristics that distinguish them from databases intended for general use. EMAP uses a probabilistic sampling design to collect data to produce statistical assessments of environmental conditions. In addition to supporting the ...

  6. Environmental Monitoring Report - United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Facilities, Calendar Year 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Each year since 1972, a report has been prepared on the environmental monitoring activities for the DOE facilities in oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the previous calendar year. previously, the individual facilities published quarterly and annual progress reports that contained some environmental monitoring data. The environmental monitoring program for 1984 includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, groundwater, creek sediment, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive (including hazardous) materials. Special environmental studies that have been conducted in the Oak Ridge area are included in this report, primarily as abstracts or brief summaries. The annual report for 1984 on environmental monitoring and surveillance of the Oak Ridge community by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is included as an appendix. A brief description of the topography and climate of the Oak Ridge area and a short description of the three DOE facilities are provided below to enhance the reader's understanding of the direction and contents of the environmental monitoring program for Oak Ridge.

  7. Environmental and biological monitoring for lead exposure in California workplaces.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, L; Sharp, D S; Samuels, S; Perkins, C; Rosenberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Patterns of environmental and biological monitoring for lead exposure were surveyed in lead-using industries in California. Employer self-reporting indicates a large proportion of potentially lead-exposed workers have never participated in a monitoring program. Only 2.6 percent of facilities have done environmental monitoring for lead, and only 1.4 percent have routine biological monitoring programs. Monitoring practices vary by size of facility, with higher proportions in industries in which larger facilities predominate. Almost 80 percent of battery manufacturing employees work in job classifications which have been monitored, versus only 1 percent of radiator-repair workers. These findings suggest that laboratory-based surveillance for occupational lead poisoning may seriously underestimate the true number of lead poisoned workers and raise serious questions regarding compliance with key elements of the OSHA Lead Standard. PMID:2368850

  8. Environmental monitoring, restoration and assessment: What have we learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Twenty-Eighth Hanford Symposium on Health and the Environment was held in Richland, Washington, October 16--19, 1989. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The symposium was organized to review and evaluate some of the monitoring and assessment programs that have been conducted or are currently in place. Potential health and environmental effects of energy-related and other industrial activities have been monitored and assessed at various government and private facilities for over three decades. Most monitoring is required under government regulations; some monitoring is implemented because facility operators consider it prudent practice. As a result of these activities, there is now a substantial radiological, physical, and chemical data base for various environmental components, both in the United States and abroad. Symposium participants, both platform and poster presenters, were asked to consider, among other topics, the following: Has the expenditure of millions of dollars for radiological monitoring and assessment activities been worth the effort How do we decide when enough monitoring is enough Can we adequately assess the impacts of nonradiological components -- both inorganic and organic -- of wastes Are current regulatory requirements too restrictive or too lenient Can monitoring and assessment be made more cost effective Papers were solicited in the areas of environmental monitoring; environmental regulations; remediation, restoration, and decommissioning; modeling and dose assessment; uncertainty, design, and data analysis; and data management and quality assurance. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  9. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, W.J.; Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H.; Buddemeir, R.W.

    1980-04-25

    Information on monitoring activities is reported in two sections for EDB/ERA/INIS. The first section covers all information reported except Appendix D, which gives details of sampling and analytical procedures for environmental monitoring used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A separate abstract was prepared for Appendix D. (JGB)

  10. Environmental Monitoring Curriculum System and Application-Oriented Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Through building the environmental monitoring curriculum system for application-oriented talents, the comprehensive design and practice were constructed from the syllabus, textbooks, web-based courses, top-quality courses, test paper bank, open laboratory and scientific research etc. The aims are to promote environmental science professional,…

  11. Monitoring of environmental pollutants by bioluminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Girotti, Stefano; Ferri, Elida Nora; Fumo, Maria Grazia; Maiolini, Elisabetta

    2008-02-04

    This review deals with the applications of bioluminescent bacteria to the environmental analyses, published during the years 2000-2007. The ecotoxicological assessment, by bioassays, of the environmental risks and the luminescent approaches are reported. The review includes a brief introduction to the characteristics and applications of bioassays, a description of the characteristics and applications of natural bioluminescent bacteria (BLB), and a collection of the main applications to organic and inorganic pollutants. The light-emitting genetically modified bacteria applications, as well as the bioluminescent immobilized systems and biosensors are outlined. Considerations about commercially available BLB and BLB catalogues are also reported. Most of the environmental applications, here mentioned, of luminescent organisms are on wastewater, seawater, surface and ground water, tap water, soil and sediments, air. Comparison to other bioindicators and bioassay has been also made. Various tables have been inserted, to make easier to take a rapid glance at all possible references concerning the topic of specific interest.

  12. Rural community leaders' perceptions of environmental health risks: improving community health.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Laura S; Butterfield, Patricia; Christopher, Suzanne; Hill, Wade

    2006-03-01

    Qualitative description was used to explore how rural community leaders frame, interpret, and give meaning to environmental health issues affecting their constituents and communities. Six rural community leaders discussed growth, vulnerable families, and the action avoidance strategies they use or see used in lieu of adopting health-promoting behaviors. Findings suggest intervention strategies should be economical, use common sense, be sensitive to regional identity, and use local case studies and "inside leadership." Occupational health nurses addressing the disparate environmental health risks in rural communities are encouraged to use agenda-neutral, scientifically based risk communication efforts and foster collaborative relationships among nurses, planners, industry, and other community leaders.

  13. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations.

  14. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  15. Glycoside Hydrolases across Environmental Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Berlemont, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Across many environments microbial glycoside hydrolases support the enzymatic processing of carbohydrates, a critical function in many ecosystems. Little is known about how the microbial composition of a community and the potential for carbohydrate processing relate to each other. Here, using 1,934 metagenomic datasets, we linked changes in community composition to variation of potential for carbohydrate processing across environments. We were able to show that each ecosystem-type displays a specific potential for carbohydrate utilization. Most of this potential was associated with just 77 bacterial genera. The GH content in bacterial genera is best described by their taxonomic affiliation. Across metagenomes, fluctuations of the microbial community structure and GH potential for carbohydrate utilization were correlated. Our analysis reveals that both deterministic and stochastic processes contribute to the assembly of complex microbial communities. PMID:27992426

  16. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  17. Bringing Systems Thinking into Community-based Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s ‘Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program’ is developing methods and tools to assist communities in making decisions that lead to more just and environmentally sustainable outcomes. Work includes collaborative development of system...

  18. Multiparametric methane sensor for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecki, M.; Duk, M.; Kociubiński, A.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Today, methane sensors find applications mostly in safety alarm installations, gas parameters detection and air pollution classification. Such sensors and sensors elements exists for industry and home use. Under development area of methane sensors application is dedicated to ground gases monitoring. Proper monitoring of soil gases requires reliable and maintenance-free semi-constant and longtime examination at relatively low cost of equipment. The sensors for soil monitoring have to work on soil probe. Therefore, sensor is exposed to environment conditions, as a wide range of temperatures and a full scale of humidity changes, as well as rain, snow and wind, that are not specified for classical methane sensors. Development of such sensor is presented in this paper. The presented sensor construction consists of five commercial non dispersive infra-red (NDIR) methane sensing units, a set of temperature and humidity sensing units, a gas chamber equipped with a micro-fan, automated gas valves and also a microcontroller that controls the measuring procedure. The electronics part of sensor was installed into customized 3D printed housing equipped with self-developed gas valves. The main development of proposed sensor is on the side of experimental evaluation of construction reliability and results of data processing included safety procedures and function for hardware error correction. Redundant methane sensor units are used providing measurement error correction as well as improved measurement accuracy. The humidity and temperature sensors are used for internal compensation of methane measurements as well as for cutting-off the sensor from the environment when the conditions exceed allowable parameters. Results obtained during environment sensing prove that the gas concentration readings are not sensitive to gas chamber vertical or horizontal position. It is important as vertical sensor installation on soil probe is simpler that horizontal one. Data acquired during six

  19. Environmental monitoring using malformed embryos of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis

    SciTech Connect

    Sundelin, B.; Eriksson, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    Reproduction variables of Monoporeia affinis, such as embryonic malformation were confirmed as the most sensitive variable, when soft bottom microcosms were exposed to metals such as cadmium and lead, arsenic, organic compounds such as 4,5,6 trichloroguaiacol, contaminated sediment from areas impacted by heavy metals and pulp mill effluents. The effects were demonstrated also in low concentrations that did not significantly affect the meiofauna community. The microcosm test-system with high ecological realism could offer a possibility to translate laboratory results to the natural environments. Field surveys outside different types of pulp mills and metal works on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia have confirmed the laboratory results. Significantly higher levels of malformed embryos of Monoporeia affinis were demonstrated in the impacted areas in comparison with reference areas. The reproduction variables of Monoporeia affinis have been used in the national environmental monitoring program during two years and results indicated possibilities to distinguish between effects of xenobiotica and secondary eutrophication effects, such as unsaturated oxygen condition and occurrence of sulfides, which resulted in increased frequencies of dead eggs but not affected the frequencies of malformed eggs and embryos.

  20. Wireless Sensor Networks Applied on Environmental Monitoring in Fowl Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fangwu; Zhang, Naiqing

    Aiming at the real time monitoring requirement of poultry farms on the environment, a online monitoring system is proposed for poultry farms on the environment based on ZigBee, its application of ZigBee wireless networks and sensor technology. supply a network structure of monitoring system, monitoring system node controller of data acquisition, data transmission and control node, which is TI's CC2430 based on ZigBee technology. CO2 sensors use TGS4161, temperature and humidity sensors use SHT75 to detect environmental parameters. designed circuit diagram of parameter testing node and system master control node, CC2430 as a data processing chip. through the analysis of data transmission of system, simplifying the ZigBee protocol stack, designed data transmission protocols and communication formats of the system. given program flow chart of sensors nodes and main node. practical application shows that the performance ratio cable monitoring system is better, Especially in real-time systems and anti-jamming, it so superior on the current forms of environmental monitoring SCM cable system which cost lower than the SCM cable control system about 30%.Successfully achieved the Monitoring of fowlery's CO2 concentration, temperature, humidity and other environmental parameters for large-scale poultry farming, and to provide a new monitoring environment technologie.

  1. Community Engagement and Data Disclosure in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Erin N.; Elam, Sarah; Burns, Roxanne; Spencer, Alonzo; Yancey, Elissa; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Walton, Mike; Reynolds, Virgil; Newman, Nicholas; Wright, Robert O.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Federal funding agencies increasingly support stakeholder participation in environmental health studies, and yet there is very little published research on engagement of community members in the development of data disclosure (DD) strategies. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency reported airborne manganese (Mn) concentrations in East Liverpool, Ohio, 30 times higher than the reference concentration, which led to an academic–community research partnership to address community concern about Mn exposure, particularly among children. Children and their families were recruited to participate in a pilot study. Samples of blood and hair were collected from the children and analyzed for metals. DD mechanisms were developed using an iterative approach between community and academic partners. Individual DD letters were mailed to each participating family, and a community meeting was held. A post-meeting survey was administered to gauge community perception of the DD strategies. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the effectiveness of engaging community partners in the conduct of environmental health research and in the development of DD strategies for individuals and the community at large. Scientists should include community partners in the development of DD strategies to enhance translation of the research findings and support the right of study participants to know their individual results. PMID:26829152

  2. Community Engagement and Data Disclosure in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Erin N; Elam, Sarah; Burns, Roxanne; Spencer, Alonzo; Yancey, Elissa; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Walton, Mike; Reynolds, Virgil; Newman, Nicholas; Wright, Robert O; Parsons, Patrick J; Praamsma, Meredith L; Palmer, Christopher D; Dietrich, Kim N

    2016-02-01

    Federal funding agencies increasingly support stakeholder participation in environmental health studies, and yet there is very little published research on engagement of community members in the development of data disclosure (DD) strategies. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency reported airborne manganese (Mn) concentrations in East Liverpool, Ohio, 30 times higher than the reference concentration, which led to an academic–community research partnership to address community concern about Mn exposure, particularly among children. Children and their families were recruited to participate in a pilot study. Samples of blood and hair were collected from the children and analyzed for metals. DD mechanisms were developed using an iterative approach between community and academic partners. Individual DD letters were mailed to each participating family, and a community meeting was held. A post-meeting survey was administered to gauge community perception of the DD strategies. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the effectiveness of engaging community partners in the conduct of environmental health research and in the development of DD strategies for individuals and the community at large. Scientists should include community partners in the development of DD strategies to enhance translation of the research findings and support the right of study participants to know their individual results.

  3. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  4. Reconciling Energy Use with Environmental Protection in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Regina S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the energy and environmental policymaking strategies of the European Community to regulate the consumption of energy. Strategies include the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, the creation of the European Environmental Agency, the implementation of the European Energy Charter, the SAVE Program, and economic and fiscal instruments…

  5. Identity and environmentalism: the influence of community characteristics.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ann; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community characteristics on self-proclaimed environmentalism. We find that the composition of a community affects the likelihood that a person claims to be a strong environmentalist even after controlling for individual political leaning, socio-economic characteristics, and pro-environment behaviors. Individuals are more likely to claim to be strong environmentalists if they live in areas where a larger share of the population has post-graduate degrees, if they live in heavily Democratic areas, or if they live in heavily Republican areas. These community effects occur only when individuals are predisposed to take on an environmental identity.

  6. Community Environmental Health Assessment in Peru's Desert Hills and Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Baffigo, Virginia; Albinagorta, Jorge; Nauca, Luis; Rojas, Percy; Alegre, Rossana; Hubbard, Brian; Sarisky, John

    2001-01-01

    Peru's expanding population and rapid urbanization—a result of migration to its largest cities—have stressed the country's public services infrastructure and the provision of public health and environmental health services. In response, the Ministry of Health established the General Directorate of Environmental Health (DIGESA), the branch charged with assuring adequate environmental health services to populations in rural and urban areas. The magnitude of the environmental health problems in peri-urban settlements, however, has exceeded the capacity of DIGESA to respond. The Urban Environmental Health Project is an effort to develop the ability of local communities to address these problems PMID:11574311

  7. EC intercomparisons for laboratories monitoring environmental radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wätjen, U; Szántó, Zs; Altzitzoglou, T; Sibbens, G; Keightley, J; Hult, M

    2006-01-01

    International measurement comparisons are organised regularly for EU laboratories involved in monitoring radioactivity, with emphasis on meeting routine measurement conditions. Using the recent comparison of 137Cs in air filters as an example, the whole cycle is described: establishment of traceable reference values, spiking of individual filters for the comparison and their quality assurance, treatment and measurement of filters in the participating laboratories and evaluation of comparison results. The treatment of an individual result, deviating widely from the reference value, is discussed. Monte-Carlo simulations allow to estimate the maximum errors possibly made due to a non-suitable measurement geometry.

  8. Environmental charging effects monitors for operational satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1981-04-01

    A set of three instruments has been developed that can provide early detection of potentially dangerous geomagnetic substorm conditions, and monitor the spacecraft response. The set consists of three instruments: (1) a 'surface voltage sensor' that measures the characteristic energy of collected electrons or ions from +100 to -20,000 volts; (2) a 'nanoammeter' or logarithmic current density sensor that measures local electron flux by measuring currents from 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -5th A; and (3) a 'transient events counter' that counts the spurious pulses from electrostatic discharges that are coupled into the spacecraft wiring harness. Performance characteristics, specifications, and application of these instruments are discussed.

  9. Environmental Microbial Community Proteomics: Status, Challenges and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Kong, Ling-Fen; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Zhang-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community proteomics, also termed metaproteomics, is an emerging field within the area of microbiology, which studies the entire protein complement recovered directly from a complex environmental microbial community at a given point in time. Although it is still in its infancy, microbial community proteomics has shown its powerful potential in exploring microbial diversity, metabolic potential, ecological function and microbe-environment interactions. In this paper, we review recent advances achieved in microbial community proteomics conducted in diverse environments, such as marine and freshwater, sediment and soil, activated sludge, acid mine drainage biofilms and symbiotic communities. The challenges facing microbial community proteomics are also discussed, and we believe that microbial community proteomics will greatly enhance our understanding of the microbial world and its interactions with the environment. PMID:27527164

  10. Versatile electrochemical microsensors for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Hong, K.C. . Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.); Ashley, K. . Dept. of Chemistry); Granstaff, V.E. )

    1991-10-01

    The fabrication of novel multielement microelectrode array sensors is reported. With regard to individual array elements, two main concepts are pursued. One involves the use of relatively non-selective microelectrode elements, coupled with pattern recognition methods, for data analysis. This strategy is most applicable when prior knowledge about the chemical environment is limited, or when mainly qualitative information is sought. The second concept involves the development of arrays containing intrinsically more selective microelectrode elements. Our main concern here is the determination of specific contaminants. Most of our current emphasis is in the selection and development of appropriate elements for microelectrode arrays of this type, with a goal of quantitative analysis for a variety of compounds and elements. Other efforts are concerned with defining the behavior of microelectrodes and devising mass fabrication methods for these sensors. Two designs for the arrays are discussed, one employing photolithographic fabrication methods and another in which individual microelectrodes are encased in glass. Potential applications for these sensors include monitoring for toxic contaminants in natural waters, monitoring waste streams, and process control. 35 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Community radiation monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.N.

    1994-08-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UUNEL). The thirteenth year of this program began in the fall of 1992, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE--sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the then-existing EPA monitoring network around the NTS, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah, and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Station Managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These mangers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded through their training, experience, community standing, and effort in becoming a very visible, able, and valuable asset in this link.

  12. Community Radiation Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  13. A community psychology view of environmental organization processes.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julie H; Bush, Robert A

    2007-09-01

    Environmental organizations have a key role in addressing environmental degradation and promoting ecologically and socially sustainable societies. Psychosocial processes underpin their work, however, empirical studies of these processes remain underdeveloped. This paper presents the first stage of a community psychology study involving in-depth interviews with leaders in environmental organizations. Qualitative analysis revealed a framework of five types of psychosocial processes that assist environmental organizations to achieve a range of outcomes, namely: problem analysis; influencing decision-making; inter-organizational relationships; community participation and knowledge transfer. These psychosocial processes were used in substantially different ways depending on the organizations' orientation. Three key orientations towards outcomes were evident: on-ground conservation, developing innovation in specialist areas and transforming wider social institutions. The findings provide a model of the psychosocial processes involved in fostering sustainable futures and exemplify the contribution of community psychology to this critical global issue.

  14. Sustainable Education: Community Colleges as Environmental Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wylie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how community colleges, as educational institutions, play a central role in the sustainability movement and in the battle against climate change. Across the country, two-year institutions are creating sustainability programs, such as recycling garbage or composting food waste. They are building new green buildings, upgrading…

  15. Environmental Drivers of the Canadian Arctic Megabenthic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Virginie; Iken, Katrin; Archambault, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Environmental gradients and their influence on benthic community structure vary over different spatial scales; yet, few studies in the Arctic have attempted to study the influence of environmental gradients of differing spatial scales on megabenthic communities across continental-scales. The current project studied for the first time how megabenthic community structure is related to several environmental factors over 2000 km of the Canadian Arctic, from the Beaufort Sea to northern Baffin Bay. Faunal trawl samples were collected between 2007 and 2011 at 78 stations from 30 to 1000 m depth and patterns in biomass, density, richness, diversity, and taxonomic composition were examined in relation to indirect/spatial gradients (e.g., depth), direct gradients (e.g., bottom oceanographic variables), and resource gradients (e.g., food supply proxies). Six benthic community types were defined based on their biomass-based taxonomic composition. Their distribution was significantly, but moderately, associated with large-scale (100–1000 km) environmental gradients defined by depth, physical water properties (e.g., bottom salinity), and meso-scale (10–100 km) environmental gradients defined by substrate type (hard vs. soft) and sediment organic carbon content. We did not observe a strong decline of bulk biomass, density and richness with depth or a strong increase of those community characteristics with food supply proxies, contrary to our hypothesis. We discuss how local- to meso-scale environmental conditions, such as bottom current regimes and polynyas, sustain biomass-rich communities at specific locations in oligotrophic and in deep regions of the Canadian Arctic. This study demonstrates the value of considering the scales of variability of environmental gradients when interpreting their relevance in structuring of communities. PMID:25019385

  16. Soil and soil environmental quality monitoring in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Jiao, Xudong; Song, Liuting

    2014-08-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous concerns have been raised in China over the issue of environmental sustainability. Various soil survey and monitoring programs have been carried out in China to study soil quality, and to provide a scientific basis for environment policy making. This paper provides an overview of past and current soil quality surveys and monitoring activities in China. This paper includes a summary of concerns over background concentrations of elements in soil, and soil environmental standards and guidelines in China. Levels of pollution in urban soil, agricultural soil, and soil in mining and smelting areas were compared using the concentrations and pollution indexes. In addition to soil surveys, soil monitoring is essential to study the data and to examine the effects of contaminants in soils. However, the current soil quality monitoring system was insufficient to accurately determine the soil quality status of soils across China. For accurate soil monitoring in China, it will be necessary to set up routine monitoring systems at various scales (national, provincial, and local scales), taking into consideration monitoring indicators and quality assurance. This is currently an important priority for the environmental protection administration of China.

  17. Lidar techniques for environmental and ecological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2015-04-01

    An overview of optical probing of the atmosphere will be given, where mostly active remote- sensing techniques of the laser-radar type will be covered, but also some passive techniques employing ambient radiation. Atmospheric objects of quite varying sizes can be studied. Mercury is the only pollutant in atomic form in the atmosphere, while other pollutants are either molecular or in particle form. Light detection and ranging (Lidar) techniques allow three-dimensional mapping of such constituents, and examples from atmospheric lidar work in Lund and in Guangzhou will be given. Recently, much larger lidar targets have been studied. Monitoring of flying insects and birds is of considerable ecological interest, and several projects have been pursued in collaboration with biologists. Mostly, elastic backscattering and fluorescence techniques are employed. Some references to recent activities by the author and his colleagues are given below. [1] Z.G. Guan, L. Mei, P. Lundin, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, Vertical Lidar Sounding of Air Pollutants in a Major Chinese City, Appl. Phys. B 101, 465 (2010) [2] L. Mei, G.Y. Zhou and S. Svanberg, Differential Absorption Lidar System Employed for Background Atomic Mercury Vertical Profiling in South China, Lasers Opt. Eng. 55, 128 (2013) [3] Z.G. Guan, M. Brydegaard, P. Lundin, M. Wellenreuther, E. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, Insect Monitoring with Fluorescence LIDAR techniques - Field experiments, Appl. Optics 48, 5668 (2010) [4] A. Runemark, M. Wellereuther, H. Jayaweera, S. Svanberg and M. Brydegaard, Rare Events in Remote Dark Field Spectroscopy: An Ecological Case study of Insects, IEEE JSTQE 18, 1573 (2011) [5] L. Mei, Z.G. Guan, H.J. Zhou, J. Lv, Z.R. Zhu, J.A. Cheng, F.J. Chen, C. Löfstedt, S. Svanberg, and G. Somesfalean, Agricultural Pest Monitoring using Fluorescence Lidar Techniques, Applied Physics B 106, 733 (2011) [6] P. Lundin, P. Samuelsson, S. Svanberg, A. Runemark, S. Åkesson, and M. Brydegaard, Remote

  18. Rapid data access: Key to integrated use of environmental characterization and monitoring information

    SciTech Connect

    Canales, T.; Ottesen, P.

    1995-11-01

    Environmental investigations result in large quantities of data. The value of these data lies in their interpretation and use by project staff, management, and the regulatory community. Traditional modes of data access can be frustrating and time-consuming. Software tools that join networking technology of the World Wide Web with database access have decreased labor-intensive overhead in site characterization and monitoring, thus increasing the efficiency of the ground water restoration project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. 1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  20. Monitoring the worker and the community for chemical exposure and disease: legal and ethical considerations in the US.

