Science.gov

Sample records for community factors relevant

  1. An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Pamela; Mukabana, W Richard; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mathenge, Evan; Killeen, Gerry F; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary

  2. 28 CFR 51.57 - Relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Determinations by the Attorney General § 51.57 Relevant... afforded members of racial and language minority groups an opportunity to participate in the decision to... language minority groups into account in making the change....

  3. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  4. Principles Relevant to Health Research among Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    O'Donahoo, Francis J; Ross, Kirstin E

    2015-05-01

    Research within Indigenous communities has been criticised for lacking community engagement, for being exploitative, and for poorly explaining the processes of research. To address these concerns, and to ensure 'best practice', Jamieson, et al. (2012) recently published a summary of principles outlined by the NHMRC (2003) in "one short, accessible document". Here we expand on Jamieson et al.'s paper, which while commendable, lacks emphasis on the contribution that communities themselves can make to the research process and how culturally appropriate engagement, can allow this contribution to be assured, specifically with respect to engagement with remote communities. Engagement started before the research proposal is put forward, and continued after the research is completed, has integrity. We emphasise the value of narratives, of understanding cultural and customary behaviours and leadership, the importance of cultural legitimacy, and of the need for time, not just to allow for delays, but to ensure genuine participatory engagement from all members of the community. We also challenge researchers to consider the outcomes of their research, on the basis that increasing clinical evidence does not always result in better outcomes for the community involved. PMID:25996884

  5. Principles Relevant to Health Research among Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    O’Donahoo, Francis J.; Ross, Kirstin E.

    2015-01-01

    Research within Indigenous communities has been criticised for lacking community engagement, for being exploitative, and for poorly explaining the processes of research. To address these concerns, and to ensure ‘best practice’, Jamieson, et al. (2012) recently published a summary of principles outlined by the NHMRC (2003) in “one short, accessible document”. Here we expand on Jamieson et al.’s paper, which while commendable, lacks emphasis on the contribution that communities themselves can make to the research process and how culturally appropriate engagement, can allow this contribution to be assured, specifically with respect to engagement with remote communities. Engagement started before the research proposal is put forward, and continued after the research is completed, has integrity. We emphasise the value of narratives, of understanding cultural and customary behaviours and leadership, the importance of cultural legitimacy, and of the need for time, not just to allow for delays, but to ensure genuine participatory engagement from all members of the community. We also challenge researchers to consider the outcomes of their research, on the basis that increasing clinical evidence does not always result in better outcomes for the community involved. PMID:25996884

  6. Principles Relevant to Health Research among Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    O'Donahoo, Francis J; Ross, Kirstin E

    2015-05-19

    Research within Indigenous communities has been criticised for lacking community engagement, for being exploitative, and for poorly explaining the processes of research. To address these concerns, and to ensure 'best practice', Jamieson, et al. (2012) recently published a summary of principles outlined by the NHMRC (2003) in "one short, accessible document". Here we expand on Jamieson et al.'s paper, which while commendable, lacks emphasis on the contribution that communities themselves can make to the research process and how culturally appropriate engagement, can allow this contribution to be assured, specifically with respect to engagement with remote communities. Engagement started before the research proposal is put forward, and continued after the research is completed, has integrity. We emphasise the value of narratives, of understanding cultural and customary behaviours and leadership, the importance of cultural legitimacy, and of the need