    PubMed

    Ashford, N A

    1994-07-01

    Biomonitoring of workers and communities raises important legal and ethical concerns, but the two contexts are different. Monitoring workers is usually done by, or at the instigation of, the employer who, in law, is responsible for their health and safety. Whenever worker monitoring leads to the removal of workers, difficult issues emerge affecting labor-management relations, labor law, and discrimination law. Resulting legal and ethical questions are usually framed with the context of the employment contract or labor relationship. In contrast, public health or environmental officials may be the driving force behind biomonitoring of the community. No employer-employee relationship exists, and the doctor-patient relationship may be tenuous. The community may often request biomonitoring, but the situation is no less contentious. On the basis of an historical view of monitoring events within the US, mechanisms are suggested to promote positive interactions between employers and workers and among agencies, individuals, and groups in the monitoring of chemically contaminated communities.

  1. Environmental monitoring plan, July 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, DOE Oversight Division (TDEC/DOE-O) under the terms of the Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA) are providing annual reports: reporting of State`s monitoring and analysis, and findings of DOE`s quality and effectiveness of DOE`s monitoring and surveillance. This report blends some of both of the required annual reports as described in the TOA section A.7.2.2. The Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) integrates the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report presents the results of environmental monitoring in Tennessee in the following areas: surface waters; ground water; air; and fish and wildlife. In addition, radiation monitoring has been conducted in all of these areas.

  2. A methodology for post-EIS (environmental impact statement) monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Linda Graves

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for monitoring the impacts predicted in environmental impact statements (EIS's) was developed using the EIS on phosphate development in southeastern Idaho as a case study. A monitoring system based on this methodology: (1) coordinates a comprehensive, intergovernmental monitoring effort; (2) documents the major impacts that result, thereby improving the accuracy of impact predictions in future EIS's; (3) helps agencies control impacts by warning them when critical impact levels are reached and by providing feedback on the success of mitigating measures; and (4) limits monitoring data to the essential information that agencies need to carry out their regulatory and environmental protection responsibilities. The methodology is presented as flow charts accompanied by tables that describe the objectives, tasks, and products for each work element in the flow chart.

  3. AQUATIC PLANT COMMUNITIES FOR IMPACT MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The studies revewed here suggest that both structural and functional assessments of aquatic plant communities are valuable tools in the determination of environmental impacts and water quality. I am not suggesting that aquatic plants be used in lieu of macronivertebrates or fish ...

  4. Analyzing Patterns of Community Interest at a Legacy Mining Waste Site to Assess and Inform Environmental Health Literacy Efforts.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Lothrop, Nathan; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Root, Robert A; Artiola, Janick F; Klimecki, Walter; Loh, Miranda

    2016-09-01

    Understanding a community's concerns and informational needs is crucial to conducting and improving environmental health research and literacy initiatives. We hypothesized that analysis of community inquiries over time at a legacy mining site would be an effective method for assessing environmental health literacy efforts and determining whether community concerns were thoroughly addressed. Through a qualitative analysis, we determined community concerns at the time of being listed as a Superfund site. We analyzed how community concerns changed from this starting point over the subsequent years, and whether: 1) communication materials produced by the USEPA and other media were aligned with community concerns; and 2) these changes demonstrated a progression of the community's understanding resulting from community involvement and engaged research efforts. We observed that when the Superfund site was first listed, community members were most concerned with USEPA management, remediation, site-specific issues, health effects, and environmental monitoring efforts related to air/dust and water. Over the next five years, community inquiries shifted significantly to include exposure assessment and reduction methods and issues unrelated to the site, particularly the local public water supply and home water treatment systems. Such documentation of community inquiries over time at contaminated sites is a novel method to assess environmental health literacy efforts and determine whether community concerns were thoroughly addressed.

  5. Pulsed laser fluorometry for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, G. C.; Martin, J. C.; Jett, J. H.; Wilder, M. E.; Martinez, A.; Bentley, B. F.; Lopez, J.; Hutson, L.

    1990-01-01

    A compact pulsed laser fluorometer has been incorporated into a continuous flow system developed to detect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and/or primary amine compounds in air and water. A pulsed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser excites fluorescent reactants which flow continuously through a quartz flow cell. Data are collected, analyzed, and displayed using a Macintosh II personal computer. For detection of cholinesterase inhibitors the fluorogenic substrate N methylindoxyl acetate is used to monitor the activity of immobilized enzyme. Presence of inhibitors results in a decrease of steady state fluorescence. Detection of compounds containing primary amines is based on their reaction with fluorescamine to rapidly produce intensely fluorescent products. Compounds of interest to our research were amino acids, peptides, and proteins. An increase in steady state fluorescence could be cause to evaluate the reasons for the change. The detection limit of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water is 10 ppT. Nebulized BSA concentrated by the LANL air sampler can be detected at sub ppT original air concentration. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Environmental charging effects monitors for operational satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    A set of three instruments was developed that can provide early detection of potentially dangerous geomagnetic substorm conditions, and monitor the spacecraft response. The set consists of three instruments: A Surface Voltage Sensor that measures the characteristic energy of collected electrons or ions from +100 to -20,000 volts; a logarithmic current density sensor or Nanoammeter that measures local electron flux by measuring currents from 10 to the minus 9th power to 10 to the minus 5th power A; and a Transient Events Counter that counts the spurious pulses from electrostatic discharges that are coupled into the spacecraft wiring harness. An amplitude threshold can be set to count only pulses that are large enough to cause circuit malfunction. Performance characteristics, specifications, and application of these instruments are discussed. Size, weight, and power requirements were minimized. The Surface Voltage Sensor and Nanoammeter are packaged together in a box that is 10.1 by 11.3 by 9.5 cm and weighs 0.82 kg. The transient Events Counter measures 10.1 by 11.3 by 5.4 cm and weighs 0.55 kg. Both operate from a nominal 28 V dc input and require a total of 3/4 watt for both. Although designed for flight use, these instruments are also suitable for laboratory use.

  7. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000.

  8. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1989-06-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is described. Data for 1988 are presented and general trends are discussed. In order to establish whether LBL research activities produced any impact on the population surrounding the laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1988, as in the previous several years, dose equivalents attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of both the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG) and of the natural radiation background. 16 refs., 7 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. 1993 environmental monitoring report for the naval reactors facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1993 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  10. Environmental monitoring and cooperative resource management at the WIPP site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This poster session by the Environmental Monitoring Section of the US DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is to demonstrate that the DOE is committed to sound environmental management. This WIPP poster session demonstrates radiological as well as nonradiological environmental monitoring activities conducted routinely at the WIPP. And how data collected prior to the WIPP being operational is used to establish a preoperational baseline for environmental studies in which the samples collected during the operational phase will be compared. Cooperative Resource Management is a relatively new concept for governments agencies. It allows two or more agencies the ability to jointly share in funding a program or project and yet both agencies can benefit from the outcome. These programs are usually a biological type study. The WIPP cooperative agreement between the US BLM, DOE and its contractors is to continue the ongoing documentation of the diversity of the Chihuahuan desert.

  11. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2000 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2001 at the Naval Reactors Facility are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  13. Naval Reactors Facility Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2003 at the Naval Reactors Facility are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1999 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Bryophyte communities as biomonitors of environmental factors in the Goujiang karst bauxite, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhihui

    2015-12-15

    Bauxite mining on karst results in several ecological and environmental issues including heavy metal pollution, soil erosion and the destruction of vegetation. In turn, these may affect the distribution of plant communities and endanger human health. In general, bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are pioneer plants, lacking roots, vascular systems and well-developed cuticles. Due to their high sensitivity to the environment, they are often used to monitor air and soil pollution. A total of 25 bryophyte taxa from 19 genera and 9 families were recorded on Goujiang karst bauxite near the city of Zunyi in the Guizhou Province of southwestern China. Eleven principal bryophyte communities were identified, most of which consisted of only one species (monospecific assemblage), although the proportion of these single-species communities differed at the six locations. The levels of heavy metals also differed in soil from the six locations: iron, 8748.9-10,023μg/g; zinc, 146.7-240.9μg/g; copper, 24.6-60.4μg/g; and nickel, 35.6-95.1μg/g. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the bryophyte communities and environmental variables revealed the effect of gradient (slope), altitude and heavy metals in the soil on the distribution of the principal bryophyte communities. More than 36% of bryophyte taxa identified reproduced asexually by gemmae, as gemmiferous bryophyte communities tolerate substrates with high levels of heavy metals more readily than non-gemmiferous communities do. The distribution of heavy metals in the soil is reflected in the distribution of the bryophyte communities. The distribution characteristics of the principal bryophyte communities and of the gemmiferous bryophyte communities are useful in monitoring heavy metal pollution in karst bauxite.

  16. Medical Monitoring: A Beneficial Remedy for Residents Living Near an Environmental Hazard Site

    PubMed Central

    Wones, Robert; Pinney, Susan M.; Buckholz, Jeanette M.; Deck-Tebbe, Colleen; Freyberg, Ronald; Pesce, Amadeo

    2010-01-01

    Objective People living close to an environmental hazard site may suffer health harms from real or perceived contaminant exposures. In class-action litigation, medical monitoring is a potential remedy that has been allowed in some jurisdictions but not others. From 1952-1989 a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) uranium metal plant near Fernald, Ohio, released ionizing radiation and uranium particulates into the surrounding community. Methods Settlement of litigation between nearby residents and the DOE resulted in an 18-year medical monitoring program (N=9775) which focused on general health promotion rather than effects of uranium. Results Participation was higher than projected; decreases in common risk factors (cholesterol and blood pressure) and deaths from cancer have been observed. Conclusions These data support the appropriateness of comprehensive medical monitoring as a remedy for people affected by defined sources of environmental contaminants. PMID:19952785

  17. A Review of Environmental-Based Community Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use and related problems can be influenced by a wide variety of prevention interventions, including efforts that focus on changing the community alcohol environment—for example, by reducing underage access to alcohol, decreasing alcohol availability among adults, and increasing awareness of alcohol-related issues. Examples of environmental-based community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol use and related problems are Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol, the Community Prevention Trial, the Sacramento Neighborhood Alcohol Prevention Project, Saving Lives, Operation Safe Crossing, and Fighting Back. Evaluations of these programs found that programs that change the community environment can reduce alcohol use and related problems among both youth and adults, even in communities with relatively low readiness to address alcohol issues. Research also has identified particular settings and situations where alcohol environmental changes are particularly needed as well as factors influencing the effectiveness of certain strategies. Despite the progress made, additional questions still need to be addressed in future research to maximize the benefits associated with environmental-based community interventions. PMID:22330214

  18. Environmental control of the microfaunal community structure in tropical bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Kratina, Pavel; Petermann, Jana S; Marino, Nicholas A C; MacDonald, Andrew A M; Srivastava, Diane S

    2017-03-01

    Ecological communities hosted within phytotelmata (plant compartments filled with water) provide an excellent opportunity to test ecological theory and to advance our understanding of how local and global environmental changes affect ecosystems. However, insights from bromeliad phytotelmata communities are currently limited by scarce accounts of microfauna assemblages, even though these assemblages are critical in transferring, recycling, and releasing nutrients in these model ecosystems. Here, we analyzed natural microfaunal communities in leaf compartments of 43 bromeliads to identify the key environmental filters underlying their community structures. We found that microfaunal community richness and abundance were negatively related to canopy openness and vertical height above the ground. These associations were primarily driven by the composition of amoebae and flagellate assemblages and indicate the importance of bottom-up control of microfauna in bromeliads. Taxonomic richness of all functional groups followed a unimodal relationship with water temperature, peaking at 23-25°C and declining below and above this relatively narrow thermal range. This suggests that relatively small changes in water temperature under expected future climate warming may alter taxonomic richness and ecological structure of these communities. Our findings improve the understanding of this unstudied but crucial component of bromeliad ecosystems and reveal important environmental filters that likely contribute to overall bromeliad community structure and function.

  19. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  20. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  1. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A; Tremblay, Louis A; Ellis, Joanne I; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan; Lear, Gavin; Atalah, Javier; Pochon, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physico-chemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques.

  2. Environmental monitoring report, May 10, 1993--June 1, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) DOE Oversight Division (DOE-O) monitoring effort will serve as oversight with ongoing compliance and ambient sampling by Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor staff programs. These sources provide a comprehensive database which must be reviewed and analyzed in order to streamline DOE-O sampling efforts. DOE-O monitoring is necessary to provide quality control, to ensure compliance, to ensure completeness, and to assure protection of public health and the environment. The Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA), includes a section on Environmental Monitoring as Attachment A. To accomplish these objectives, DOE-O will implement the following monitoring programs: surface waters; ground water; air; fish and wildlife. In addition, radiation monitoring has been conducted in all of these areas.

  3. Community First Communication: Reversing Information Disparities to Achieve Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Edward A.; Desai, Chintan

    2011-01-01

    We address how information developed and effectively communicated through community based participatory research (CBPR) can reverse long-standing information disparities, empower a community, and be an agent for sustained change. Substantial information and power disparities existed between the polluted community and both the pollution industry and governmental regulators. An environmental justice partnership between a local community organization, physicians, and university performed CBPR and then developed a novel communication strategy to address a series of information disparities around a local water pollution issue. The community established a set of principles to govern the communication of results as soon as they were determined to be scientifically valid, including informing study participants and the community before other interested parties. CBPR results combined with a community-first communication strategy reversed the preexisting information disparities. The novel communication flow reversed the preferential information flow to industry and government associated with the usual scientific publication process. The community was empowered, and industry and government agencies responded positively to study recommendations. The CBPR results together with community first communication led to adoption of both community-wide and individual solutions and provided powerful motivation for behavioral change by industry and residents. PMID:21546988

  4. Helping smaller communities meet environmental needs

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy-Thompson, S. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes efforts of the International City Management Association (ICMA) to identify and facilitate environmental infrastructure development and information exchanges. The EPA is financing two ICMA endeavors: the Public Private Partnerships Program (P3) and the Peer Exchange Program. The P3 program will fund a number of demonstration sites in the areas of solid waste management, wastewater treatment and groundwater protection. The sites will be used to demonstrate innovative financial, legal and contractual arrangements that benefit infrastructure development. The Peer Exchange Program will bring together local officials for information sharing and technology transfer.

  5. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    PubMed Central

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction. PMID:25505459

  6. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    SciTech Connect

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-11-25

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.

  7. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    DOE PAGES

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; ...

    2014-11-25

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal andmore » bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.« less

  8. Lessons from White Lake - Connecting Students to their Community through Environmental Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Susan

    2014-05-01

    White Lake and its surrounding community have been negatively affected by shoreline degradation and wildlife habitat loss caused primarily by historical logging practices, and reduced water quality from industrial pollution and storm water runoff. This led to the lake being identified as a Great Lakes Area of Concern by the United States Environmental Protection Agency three decades ago. Local community partners have worked diligently in recent years to reverse habitat loss, and repair damaged ecosystems. The "H2O White Lake" (Healthy Habitats On White Lake) project has involved over seven hundred middle school students in grades six through eight over the course of the last five years. Students begin by researching the environmental history of the watershed and then they monitor six tributaries of the lake for nutrient pollution and habitat degradation. Students use the field experience as a community inventory to identify stewardship needs, for which they then identify solutions that take into account land usage and community behaviors. Class projects have focused on stream bank restoration, storm water management, eradication of invasive species, shoreline clean-up, and community outreach and education. This year, the project culminated in the first ever White Lake Environmental Film Festival, for which students had the opportunity to create their own short documentary. This multiple year place based education project allows students to apply their classroom studies of surface water and groundwater dynamics to an authentic, real-world situation, conduct themselves as scientists, and feel valuable through connections with community partners.

  9. Monitoring and research strategy for forests - environmental monitoring and assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.J.; Ritters, K.H.; Strickland, T.; Cassell, D.L.; Byers, G.E.

    1992-03-01

    To protect, manage, and use forest resources effectively, the condition of these resources must be known. Concern about documented and potential effects of air pollutants in combination with other multiple, interacting stresses has been a major impetus behind the development of monitoring programs in forests. During the past two years, the forest component of the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-Forests) has been working closely with the Forest Service's Forest Health Monitoring (FS-FHM) program and other government agencies to develop a multi-agency program to monitor the condition of the nation's forested ecosystems. The purpose of the document is to present a strategy that can be used as a starting point by all government agencies interested in participating in a nationwide FHM program. Monitoring issues such as design, indicator selection, and assessment are presented along with approaches to resolving these issues.

  10. Evaluating community and campus environmental public health programs.

    PubMed

    Pettibone, Kristianna G; Parras, Juan; Croisant, Sharon Petronella; Drew, Christina H

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' (NIEHS) Partnerships for Environmental Public Health (PEPH) program created the Evaluation Metrics Manual as a tool to help grantees understand how to map out their programs using a logic model, and to identify measures for documenting their achievements in environmental public health research. This article provides an overview of the manual, describing how grantees and community partners contributed to the manual, and how the basic components of a logic model can be used to identify metrics. We illustrate how the approach can be implemented, using a real-world case study from the University of Texas Medical Branch, where researchers worked with community partners to develop a network to address environmental justice issues.

  11. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  12. 72. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (PECMP) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (PECMP) LOCATED AT WEST END OF LONG CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195 Section 1271.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN...

  14. [Environmental and biological monitoring in the plating industry].

    PubMed

    Cavallo, D M; Cattaneo, A

    2012-01-01

    The work environment in the electroplating industry is characterized by a large amount of chemical substances used in the production process. The present work is a brief review of the time evolution of methods and strategies for the assessment of exposures to chromium and nickel by means of environmental and biological monitoring.

  15. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  16. 1989 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Chavez, G.; Phelan, J.; Parsons, A.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; Schwartz, B.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Gray, C.; Thompson, D.

    1990-05-01

    This 1989 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem. The total Albuquerque population received a collective dose of 0.097 person-rem during 1989 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, SNL, Albuquerque, operations in 1989 had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. 46 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. 1991 Environmental monitoring report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, S.; Jones, A.; Longley, S.; Parsons, A.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Ward, S.

    1992-11-01

    This 1991 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration (ER), and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of SNL, Albuquerque, received a collective dose of 0.53 person-rem during 1991 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1991 operations at SNL, Albuquerque, had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  18. 1990 Environmental Monitoring Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Yeager, G.; Wolff, T.; Parsons, A.; Dionne, D.; Massey, C.; Schwartz, B.; Fish, J.; Thompson, D. ); Goodrich, M. )

    1991-05-01

    This 1990 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total 50-mile population received a collective dose of 0.82 person-rem during 1990 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1990 SNL operations had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1. 97 refs., 30 figs., 137 tabs.

  19. Promoting Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…

  20. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule, January--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1990 for the Environment Surveillance and Ground-Water Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This schedule includes ground-water sampling performed by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  1. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  2. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  3. New techniques of low level environmental radiation monitoring at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    P. Degtiarenko, V. Popov

    2010-07-01

    We present the first long-term environmental radiation monitoring results obtained using the technique of pulse mode readout for the industry-standard Reuter-Stokes RSS-1013 argon-filled high pressure ionization chambers (HPIC). With novel designs for the front-end electronics readout and customized signal processing algorithms, we are capable of detecting individual events of gas ionization in the HPIC, caused by interactions of gammas and charged particles in the gas. The technique provides enough spectroscopic information to distinguish between several different types of environmental and man-made radiation. The technique also achieves a high degree of sensitivity and stability of the data, allowing long-term environmental radiation monitoring with unprecedented precision.

  4. The principles of effective post-spill environmental monitoring in marine environments and their application to preparedness assessment.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Mark F; Gioia, Rosalinda; Law, Robin J

    2014-05-15

    Understanding the fate and effects of marine spills is essential if the scientific and response communities are to develop best practices. The effective deployment of environmental monitoring activity can be complex and requires planning and coordination but the levels of preparedness to deliver the necessary expertise, coordination and funding are often low. This paper identifies and describes the importance of 8 principles of effective post-spill monitoring programmes. These principles are then used in the assessment of monitoring preparedness through the generation of a monitoring preparedness assessment score (MPAS). This approach can be used by local, regional or national authorities to establish the level of preparedness for environmental monitoring and prioritise areas for improvement. It also has value to responders, policy makers, environmental scientists and planners as a tool to assess preparedness and capability for specific scenarios. The approach is demonstrated through the assessment of previous incidents and potential future scenarios.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING FOR COMMUNITIES: A GUIDE TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL VISIONING PROCESS UTILIZING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document emphasizes the local stakeholder's role in addressing community-wide environmental issues, especially with respect to the preferred "green" community development. The document is intended to help communities made decisions about alternative land uses and landscape ...

  6. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  7. Mapping, Monitoring and Modeling Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Species and Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartis, Brett Michael

    Aquatic macrophyte communities are critically important habitat species in aquatic systems worldwide. None are more important than those found beneath the water's surface, commonly referred to as submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although vital to such systems, many native submersed plants have shown near irreversible declines in recent decades as water quality impairment, habitat destruction, and encroachment by invasive species have increased. In the past, aquatic plant science has emphasized the restoration and protection of native species and the management of invasive species. Comparatively little emphasis has been directed toward adequately mapping and monitoring these resources to track their viability over time. Modeling the potential intrusion of certain invasive plant species has also been given little attention, likely because aquatic systems in general can be difficult to assess. In recent years, scientists and resource managers alike have begun paying more attention to mapping SAV communities and to address the spread of invasive species across various regions. This research attempts to provide new, cutting-edge techniques to improve SAV mapping and monitoring efforts in coastal regions, at both community and individual species levels, while also providing insights about the establishment potential of Hydrilla verticillata, a noxious, highly invasive submersed plant. Technological advances in satellite remote sensing, interpolation and spatial analysis in geographic information systems, and state-of-the-art climate envelope modeling techniques were used to further assess the dynamic nature of SAV on various scales. This work contributes to the growing science of mapping, monitoring, and modeling of SAV

  8. Monitoring of stream pollution using protozoan communities on artificial substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Henebry, M.S.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Monitoring of stream pollution using protozoan communities on artificial substrates. Protozoan communities were sampled in 1978 from the South River near Waynesboro, Virginia, and compared with a study carried out in 1972. Five study stations were located above and below sources of pollution. Species richness followed the same pattern as in the 1972 study except at Station 2 (just below a major source of pollution) where a marked improvement in water quality occurred. Numbers of species increased significantly downstream from a source of pollution. This study provides evidence that protozoan communities may be used effectively in the assessment of water pollution and that results compare favorably with those based on macroinvertebrates which are more expensive to collect.

  9. Community Radiation Monitoring Program; Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1992-06-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (U of U). This eleventh year of the program began in the summer of 1991 and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which the DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of those efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Managers and program representatives in 19 communities adjacent to and downwind from the NTS. These Managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  10. Community Relations Plan for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has applied to the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), for renewal of its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility Permit. A permit is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The permit will allow LBL to continue using its current hazardous waste handling facility, upgrade the existing facility, and construct a replacement facility. The new facility is scheduled for completion in 1995. The existing facility will be closed under RCRA guidelines by 1996. As part of the permitting process, LBL is required to investigate areas of soil and groundwater contamination at its main site in the Berkeley Hills. The investigations are being conducted by LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program and are overseen by a number of regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies working with LBL include the California Environmental Protection Agency`s Department of Toxic Substances Control, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the East Bay Municipal Utilities District, and the Berkeley Department of Environmental Health. RCRA requires that the public be informed of LBL`s investigations and site cleanup, and that opportunities be available for the public to participate in making decisions about how LBL will address contamination issues. LBL has prepared this Community Relations Plan (CRP) to describe activities that LBL will use to keep the community informed of environmental restoration progress and to provide for an open dialogue with the public on issues of importance. The CRP documents the community`s current concerns about LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program. Interviews conducted between February and April 1993 with elected officials, agency staff, environmental organizations, businesses, site neighbors, and LBL employees form the basis for the information contained in this document.

  11. Home/community monitoring using telephonic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elisabeth Moy; French, Louis; Janos, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Service members who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a war theatre [Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)] may have associated injuries far different and/or more complex (i.e., polytrauma) than injuries obtained outside the theatre of operation. This article expands on what has been learned from monitoring patients injured during peacetime to the newly injured war veterans being monitored in the home setting via routine telephonic follow-up. As Tanielian et al. state TBI, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression may occur during and following deployment/s which then pose a significant health risk to these veterans. This is particularly important as veterans of these two conflicts may incur these "invisible wounds of war". Thus, safe and effective monitoring of these veterans by nurses/case managers in the home/community setting becomes important in the recovery process.

  12. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  13. Volunteer for Change: A Guide to Environmental Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This booklet contains examples of volunteer projects related to solid waste management as developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), whose mission is to protect human health and the natural environment. EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW) promotes volunteerism and community service programs for people of all ages. A variety of…

  14. Estimating linear temporal trends from aggregated environmental monitoring data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Gray, Brian R.; Eager, Eric A.

    2017-01-01

    Trend estimates are often used as part of environmental monitoring programs. These trends inform managers (e.g., are desired species increasing or undesired species decreasing?). Data collected from environmental monitoring programs is often aggregated (i.e., averaged), which confounds sampling and process variation. State-space models allow sampling variation and process variations to be separated. We used simulated time-series to compare linear trend estimations from three state-space models, a simple linear regression model, and an auto-regressive model. We also compared the performance of these five models to estimate trends from a long term monitoring program. We specifically estimated trends for two species of fish and four species of aquatic vegetation from the Upper Mississippi River system. We found that the simple linear regression had the best performance of all the given models because it was best able to recover parameters and had consistent numerical convergence. Conversely, the simple linear regression did the worst job estimating populations in a given year. The state-space models did not estimate trends well, but estimated population sizes best when the models converged. We found that a simple linear regression performed better than more complex autoregression and state-space models when used to analyze aggregated environmental monitoring data.

  15. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  16. [Yearly Changes of Phytoplankton Community in the Ecology-monitoring Area of Changli, Hebei in Summer].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-lin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yue-ming; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Han, Xiao-qing; Zhang, Jian-da; Gao, Wei-ming

    2015-04-01

    Based on the investigation of phytoplankton and water body nutrient concentration in the ecology-monitoring area of Changli in summer from 2005 to 2013, the phytoplankton community structure was analyzed. The result showed that in recent 9 years, 3 phyla including 23 families, 39 genera and 105 species of phytoplankton were identified, in which 85.7% were diatoms and 13.3% were dinoflagellate. Only one species was found belonging to golden algae. There was great difference in dominant species among different years. According to the value of dominance, there were Coscinodiscus radiatus, Coscinodiscus debilis, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Cerataulina bergoni, Coscinodiscus wailesii, Thalassiosira sp., Ceratium tripos, Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Skeletonema costatum. The cell abundance was decreased yearly. The Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton community ranged from 0.015 to 3.889, and the evenness index ranged from 0.009 to 1, which showed little yearly change. And phytoplankton species were unevenly distributed among the 19 sites, there were relatively low amount of dominant species, but the dominance was relatively high. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) results of the phytoplankton community and its environmental factors showed that the environmental factors influencing the change of phytoplankton community structure in summer included water temperature, nutrients (TP, TN and NO3(-) -N, NH4(+)-N) and salinity, and the structural change was the result of the interactions of different environmental factors.

  17. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance.

  18. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks.

  19. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not easily distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1983, the maximum approximated neutron dose near the site boundary was 5 mrem. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since operation began in 1966. We have never found any evidence of radioactivity in ground water in excess of natural background radioactivity from uranium and thorium decay chains and potassium-40. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site-boundary annual dose of less than 0.3 mrem; this represents less than 0.3% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.06% of the technical standard. 8 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  20. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories` operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  1. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1979, the maximum measured neutron dose near the site boundary was not distinguishable from the cosmic ray neutron background. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since 1966. Because of major new construction, well water samples were not collected and analyzed during 1979. Construction activities have also temporarily placed our sampling stations for the sanitary and storm sewers out of service. They will be reestablished as soon as construction activities permit (mid 1980). Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.3 mrem; this represents less than 0.3% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.06% of the technical standard.

  2. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1982, the maximum measured neutron dose near the site boundary was not distinguishable from the cosmic ray neutron background. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since operation began in 1966. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.3 mrem; this represents less than 0.3% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.06% of the technical standard.

  3. Linking ‘toxic outliers’ to environmental justice communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Mary B.; Munoz, Ian; JaJa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Several key studies have found that a small minority of producers, polluting at levels far exceeding group averages, generate the majority of overall exposure to industrial toxics. Frequently, such patterns go unnoticed and are understudied outside of the academic community. To our knowledge, no research to date has systematically described the scope and extent of extreme variations in industrially based exposure estimates and sought to link inequities in harm produced to inequities in exposure. In an analysis of all permitted industrial facilities across the United States, we show that there exists a class of hyper-polluters—the worst-of-the-worst—that disproportionately expose communities of color and low income populations to chemical releases. This study hopes to move beyond a traditional environmental justice research frame, bringing new computational methods and perspectives aimed at the empirical study of societal power dynamics. Our findings suggest the possibility that substantial environmental gains may be made through selective environmental enforcement, rather than sweeping initiatives.

  4. The environmental program at Kennedy Space Center - Baseline to monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    KSC has developed an environmental program to ensure that its activities do not adversely affect the surrounding environment. Two essential elements of the total program are the baseline and monitoring programs. The goal of the baseline program is to collect sufficient information about the environment prior to Shuttle launches so that adverse changes in the environment - if and when they occur after the Shuttle program becomes active - can be detected and cause-effect relationships established when possible. The goal of the monitoring program is to use information from the baseline program along with survey and sampling operations during the period of initial Shuttle launches to document adverse changes in the environment.

  5. In-situ gamma spectrometry in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kluson, J

    2010-01-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry (scintillation or semiconductor) can be used effectively for monitoring natural and man-made radionuclide concentrations, together with the corresponding photon fields, in the environment and in workplaces. It is applied in operational and emergency monitoring of nuclear facilities, waste storage facilities and the uranium industry, in radioactive contamination measurements and mapping, environmental, radiohygienic and radiation safety studies, etc. Methods for processing and interpreting data, experimental techniques (ground or airborne arrangement), calibration and verification and examples of applications are discussed in this paper.

  6. Development of a Personal Integrated Environmental Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments. PMID:25420154

  7. Sensorcaching: An Open-Source platform for citizen science and environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Michael

    Sensorcaching is an Open-Source hardware and software project designed with several goals in mind. It allows for long-term environmental monitoring with low cost and low power-usage hardware. It encourages citizens to take an active role in the health of their community by providing the means to record and explore changes in their environment. And it provides opportunities for education about the necessity and techniques of studying our planet. Sensorcaching is a 3-part project, consisting of a hardware sensor, a cross-platform mobile application, and a web platform for data aggregation. Its evolution has been driven by the desire to allow for long-term environmental monitoring by laypeople without significant capital expenditures or onerous technical burdens.

  8. Environmental forcing on jellyfish communities in a small temperate estuary.

    PubMed

    Primo, Ana Lígia; Marques, Sónia C; Falcão, Joana; Crespo, Daniel; Pardal, Miguel A; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M

    2012-08-01

    The impact of biological, hydrodynamic and large scale climatic variables on the jellyfish community of Mondego estuary was evaluated from 2003 to 2010. Plankton samples were collected at the downstream part of the estuary. Siphonophora Muggiaea atlantica and Diphyes spp. were the main jellyfish species. Jellyfish density was generally higher in summer and since 2005 densities had increased. Summer community analysis pointed out Acartia clausi, estuarine temperature and salinity as the main driven forces for the assemblage's structure. Also, Chl a, estuarine salinity, runoff and SST were identified as the major environmental factors influencing the siphonophores summer interannual variability. Temperature influenced directly and indirectly the community and fluctuation of jellyfish blooms in the Mondego estuary. This study represents a contribution to a better knowledge of the gelatinous plankton communities in small temperate estuaries.

  9. Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management [Special Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Ham, Kenneth; Kszos, Lynn A; Loar, James M; McCracken, Kitty; Morris, Gail Wright; Peterson, Mark J; Ryon, Michael G; Smith, John G; Southworth, George R; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  10. Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Synthesis and Environmental Management Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Adams, Marshall

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  11. A Pilot System for Environmental Monitoring Through Domestic Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabe, Calvin W.; Sawyer, John; Martin, Wayne

    1971-01-01

    A pilot system for environmental monitoring is in its early phases of development in Northern California. It is based upon the existing nation wide Federal-State Market Cattle Testing (14CT) program for brucellosis in cattle. This latter program depends upon the collection of blood program at the time of identified cattle. As the cattle Population of California is broadly distributed throughout the state, we intend to utilize these blood samples to biologically monitor the distribution and intensity of selected environmental pollutants. In a 2-year preliminary trial, the feasibility of retrieving, utilizing for a purpose similar to this, and tracing back to their geographic areas of origin of MCT samples have been demonstrated.

  12. Eco-analytical Methodology in Environmental Problems Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agienko, M. I.; Bondareva, E. P.; Chistyakova, G. V.; Zhironkina, O. V.; Kalinina, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    Among the problems common to all mankind, which solutions influence the prospects of civilization, the problem of ecological situation monitoring takes very important place. Solution of this problem requires specific methodology based on eco-analytical comprehension of global issues. Eco-analytical methodology should help searching for the optimum balance between environmental problems and accelerating scientific and technical progress. The fact that Governments, corporations, scientists and nations focus on the production and consumption of material goods cause great damage to environment. As a result, the activity of environmentalists is developing quite spontaneously, as a complement to productive activities. Therefore, the challenge posed by the environmental problems for the science is the formation of geo-analytical reasoning and the monitoring of global problems common for the whole humanity. So it is expected to find the optimal trajectory of industrial development to prevent irreversible problems in the biosphere that could stop progress of civilization.

  13. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  14. SLICEIT and TAHMO Partnerships: Students Local and International Collaboration for Climate and Environmental Monitoring, Technology Development, Education, Adaptation and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aishlin, P. S.; Selker, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change understanding and impacts vary by community, yet the global nature of climate change requires international collaboration to address education, monitoring, adaptation and mitigation needs. We propose that effective climate change monitoring and education can be accomplished via student-led local and international community partnerships. By empowering students as community leaders in climate-environmental monitoring and education, as well as exploration of adaptation/mitigation needs, well-informed communities and young leadership are developed to support climate change science moving forward. Piloted 2013-2015, the SLICEIT1 program partnered with TAHMO2 to connect student leaders in North America, Europe and Africa. At the international level, schools in the U.S.A and Netherlands were partnered with schools in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda for science and cultural exchange. Each school was equipped with a climate or other environmental sensing system, real-time data publication and curricula for both formal and informal science, technology, engineering and math education and skill development. African counterparts in TAHMO's School-2-School program collect critically important data for enhanced on-the-ground monitoring of weather conditions in data-scarce regions of Africa. In Idaho, student designed, constructed and installed weather stations provide real time data for classroom and community use. Student-designed formal educational activities are disseminated to project partners, increasing hands-on technology education and peer-based learning. At the local level, schools are partnered with a local agency, research institute, nonprofit organization, industry and/or community partner that supplies a climate science expert mentor to SLICEIT program leaders and teachers. Mentor engagement is facilitated and secured by program components that directly benefit the mentor's organization and local community via climate/environment monitoring, student workforce

  15. 1982 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; Simmons, T.N.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1983-04-01

    Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitter, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1982. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.170 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 50,400 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides.

  16. The importance of metrological metadata in the environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Márcio A. A.; Guimarães, Patrícia L. O.; Almêida, Eugênio S.; Eklin, Tero

    2016-07-01

    The metrological metadata propagation contributes significantly to improve the data analysis of the meteorological observation systems. An overview of the scenarios data and metadata treatment in environmental monitoring is presented in this article. We also discussed the ways of use of the calibration results on the meteorological measurement systems as well as the convergence of the methods used in the corrections treatment and estimation of the measuring uncertainty in metrological and meteorological areas.

  17. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.; Pauer, R.O.

    1990-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a multiprogram national laboratory managed by the University of California (UC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). LBL's major role is to conduct basic and applied science research that is appropriate for an energy research laboratory. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1989 are presented, and general trends are discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Tunable Infrared Lasers: Preparing for Expanded use in Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Killinger, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on the use of tunable infrared lasers, for atmospheric trace gas detection and monitoring is about 25 years of age. However, this field, whith its myriad of potential application areas, has always been driven by the available laser technology. As new or improved laser devices become available, with characteristics which lend themselves to operation in compact, nearly autonomous instruments, their application to atmospheric science and environmental measurements expands.

  19. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Environmental monitoring and remedial actions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are reported. The local climate, site geology, site water usage, land use, and demography are briefly reviewed. Among the activities reported are waste solvent tank remedial action and testing of underground storage tanks. The SLAC Linear Collider Project is discussed insofar as it impacts the environment. Neutron radiation dose to the surrounding environment and radioactive effluents are reported. (LEW)

  20. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems.

  1. Fungal endophyte communities reflect environmental structuring across a Hawaiian landscape.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Naupaka B; Vitousek, Peter M

    2012-08-07

    We surveyed endophytic fungal communities in leaves of a single tree species (Metrosideros polymorpha) across wide environmental gradients (500-5,500 mm of rain/y; 10-22 °C mean annual temperature) spanning short geographic distances on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawai'i. Using barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing at 13 sites (10 trees/site; 10 leaves/tree), we found very high levels of diversity within sites (a mean of 551 ± 134 taxonomic units per site). However, among-site diversity contributed even more than did within-site diversity to the overall richness of more than 4,200 taxonomic units observed in M. polymorpha, and this among-site variation in endophyte community composition correlated strongly with temperature and rainfall. These results are consistent with suggestions that foliar endophytic fungi are hyperdiverse. They further suggest that microbial diversity may be even greater than has been assumed and that broad-scale environmental controls such as temperature and rainfall can structure eukaryotic microbial diversity. Appropriately constrained study systems across strong environmental gradients present a useful means to understand the environmental factors that structure the diversity of microbial communities.

  2. Perceived community environmental influences on eating behaviors: A Photovoice analysis.

    PubMed

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2016-12-01

    People's perceptions of local food environments influence their abilities to eat healthily. PhotoVoice participants from four communities in Alberta, Canada took pictures of barriers and opportunities for healthy eating and shared their stories in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Using a socioecological framework, emergent themes were organized by type and size of environment. Findings show that, while availability and access to food outlets influence healthy eating practices, these factors may be eclipsed by other non-physical environmental considerations, such as food regulations and socio-cultural preferences. This study identifies a set of meta-themes that summarize and illustrate the interrelationships between environmental attributes, people's perceptions, and eating behaviors: a) availability and accessibility are interrelated and only part of the healthy eating equation; b) local food is synonymous with healthy eating; c) local food places for healthy eating help define community identity; d) communal dining (commensality) does not necessarily mean healthy eating; e) rewarding an achievement or celebrating special occasions with highly processed foods is socially accepted; f) food costs seemed to be driving forces in food decisions; g) macro-environmental influences are latent in food decisions. Recognizing the interrelationship among multiple environmental factors may help efforts to design effective community-based interventions and address knowledge gaps on how sociocultural, economic, and political environments intersect with physical worlds.

  3. Perceived community environmental influences on eating behaviors: A Photovoice analysis

    PubMed Central

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I.J.

    2017-01-01

    People’s perceptions of local food environments influence their abilities to eat healthily. PhotoVoice participants from four communities in Alberta, Canada took pictures of barriers and opportunities for healthy eating and shared their stories in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Using a socioecological framework, emergent themes were organized by type and size of environment. Findings show that, while availability and access to food outlets influence healthy eating practices, these factors may be eclipsed by other non-physical environmental considerations, such as food regulations and sociocultural preferences. This study identifies a set of meta-themes that summarize and illustrate the interrelationships between environmental attributes, people’s perceptions, and eating behaviors: a) availability and accessibility are interrelated and only part of the healthy eating equation; b) local food is synonymous with healthy eating; c) local food places for healthy eating help define community identity; d) communal dining (commensality) does not necessarily mean healthy eating; e) rewarding an achievement or celebrating special occasions with highly processed foods is socially accepted; f) food costs seemed to be driving forces in food decisions; g) macro-environmental influences are latent in food decisions. Recognizing the interrelationship among multiple environmental factors may help efforts to design effective community-based interventions and address knowledge gaps on how sociocultural, economic, and political environments intersect with physical worlds. PMID:27863286

  4. Estimating cyanobacteria community dynamics and its relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-20

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.

  5. Environmental assessment and planning at Mound - environmental monitoring capabilities and personnel profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Through its long experience with radioactive materials, Mound has developed a comprehensive, routine, offsite, environmental surveillance program to safeguard its employees, the physical plant, and the integrity of the surrounding environment from any potential adverse effects of its widely diverse operations. Effluent samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological parameters. The environment surrounding Mound Facility is continuously monitored - air, water, foodstuffs, vegetation, soil, and silt samples are analyzed to ensure that radioisotopic concentrations and other possible pollutants are well within the stringent standards adopted by the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agencies (both federal and state), and various regional and local agencies. Moreover, this environmental surveillance program has been designed to ensure that the facility is designed, constructed, managed, operated, and maintained in a manner that continues to meet all federal, state, and local standards for environmental protection. Work in environmental science has been broadened to assess environmental factors associated with various aspects of the National Energy Plan. Both the management and staff at Mound have undertaken a firm commitment to make Mound`s environmental monitoring capabilities available to agencies that have the responsibility for the resolution of important environmental issues.

  6. Integrated environmental quality monitoring around an underground methane storage station.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Linda; Vignudelli, Marco; Bartolucci, Fabrizio; Salvatorelli, Fiorenzo; Di Michele, Cesare; Tavano, Nicola; Rossi, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The study reports an integrated environmental quality monitoring of a 100 km2 area in central Italy mostly occupied by an underground station of methane storage, working since 1982. The nitrogen oxides, ozone and isoprene concentration detached with a network monitoring of passive filters were compared with the results of lichens biomonitoring. Data from the two monitorings were in accordance: there was an inversely correlation between lichen biodiversity index (IBL) and NOx (-0.96) and ozone (-0.80), and a positive correlation between IBL and isoprene (0.67). IBL indicated that the area ranged between medium naturalness and medium alteration status, values fully compatible with the medium-high level of eutrophication, caused by intensive agriculture. Only two areas were in high alteration status, due to their proximity to glass factories and to a quarries area. Despite almost thirty years of activity, the environment quality of the area around the station did not show signs of declining.

  7. MONITORING CHANGES IN THE ESTUARIES OF THE UNITED STATES: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program/Estuaries (EMAP-E) is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and ...

  8. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  9. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  10. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M

    2016-12-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  11. Advanced situation awareness with localised environmental community observatories in the Future Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Z. A.; Denis, H.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenal advances in information and communication technologies over the last decade have led to offering unprecedented connectivity with real potentials for "Smart living" between large segments of human populations around the world. In particular, Voluntary Groups(VGs) and individuals with interest in monitoring the state of their local environment can be connected through the internet and collaboratively generate important localised environmental observations. These could be considered as the Community Observatories(CO) of the Future Internet(FI). However, a set of FI enablers are needed to be deployed for these communities to become effective COs in the Future Internet. For example, these communities will require access to services for the intelligent processing of heterogeneous data and capture of advancend situation awarness about the environment. This important enablement will really unlock the communities true potential for participating in localised monitoring of the environment in addition to their contribution in the creation of business entreprise. Among the eight Usage Areas(UA) projects of the FP7 FI-PPP programme, the ENVIROFI Integrated Project focuses on the specifications of the Future Internet enablers of the Environment UA. The specifications are developed under multiple environmental domains in context of users needs for the development of mash-up applications in the Future Internet. It will enable users access to real-time, on-demand fused information with advanced situation awareness about the environment at localised scales. The mash-up applications shall get access to rich spatio-temporal information from structured fusion services which aggregate COs information with existing environmental monitoring stations data, established by research organisations and private entreprise. These applications are being developed in ENVIROFI for the atmospheric, marine and biodiversity domains, together with a potential to be extended to other

  12. Community Leaders' Training in Environmental Studies: A Cooperative Community Project Funded under Title I of the Higher Education Act of 1965. Warp to Environmental Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.; LaHart, David

    This document is the final report of the Community Leaders' Training in Environmental Studies Project conducted at Florida State University. The project sought to increase community environmental awareness and to expand the educational uses of the Tallahassee Junior Museum through the cooperation of museum staff, a variety of community groups, and…

  13. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1982-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1981 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  14. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Duffy, T. L.; Sedlet, J.

    1981-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1980 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and foodstuffs; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  15. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1985-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1984 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, ground water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 20 refs., 8 figs., 46 tabs.

  16. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1983-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne Ntaional Laboratory for 1982 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and masurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  17. A guide to environmental monitoring data, 1945--1972: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, M.E.; Bates, D.J.; Mart, E.I.; Hanf, R.W.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a guide to the work accomplished by the Environmental Monitoring Data Task, which is one of the tasks in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task was to recover, evaluate, process, and/or reconstruct the environmental monitoring data for the period 1945--1972. The period of time for which environmental monitoring data were sought was determined by the start-up and shut-down dates of the Hanford facilities that emitted the majority of radionuclides to the two major pathways: air and the Columbia River. Radionuclide emissions to the air were mainly the result of the operation of the chemical separations plants from 1944--1972 (Heeb 1994). Radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River were mainly the result of the operation of the single-pass production reactors from 1944--1971 (Heeb and Bates 1994). Therefore, the historical environmental monitoring data sought were for the period 1945--1972. Within the period of 1945--1972, specific periods of interest to the HEDR Project vary depending on the pathway. For example, 1945--1951 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the air and hence vegetation uptake of radionuclides, while 1956--1965 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River and hence fish uptake of radionuclides. However, adequate historical data were not always available for the periods of interest. In the case of vegetation measurements, conversion and correction factors had to be developed to convert the historical measurements to modern standard measurements. Table S.1 lists the reports that explain these conversion and correction factors. In the case of Columbia River fish and waterfowl, bioconcentration factors were developed for use in any year where the river pathway data are insufficient.

  18. Best Practices in Environmental Education for Children and the Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittmore, Wendy

    Are we teaching our children today to be responsible for the environment? Is there anything else we can do to encourage children to connect with the natural environment and become stewards? Environmental education programs in the schools and community can expose children to the beauty of nature and the importance of protecting the natural environment. Basic environmental education combined with a creative component, i.e., drawing, painting and poetry can reach children on a deeper level, leaving them with a lasting interest in, and love for, nature.

  19. Human and Environmental Impacts on River Sediment Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Sean M.; Jones, Edwin; Bearquiver, Angelita; Blackwolf, Frederick; Roundstone, Wayne; Scott, Nicole; Hooker, Jeff; Madsen, Robert; Coleman, Maureen L.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment microbial communities are responsible for a majority of the metabolic activity in river and stream ecosystems. Understanding the dynamics in community structure and function across freshwater environments will help us to predict how these ecosystems will change in response to human land-use practices. Here we present a spatiotemporal study of sediments in the Tongue River (Montana, USA), comprising six sites along 134 km of river sampled in both spring and fall for two years. Sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and shotgun metagenomes revealed that these sediments are the richest (∼65,000 microbial ‘species’ identified) and most novel (93% of OTUs do not match known microbial diversity) ecosystems analyzed by the Earth Microbiome Project to date, and display more functional diversity than was detected in a recent review of global soil metagenomes. Community structure and functional potential have been significantly altered by anthropogenic drivers, including increased pathogenicity and antibiotic metabolism markers near towns and metabolic signatures of coal and coalbed methane extraction byproducts. The core (OTUs shared across all samples) and the overall microbial community exhibited highly similar structure, and phylogeny was weakly coupled with functional potential. Together, these results suggest that microbial community structure is shaped by environmental drivers and niche filtering, though stochastic assembly processes likely play a role as well. These results indicate that sediment microbial communities are highly complex and sensitive to changes in land use practices. PMID:24841417

  20. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  1. FPGA-based prototype of portable environmental radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Benahmed, A.; Elkarch, H.

    2015-07-01

    This new portable radiological environmental monitor consists of 2 main components, Gamma ionization chamber and a FPGA-based electronic enclosure linked to convivial software for treatment and analyzing. The HPIC ion chamber is the heart of this radiation measurement system and is running in range from 0 to 100 mR/h, so that the sensitivity at the output is 20 mV/μR/h, with a nearly flat energy response from 0,07 to 10 MEV. This paper presents a contribution for developing a new nuclear measurement data acquisition system based on Cyclone III FPGA Starter Kit ALTERA, and a user-friendly software to run real-time control and data processing. It was developed to substitute the older radiation monitor RSS-112 PIC installed in CNESTEN's Laboratory in order to improve some of its functionalities related to acquisition time and data memory capacity. As for the associated acquisition software, it was conceived under the virtual LabView platform from National Instrument, and offers a variety of system setup for radiation environmental monitoring. It gives choice to display both the statistical data and the dose rate. Statistical data shows a summary of current data, current time/date and dose integrator values, and the dose rate displays the current dose rate in large numbers for viewing from a distance as well as the date and time. The prototype version of this new instrument and its data processing software has been successfully tested and validated for viewing and monitoring the environmental radiation of Moroccan nuclear center. (authors)

  2. Regional monitoring of environmental physics climate related anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, Hesham

    2004-11-01

    Scientific communities have been working in creating and enhancing scientific research programs in which in situ and satellite data as well as remote sensing (RS) technologies are being applied to regional environmental issues. These issues include the effects of climate change on regional flooding, droughts and the impact of human activities as they relate to feedbacks on the global climate. More specifically, one needs to evaluate the potential impact of climatological variability on social, economic, and human activities. In addition, the study of their effects on agriculture, forests, local natural ecosystems and water climate-related resources, is most important. Finally, dust storms and other natural events such as droughts can have great local impacts. Approximately half of the dust in today's atmosphere may be the result of changes to the environment caused by human activities, including agriculture, overgrazing, and deforestation. Climate variability may lead to the occurrence of some severe environmental phenomena like dust storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and droughts. Under normal conditions we can detect different dust effects associated with the movement of storms as well as different rain patterns that do not affect much of the surrounding environment either at regional or global scales. On the other hand, under abnormal climatological conditions, high anomalies of precipitation might occur due to the presence of hurricanes or other events, leading to severe flooding events. In this dissertation, we apply time series analysis techniques to remote sensing and in situ data to detect precipitation and dust storm anomalies and study their behavior on regional scales. The first application is the detection and monitoring of dust storms events over parts of the Middle East and Asia. Dust storms cause health and economic hazards. In this thesis dust storms development is examined based on using remote sensing. It utilizes a combination of optical

  3. Realities of environmental toxicity and their ramifications for community engagement.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Justin T; Roberts, Jody A; Dahlberg, Britt; Berry, Lee Sullivan; Jacobs, Lisa M; Emmett, Edward A; Barg, Frances K

    2016-12-01

    Research on community responses to environmental toxicity has richly described the struggles of citizens to identify unrecognized toxins, collect their own environmental health facts, and use them to lobby authorities for recognition and remediation. Much of this literature is based on an empiricist premise: it is concerned with exploring differences in how laypeople and experts perceive what is presumed to be a singular toxic reality that preexists these varying perspectives. Here, we seek to reexamine this topic by shifting the focus from facts to facticity-that is, by exploring the many types of knowledge that communities develop about toxicity and how these knowledges articulate with the ideas of scientific and governmental authorities about what kinds of information are valid bases for policymaking. In making this shift, we are influenced by work in semiotic anthropology and science and technology studies (STS), which emphasizes that lived experience generates distinct realities rather than different perceptions of the same underlying state. Using this framework, we present an analysis of oral history interviews conducted in 2013-14 in the small American town of Ambler, Pennsylvania. Part of Ambler's legacy as a nineteenth- and twentieth-century center of asbestos manufacture is that it is home to two massive asbestos-containing waste sites, one of which was being remediated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at the time of this study. Our interviews demonstrate that even asbestos, a toxin with a well-established public narrative, is a fundamentally different object for different members of the Ambler community. For many of these individuals, the epistemology and practices of the EPA are incongruent with or tangential to their toxicity-related experiences and their consequent concerns for the future. As such, our findings suggest caution in framing the community engagement efforts of environmental health agencies primarily as facilitations of citizen

  4. Continuous determination of fine particulate matter mass in the Salt Lake City Environmental Monitoring project: a comparison of real-time and conventional TEOM monitor results.

    PubMed

    Long, Russell W; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Meyer, Michael B; Wilson, William E

    2005-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass was determined on a continuous basis at the Salt Lake City Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring for Public Awareness and Community Tracking monitoring site in Salt Lake City, UT, using three different monitoring techniques. Hourly averaged PM2.5 mass data were collected during two sampling periods (summer 2000 and winter 2002) using a real-time total ambient mass sampler (RAMS), sample equilibration system (SES)-tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), and conventional TEOM monitor. This paper compares the results obtained from the various monitoring systems, which differ in their treatment of semivolatile material (SVM; particle-bound water, semivolatile ammonium nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds). PM2.5 mass results obtained by the RAMS were consistently higher than those obtained by the SES-TEOM and conventional TEOM monitors because of the RAMS ability to measure semivolatile ammonium nitrate and semivolatile organic material but not particle-bound water. The SES-TEOM monitoring system was able to account for an average of 28% of the SVM, whereas the conventional TEOM monitor loses essentially all of the SVM from the single filter during sampling. Occasional mass readings by the various TEOM monitors that are higher than RAMS results may reflect particle-bound water, which, under some conditions, is measured by the TEOM but not the RAMS.

  5. Monitoring and process control of environmental laboratories: A multidisciplinary approach

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, N.C.; Farley, E.T.; Fedler, C.B.

    1996-12-31

    Faculty and students in three colleges and seven departments at Texas Tech University have jointly collaborated on research projects funded through the Texas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. These biological and environmental projects were strengthened by inclusion of engineers, engineering technologists, computer scientists and others. The interdisciplinary team has identified technological limitations as well as designed, fabricated and tested low cost equipment to monitor and accurately control temperature, pressure, light intensity, and other conditions in environmental laboratories. Data gathered from up to 256 sensors are multiplexed and transmitted by an on-site 8085 microprocessor at 5-second intervals. The processed data are averaged once each minute by a 386-computer running the process control and archiving software. Data from the archives are displayed using Visual Basic and integrated into a graphic information system (GIS) capturing data through Arc/Info. Components of the process control and communication include a microprocessor controller module, an input and output module and a primary multiplexer module that interfaces with up to sixteen multiplexers or signal conditioning modules. The system is designed to monitor and regulate environmental conditions for culture and propagation of plants, fish, salamanders and other organisms. Simulation of seasonal changes can be programmed into the computer in addition to alarm conditions in the event of process failure. Benefits of this interdisciplinary project include not only providing state-of-the-art environmental monitoring and control of research facilities, but also real life experiences for students to define problems, design solutions, fabricate, install and test hardware and software. Perhaps, most importantly, is the opportunity for students and faculty in diverse fields to communicate and apply their expertise to solve real world problems.

  6. Environmental monitoring at Ames Laboratory: calendar year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, M.D.

    1981-04-01

    The results and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring programs for the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) and other Laboratory facilities are presented. The major areas of radiological monitoring were ALRR effluent air, environmental air, effluent water and environmental water. A summary of the radioactivity found in the environment is presented. The ALRR ceased operation on December 1, 1977. Decommissioning activities began January 3, 1978, and are scheduled for completion October 1, 1981. Analysis of air samples collected at the ALRR on-site station showed no radioactivity that could be attributed to ALRR operations. The radiosotope of significance in the ALRR stack effluent was tritium (H-3). The yearly individual dose from H-3 at the exclusion fence was estimated to be 0.016 mRem and the estimated dose to the entire population within an 80 Km (50 mile) radius of the ALRR was 26.6 man-Rem. These values are 0.0032% and 0.026%, respectively, of the doses derived from the concentration guides. On September 1, 1978, the ALRR site was connected to the City of Ames sanitary sewage system. All liquids (except building foundation and roof water) from the ALRR complex are now discharged to the sewage system negating the requirement for monitoring chemical constituents of effluent and environmental waters. In the radioactive liquid waste released to the City of Ames sewage system from the ALRR complex, H-3 was the predominant isotope. After dilution with other waste water from the ALRR complex, the potential dose was not more than 0.68% of the dose derived from the concentration guide. Building foundation and roof water are discharged to a drainage gulch on site.

  7. For Better or For Worse: Environmental Health Promotion in Support of Community Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Health Education (EHE) is most effective when it incorporates environmental science, risk education, and health education. When paired with the local knowledge of community members, EHE can promote health equity and community action, especially for socially disadvan...

  8. Monitoring frog communities: An application of machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.; Watson, G.; Grigg, G.; McCallum, H.

    1996-12-31

    Automatic recognition of animal vocalizations would be a valuable tool for a variety of biological research and environmental monitoring applications. We report the development of a software system which can recognize the vocalizations of 22 species of frogs which occur in an area of northern Australia. This software system will be used in unattended operation to monitor the effect on frog populations of the introduced Cane Toad. The system is based around classification of local peaks in the spectrogram of the audio signal using Quinlan`s machine learning system, C4.5. Unreliable identifications of peaks are aggregated together using a hierarchical structure of segments based on the typical temporal vocalization species` patterns. This produces robust system performance.

  9. Andra Environmental Specimen Bank: archiving the environmental chemical quality for long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Elisabeth; d'Arbaumont, Maëlle; Verron, Jean-Patrick; Goldstein, Céline; Cesar, Frédérique; Dewonck, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Andra Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) was established in 2010 as a part of the Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE), ongoing Long-Term Environmental Research Monitoring and Testing System located next to the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Bure, Meuse/Haute-Marne, France. The URL is used to study the deep geological disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste. Andra ESB is designed to archive during at least 100 years samples collected to define the initial state of environmental quality of the local area before the construction of industrial facilities and to ensure the traceability of long-term series of samples collected by the OPE ( http://www.andra.fr/ope ), using safe long-term conservation practices. Samples archived in the bank include some local food chain products (milk, cheese, honey, cereals, grass, cherry plum…) and specimen usually archived internationally to monitor the environmental quality (soil, sediment, water, fish, tree leaves, wild life, etc.). Regarding the different samples and analytical issues, three conservation modalities and facilities were designed: dry conservation under controlled temperature and humidity, cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor phase freezers (-150 °C) and in deep-freezing at -80 °C for temporary storage and raw samples before preparation. Andra ESB is equipped with a sample preparation clean room, certified ISO Class 5, dedicated to cryopreservation. This paper describes this first French experiment of long-term chemical quality monitoring and samples cryopreservation of different ecosystems and environmental compartments.

  10. Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Continuous Monitors in Controlled Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Patton, Allison P.; Zhang, Andrew; Fanac, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) contains a variety of toxic air pollutants, including diesel particulate matter (DPM) and gaseous contaminants (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO)). DPM is dominated by fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and can be representatively determined by its thermal-optical refractory as elemental carbon (EC) or light-absorbing characteristics as black carbon (BC). The currently accepted reference method for sampling and analysis of occupational exposure to DPM is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5040. However, this method cannot provide in-situ short-term measurements of DPM. Thus, real-time monitors are gaining attention to better examine DE exposures in occupational settings. However, real-time monitors are subject to changing environmental conditions. Field measurements have reported interferences in optical sensors and subsequent real-time readings, under conditions of high humidity and abrupt temperature changes. To begin dealing with these issues, we completed a controlled study to evaluate five real-time monitors: Airtec real-time DPM/EC Monitor, TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor AM510 (PM2.5), TSI Condensation Particle Counter 3007, microAeth AE51 BC Aethalometer, and Langan T15n CO Measurer. Tests were conducted under different temperatures (55, 70, and 80 °F), relative humidity (10, 40, and 80%), and DPM concentrations (50 and 200 µg/m3) in a controlled exposure facility. The 2-hour averaged EC measurements from the Airtec instrument showed relatively good agreement with NIOSH Method 5040 (R2=0.84; slope=1.17±0.06; N=27) and reported ~17% higher EC concentrations than the NIOSH reference method. Temperature, relative humidity, and DPM levels did not significantly affect relative differences in 2-hour averaged EC concentrations obtained by the Airtec instrument versus the NIOSH method (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses, based on 1-min averaged data, suggested combined effects of up to 5

  11. The community conditioning hypothesis and its application to environmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.A.; Landis, W.G.; Matthews, G.B.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper the authors present the community conditions hypothesis, ecological communities retain information bout events in their history. This hypothesis, which was derived from the concept of nonequilibrium community ecology, was developed as a framework for understanding the persistence of dose-related responses in multispecies toxicity tests. The authors present data from three standardized aquatic microcosm (SAM) toxicity tests using the water-soluble fractions from turbine fuels (Jet-A, JP-4, and JP-8). In all three tests, the toxicants depressed the Daphnia populations for several weeks, which resulted in algal blooms in the dosed microcosms due to lower predation rates. These effects were short-lived, and by the second and third months of the experiments, the Daphnia populations appeared to have recovered. However, multivariate analysis of the data released dose/response differences that reappeared during the later part of the tests, often due to differences in other consumers (rotifers, ostracods, ciliates), or algae that are not normally consumed (filamentous green algae and bluegreen algae). The findings are consistent with ecological theories that describe communities as the unique production of their etiologies. The implications of this to environmental toxicology are that almost all environmental events leave lasting effects, whether or not they have observed them.

  12. Soil bacterial communities are shaped by temporal and environmental filtering: evidence from a long-term chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Zachary; Zak, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    Soil microbial communities are abundant, hyper-diverse and mediate global biogeochemical cycles, but we do not yet understand the processes mediating their assembly. Current hypothetical frameworks suggest temporal (e.g. dispersal limitation) and environmental (e.g. soil pH) filters shape microbial community composition; however, there is limited empirical evidence supporting this framework in the hyper-diverse soil environment, particularly at large spatial (i.e. regional to continental) and temporal (i.e. 100 to 1000 years) scales. Here, we present evidence from a long-term chronosequence (4000 years) that temporal and environmental filters do indeed shape soil bacterial community composition. Furthermore, nearly 20 years of environmental monitoring allowed us to control for potentially confounding environmental variation. Soil bacterial communities were phylogenetically distinct across the chronosequence. We determined that temporal and environmental factors accounted for significant portions of bacterial phylogenetic structure using distance-based linear models. Environmental factors together accounted for the majority of phylogenetic structure, namely, soil temperature (19%), pH (17%) and litter carbon:nitrogen (C:N; 17%). However, of all individual factors, time since deglaciation accounted for the greatest proportion of bacterial phylogenetic structure (20%). Taken together, our results provide empirical evidence that temporal and environmental filters act together to structure soil bacterial communities across large spatial and long-term temporal scales.

  13. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes—and therefore pollutants, or “chemical threats”—can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These “self-powered remediation systems” could be seen as a new generation of “smart devices” for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future. PMID:24752489

  14. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Lluís; Sánchez, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes--and therefore pollutants, or ``chemical threats''--can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These ``self-powered remediation systems'' could be seen as a new generation of ``smart devices'' for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future.

  15. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water.

  16. Cough frequency monitors: can they discriminate patient from environmental coughs?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Natalie M.; Kalra, Lalit; Moxham, John; Birring, Surinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Objective cough frequency measurements are increasingly applied in clinical research. Technological advances enable automated detection and counting of cough events from sound recordings of many hours’ duration. A possible limitation of sound-based cough frequency measurement is the contamination of recordings by environmental coughs (coughs from persons other than the patient). This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of a sound-based cough monitor for detecting and discriminating patient cough from environmental cough. Methods As part of a stroke trial (ISRCTN40298220), patients on a hospital ward underwent 15-minute recordings using the Leicester Cough Monitor (LCM), a sound-based cough monitor (‘semi-automated counts’). Participants and other persons in the environment were prompted to cough. An observer present in the room recorded the number of patient and environmental coughs (‘live counts’). LCM counts were also compared against a manual cough count, the most commonly used gold standard to determine accuracy (‘manual sound counts’ from listening to recordings), by a blinded assessor who cross-referenced timed cough events from the respective methods. Data for automated, manual and live cough counts were analyzed using agreement statistics. Results On sound recordings from five patients, there were 65 patient coughs and 78 environmental coughs (manual counts). Absolute agreement for patient cough count between all three measurement methods (LCM automated, live, and manual sound counts) was high, with intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.94 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.74, 0.99]. The proportion of exact agreements for patient cough between LCM and manual count was 0.92, and kappa was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.93). The LCM showed sensitivity of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.98), specificity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.96), positive predictive value of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.95) and negative predictive value of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.86, 0

  17. Large scale remote sensing for environmental monitoring of infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Matthew J; Fuchs, Michael P; Janoyan, Kerop D

    2008-07-01

    Recent developments in wireless sensor technology afford the opportunity to rapidly and easily deploy large-scale, low-cost, and low-power sensor networks across relatively sizeable environmental regions. Furthermore, the advancement of increasingly smaller and less expensive wireless hardware is further complemented by the rapid development of open-source software components. These software protocols allow for interfacing with the hardware to program and configure the onboard processing and communication settings. In general, a wireless sensor network topology consists of an array of microprocessor boards, referred to as motes, which can engage in two-way communication among each other as well as with a base station that relays the mote data to a host computer. The information can then be either logged and displayed on the local host or directed to an http server for network monitoring remote from the site. A number of wireless sensor products are available that offer off-the-shelf network hardware as well as sensor solutions for environmental monitoring that are compatible with the TinyOS open-source software platform. This paper presents an introduction to wireless sensing and to the use of external antennas for increasing the antenna radiation intensity and shaping signal directivity for monitoring applications requiring larger mote-to-mote communication distances.

  18. Remote Environmental Monitoring With a Wireless Sensor Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizito, F.; Hopmans, J. W.; Bales, R.; Tuli, A.; Kamai, T.

    2007-12-01

    Wireless sensors have the potential to reveal dynamic environmental variables in remote landscapes at reduced long-term costs and offer a promising approach to revolutionize environmental monitoring. Better management of surface water in remote landscapes warrants close monitoring of moisture and temperature variability. This work describes field data demonstrating the functionality of a deployed wireless network system, consisting of various soil moisture sensors. Soil water potential sensors with an imbedded thermistor were deployed in a remote meadow along a topographic gradient with dense tree canopies in Wolverton Meadows in Sequoia National Park. The sensors responded to moisture and temperature variations and the wireless system met the goal of providing informative data on dynamic responses of soil moisture to rainfall and snowmelt. The deployed sensor system functioned well during harsh winter conditions at 7000 feet, requiring low power. The study highlights measurement accuracy limitations and presents an alternative, robust wireless Zigbee sensor network, using Crossbow motes. We demonstrate that deployment, implementation and long-term field monitoring in remote and challenging environments is possible with current technologies.

  19. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule: January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1989 for the Surface and Ground-Water Environmental Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. This schedule includes routine ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Westinghouse Hanford Company, but does not include samples that may be collected in 1989 to support special studies or special contractor projects, or for quality control. The sampling schedule for Site-wide chemical monitoring is not included here, because it varies each quarter as needed, based on past results and operating needs. This schedule does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Hanford Site contractors, nor does it include sampling that may be done by other DOE Hanford contractors.

  20. Similar processes but different environmental filters for soil bacterial and fungal community composition turnover on a broad spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Dequiedt, Samuel; Thioulouse, Jean; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Saby, Nicolas P A; Jolivet, Claudy; Arrouays, Dominique; Plassart, Pierre; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Spatial scaling of microorganisms has been demonstrated over the last decade. However, the processes and environmental filters shaping soil microbial community structure on a broad spatial scale still need to be refined and ranked. Here, we compared bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers through a biogeographical approach on the same soil sampling design at a broad spatial scale (area range: 13300 to 31000 km2): i) to examine their spatial structuring; ii) to investigate the relative importance of environmental selection and spatial autocorrelation in determining their community composition turnover; and iii) to identify and rank the relevant environmental filters and scales involved in their spatial variations. Molecular fingerprinting of soil bacterial and fungal communities was performed on 413 soils from four French regions of contrasting environmental heterogeneity (LandesMonitoring Network to evaluate the communities' composition turnovers. The relative importance of processes and filters was assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. This study demonstrates significant community composition turnover rates for soil bacteria and fungi, which were dependent on the region. Bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers were mainly driven by environmental selection explaining from 10% to 20% of community composition variations, but spatial variables also explained 3% to 9% of total variance. These variables highlighted significant spatial autocorrelation of both communities unexplained by the environmental variables measured and could partly be explained by dispersal limitations. Although the identified filters and their hierarchy were dependent on the region and organism, selection was systematically based on a common group of environmental variables: pH, trophic resources, texture and land use. Spatial autocorrelation was also important at coarse (80 to

  1. Environmental monitoring at Ames Laboratory: Calendar year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The results and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring programs for the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) are presented. The major areas of radiological monitoring were ALRR effluent air, environmental air, effluent water and environmental water. Analysis of air samples collected at the ALRR site showed detectable amounts of /sup 60/Co. This isotope was 1.5 x 10/sup -4/% of the concentration guide (1) and was probably due to ALRR operations. The radioisotope of significance in the ALRR stack effluent was tritium. The average yearly individual dose from /sup 3/H at the exclusion fence was estimated to 0.0038 mRem and the estimated dose to the entire population within an 80 Km (50 mile) radius of the ALRR was 6.31 man-Rem. These values are 0.00076% and 0.0063%, respectively, of the doses derived from the concentration guides. In the radioactive liquid waste released to the City of Ames sewage system from the ALRR complex, /sup 3/H was the predominant isotope. After dilution with other waste water from the ALRR complex, the potential dose was not more than 0.59% of the dose derived from the concentration guide.

  2. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-10-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan`s purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements.

  3. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engagement with community members. EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is a prototype technology designed to add value to a community environment – VGP is a park bench equipped with air and meteorological instruments that measure ozone, fine particles, wind, temperature, and humidity at a one-minute time resolution, with the open-source Arduino microprocessor operating as the system controller. The data are streamed wirelessly to a database, passed through automatic diagnostic quality checks, and then made publically available on an engaging website. The station was designed to minimize power use; it consumes an estimated 15W and operates entirely on solar power, is engineered to run for several days with minimal solar radiation, and is capable of automatically shutting down components of the system to conserve power and restarting when power availability increases. Situated outside a public library in Durham, North Carolina, VGP has also been a gathering location for air quality experts to engage with community members. During the time span of June, 2013 through January, 2014, the station collected about 3500 hours of ozone and PM2.5 data, with over 90% up-time operating only on solar po

  4. Dynamic seismic moment tensor creation for the Antelope Environmental Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, R. L.; Reyes, J. C.; van den Hazel, G.; Vernon, F. L.

    2011-12-01

    The native creation and display of seismic moment tensors, including the 'beachball' representation of the double-couple mechanism, have been missing in the popular BRTT Antelope Environmental Monitoring System that is used for seismic network and event monitoring. The seismic moment tensor inversion software package written by Dreger (2003) and updated by Minson & Dreger (2008) has been rewritten using a combination of the Python interface to Antelope (Lindquist et al., 2008) and various native Python packages, including NumPy, MatPlotLib and ObsPy (Beyreuther et al., 2010). The new moment tensor application ('dbmoment') uses the community standard Center for Seismic Studies (CSS) 3.0 schema, and can augment any real time earthquake monitoring system that uses the schema for post-event creation of moment tensor solutions. Rewriting the original code base from a combination of configuration scripts, Numerical Recipes for C, Seismic Analysis Code (SAC), the Fortran FKRPROG package (Saikia, 1994), and various intermediary files in ASCII and binary formats greatly simplifies installation, upgrading, and deployment of the software. All configuration files have been converted and condensed into BRTT parameter files and CSS schema extensions. The code has been added to the Github hosted open-source contributed code repository for the Antelope Environmental Monitoring System.

  5. A multivariate evaluation of environmental effects on zooplankton community structure in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Pierre; Johnson, Catherine L.; Harvey, Michel; Casault, Benoit; Chassé, Joël; Colbourne, Eugene B.; Galbraith, Peter S.; Hebert, Dave; Lazin, Gordana; Maillet, Gary; Plourde, Stéphane; Starr, Michel

    2015-05-01

    We report on our analysis of zooplankton community structure in the western North Atlantic based on spring and fall monitoring surveys from 1999 to 2011 of three large marine ecosystems (LMEs; Newfoundland Shelf, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Scotian Shelf). We aimed to synthesize knowledge of the distribution of zooplankton communities and to evaluate their relationship to environmental conditions as either biogeographic constraints or smaller-scale ecosystems drivers or both. A combination of exploratory and constrained analyses helped identify the dominant roles of bathymetry, surface salinity and temperature, subsurface biogeochemical inventories of nitrate and chlorophyll a on the macroscale distribution of zooplankton. These variables highlight the potential influences of vertical habitat features, latitudinal and estuary-ocean gradients, deep-water intrusions, and differences in the seasonal succession on community structure at biogeographic scales. The spatial pattern in the residual field of the constrained analysis suggests that mesoscale features may play a role in shaping community structure within each of the LMEs and point to the limitation of analytical approaches based principally on water mass tracers applied over broad-scales. Interannual variations in key environmental drivers had inconsistent abilities in predicting changes in community composition across LMEs. Organisms that had the greatest influence on the delineation of communities were similar between spring and fall surveys and consisted of roughly a dozen dominant and ubiquitous taxa. Determining the influence of environmental variations on productivity of key secondary producers requires an approach focussed at the scale of individual LMEs in order to address the consequence of dissimilarities in the dominant trophic relationships or the response to remote forcing across the region.

  6. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  7. Subsurface radiowave tomography imaging in environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarczyk, Larry G.

    1993-08-01

    Toxic waste has been deposited in a wide variety of containment structures. Leakage creates concerns and environmental risk. Risk assessment requires site characterization of the underlying geology and monitoring of fluid pathways to the biosphere. Subsurface imaging will play an increasing important role in site characterization and monitoring. Imaging will play an even greater role in remediation. Radio wave energy propagation has been applied in crosswell data acquisition and tomography inversion algorithms have reconstructed images of electrical conductivity variations in the geologic zone of concern. The variation in conductivity delineated structural geology and mapped the contaminant plume. This paper describes the application of the radio wave tomography imaging in chemical waste landfill and in situ mine site characterization and remediation.

  8. Westinghouse Hanford Company operational environmental monitoring annual report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    This document presents the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1992 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State in 1992. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and to control the impacts of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the workers and the local environment. Additionally, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although impacts from nuclear facilities are still seen on the Hanford Site and are slightly elevated when compared to offsite, these impacts are less than in previous years.

  9. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  10. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  11. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1983-04-01

    In order to establish whether LBL research activities produces any impact on the population surrounding the Laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1982, as in the previous several years, doses attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG). The maximum perimeter dose equivalent was less than or equal to 24.0 mrem (the 1982 dose equivalent measured at the Building 88 monitoring station B-13A, about 5% of the RPG). The total population dose equivalent attributable to LBL operations during 1982 was less than or equal to 16 man-rem, about 0.002% of the RPG of 170 mrem/person to a suitable sample of the population.

  12. Environmental exposure in indigenous communities: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2014-01-01

    There are more than 7000 spoken languages in the world today and many others that have already disappeared. The number of languages in relation to the number of countries (192 members of the United Nations) gives some indication of the number of indigenous communities there are in the world. Many of these communities are at various stages of integration into more dominant cultures, but many others struggle to maintain a traditional lifestyle. Many are subsistence communities that depend upon local sources of food and whose way of life is threatened by encroachment of more dominant cultures. There are, of course, different environmental threats in the various communities, but they fall into several categories that are common to many of them. There is often lack of access to medical care and disease-protective actions like immunizations. There is greater vulnerability than in more conventional societies to inclement weather, and this will become more serious with climate change. There is often contamination of local traditional animal and plant foods by chemicals because of long-range transport of contaminants by air or water or because of industries located in geographic areas close to indigenous communities where there is little governmental regulation. Life expectancy in many indigenous communities is much less than in more developed mainstream societies. However, these problems, which are widely viewed as being caused by poverty and lack of education, are balanced by the value to these communities of maintaining a traditional lifestyle that would otherwise simply disappear into the mainstream cultures of the various countries.

  13. Arctic root-associated fungal community composition reflects environmental filtering.

    PubMed

    Blaalid, Rakel; Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Høiland, Klaus; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that root-associated fungi have important roles in Arctic ecosystems. Here, we assess the diversity of fungal communities associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal perennial herb Bistorta vivipara on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and investigate whether spatial separation and bioclimatic variation are important structuring factors of fungal community composition. We sampled 160 plants of B. vivipara from 32 localities across Svalbard. DNA was extracted from entire root systems, and 454 pyrosequencing of ITS1 amplicons was used to profile the fungal communities. The fungal communities were predominantly composed of Basidiomycota (55% of reads) and Ascomycota (35%), with the orders Thelephorales (24%), Agaricales (13.8%), Pezizales (12.6%) and Sebacinales (11.3%) accounting for most of the reads. Plants from the same site or region had more similar fungal communities to one another than plants from other sites or regions, and sites clustered together along a weak latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, a decrease in per-plant OTU richness with increasing latitude was observed. However, no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation between sites was detected, suggesting that environmental filtering, not dispersal limitation, causes the observed patterns. Our analyses suggest that while latitudinal patterns in community composition and richness might reflect bioclimatic influences at global spatial scales, at the smaller spatial scale of the Svalbard archipelago, these changes more likely reflect varied bedrock composition and associated edaphic factors. The need for further studies focusing on identifying those specific bioclimatic and edaphic factors structuring root-associated fungal community composition at both global and local scales is emphasized.

  14. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  15. 1983 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Gray, C.E.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is located south of Albuquerque on Kirtland Air Force Base. Because radionuclides are potentially released from its research activities, SNL has a continuing environmental monitoring program which analyzes for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. Measured radiation levels in public areas were consistent with local background in 1983. The Albuquerque population received an estimated 0.250 person-rem from airborne radioactive releases, whereas it received greater than 49,950 person-rem from naturally occurring radionuclides. 23 references, 6 figures, 15 tables.

  16. 1980 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.C.; Simmons, T.N.; Gray, C.E.; O'Neal, B.L.

    1981-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque is located south of the city on two broad mesas. The local climate is arid continental. Radionuclides are potentially released from five technical areas from the Laboratories' research activities. Sandia's environmental monitoring program searches for cesium-137, tritium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta emitters in water, soil, air, and vegetation. No activity was found in public areas in excess of that found in local background in 1980. The Albuquerque population receives only 0.11 person-rem (estimated) from airborne radioactive releases. While national security research is the Laboratories' major responsibility, energy research is a major area of activity. Both these research areas cause radioactive releases.

  17. Bioindicators as metrics for environmental monitoring of desalination plant discharges.

    PubMed

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Loya-Fernández, A; Ferrero-Vicente, L M; Marco-Méndez, C; Martinez-Garcia, E; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2016-02-15

    Development of desalination projects requires simple methodologies and tools for cost-effective and environmentally-sensitive management. Sentinel taxa and biotic indices are easily interpreted in the perspective of environment management. Echinoderms are potential sentinel taxon to gauge the impact produced by brine discharge and the BOPA index is considered an effective tool for monitoring different types of impact. Salinity increase due to desalination brine discharge was evaluated in terms of these two indicators. They reflected the environmental impact and recovery after implementation of a mitigation measure. Echinoderms disappeared at the station closest to the discharge during the years with highest salinity and then recovered their abundance after installation of a diffuser reduced the salinity increase. In the same period, BOPA responded due to the decrease in sensitive amphipods and the increase in tolerant polychaete families when salinities rose. Although salinity changes explained most of the observed variability in both indicators, other abiotic parameters were also significant in explaining this variability.

  18. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  19. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sett, Arghya; Das, Suradip; Bora, Utpal

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to replace conventional chromatographic methods for environmental monitoring with cheaper and easy to use biosensors for precise detection and estimation of hazardous environmental toxicants, water or air borne pathogens as well as various other chemicals and biologics are gaining momentum. Out of the various types of biosensors classified according to their bio-recognition principle, nucleic-acid-based sensors have shown high potential in terms of cost, sensitivity, and specificity. The discovery of catalytic activities of RNA (ribozymes) and DNA (DNAzymes) which could be triggered by divalent metallic ions paved the way for their extensive use in detection of heavy metal contaminants in environment. This was followed with the invention of small oligonucleotide sequences called aptamers which can fold into specific 3D conformation under suitable conditions after binding to target molecules. Due to their high affinity, specificity, reusability, stability, and non-immunogenicity to vast array of targets like small and macromolecules from organic, inorganic, and biological origin, they can often be exploited as sensors in industrial waste management, pollution control, and environmental toxicology. Further, rational combination of the catalytic activity of DNAzymes and RNAzymes along with the sequence-specific binding ability of aptamers have given rise to the most advanced form of functional nucleic-acid-based sensors called aptazymes. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors (FNASs) can be conjugated with fluorescent molecules, metallic nanoparticles, or quantum dots to aid in rapid detection of a variety of target molecules by target-induced structure switch (TISS) mode. Although intensive research is being carried out for further improvements of FNAs as sensors, challenges remain in integrating such bio-recognition element with advanced transduction platform to enable its use as a networked analytical system for tailor made analysis of environmental

  20. Keep Talking & Monitoring: the importance of longitudinal research & community-based monitoring to support sustainable land management in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougill, Andrew; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Projects come and go with researchers, development practioners and government staff initiating new forms of community engagement in environmental monitoring and land management practices. We analyse interventions from Botswana and Swaziland and highlight that for benefits to be long-lived and lead to sustainable land management, requires community engagement in project design, implementation and for project outputs to be used in developing community-led environmental monitoring tools that can then help to guide local decision-making systems. We stress the vital importance of continued participatory engagement of researchers with community leaders and key government staff beyond the timeframe of their initial research such that longitudinal research approaches can realise significant benefits to all concerned. In dynamic (non-equilibrium) dryland environments, it is vitally important that research approaches address temporal and spatial variability by mapping patterns of change, using a range of participatory tools to enhance understandings of the causes of land degradation and the opportunities for shifts towards more sustainable land management. Decision-support tools, such as rangeland assessment guides produced for various Kalahari rangeland settings in Botswana (via a UNEP project and affiliated research), provide opportunities to support more sustainable land management. However, at present benefits are not being fully realised as project and research staff move on after projects end. Similarly, findings from mixed farming systems in Swaziland (assessing a JICA-funded project) show problems in maintaining new institutional structures to manage rangeland degradation, whilst issues on arable areas associated with parasitic weeds (Striga asiatica) remain problematic. Findings from longitudinal research in Swaziland also show that community understandings of environmental problems have evolved over 10 years and identify new problems associated with intensified

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  2. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  3. Similar Processes but Different Environmental Filters for Soil Bacterial and Fungal Community Composition Turnover on a Broad Spatial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Dequiedt, Samuel; Thioulouse, Jean; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Jolivet, Claudy; Arrouays, Dominique; Plassart, Pierre; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Spatial scaling of microorganisms has been demonstrated over the last decade. However, the processes and environmental filters shaping soil microbial community structure on a broad spatial scale still need to be refined and ranked. Here, we compared bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers through a biogeographical approach on the same soil sampling design at a broad spatial scale (area range: 13300 to 31000 km2): i) to examine their spatial structuring; ii) to investigate the relative importance of environmental selection and spatial autocorrelation in determining their community composition turnover; and iii) to identify and rank the relevant environmental filters and scales involved in their spatial variations. Molecular fingerprinting of soil bacterial and fungal communities was performed on 413 soils from four French regions of contrasting environmental heterogeneity (LandesMonitoring Network to evaluate the communities’ composition turnovers. The relative importance of processes and filters was assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. This study demonstrates significant community composition turnover rates for soil bacteria and fungi, which were dependent on the region. Bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers were mainly driven by environmental selection explaining from 10% to 20% of community composition variations, but spatial variables also explained 3% to 9% of total variance. These variables highlighted significant spatial autocorrelation of both communities unexplained by the environmental variables measured and could partly be explained by dispersal limitations. Although the identified filters and their hierarchy were dependent on the region and organism, selection was systematically based on a common group of environmental variables: pH, trophic resources, texture and land use. Spatial autocorrelation was also important at coarse (80 to

  4. Major methodological constraints to the assessment of environmental status based on the condition of benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, João Paulo; Pinto, Vanessa; Sá, Erica; Silva, Gilda; Azeda, Carla; Pereira, Tadeu; Quintella, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Lino Costa, José; José Costa, Maria; Chainho, Paula

    2014-05-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was published in 2008 and requires Member States to take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status in aquatic ecosystems by the year of 2020. The MSFD indicates 11 qualitative descriptors for environmental status assessment, including seafloor integrity, using the condition of the benthic community as an assessment indicator. Member States will have to define monitoring programs for each of the MSFD descriptors based on those indicators in order to understand which areas are in a Good Environmental Status and what measures need to be implemented to improve the status of areas that fail to achieve that major objective. Coastal and offshore marine waters are not frequently monitored in Portugal and assessment tools have only been developed very recently with the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The lack of historical data and knowledge on the constraints of benthic indicators in coastal areas requires the development of specific studies addressing this issue. The major objective of the current study was to develop and test and experimental design to assess impacts of offshore projects. The experimental design consisted on the seasonal and interannual assessment of benthic invertebrate communities in the area of future implementation of the structures (impact) and two potential control areas 2 km from the impact area. Seasonal benthic samples were collected at nine random locations within the impact and control areas in two consecutive years. Metrics included in the Portuguese benthic assessment tool (P-BAT) were calculated since this multimetric tool was proposed for the assessment of the ecological status in Portuguese coastal areas under the WFD. Results indicated a high taxonomic richness in this coastal area and no significant differences were found between impact and control areas, indicating the feasibility of establishing adequate control areas in marine

  5. Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

  6. Relations of fish community composition to environmental variables in streams of central Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.; Swanson, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Nine sites on streams in the Platte River Basin in central Nebraska were sampled as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program during 1993-1994. A combination of canonical correspondence analysis and an index of biotic integrity determined from fish community data produced complementary evaluations of water quality conditions. Results of the canonical correspondence analysis were useful in showing which environmental variables were significant in differentiating fish communities at the nine sites. Five environmental variables were statistically significant in the analysis. Median specific conductance of water samples collected at a site accounted for the largest amount of variability in the species data. Although the percentage of the basin as cropland was not the first variable chosen in a forward selection process, it was the most strongly correlated with the first ordination axis. A rangeland- dominated site was distinguished from all others along that axis. Median orthophosphate concentration of samples collected in the year up to the time of fish sampling was most strongly correlated with the second ordination axis. The index of biotic integrity produced results that could be interpreted in terms of the relative water quality between sites. Sites draining nearly 100% cropland had the lowest scores for two individual metrics of the index of biotic integrity that were related to species tolerance. Effective monitoring of water quality could be achieved by coupling methods that address both the ecological components of fish communities and their statistical relationships to environmental factors.

  7. Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; Guez, Oded; Messer, Hagit; David, Noam; Harel, Oz; Eshel, Adam; Cohen, Ori

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links Pinhas Alpert, H. Messer, N. David, O. Guez, O. Cohen, O. Harel, A. Eshel Tel Aviv University, Israel The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert in Israel with comparison to hydrological measurements in the Dead Sea area. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, fog, dew, atmospheric moisture. References: N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Technical Note: Novel method for water vapor monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2413-2418, 2009. A. Rayitsfeld, R. Samuels, A. Zinevich, U. Hadar and P. Alpert,"Comparison of two methodologies for long term rainfall monitoring using a commercial microwave communication system", Atmospheric Research 104-105, 119-127, 2012. N. David, O. Sendik, H. Messer and P. Alpert, "Cellular network infrastructure-the future of fog monitoring?" BAMS (Oct. issue), 1687-1698, 2015. O. Harel, David, N., Alpert, P. and Messer, H., "The potential of microwave communication networks to detect dew using the GLRT- experimental study", IEEE Journal of Selected

  8. Management of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi; Perry, Jay; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems Program's Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project is working to further optimize atmosphere revitalization and environmental monitoring system architectures. This paper discusses project management strategies that tap into skill sets across multiple engineering disciplines, projects, field centers, and industry to achieve the project success. It is the project's objective to contribute to system advances that will enable sustained exploration missions beyond Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) and improve affordability by focusing on the primary goals of achieving high reliability, improving efficiency, and reducing dependence on ground-based logistics resupply. Technology demonstrations are achieved by infusing new technologies and concepts with existing developmental hardware and operating in a controlled environment simulating various crewed habitat scenarios. The ARREM project's strengths include access to a vast array of existing developmental hardware that perform all the vital atmosphere revitalization functions, exceptional test facilities to fully evaluate system performance, and a well-coordinated partnering effort among the NASA field centers and industry partners to provide the innovative expertise necessary to succeed.

  9. Plug-and-Play Environmental Monitoring Spacecraft Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Jagdish; Brinza, David E.; Tran, Tuan A.; Blaes, Brent R.

    2011-01-01

    A Space Environment Monitor (SEM) subsystem architecture has been developed and demonstrated that can benefit future spacecraft by providing (1) real-time knowledge of the spacecraft state in terms of exposure to the environment; (2) critical, instantaneous information for anomaly resolution; and (3) invaluable environmental data for designing future missions. The SEM architecture consists of a network of plug-and- play (PnP) Sensor Interface Units (SIUs), each servicing one or more environmental sensors. The SEM architecture is influenced by the IEEE Smart Transducer Interface Bus standard (IEEE Std 1451) for its PnP functionality. A network of PnP Spacecraft SIUs is enabling technology for gathering continuous real-time information critical to validating spacecraft health in harsh space environments. The demonstrated system that provided a proof-of-concept of the SEM architecture consisted of three SIUs for measurement of total ionizing dose (TID) and single event upset (SEU) radiation effects, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and deep dielectric charging through use of a prototype Internal Electro-Static Discharge Monitor (IESDM). Each SIU consists of two stacked 2X2 in. (approximately 5X5 cm) circuit boards: a Bus Interface Unit (BIU) board that provides data conversion, processing and connection to the SEM power-and-data bus, and a Sensor Interface Electronics (SIE) board that provides sensor interface needs and data path connection to the BIU.

  10. Pattern recognition and image processing for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Khalid J.; Eastwood, DeLyle

    1999-12-01

    Pattern recognition (PR) and signal/image processing methods are among the most powerful tools currently available for noninvasively examining spectroscopic and other chemical data for environmental monitoring. Using spectral data, these systems have found a variety of applications employing analytical techniques for chemometrics such as gas chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, etc. An advantage of PR approaches is that they make no a prior assumption regarding the structure of the patterns. However, a majority of these systems rely on human judgment for parameter selection and classification. A PR problem is considered as a composite of four subproblems: pattern acquisition, feature extraction, feature selection, and pattern classification. One of the basic issues in PR approaches is to determine and measure the features useful for successful classification. Selection of features that contain the most discriminatory information is important because the cost of pattern classification is directly related to the number of features used in the decision rules. The state of the spectral techniques as applied to environmental monitoring is reviewed. A spectral pattern classification system combining the above components and automatic decision-theoretic approaches for classification is developed. It is shown how such a system can be used for analysis of large data sets, warehousing, and interpretation. In a preliminary test, the classifier was used to classify synchronous UV-vis fluorescence spectra of relatively similar petroleum oils with reasonable success.

  11. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  12. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  13. Monitoring Sea Ice Conditions and Use in Arctic Alaska to Enhance Community Adaptation to Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Eicken, H.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice changes in the coastal zone, while less conspicuous in relation to the dramatic thinning and retreat of perennial Arctic sea ice, can be more readily linked to local impacts. Shorefast ice is a unique area for interdisciplinary research aimed at improving community adaptation to climate through local-scale environmental observations. Here, geophysical monitoring, local Iñupiat knowledge, and the documented use of ice by the Native hunting community of Barrow, Alaska are combined to relate coastal ice processes and morphologies in the Chukchi Sea to ice stability and community adaption strategies for travel, hunting, and risk assessment. A multi-year effort to map and survey the community’s seasonal ice trails, alongside a detailed record of shorefast ice conditions, provides insight into how hunters evaluate the evolution of ice throughout winter and spring. Various data sets are integrated to relate the annual accretion history of the local ice cover to both measurements of ice thickness and topography and hunter observations of ice types and hazards. By relating changes in the timing of shorefast ice stabilization, offshore ice conditions, and winter wind patterns to ice characteristics in locations where spring bowhead whaling occurs, we are working toward an integrated scientific product compatible with the perspective of local ice experts. A baseline for assessing future change and community climate-related vulnerabilities may not be characterized by single variables, such as ice thickness, but rather by how changes in observable variables manifest in impacts to human activities. This research matches geophysical data to ice-use to establish such a baseline. Documenting human-environment interactions will allow future monitoring to illustrate how strategies for continued community ice-use are indicative of or responsive to change, and potentially capable of incorporating science products as additional sources of useable information.

  14. Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) as a tool for monitoring Lake Geneva long-term in situ ecotoxic restoration from herbicide contamination.

    PubMed

    Larras, Floriane; Rimet, Frédéric; Gregorio, Vincent; Bérard, Annette; Leboulanger, Christophe; Montuelle, Bernard; Bouchez, Agnès

    2016-03-01

    Chemical monitoring revealed a regular decrease in herbicide concentration in Lake Geneva since last decades that may be linked to an ecotoxic restoration of nontarget phytoplanktonic communities. The Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approach was tested as a tool to monitor the ecotoxic restoration of Lake Geneva for herbicides from 1999 to 2011. We conducted monthly assessments in 1999 and in 2011 for the tolerance of the phytoplankton communities to two herbicides (atrazine and copper), using PICT bioassays. The taxonomical composition of the communities was determined on the same collecting dates. The herbicide concentration decrease during the 12 years significantly influenced the composition of communities. The PICT monitoring indicated that a significant tolerance decrease in the community to both herbicides accompanied the herbicide concentration decrease. PICT measurements for atrazine and copper also changed at the intra-annual level. These variations were mainly due to community composition shifts linked to seasonal phosphorus and temperature changes. PICT monitoring on a seasonal basis is required to monitor the mean tolerance of communities. PICT appeared to be a powerful tool that reflected the toxic effects on environmental communities and to monitor ecotoxic ecosystem restoration.

  15. Monitoring tropical cave environmental parameters: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, H.; Baldini, J. U. L.; Prufer, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents findings from on-going surface and cave environmental monitoring at Yok Balum Cave in southern Belize. Drip hydrochemistry and cave atmosphere dynamics play key roles in calcite deposition, stalagmite growth, and climate proxy signal emplacement. An understanding of daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variability in cave hydrology and atmosphere is therefore critical information for accurately interpreting stalagmite geochemistry in terms of palaeoclimate. Ten month time series datasets of drip rates, cave air PCO2, soil air PCO2, cave air temperature and humidity, drip and surface water δ18O values, and meteorological data are presented here and initial relationships discussed. Initial cave air PCO2 datasets suggest short term (daily) cave ventilation patterns exist which may be superimposed on seasonal-scale variability driven by seasonal rainfall patterns. Rainfall apparently controls soil air PCO2 by controlling soil bioproductivity, so during the rainy season cave air PCO2 may increase in response to an increased CO2 flux into the cave via degassing and flow through micro-fissures. Eight actively growing stalagmites were monitored, indicating that drip hydrology varies spatially within the cave. Temperature and humidity are constant at 23oC and 100% respectively throughout the cave, year round, limiting potential kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during carbonate precipitation and simplifying interpretations of climate records from stalagmites from the site. Continued environmental monitoring will yield long term datasets which may relate to multi-annual climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation and provide critical data for interpreting and calibrating the records obtained from Yok Balum stalagmite samples.

  16. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jisha, N. V.; Krishnakumar, D. N.; Surya Prakash, G.; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-03-15

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify {sup 41}Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation.

  17. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor.

  18. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  19. Stability of Caribbean coral communities quantified by long-term monitoring and autoregression models.

    PubMed

    Gross, Kevin; Edmunds, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    Tropical coral reefs exemplify ecosystems imperiled by environmental change. Anticipating the future of reef ecosystems requires understanding how scleractinian corals respond to the multiple environmental disturbances that threaten their survival. We analyzed the stability of coral reefs at three habitats at different depths along the south shore of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, using multivariate autoregression (MAR) models and two decades of monitoring data. We quantified several measures of ecosystem stability, including the magnitude of typical stochastic fluctuations, the rate of recovery following disturbance, and the sensitivity of coral cover to hurricanes and elevated sea temperature. Our results show that, even within a -4 km shore, coral communities in different habitats display different stability properties, and that the stability of each habitat corresponds with the habitat's known synecology. Two Orbicella-dominated habitats are less prone to annual stochastic fluctuations than coral communities in shallower water, but they recover slowly from disturbance, and one habitat has suffered recent losses in scleractinian cover that will not be quickly reversed. In contrast, a shallower, low-coral-cover habitat is subject to greater stochastic fluctuations, but rebounds more quickly from disturbance and is more robust to hurricanes and seawater warming. In some sense, the shallower community is more stable, although the stability arguably arises from having little coral cover left. Our results sharpen understanding of recent changes in coral communities at these habitats, provide a more detailed understanding of how these habitats may change in future environments, and illustrate how MAR models can be used to assess stability of communities founded upon long-lived species.

  20. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  1. Environmental microarray analyses of Antarctic soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung A; Brodie, Eoin L; Déjean, Sébastien; DeSantis, Todd Z; Gonçalves, Olivier; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary L; Kowalchuk, George A

    2009-03-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are fascinating in their limited trophic complexity, with decomposition and nutrient cycling functions being dominated by microbial activities. Not only are Antarctic habitats exposed to extreme environmental conditions, the Antarctic Peninsula is also experiencing unequalled effects of global warming. Owing to their uniqueness and the potential impact of global warming on these pristine systems, there is considerable interest in determining the structure and function of microbial communities in the Antarctic. We therefore utilized a recently designed 16S rRNA gene microarray, the PhyloChip, which targets 8741 bacterial and archaeal taxa, to interrogate microbial communities inhabiting densely vegetated and bare fell-field soils along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 51 degrees S (Falkland Islands) to 72 degrees S (Coal Nunatak). Results indicated a clear decrease in diversity with increasing latitude, with the two southernmost sites harboring the most distinct Bacterial and Archaeal communities. The microarray approach proved more sensitive in detecting the breadth of microbial diversity than polymerase chain reaction-based bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries of modest size ( approximately 190 clones per library). Furthermore, the relative signal intensities summed for phyla and families on the PhyloChip were significantly correlated with the relative occurrence of these taxa in clone libraries. PhyloChip data were also compared with functional gene microarray data obtained earlier, highlighting numerous significant relationships and providing evidence for a strong link between community composition and functional gene distribution in Antarctic soils. Integration of these PhyloChip data with other complementary methods provides an unprecedented understanding of the microbial diversity and community structure of terrestrial Antarctic habitats.

  2. Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1988-05-01

    Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined, usually during the breeding season. Data from monitoring efforts are used to assess the environmental impacts of Hanford operations and calculate the overall radiological dose to humans onsite, at the Site perimeter, or residing in nearby communities. Chinook salmon spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter nesting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. Measured exposure to penetrating radiation and calculated radiation doses to the public are well below applicable regulatory limits.

  3. Quantification of reef benthos communities and variability inherent to the monitoring using video transect method.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carla Alecrim Colaço; Amaral, Fernanda Duarte; de Kikuchi, Ruy Kenji Papa; Chaves, Eduardo Marocci; de Melo, Gabriel Rivas

    2010-03-01

    Long-term monitoring program of organisms is the most recommended for understanding changing processes on reefs. The video transect method presents advantages for that. Specialists state that it is important to make sure that the recorded coverage is always the same between campaigns, so that differences in results may be entirely attributed to environmental changes. This study aimed to test the capability of implementing this requirement through tracking simulation and its validity for monitoring the benthic communities of reefs using the video transect method. Ten transects 20 m long were established in Todos os Santos Bay coral reefs. Subsequent to the first transect capture, a second diver repeated the same track, simulating two different monitoring campaigns. Data were transformed and a matrix of similarity was generated using Bray-Curtis' Index. ANOSIM analysis was performed to test the similarity of the ten transects and its repetitions. The result, R = 0.08 (P = 0.928), shows that reef monitoring using video transect, the way it is described in the literature, is appropriate, but it is important to consider some premises discussed in this work.

  4. Phylogenetic and functional metagenomic profiling for assessing microbial biodiversity in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kisand, Veljo; Valente, Angelica; Lahm, Armin; Tanet, Gerard; Lettieri, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Decisions guiding environmental management need to be based on a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biodiversity and functional capability within ecosystems. Microbes are of particular importance since they drive biogeochemical cycles, being both producers and decomposers. Their quick and direct responses to changes in environmental conditions modulate the ecosystem accordingly, thus providing a sensitive readout. Here we have used direct sequencing of total DNA from water samples to compare the microbial communities of two distinct coastal regions exposed to different anthropogenic pressures: the highly polluted Port of Genoa and the protected area of Montecristo Island in the Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of the metagenomes revealed significant differences in both microbial diversity and abundance between the two areas, reflecting their distinct ecological habitats and anthropogenic stress conditions. Our results indicate that the combination of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and bioinformatics tools presents a new approach to monitor the diversity and the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Integration of metagenomics into environmental monitoring campaigns should enable the impact of the anthropogenic pressure on microbial biodiversity in various ecosystems to be better assessed and also predicted.

  5. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  6. Environmental-Socio-Economic Monitoring as a Tool of Region’s Environmental-Economic System Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanina, T. V.; Baumgarten, M. I.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Koroleva, T. G.; Mikhailov, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the region’s environmental-economic system management through a tool such as the environmental-socio-economic monitoring. The purpose of research - is analysis and development of theoretical assumptions of environmental-socio-economic monitoring system for the effective management of geographically distributed environmental-economic system. The main elements of environmental-socio-economic monitoring are identified, taking into account the characteristics of the studied area. The main result of the research is the development of multi-functional integrated monitoring system for the evaluation of the indicators "gross domestic product" and "gross national product", taking into account the influence of environmental factors. The results of the study conducted may be recommended to the regional and federal governments to support the effective, environment-friendly management decision-making consistent with the overall development concept.

  7. NOAA Operational Space Environmental Monitoring - Current Capabilities and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, William; Redmon, Rob; Mulligan, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    During the next few years the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will field new operational capabilities for monitoring the near-earth space environment in addition to maintaining continued measurements in geostationary orbit. The most exciting new capability will be transitioning routine solar wind and magnetic field measurements at L1 (240 Re) from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite to the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) which will be launched in early 2015 with a projected on-orbit readiness in mid-2015. Also under consideration is a solar-sail demonstration mission, called SUNJAMMER, for acquiring plasma and field measurements at twice the L1 location. Both DSCOVR and SUNJAMMER will provide a near-term advanced warning of impending space weather events that can adversely affect communications, satellite operations, GPS positioning and commercial air transportation. NESDIS has also supported the development of a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) which could provide a several day warning of space weather when coupled with an interplanetary disturbance propagation model like ENLIL. Routine monitoring of the ionosphere will be provided by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) II as a system which is a partnership among the Taiwan's National Space Organization, the U.S. Air Force and NOAA. The new operational capabilities provided by DSCOVR, SUNJAMMER, CCOR and COSMIC II are provided against the backdrop of continued space environmental measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which, in the near future, will transition to the GOES-R series of advanced space weather sensors. Continued space environmental measurements in polar low earth orbit (LEO) will continue to be provided by the remaining Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the European MetOp satellites. Instrument specialists at the National Geophysical Data Center

  8. Best Practicable Aggregation of Species: a step forward for species surrogacy in environmental assessment and monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Claudet, Joachim; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The available taxonomic expertise and knowledge of species is still inadequate to cope with the urgent need for cost-effective methods to quantifying community response to natural and anthropogenic drivers of change. So far, the mainstream approach to overcome these impediments has focused on using higher taxa as surrogates for species. However, the use of such taxonomic surrogates often limits inferences about the causality of community patterns, which in turn is essential for effective environmental management strategies. Here, we propose an alternative approach to species surrogacy, the “Best Practicable Aggregation of Species” (BestAgg), in which surrogates exulate from fixed taxonomic schemes. The approach uses null models from random aggregations of species to minimizing the number of surrogates without causing significant losses of information on community patterns. Surrogate types are then selected in order to maximize ecological information. We applied the approach to real case studies on natural and human-driven gradients from marine benthic communities. Outcomes from BestAgg were also compared with those obtained using classic taxonomic surrogates. Results showed that BestAgg surrogates are effective in detecting community changes. In contrast to classic taxonomic surrogates, BestAgg surrogates allow retaining significantly higher information on species-level community patterns than what is expected to occur by chance and a potential time saving during sample processing up to 25% higher. Our findings showed that BestAgg surrogates from a pilot study could be used successfully in similar environmental investigations in the same area, or for subsequent long-term monitoring programs. BestAgg is virtually applicable to any environmental context, allowing exploiting multiple surrogacy schemes beyond stagnant perspectives strictly relying on taxonomic relatedness among species. This prerogative is crucial to extend the concept of species surrogacy to

  9. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This progress report discusses environmental monitoring activities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for 1989. Topics include climate, site geology, site water usage, land use, demography, unusual events or releases, radioactive and nonradioactive releases, compliance summary, environmental nonradiological program information, environmental radiological program information, groundwater protection monitoring ad quality assurance. 5 figs., 7 tabs. (KJD)

  10. 30 CFR 280.29 - Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.29 Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 280.29 Section 280.29 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Diversity of Eastern North American Ant Communities along Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Del Toro, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Studies of species diversity patterns across regional environmental gradients seldom consider the impact of habitat type on within-site (alpha) and between-site (beta) diversity. This study is designed to identify the influence of habitat type across geographic and environmental space, on local patterns of species richness and regional turnover patterns of ant diversity in the northeastern United States. Specifically, I aim to 1) compare local species richness in paired open and forested transects and identify the environmental variables that best correlate with richness; and 2) document patterns of beta diversity throughout the region in both open and forested habitat. I systematically sampled ants at 67 sites from May to August 2010, spanning 10 degrees of latitude, and 1000 meters of elevation. Patterns of alpha and beta diversity across the region and along environmental gradients differed between forested and open habitats. Local species richness was higher in the low elevation and warmest sites and was always higher in open habitat than in forest habitat transects. Richness decreased as temperature decreased or elevation increased. Forested transects show strong patterns of decreasing dissimilarity in species composition between sites along the temperature gradient but open habitat transects did not. Maximum temperature of the warmest month better predicted species richness than either latitude or elevation. I find that using environmental variables as key predictors of richness yields more biologically relevant results, and produces simpler macroecological models than commonly used models which use only latitude and elevation as predictors of richness and diversity patterns. This study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms that structure the communities of important terrestrial arthropods which are likely to be influenced by climatic change. PMID:23874479

  12. Diversity of Eastern North American ant communities along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Del Toro, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Studies of species diversity patterns across regional environmental gradients seldom consider the impact of habitat type on within-site (alpha) and between-site (beta) diversity. This study is designed to identify the influence of habitat type across geographic and environmental space, on local patterns of species richness and regional turnover patterns of ant diversity in the northeastern United States. Specifically, I aim to 1) compare local species richness in paired open and forested transects and identify the environmental variables that best correlate with richness; and 2) document patterns of beta diversity throughout the region in both open and forested habitat. I systematically sampled ants at 67 sites from May to August 2010, spanning 10 degrees of latitude, and 1000 meters of elevation. Patterns of alpha and beta diversity across the region and along environmental gradients differed between forested and open habitats. Local species richness was higher in the low elevation and warmest sites and was always higher in open habitat than in forest habitat transects. Richness decreased as temperature decreased or elevation increased. Forested transects show strong patterns of decreasing dissimilarity in species composition between sites along the temperature gradient but open habitat transects did not. Maximum temperature of the warmest month better predicted species richness than either latitude or elevation. I find that using environmental variables as key predictors of richness yields more biologically relevant results, and produces simpler macroecological models than commonly used models which use only latitude and elevation as predictors of richness and diversity patterns. This study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms that structure the communities of important terrestrial arthropods which are likely to be influenced by climatic change.

  13. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  14. The effects of 3 environmental risks on mortality disparities across Mexican communities.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gretchen A; Dias, Rodrigo H; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-11-04

    The disparities in the burden of ill health caused by environmental risks should be an important consideration beyond their aggregate population effects. We used comparative risk assessment methods to calculate the mortality effects of unsafe water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use, and ambient urban particulate matter pollution in Mexico. We also estimated the disparities in mortality caused by each risk factor, across municipios (counties) of residence and by municipio socioeconomic status (SES). Data sources for the analysis were the national census, population-representative health surveys, and air quality monitoring for risk factor exposure; systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies for risk factor effects; and vital statistics for disease-specific mortality. During 2001-2005, unsafe water and sanitation, household solid fuel use, and urban particulate matter pollution were responsible for 3,000, 3,600, and 7,600 annual deaths, respectively. Annual child mortality rates would decrease by 0.2, 0.1, and 0.1 per 1,000 children, and life expectancy would increase by 1.0, 1.2, and 2.4 months, respectively, in the absence of these environmental exposures. Together, these risk factors caused 10.6% of child deaths in the lowest-SES communities (0.9 deaths per 1,000 children), but only 4.0% in communities in the highest-SES ones (0.1 per 1,000). In the 50 most-affected municipios, these 3 exposures were responsible for 3.2 deaths per 1,000 children and a 10-month loss of life expectancy. The large disparities in the mortality effects of these 3 environmental risks should form the basis of interventions and environmental monitoring programs.

  15. The effects of 3 environmental risks on mortality disparities across Mexican communities

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gretchen A.; Dias, Rodrigo H.; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-01-01

    The disparities in the burden of ill health caused by environmental risks should be an important consideration beyond their aggregate population effects. We used comparative risk assessment methods to calculate the mortality effects of unsafe water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use, and ambient urban particulate matter pollution in Mexico. We also estimated the disparities in mortality caused by each risk factor, across municipios (counties) of residence and by municipio socioeconomic status (SES). Data sources for the analysis were the national census, population-representative health surveys, and air quality monitoring for risk factor exposure; systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies for risk factor effects; and vital statistics for disease-specific mortality. During 2001–2005, unsafe water and sanitation, household solid fuel use, and urban particulate matter pollution were responsible for 3,000, 3,600, and 7,600 annual deaths, respectively. Annual child mortality rates would decrease by 0.2, 0.1, and 0.1 per 1,000 children, and life expectancy would increase by 1.0, 1.2, and 2.4 months, respectively, in the absence of these environmental exposures. Together, these risk factors caused 10.6% of child deaths in the lowest-SES communities (0.9 deaths per 1,000 children), but only 4.0% in communities in the highest-SES ones (0.1 per 1,000). In the 50 most-affected municipios, these 3 exposures were responsible for 3.2 deaths per 1,000 children and a 10-month loss of life expectancy. The large disparities in the mortality effects of these 3 environmental risks should form the basis of interventions and environmental monitoring programs. PMID:18974224

  16. Environmental monitoring in peat bog areas by change detection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich; Mildes, Wiebke

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing image analysis systems and geographic information systems (GIS) show great promise for the integration of a wide variety of spatial information supporting tasks such as urban and regional planning, natural resource management, agricultural studies and topographic or thematic mapping. Current and future remote sensing programs are based on a variety of sensors that will provide timely and repetitive multisensor earth observation on a global scale. GIS offer efficient tools for handling, manipulating, analyzing and presenting spatial data that are required for sensible decision making in various areas. The Environmental Monitoring project may serve as a convincing example of the operational use of integrated GIS/remote sensing technologies. The overall goal of the project is to assess the capabilities of satellite remote sensing for the analysis of land use changes, especially in moor areas. These areas are recognized as areas crucial to the mission of the Department of Environment and, therefore, to be placed under an extended level of protection. It is of critical importance, however, to have accurate and current information about the ecological and economic state of these sensitive areas. In selected pasture and moor areas, methods for multisensor data fusion have being developed and tested. The results of this testing show which techniques are useful for pasture and moor monitoring at an operational level. A hierarchical method is used for extracting bog land classes with respect to the environmental protection goals. A highly accurate classification of the following classes was accomplished: deciduous- and mixed forest, coniferous forest, water, very wet areas, meadowland/farmland with vegetation, meadowland/farmland with partly vegetation, meadowland/ farmland without vegetation, peat quarrying with maximum of 50% vegetation, de- and regeneration stages. In addition, a change detection analysis is performed in comparison with the existing

  17. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  18. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  19. Optoelectronic methods in potential application in monitoring of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika; Bombalska, Aneta; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Kopczyński, Krzysztof; Włodarski, Maksymilian; Kaliszewski, Miron; Kostecki, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever is a type of inflammation which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. It became the most common disease among people. It became important to monitor air content for the presence of a particular type of allergen. For the purposes of environmental monitoring there is a need to widen the group of traditional methods of identification of pollen for faster and more accurate research systems. The aim of the work was the characterization and classification of certain types of plant pollens by using laser optical methods, which were supported by the chemmometrics. Several species of pollen were examined, for which a database of spectral characteristics was created, using LIF, Raman scattering and FTIR methods. Spectral database contains characteristics of both common allergens and pollen of minor importance. Based on registered spectra, statistical analysis was made, which allows the classification of the tested pollen species. For the study of the emission spectra Nd:YAG laser was used with the fourth harmonic generation (266 nm) and GaN diode laser (375 nm). For Raman scattering spectra spectrometer Nicolet IS-50 with a excitation wavelength of 1064 nm was used. The FTIR spectra, recorded in the mid infrared1 range (4000-650 cm-1) were collected with use of transmission mode (KBr pellet), ATR and DRIFT.

  20. Evaluation of a hydrogen chloride detector for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Moyer, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a hydrogen chloride detector designed to monitor concentrations of hydrogen chloride gas in the ambient environment. The detector was developed for NASA for use in launch vehicle effluent monitoring. The detector operates on chemiluminescence principles with a lower detection limit of less than 5 x 10 to the -3rd ppm (by volume). The hydrogen chloride in the air sample reacts with a bromide-bromate coating in the inlet tube of the instrument producing bromine. Bromine is then quantitated by chemiluminescent oxidation of luminol. The visible light generated in the chemiluminescent reaction is proportional to the hydrogen chloride concentration of the sampled airstream. The detector is most suited to laboratory or field studies where hydrogen chloride is the dominant pollutant, as compared to the interfering species. Interferences include strong acids, acid-forming gases, and halogen gases. Of the interferences investigated the most serious in these groups are hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and chlorine, respectively. The detector has been in use since 1974 and has been found to be highly portable, rugged, and stable under extreme environmental conditions.

  1. Guaranteeing robustness of structural condition monitoring to environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buren, Kendra; Reilly, Jack; Neal, Kyle; Edwards, Harry; Hemez, François

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sensor deployment and computational modeling have allowed significant strides to be recently made in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). One widely used SHM strategy is to perform a vibration analysis where a model of the structure's pristine (undamaged) condition is compared with vibration response data collected from the physical structure. Discrepancies between model predictions and monitoring data can be interpreted as structural damage. Unfortunately, multiple sources of uncertainty must also be considered in the analysis, including environmental variability, unknown model functional forms, and unknown values of model parameters. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty can lead to false-positives or false-negatives in the structural condition assessment. To manage the uncertainty, we propose a robust SHM methodology that combines three technologies. A time series algorithm is trained using "baseline" data to predict the vibration response, compare predictions to actual measurements collected on a potentially damaged structure, and calculate a user-defined damage indicator. The second technology handles the uncertainty present in the problem. An analysis of robustness is performed to propagate this uncertainty through the time series algorithm and obtain the corresponding bounds of variation of the damage indicator. The uncertainty description and robustness analysis are both inspired by the theory of info-gap decision-making. Lastly, an appropriate "size" of the uncertainty space is determined through physical experiments performed in laboratory conditions. Our hypothesis is that examining how the uncertainty space changes throughout time might lead to superior diagnostics of structural damage as compared to only monitoring the damage indicator. This methodology is applied to a portal frame structure to assess if the strategy holds promise for robust SHM. (Publication approved for unlimited, public release on October-28

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES: A GUIDE FOR LOCAL DECISION-MAKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Planning for Small Communities - A Guide for Local Decision-Makers presents a process for creating and implementing a community environmental plan. With a comprehensive environmental plan, local decision-makers can create an integrated approach to protecting the env...

  3. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from short-duration shuttle missions lasting no more than several days to the medium-to-long-duration missions planned for the International Space Station, face a number of hazards that must be understood and mitigated for the mission to be carried out safely. Among these hazards are those posed by the internal environment of the spacecraft itself; through outgassing of toxic vapors from plastics and other items, failures or off-nominal operations of spacecraft environmental control systems, accidental exposure to hazardous compounds used in experiments: all present potential hazards that while small, may accumulate and pose a danger to crew health. The first step toward mitigating the dangers of these hazards is understanding the internal environment of the spacecraft and the compounds contained within it. Future spacecraft will have integrated networks of redundant sensors which will not only inform the crew of hazards, but will pinpoint the problem location and, through analysis by intelligent systems, recommend and even implement a course of action to stop the problem. This strategic plan details strategies to determine NASA's requirements for environmental monitoring and control systems for future spacecraft, and goals and objectives for a program to answer these needs.

  4. Report from the NOAA workshops to standardize protocols for monitoring toxic Pfiesteria species and associated environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Luttenberg, D; Turgeon, D; Higgins, J

    2001-10-01

    Long-term monitoring of water quality, fish health, and plankton communities in susceptible bodies of water is crucial to identify the environmental factors that contribute to outbreaks of toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC) species. In the aftermath of the 1997 toxic Pfiesteria outbreaks in North Carolina and Maryland, federal and several state agencies agreed that there was a need to standardize monitoring protocols. The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration convened two workshops that brought together state, federal, and academic resource managers and scientific experts to a) seek consensus on responding to and monitoring potential toxic Pfiesteria outbreaks; b) recommend standard parameters and protocols to characterize water quality, fish health, and plankton at historical event sites and potentially susceptible sites; and c) discuss options for integrating monitoring data sets from different states into regional and national assessments. Workshop recommendations included the development of a three-tiered TPC monitoring strategy: Tier 1, rapid event response; Tier 2, comprehensive assessment; and Tier 3, routine monitoring. These tiers correspond to varying levels of water quality, fish health, and plankton monitoring frequency and intensity. Under the strategy, sites are prioritized, depending upon their history and susceptibility to TPC events, and assigned an appropriate level of monitoring activity. Participants also agreed upon a suite of water quality parameters that should be monitored. These recommendations provide guidance to state and federal agencies conducting rapid-response and assessment activities at sites of suspected toxic Pfiesteria outbreaks, as well as to states that are developing such monitoring programs for the first time.

  5. The value of long-term environmental monitoring programs: an Ohio River case study.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Timothy W; Dixon, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    As a subset of environmental monitoring, fish sampling programs have been an important part of assessing the potential impacts of water withdrawals and effluent discharges on fish populations for many years. New environmental regulations often require that adverse environmental impacts to fish populations be minimized. Without long-term field data, population evaluations may incorrectly indicate adverse impacts where none exist or no impact where one is likely to occur. Several electric utility companies have funded the Ohio River Ecological Research Program, which has been in existence for over 40 years and consists of fish, habitat, and water quality studies at multiple power plant sites on the mainstem Ohio River. Sampling includes seasonal night-time electrofishing and daytime beach seining at three upstream and three downstream locations near each plant. The long-term nature of the program allows for the establishment of aquatic community indices to support evaluations of technology performance, the collaborative development of compliance metrics, and the assessment of fish population trends. Studies have concluded that the Ohio River fish community has improved in response to better water quality and that power plant fish entrainment and impingement and thermal discharges have had little or no measureable impact. Through collaboration and the use of long-term data, $6.3 million in monitoring costs have been saved during recent fish impingement studies. The ability to access a multiyear fish abundance database, with its associated data on age, growth, and fecundity, improves the quality of such evaluations and reduces the need for extensive field sampling at individual locations.

  6. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  7. Monitoring environmental state of Alaskan forests with AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Way, Jobea; Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cindy; Viereck, Les; Adams, Phylis

    1992-01-01

    During March 1988 and May 1991, the JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar, AIRSAR, collected sets of multi-temporal imagery of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska. These data sets consist of series of multi-polarized images collected at P-, L-, and C-bands each over a period of a few days. The AIRSAR campaigns were complemented with extensive ground measurements that included observations of both static canopy characteristics such as forest architecture as well as properties that vary on short term time scales such as canopy dielectric conditions. Observations exist for several stands of deciduous and coniferous species including white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Although the duration of each campaign was fairly short, significant changes in environmental conditions caused notable variations in the physiological state of the canopies. During the 1988 campaign, environmental conditions ranged from unseasonably warm to more normal subfreezing temperatures. This permitted AIRSAR observations of frozen and thawed canopy states. During May 1991, ice jams that occurred along the river caused many stands to flood while the subsequent clearing of the river then allowed the waters to recede, leaving a snow covered ground surface. This allowed observations of several stands during both flooded and nonflooded conditions. Furthermore, the local weather varied from clear sunny days to heavy overcast days with some occurrence of rain. Measurements of leaf water potential indicated that this caused significant variations in canopy water status, allowing SAR observations of water stressed and unstressed trees. Mean backscatter from several stands is examined for the various canopy physiological states. The changes in canopy backscatter that occur as a function of environmental and physiological state are analyzed. Preliminary results of a backscatter signature modeling analysis are presented

  8. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  9. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64%), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  11. Use of artificial intelligence methods for systems of environmental monitoring in NPP region

    SciTech Connect

    Barbashev, S.V.; Verkhovetsky, N.A.; Maslov, O.V.

    1993-12-31

    Conception of complex ecological environmental monitoring in NPP region, including control function , is presented. The outlook for the design of an expert system to be utilized in the monitoring is described.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Networks Optimization Using Advanced Active Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Volpi, Michele; Copa, Loris

    2010-05-01

    The problem of environmental monitoring networks optimization (MNO) belongs to one of the basic and fundamental tasks in spatio-temporal data collection, analysis, and modeling. There are several approaches to this problem, which can be considered as a design or redesign of monitoring network by applying some optimization criteria. The most developed and widespread methods are based on geostatistics (family of kriging models, conditional stochastic simulations). In geostatistics the variance is mainly used as an optimization criterion which has some advantages and drawbacks. In the present research we study an application of advanced techniques following from the statistical learning theory (SLT) - support vector machines (SVM) and the optimization of monitoring networks when dealing with a classification problem (data are discrete values/classes: hydrogeological units, soil types, pollution decision levels, etc.) is considered. SVM is a universal nonlinear modeling tool for classification problems in high dimensional spaces. The SVM solution is maximizing the decision boundary between classes and has a good generalization property for noisy data. The sparse solution of SVM is based on support vectors - data which contribute to the solution with nonzero weights. Fundamentally the MNO for classification problems can be considered as a task of selecting new measurement points which increase the quality of spatial classification and reduce the testing error (error on new independent measurements). In SLT this is a typical problem of active learning - a selection of the new unlabelled points which efficiently reduce the testing error. A classical approach (margin sampling) to active learning is to sample the points closest to the classification boundary. This solution is suboptimal when points (or generally the dataset) are redundant for the same class. In the present research we propose and study two new advanced methods of active learning adapted to the solution of

  13. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS IN AN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITY IN DURHAM, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Justice Communities are usually minority communities of low socio-economic status with a concern of increased risk from point source pollution not present in other communities. A priority of the U.S. EPA is to empower these communities to advocate for themselves. ...

  14. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, K.S.; Gonzalez, M.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1983-03-14

    Environmental monitoring efforts spanned air, water, vegetation and foodstuffs, and radiation doses. Monitoring data collection, analysis, and evaluation are presented for air, soils, sewage, water, vegetation and foodstuffs, milk, and general environmental radioactivity. Non-radioactive monitoring addresses beryllium, chemical effluents in sewage, noise pollution, and storm runoff and liquid discharge site pollutants. Quality assurance efforts are addressed. Five appendices present tabulated data; environmental activity concentration; dose calculation method; discharge limits to sanitary sewer systems of Livermore; and sampling and analytical procedures for environmental monitoring. (PSB)

  15. Environmental DNA metabarcoding reveals local fish communities in a species-rich coastal sea

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Masuda, Reiji; Sato, Yukuto; Sado, Tetsuya; Araki, Hitoshi; Kondoh, Michio; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Miya, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has emerged as a potentially powerful tool to assess aquatic community structures. However, the method has hitherto lacked field tests that evaluate its effectiveness and practical properties as a biodiversity monitoring tool. Here, we evaluated the ability of eDNA metabarcoding to reveal fish community structures in species-rich coastal waters. High-performance fish-universal primers and systematic spatial water sampling at 47 stations covering ~11 km2 revealed the fish community structure at a species resolution. The eDNA metabarcoding based on a 6-h collection of water samples detected 128 fish species, of which 62.5% (40 species) were also observed by underwater visual censuses conducted over a 14-year period. This method also detected other local fishes (≥23 species) that were not observed by the visual censuses. These eDNA metabarcoding features will enhance marine ecosystem-related research, and the method will potentially become a standard tool for surveying fish communities. PMID:28079122

  16. Environmental DNA metabarcoding reveals local fish communities in a species-rich coastal sea.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Masuda, Reiji; Sato, Yukuto; Sado, Tetsuya; Araki, Hitoshi; Kondoh, Michio; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Miya, Masaki

    2017-01-12

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has emerged as a potentially powerful tool to assess aquatic community structures. However, the method has hitherto lacked field tests that evaluate its effectiveness and practical properties as a biodiversity monitoring tool. Here, we evaluated the ability of eDNA metabarcoding to reveal fish community structures in species-rich coastal waters. High-performance fish-universal primers and systematic spatial water sampling at 47 stations covering ~11 km(2) revealed the fish community structure at a species resolution. The eDNA metabarcoding based on a 6-h collection of water samples detected 128 fish species, of which 62.5% (40 species) were also observed by underwater visual censuses conducted over a 14-year period. This method also detected other local fishes (≥23 species) that were not observed by the visual censuses. These eDNA metabarcoding features will enhance marine ecosystem-related research, and the method will potentially become a standard tool for surveying fish communities.

  17. EPA Launches New Portal to Help Communities Improve Environmental Quality and Public Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - As part of a commitment to making a visible difference in communities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is launching a new website to help local officials and community members find information for improving the environmen

  18. Workshop: Community-Based Research on TRI Exposure Risks using Online Environmental Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation to introduce community stakeholders to GIS mapping-supported environmental websites and tutorials designed to help users access geospatial, TRI, and other community exposure risk data from each site.

  19. EPA Awards $270K for Environmental and Health Projects in New England Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has awarded 12 grants across New England under its 2016 Healthy Communities Grant Program, totaling approximately $270,566, to fund community projects addressing environmental and public health issues.

  20. Monitoring nutrient impact on bacterial community composition during bioremediation of anoxic PAH-contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Seung Seob; Seol, Mijin; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Young-Sook

    2008-12-01

    Marine harbor sediments are frequently polluted with significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) some of which are naturally toxic, recalcitrant, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. To stimulate biodegradation of PAHs in PAH-contaminated sediments collected from near Gwangyang Bay, Korea, lactate was chosen as a supplementary carbonaceous substrate. Sediment packed into 600 ml air-tight jar was either under no treatment condition or lactate amended condition (1%, w/v). Microbial community composition was monitored by bacteria-specific and archaea-specific PCR-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in addition to measuring the residual PAH concentration. Results showed that lactate amendment enhanced biodegradation rate of PAHs in the sediment by 4 to 8 times, and caused a significant shift in archaebacterial community in terms of structure and diversity with time. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 archaeal clones with distinctive RFLP patterns among 288 archaeal clones indicated that majority of the archaeal members were closest to unculturable environmental rDNA clones from hydrocarbon-contaminated and/or methanogenesis-bearing sediments. Lactate amendment led to the enrichment of some clones that were most closely related to PAH-degrading Methanosarcina species. These results suggest a possible contribution of methanogenic community to PAH degradation and give us more insights on how to effectively remediate PAH-contaminated sediments.

  1. I-AMICA: infrastructure of high technology for environmental and climate monitoring in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasoni, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    I-AMICA (Infrastruttura di Alta tecnologia per il Monitoraggio Climatico Ambientale - Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring -) is a three years Italian National Operative Program (PON) project co-founded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is devoted to strengthen the environmental monitoring in Southern Italy with the aim to support the integration among research, high training, and innovation also providing synergies among public and private research organizations. The activities are focused on actions addressed to strengthen the observational infrastructures for atmosphere, forest and coastal areas in the regions of Southern Italy, whose economic growth and social well-being are strongly related to the environment quality. In such Convergence Regions (Campania, Apulia, Calabria and Sicily), instrumental networks (e.g. advanced sensors, software tools, integrated platforms and mobile laboratory and stations) dedicated to the environmental and climatic monitoring in the Mediterranean area, in terms of air quality, forest and agriculture, coastal marine ecosystems are promoted and developed. In order to increase the competitive capacity at national and international level, four "pillar" activities are aimed to (1) strengthen observing infrastructures for climate and environment and data processing systems, (2) promote innovation, technological development and industrial transfer, (3) integrate these observational activities into international programs (i.e. GAW-WMO, ACTRIS, EARLINET, GMOS, ICOS, FLUXNET, SHARE, NEXT DATA) that will allow I-AMICA to effectively be integrated with important networks. Finally, (4) through the implementation of observations, networking, technological applications and territorial services in the Convergence Regions, I-AMICA provides an important support to the local and regional communities.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Monitoring Program annual report for 2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2011-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/California Environmental Monitoring Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/California Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2010 program report describes the activities undertaken during the previous year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/California.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report for Calendar Year 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 Update program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  4. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76).

  5. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  6. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  7. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  8. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  9. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  10. Delegation of Authority Under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) - Decision Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum concerns how the Office of Enforcement (OE) proposed that two new authorities under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) be delegated to the Regional Administrators.

  11. Then and now: lessons learned from community- academic partnerships in environmental health research.

    PubMed

    Lichtveld, Maureen; Goldstein, Bernard; Grattan, Lynn; Mundorf, Christopher

    2016-11-29

    On the occasion of the 50(th) anniversary of the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences we reflect on how environmental research incorporating community members as active partners has evolved, benefited communities and advanced environmental health research. We highlight the commitment to community partnerships in the aftermath of the 2010 Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill, and how that commitment helped improve science. We provide examples of community-academic partnerships across the engagement spectrum. Finally, we offer suggestions to improve the community engagement in order to cultivate more long partnerships and better scientific research.

  12. The NIEHS Environmental Health Sciences Data Resource Portal: Placing Advanced Technologies in Service to Vulnerable Communities

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Keith; Tukey, Robert; Sarabia, Hiram; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Suk, William A.; Lin, Abel; Ellisman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background Two devastating hurricanes ripped across the Gulf Coast of the United States during 2005. The effects of Hurricane Katrina were especially severe: The human and environmental health impacts on New Orleans, Louisiana, and other Gulf Coast communities will be felt for decades to come. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates that Katrina’s destruction disrupted the lives of roughly 650,000 Americans. Over 1,300 people died. The projected economic costs for recovery and reconstruction are likely to exceed $125 billion. Objectives The NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) Portal aims to provide decision makers with the data, information, and the tools they need to a) monitor human and environmental health impacts of disasters; b) assess and reduce human exposures to contaminants; and c) develop science-based remediation, rebuilding, and repopulation strategies. Methods The NIEHS Portal combines advances in geographic information systems (GIS), data mining/integration, and visualization technologies through new forms of grid-based (distributed, web-accessible) cyberinfrastructure. Results The scale and complexity of the problems presented by Hurricane Katrina made it evident that no stakeholder alone could tackle them and that there is a need for greater collaboration. The NIEHS Portal provides a collaboration-enabling, information-laden base necessary to respond to environmental health concerns in the Gulf Coast region while advancing integrative multidisciplinary research. Conclusions The NIEHS Portal is poised to serve as a national resource to track environmental hazards following natural and man-made disasters, focus medical and environmental response and recovery resources in areas of greatest need, and function as a test bed for technologies that will help advance environmental health sciences research into the modern scientific and computing era. PMID:17450225

  13. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  14. Cloud-based systems for monitoring earthquakes and other environmental quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Olson, M.; Liu, A.; Chandy, M.; Bunn, J.; Guy, R.

    2013-12-01

    There are many advantages to using a cloud-based system to record and analyze environmental quantities such as earthquakes, radiation, various gases, dust and meteorological parameters. These advantages include robustness and dynamic scalability, and also reduced costs. In this paper, we present our experiences over the last three years in developing a cloud-based earthquake monitoring system (the Community Seismic Network). This network consists of over 600 sensors (accelerometers) in the S. California region that send data directly to the Google App Engine where they are analyzed. The system is capable of handing many other types of sensor data and generating a situation-awareness analysis as a product. Other advantages to the cloud-based system are integration with other peer networks, and being able to deploy anywhere in the world without have to build addition computing infrastructure.

  15. Sequential sampling: A cost-effective approach for monitoring benthic macroinvertebrates in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Resh, V.H.; Price, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential sampling is a method for monitoring benthic macroinvertebrates that can significantly reduce the number of samples required to reach a decision, and consequently, decrease the cost of benthic sampling in environmental impact assessments. Rather than depending on a fixed number of samples, this analysis cumulatively compares measured parameter values (for example, density, community diversity) from individual samples, with thresholds that are based on specified degrees of precision. In addition to reducing sample size, a monitoring program based on sequential sampling can provide clear-cut decisions as to whether a priori-defined changes in the measured parameter(s) have or have not occurred. As examples, sequential sampling programs have been developed to evaluate the impact of geothermal energy have been developed to evaluate the impact of geothermal energy development on benthic macroinvertebrate diversity at The Geysers, California, and for monitoring the impact of crude oil contamination on chironomid midge (Cricotopus bicinctus (Meigen) and C. mackenziensis Oliver) population densities in the Trail River, Northwest Territories, Canada.

  16. Low cost environmental sensors for Spaceflight : NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buelher, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  17. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  18. Connecting environmental health data to people and policy: integrating information and mobilizing communities for environmental public health tracking.

    PubMed

    Ali, Robbie; Wheitner, David; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V

    2007-10-01

    Evaluation of available data is a critical preliminary step in the assessment of local environmental health. As part of a multi-organizational initiative to improve environmental health in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania region, the University of Pittsburgh Center for Healthy Environments and Communities (CHEC) interviewed 70 experts in the academic, government, non-profit, and private sectors and reviewed print and electronic resources to characterize environmental and public health data available in the region. The objectives of this undertaking were: to provide a conceptual framework for categorizing data locally on environmental hazards, exposures and health endpoints, to describe and evaluate the types of environmental public health data available nationally and locally, to identify existing endeavors to gather and categorize such data, and to present case studies on the real-life relevance of the availability or lack of availability of environmental health data. The purpose and relevance of this project, the evolution of the methodology, successes and challenges met, and anticipated next steps are presented. This process description and resulting comprehensive report is available to communities, at both the state and local health department level as well as lay community members, engaged in similar endeavors, to characterize their local and regional environmental health landscape. The framework outlined serves as background for a related statewide environmental health project sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Health through the Pennsylvania Consortium on Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy (PCIEP) and potentially as a foundation for community-based data evaluation for the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program.

  19. Designing a biological monitoring program to assess community exposure to chromium: conclusions of an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A; Colton, T; Doull, J; Marks, J G; Smith, R G; Bruce, G M; Finley, B L; Paustenbach, D J

    1993-12-01

    The possible benefits of biological monitoring of large groups of people potentially exposed to environmental contaminants has become an area of much interest in recent years. Because chromite-ore processing residue has been found in some soils in northern New Jersey, urinary chromium monitoring of people in the community was evaluated as a potentially useful tool. In an attempt to identify those who could be exposed and to quantify the magnitude of exposure to the chromium in these soils, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) initiated a public health screening project. In 1992, the NJDOH proposed to evaluate over 4000 people who lived or worked near these sites. Volunteers were administered a questionnaire and were given a limited physical examination, and a single spot urine sample was collected. Because of the difficulties in using urinary chromium to assess low-level exposure and the potential implications of any regulatory decisions that could be based on the results of this project, a panel of experts was convened to evaluate the protocol. The panel consisted of five scientists and physicians with expertise in toxicology, dermatology, epidemiology, biological monitoring, and analytical chemistry. Like a World Health Organization group, the panel concluded that although urine biomonitoring can be useful in evaluating high levels of exposure to chromium, it is not reliable for assessing low-level exposure similar to that which may have occurred in northern New Jersey. The panel also noted that when urinary biomonitoring is to be used to assess the public's possible exposure, a large number of precautions must be taken to ensure the accuracy and usefulness of the results. The single most important recommendation was to collect a second, and perhaps a third, spot urine (or 24-h urine) sample before concluding that a person may be routinely overexposed. These suggestions are applicable to designing a biomonitoring program for nearly any environmental

  20. A Survey of Geosensor Networks: Advances in Dynamic Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Nittel, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    In the recent decade, several technology trends have influenced the field of geosciences in significant ways. The first trend is the more readily available technology of ubiquitous wireless communication networks and progress in the development of low-power, short-range radio-based communication networks, the miniaturization of computing and storage platforms as well as the development of novel microsensors and sensor materials. All three trends have changed the type of dynamic environmental phenomena that can be detected, monitored and reacted to. Another important aspect is the real-time data delivery of novel platforms today. In this paper, I will survey the field of geosensor networks, and mainly focus on the technology of small-scale geosensor networks, example applications and their feasibility and lessons learnt as well as the current research questions posed by using this technology today. Furthermore, my objective is to investigate how this technology can be embedded in the current landscape of intelligent sensor platforms in the geosciences and identify its place and purpose. PMID:22346721

  1. Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor Gas Sensors in Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fine, George F.; Cavanagh, Leon M.; Afonja, Ayo; Binions, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively to measure and monitor trace amounts of environmentally important gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In this review the nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored. Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are also discussed and related to their affect on surface structure. An overview of important contributions and recent advances are discussed for the use of metal oxide semiconductor sensors for the detection of a variety of gases—CO, NOx, NH3 and the particularly challenging case of CO2. Finally a description of recent advances in work completed at University College London is presented including the use of selective zeolites layers, new perovskite type materials and an innovative chemical vapour deposition approach to film deposition. PMID:22219672

  2. Low-power wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musaloiu-Elefteri, Razvan

    Significant progress has been made in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks in the decade that passed since its inception. This thesis presents several advances intended to make these networks a suitable instrument for environmental monitoring. The thesis first describes Koala, a low-power data-retrieval system that can achieve duty cycles below 1% by using bulk transfers, and Low Power Probing, a novel mechanism to efficiently wake up a network. The second contribution is Serendipity, another data-retrieval system, which takes advantage of the random rendezvous inherent in the Low Power Probing mechanism to achieve a very low duty cycle for low data rate networks. The third part explores the problem of and presents a solution for the interference between WSNs using IEEE 802.15.4 radios and the ubiquitous WiFi networks in the 2.4 GHz spectrum bandwidth. The last contribution of this thesis is Latte, a restricted version of the JavaScript language, that not only can be compiled to C and dynamically loaded on a sensing node, but can also be simulated and debugged in a JavaScript-enabled browser.

  3. Three neural network based sensor systems for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. One of the missions of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to examine and develop new technologies for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site. In this paper, three prototype sensing systems are discussed. These prototypes are composed of sensing elements, data acquisition system, computer, and neural network implemented in software, and are capable of automatically identifying contaminants. The first system employs an array of tin-oxide gas sensors and is used to identify chemical vapors. The second system employs an array of optical sensors and is used to identify the composition of chemical dyes in liquids. The third system contains a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and is used to identify radioactive isotopes. In these systems, the neural network is used to identify the composition of the sensed contaminant. With a neural network, the intense computation takes place during the training process. Once the network is trained, operation consists of propagating the data through the network. Since the computation involved during operation consists of vector-matrix multiplication and application of look-up tables unknown samples can be rapidly identified in the field.

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  5. Using Photovoice to assess and promote environmental approaches to tobacco control in AAPI communities.

    PubMed

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Lew, Rod; Kuratani, Darrah G; Wong, Michelle; Fu, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities face enormous health disparities, with tobacco use contributing to high rates of cancer and heart disease. There is growing interest nationwide on the influence of environmental factors on tobacco use. AAPI communities have been found to have higher exposures to tobacco company marketing compared to the general population. The authors describe the use of Photovoice (a qualitative needs assessment technique) to empower AAPI youth to identify and understand environmental characteristics associated with tobacco use in four AAPI communities in California and Washington. Of the six major environmental themes identified from the photos, three themes were found across all four communities. Debrief sessions with youth and community leaders underscore the relevance of Photovoice for identifying community needs and motivating community organization for change. Despite some logistical challenges, Photovoice exemplifies the power and potential of this community-based methodology to capture how the environment influences youth on tobacco use.

  6. Using Photovoice to Assess and Promote Environmental Approaches to Tobacco Control in AAPI Communities

    PubMed Central

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Lew, Rod; Kuratani, Darrah G.; Wong, Michelle; Fu, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities face enormous health disparities, with tobacco use contributing to high rates of cancer and heart disease. There is growing interest nationwide on the influence of environmental factors on tobacco use. AAPI communities have been found to have higher exposures to tobacco company marketing compared to the general population. The authors describe the use of Photovoice (a qualitative needs assessment technique) to empower AAPI youth to identify and understand environmental characteristics associated with tobacco use in four AAPI communities in California and Washington. Of the six major environmental themes identified from the photos, three themes were found across all four communities. Debrief sessions with youth and community leaders underscore the relevance of Photovoice for identifying community needs and motivating community organization for change. Despite some logistical challenges, Photovoice exemplifies the power and potential of this community-based methodology to capture how the environment influences youth on tobacco use. PMID:21955822

  7. Temporal variation of coastal surface sediment bacterial communities along an environmental pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, V; Tsoi, M M Y; Zhang, W; Qian, P Y

    2010-07-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) was used to track the changes of bacterial community compositions (BCC) in coastal surface sediments along an environmental pollution gradient between 2004 and 2006. BCC in the chronically contaminated sites showed the largest deviation from those in the adjacent sites. Surprisingly, BCC at two contrasting environments (oceanic vs. river-influenced) were more similar. Unexpectedly, the BCC did not recover (when compared to oceanic control site) even after 5 years of pollution abatement initiatives in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. On the other hand, disposal of treated sewage for 5 years in one of the sites did not significantly affect the BCC. A striking seasonal variation in the BCC was observed at only the polluted sites. Although factors other than pollution gradients may explain the observed BCC patterns, the information presented here can be useful in predicting long-term effects of pollution on BCC. Furthermore, this study suggests that BCC analysis using T-RFLP is a faster, reliable and easier approach to monitor microbenthic community response to environmental pollution gradient in coastal sediments.

  8. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  9. Developing a Bidirectional Academic–Community Partnership with an Appalachian-American Community for Environmental Health Research and Risk Communication

    PubMed Central

    Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Meloncon, Lisa; Parin, Megan; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marietta, Ohio, is an Appalachian-American community whose residents have long struggled with understanding their exposure to airborne manganese (Mn). Although community engagement in research is strongly endorsed by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in particular, little has been documented demonstrating how an academic–community partnership that implements the community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles can be created and mobilized for research. Objectives: We created a bidirectional, academic–community partnership with an Appalachian-American community to a) identify the community’s thoughts and perceptions about local air quality, its effect on health, and the perception of risk communication sources and b) jointly develop and conduct environmental health research. Methods: We formed a community advisory board (CAB), jointly conducted pilot research studies, and used the results to develop a community-driven research agenda. Results: Persons in the community were “very concerned” to “concerned” about local air quality (91%) and perceived the air quality to have a direct impact on their health and on their children’s health (93% and 94%, respectively). The CAB identified the primary research question: “Does Mn affect the cognition and behavior of children?” Although the community members perceived research scientists as the most trusted and knowledgeable regarding risks from industrial emissions, they received very little risk information from research scientists. Conclusions: Engaging a community in environmental health research from its onset enhanced the quality and relevance of the research investigation. The CBPR principles were a useful framework in building a strong academic–community partnership. Because of the current disconnect between communities and research scientists, academic researchers should consider working collaboratively with community

  10. Environmental surveys, specimen bank and health related environmental monitoring in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, André; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Schulz, Christine; Seiwert, Margarete

    2012-02-01

    Production of chemicals, use of products and consumer goods, contamination of food as well as today's living conditions are related to a substantial exposure of humans to chemicals. Safety of human beings and the environment has to be safeguarded by producers and government. Human biomonitoring (HBM) has proven to be a useful and powerful tool to control human exposure and facilitate risk assessment. Therefore, the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) employs two major HBM tools, the German Environmental Survey (GerES) and the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB). GerES is a nationwide population representative study on HBM and external human exposure, which has, inter alia, been used to identify lead in tap water, lead dustfall, time spent in traffic, and age of dwelling as exposure sources for lead and, thus, to derive risk reduction measures. The ESB is a permanent monitoring instrument and an archive for human specimens. Retrospective monitoring of phthalates and bisphenol A provides a continuous historical record of human exposure in Germany, over the last decades. Additionally it revealed that estimations of human exposure based on production and consumption data may supply misleading information on human exposure. HBM data demonstrated that (a) the use if the restricted isomer di-n-butylphthalat decreased while di-i-butylphthalate levels remained constant and (b) human bisphenol A exposure might be overestimated without monitoring data. The decrease of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-exposure proves the success of German environmental policy after German re-unification. In addition to GerES and ESB UBA is involved in different co-operation networks, the two most prominent of which are (1) the harmonization of HBM in Europe (ESBIO; Expert Team to Support Biomonitoring in Europe, COPHES/DEMOCOPHES; Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale/Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a

  11. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  12. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation covers the following monitoring objectives at the demonstration site at Edison, NJ: Hydrologic performance, water quality performance, urban heat island effects, maintenance effects and infiltration water parameters. There will be a side by side monitoring of ...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL MONITORING IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical monitoring of the environment is performed in the United States by Federal and State agencies, local governments, industries, organizations, and private individuals. The major reasons for monitoring are for compliance with laws and regulations, investigation of suspec...

  14. Aquatic monitoring programs conducted during environmental impact assessments in Canada: preliminary assessment before and after weakened environmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Roach, Brynn; Walker, Tony R

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012). Projects included four energy and six mining projects and were selected based on the following criteria: (i) representative of Canada's resource economy; (ii) project information was publicly available; and (iii) strong public interest. Projects pre- and post-CEAA 2012 exhibited few apparent differences before and after environmental regulatory changes. However, wide discrepancies exist in numbers and types of parameters reported, along with a lack of consistency in reporting. Projects pre-CEAA 2012 provided more follow-up monitoring commitments. Although qualitative differences remain inconclusive, this paper highlights requirements for further assessment of aquatic monitoring and follow-up programs in Canada. Recommendations for the government to consider during reviews of the federal environmental assessment processes include (i) improved transparency on the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website ( https://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/ ); (ii) creation of a legally binding standardized aquatic monitoring program framework to ensure that all Canadian aquatic ecosystems are monitored with equal rigour; and (iii) commitments and justification related to frequency of aquatic monitoring of water quality.

  15. Environmental mapping and monitoring of Iceland by remote sensing (EMMIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Falco, Nicola; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Rustowicz, Rose; Belart, Joaquin M.-C.; Gísladóttir, Gudrun; Benediktsson, Jón A.

    2016-04-01

    Iceland is exposed to rapid and dynamic landscape changes caused by natural processes and man-made activities, which impact and challenge the country. Fast and reliable mapping and monitoring techniques are needed on a big spatial scale. However, currently there is lack of operational advanced information processing techniques, which are needed for end-users to incorporate remote sensing (RS) data from multiple data sources. Hence, the full potential of the recent RS data explosion is not being fully exploited. The project Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland by Remote Sensing (EMMIRS) bridges the gap between advanced information processing capabilities and end-user mapping of the Icelandic environment. This is done by a multidisciplinary assessment of two selected remote sensing super sites, Hekla and Öræfajökull, which encompass many of the rapid natural and man-made landscape changes that Iceland is exposed to. An open-access benchmark repository of the two remote sensing supersites is under construction, providing high-resolution LIDAR topography and hyperspectral data for land-cover and landform classification. Furthermore, a multi-temporal and multi-source archive stretching back to 1945 allows a decadal evaluation of landscape and ecological changes for the two remote sensing super sites by the development of automated change detection techniques. The development of innovative pattern recognition and machine learning-based approaches to image classification and change detection is one of the main tasks of the EMMIRS project, aiming to extract and compute earth observation variables as automatically as possible. Ground reference data collected through a field campaign will be used to validate the implemented methods, which outputs are then inferred with geological and vegetation models. Here, preliminary results of an automatic land-cover classification based on hyperspectral image analysis are reported. Furthermore, the EMMIRS project

  16. Reaching Residents of Green Communities: Evaluation of a Unique Environmental Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Mark; Swiman, Elizabeth; Prizzia, Anna; Noiseux, Krystal

    2008-01-01

    Often in green communities, homeowner understanding is left out of the project. We evaluated the impact of a new environmental education program installed in a green community, Town of Harmony, Florida. Consisting of educational kiosks, website, and brochure, we evaluated whether Harmony residents' environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors…

  17. Community Capacity for Environmental Health Promotion: Determinants and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    The human response to an environmental hazard can either reduce or exacerbate its impact on health. This article reviews determinants of community-level responses to environmental health hazards. The aim is to identify factors that can enhance a community's capacity to protect itself and to suggest public health strategies that can increase such…

  18. A Process of Environmental Education Communication through Community Cultural Activity Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongpaibool, Duangporn; Rawang, Wee; Supapongpichate, Ratchanont; Pichayapibool, Pataraboon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was: 1. To investigate social context, environment, way of life and community culture. 2. To gather the views and opinions regarding environmental conservation and restoration. 3. To synthesize a process of environmental education communication based on community cultural activity area. 4. To evaluate the efficacy of…

  19. Strand IV: Environmental and Community Health. Environmental and Public Health, Grades 4-6. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    This prototypic curriculum is designed to develop awareness of the challenges man faces in his crowded communities to insure clean water, pest control, waste removal, safe food handling and adequate community health facilities. It distinguishes between the prevention of future environmental abuse and compensation for past abuses. Both the gaining…

  20. Benefits of Mobile Phone Technology for Personal Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Background Tracking individuals in environmental epidemiological studies using novel mobile phone technologies can provide valuable information on geolocation and physical activity, which will improve our understanding of environmental exposures. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the performance of one of the least expensive mobile phones on the market to track people's travel-activity pattern. Methods Adults living and working in Barcelona (72/162 bicycle commuters) carried simultaneously a mobile phone and a Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker and filled in a travel-activity diary (TAD) for 1 week (N=162). The CalFit app for mobile phones was used to log participants’ geographical location and physical activity. The geographical location data were assigned to different microenvironments (home, work or school, in transit, others) with a newly developed spatiotemporal map-matching algorithm. The tracking performance of the mobile phones was compared with that of the GPS trackers using chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. The minute agreement across all microenvironments between the TAD and the algorithm was compared using the Gwet agreement coefficient (AC1). Results The mobile phone acquired locations for 905 (29.2%) more trips reported in travel diaries than the GPS tracker (P<.001) and had a median accuracy of 25 m. Subjects spent on average 57.9%, 19.9%, 9.0%, and 13.2% of time at home, work, in transit, and other places, respectively, according to the TAD and 57.5%, 18.8%, 11.6%, and 12.1%, respectively, according to the map-matching algorithm. The overall minute agreement between both methods was high (AC1 .811, 95% CI .810-.812). Conclusions The use of mobile phones running the CalFit app provides better information on which microenvironments people spend their time in than previous approaches based only on GPS trackers. The improvements of mobile phone technology in microenvironment determination are because the mobile

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TEST OF DIOXIN EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of four dioxin emission monitors including two long-term sampling devices, the DMS (DioxinMonitoringSystem) and AMESA (Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans), and two semi-real-time continuous monitors, RIMMPA-TOFMS (Resonance Ionization with Multi-Mir...

  2. Variation in coastal Antarctic microbial community composition at sub-mesoscale: spatial distance or environmental filtering?

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pino, Mario; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Valdivia, Nelson; Henríquez-Castilo, Carlos; Galán, Alexander; Díez, Beatriz; Trefault, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Spatial environmental heterogeneity influences diversity of organisms at different scales. Environmental filtering suggests that local environmental conditions provide habitat-specific scenarios for niche requirements, ultimately determining the composition of local communities. In this work, we analyze the spatial variation of microbial communities across environmental gradients of sea surface temperature, salinity and photosynthetically active radiation and spatial distance in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. We hypothesize that environmental filters are the main control of the spatial variation of these communities. Thus, strong relationships between community composition and environmental variation and weak relationships between community composition and spatial distance are expected. Combining physical characterization of the water column, cell counts by flow cytometry, small ribosomal subunit genes fingerprinting and next generation sequencing, we contrast the abundance and composition of photosynthetic eukaryotes and heterotrophic bacterial local communities at a submesoscale. Our results indicate that the strength of the environmental controls differed markedly between eukaryotes and bacterial communities. Whereas eukaryotic photosynthetic assemblages responded weakly to environmental variability, bacteria respond promptly to fine-scale environmental changes in this polar marine system.

  3. Theatre of the oppressed and environmental justice communities: a transformational therapy for the body politic.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John; Petronella, Sharon; Brooks, Edward; Murillo, Maria; Primeau, Loree; Ward, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Community Environmental Forum Theatre at UTMB-NIEHS Center in Environmental Toxicology uses Augusto Boal's Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) to promote involvement of citizens, scientists, and health professionals in deconstructing toxic exposures, risk factors, and cumulative stressors that impact the well-being of communities. The TO process encourages collective empowerment of communities by disseminating information and elaborating support networks. TO also elicits transformation and growth on a personal level via a dramaturgical system that restores spontaneity through image-making and improvisation. An NIEHS Environmental Justice Project, Communities Organized against Asthma & Lead, illustrates this interplay of personal and collective change in Houston, Texas.

  4. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  5. Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce environmental health disparities in american Indian and alaska native communities.

    PubMed

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K; Doyle, John T; Eggers, Margaret J; Ford, Tim E; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-04-13

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  6. The effect of ego-motion on environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Uri; Yacobi, Tamar; Levy, Ilan; Moltchanov, Sharon A; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-11-15

    Air pollution has a proven impact on public health. Currently, pollutant levels are obtained by high-priced, sizeable, stationary Air Quality Monitoring (AQM) stations. Recent developments in sensory and communication technologies have made relatively low-cost, micro-sensing units (MSUs) feasible. Their lower power consumption and small size enable mobile sensing, deploying single or multiple units simultaneously. Recent studies have reported on measurements acquired by mobile MSUs, mounted on cars, bicycles and pedestrians. While these modes of transportation inherently present different velocity and acceleration regimes, the effect of the sensors' varying movement characteristics have not been previously accounted for. This research assesses the impact of sensor's motion on its functionality through laboratory measurements and a field campaign. The laboratory setup consists of a wind tunnel to assess the effect of air flow on the measurements of nitrogen dioxide and ozone at different velocities in a controlled environment, while the field campaign is based on three cars mounted with MSUs, measuring pollutants and environmental variables at different traveling speeds. In both experimental designs we can regard the MSUs as a moving object in the environment, i.e. having a distinct ego-motion. The results show that MSU's behavior is highly affected by variation in speed and sensor placement with respect to direction of movement, mainly due to the physical properties of installed sensors. This strongly suggests that any future design of MSU must account for the speed effect from the design stage all the way through deployment and results analysis. This is the first report examining the influence of airflow variations on MSU's ability to accurately measure pollutant levels.

  7. Surface monitoring measurements of materials on environmental change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornari, Vivi; Bernikola, Eirini; Bellendorf, Paul; Bertolin, Chiara; Camuffo, Dario; Kotova, Lola; Jacobs, Daniela; Zarnic, Roko; Rajcic, Vlatka; Leissner, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Climate Change is one of the most critical global challenges of our time and the burdened cultural heritage of Europe is particularly vulnerable to be left unprotected. Climate for Culture2 project exploits the damage impact of climate change on cultural heritage at regional scale. In this paper the progress of the study with in situ measurements and investigations at cultural heritage sites throughout Europe combined with laboratory simulations is described. Cultural works of art are susceptible to deterioration with environmental changes causing imperceptibly slow but steady accumulation of damaging effects directly impacted on structural integrity. Laser holographic interference method is employed to provide remote non destructive field-wise detection of the structural differences occurred as climate responses. The first results from climate simulation of South East Europe (Crete) are presented. A full study in regards to the four climate regions of Europe is foreseen to provide values for development of a precise and integrated model of thermographic building simulations for evaluation of impact of climate change. Development of a third generation user interface software optimised portable metrology system (DHSPI II) is designed to record in custom intervals the surface of materials witnessing reactions under simulated climatic conditions both onfield and in laboratory. The climate conditions refer to real data-loggers readings representing characteristic historical building in selected climate zones. New generation impact sensors termed Glass Sensors and Free Water Sensors are employed in the monitoring procedure to cross-correlate climate data with deformation data. In this paper results from the combined methodology are additionally presented.

  8. Cellular monitoring systems for the assessment of space environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Arenz, A.; Meier, M. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Cellular Biodiagnostic group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such bioassay or biosensor systems will complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. Furthermore, synergistic mutagenic and cancerogenic impacts of the radiation environment together with other potentially genotoxic constituents of the space habitat can be quantified using such systems, whose signals are especially relevant for the molecular damage to the DNA or the chromosomes. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological end-points under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. A second end-point will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized EGFP variant (d2EGFP). The promoter element to be investigated will reflect the activity of the NF-kB stress response pathway as an anti-apoptotic radiation response. DNA damage will be measured by fluorescent analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU). The systems have worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using accelerated particles produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL have given insights into cellular mechanisms

  9. Using Community Advisory Boards to Reduce Environmental Barriers to Health in American Indian Communities, Wisconsin, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jamie R.; Prince, Ron; Williamson, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Background American Indian communities have a high prevalence of chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Innovative community-based approaches are needed to identify, prioritize, and create sustainable interventions to reduce environmental barriers to healthy lifestyles and ultimately improve health. Community Context Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based and community-based intervention to increase healthy lifestyles on Wisconsin American Indian reservations. This intervention arose from a long-standing partnership between University of Wisconsin researchers and 3 of these American Indian communities. Methods In each community, community advisory boards (CABs) were established by the residents and university partners. CAB meetings were open and held at various times and locations to increase member participation. CABs featured continual, snowball recruitment; internal and external expert consultation; and coordination with standing tribal committees. Meetings initially focused on understanding community supports for and barriers to healthy lifestyles but quickly turned toward community action for change. Outcome CAB interventions decreased environmental barriers to health at each site and improved options for healthy lifestyle choices. Over 5 years, 71 CAB meetings occurred with a total of 1,070 participants. Successful CAB interventions included planting community gardens and an apple orchard, conducting gardening and canning workshops, instituting food-related policies and dog control regulations, building an environmentally friendly playground, and providing access to recreational facilities. The CABs are now self-sustaining. Interpretation CABs can be highly effective action teams capable of improving community environments. Our experience shows that academic researchers can partner with community residents to generate programs and policies that will expand access to local food, increase people

  10. Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and

  11. Frequently Asked Questions from EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training Event, July 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training Event on July 9, 2015 in RTP, NC. Forty citizen scientists attended in person while over 500 others attended the live webinar. Several attendees posted questions, which EPA scientists have addressed here.

  12. Completing the Circle: A Model for Effective Community Review of Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Peggy Morrow; Corbin-Mark, Cecil D.

    2009-01-01

    While it is well understood that multiple and cumulative environmental stressors negatively impact health at the community level, existing ethical research review procedures are designed to protect individual research participants but not communities. Increasing concerns regarding the ethical conduct of research in general and environmental and genetic research in particular underscore the need to expand the scope of current human participant research regulations and ethical guidelines to include protections for communities. In an effort to address this issue, West Harlem Environmental Action (WE ACT), a nonprofit, community-based environmental justice organization in New York City that has been involved in community–academic partnerships for the past decade, used qualitative interview data to develop a pilot model for community review of environmental health science research. PMID:19890159

  13. A conceptual approach to a citizens' observatory--supporting community-based environmental governance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Kobernus, Mike; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2014-12-12

    In recent years there has been a trend to view the Citizens' Observatory as an increasingly essential tool that provides an approach for better observing, understanding, protecting and enhancing our environment. However, there is no consensus on how to develop such a system, nor is there any agreement on what a Citizens' Observatory is and what results it could produce. The increase in the prevalence of Citizens' Observatories globally has been mirrored by an increase in the number of variables that are monitored, the number of monitoring locations and the types of participating citizens. This calls for a more integrated approach to handle the emerging complexities involved in this field, but before this can be achieved, it is essential to establish a common foundation for Citizens' Observatories and their usage. There are many aspects to a Citizens' Observatory. One view is that its essence is a process that involves environmental monitoring, information gathering, data management and analysis, assessment and reporting systems. Hence, it requires the development of novel monitoring technologies and of advanced data management strategies to capture, analyse and survey the data, thus facilitating their exploitation for policy and society. Practically, there are many challenges in implementing the Citizens' Observatory approach, such as ensuring effective citizens' participation, dealing with data privacy, accounting for ethical and security requirements, and taking into account data standards, quality and reliability. These concerns all need to be addressed in a concerted way to provide a stable, reliable and scalable Citizens' Observatory programme. On the other hand, the Citizens' Observatory approach carries the promise of increasing the public's awareness to risks in their environment, which has a corollary economic value, and enhancing data acquisition at low or no cost. In this paper, we first propose a conceptual framework for a Citizens' Observatory

  14. The Interplay between Environmental Filtering and Spatial Processes in Structuring Communities: The Case of Neotropical Snake Communities.

    PubMed

    Cavalheri, Hamanda; Both, Camila; Martins, Marcio

    2015-01-01

    Both habitat filters and spatial processes can influence community structure. Space alone affects species immigration from the regional species pool, whereas habitat filters affect species distribution and inter-specific interactions. This study aimed to understand how the interplay between environmental and geographical processes influenced the structure of Neotropical snake communities in different habitat types. We selected six studies that sampled snakes in forests, four conducted in savannas and two in grasslands (the latter two are grouped in a non-forest category). We used the net relatedness and nearest taxon indices to assess phylogenetic structure within forest and non-forest areas. We also used the phylogenetic fuzzy-weighting algorithm to characterize phylogenetic structure across communities and the relation of phylogenetic composition patterns to habitat type, structure, and latitude. Finally, we tested for morphological trait convergence and phylogenetic niche conservatism using four forest and four non-forest areas for which morphological data were available. Community phylogenetic composition changed across forest and non-forest areas suggesting that environmental filtering influences community structure. Species traits were affected by habitat type, indicating convergence at the metacommunity level. Tail length, robustness, and number of ventral scales maximized community convergence among forest and non-forest areas. The observed patterns suggested environmental filtering, indicating that less vertically structured habitats represent a strong filter. Despite the fact that phylogenetic structure was not detected individually for each community, we observed a trend towards communities composed by more closely related species in higher latitudes and more overdispersed compositions in lower latitudes. Such pattern suggests that the limited distribution of major snake lineages constrained species distributions. Structure indices for each community

  15. Bridging Community Development and Environmental Education: Rural Water Conservation in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Lexine Tallis

    2010-01-01

    International community development is a fertile area of research for environmental education scholars and practitioners. Although the community development field is well established, there is relatively little focus on education and learning in community development literature, especially in developing country settings. Particularly,…

  16. Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Rosemary M.; Serrell, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic-community…

  17. Community, environmental, and occupational health risks associated with fossil fuel energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Mark A.

    Short-term and long-term health risks associated with fossil fuel power production can be grouped into three broad categories: risks to the surrounding community, the natural environment and to plant workers. The results of three studies examining the primary short-term or long-term impacts of fossil fuel power plants are presented within this dissertation. The first study estimates the plausible community health effects associated with peak SO2 emissions from three coal-fired power plants in the Baltimore, Maryland area. Concentrations from mobile and stationary air monitoring were compared to human clinical studies that demonstrated respiratory morbidity. Results indicate that exposure concentrations are below levels associated with respiratory symptoms. A single measurement at one monitoring site, however, may indicate risk of asymptomatic lung function decrement for SO2-sensitive asthmatics. The second study estimates the relationship between operational, environmental and temporal factors at a Texas coastal power plant and fish and shellfish impingement. Impingement is a long-term risk to fish populations near power plants. When large quantities of water are withdrawn from water bodies for cooling, fish and shellfish may be harmed if impinged against screens intended to remove debris. In this study, impingement of fish and shellfish was best explained by dissolved oxygen concentration, sampling month and sampling time. When examined separately, temperature and sampling month were most important in explaining fish impingement, while for shellfish, sampling month and sampling time were most important. Operational factors were not significant predictors of impingement. The third study examines whether the number of worker similar exposure groups classified using observation methods was the same as groups classified using personal exposure monitoring. Using observational techniques and personal monitoring, power plant workers were grouped according to exposure

  18. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, K.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1986-02-01

    Results are reported of the Environmental Quality Verification Program, which is an expanded continuation of the program of environmental monitoring previously carried out by the Environmental Measurements Group of the Hazards Control Department. Data are reported on air, soils, water, vegetation, foodstuffs, and annual radiation doses at perimeter of facility.

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report contains environmental monitoring information for the following UMTRA sites for the 1992 Calendar Year: Lakeview, OR; Lowman, ID; Mexican Hat, UT; Monument Valley, AZ; Rifle, CO; Riverton, WY; Shiprock, NM; Spook, WY; Tuba City, AZ. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information.

  20. 15 CFR 970.702 - Monitoring and mitigation of environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... monitoring environmental parameters relating to verficiation of NOAA's findings concerning potential impacts... environmental effects. 970.702 Section 970.702 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce...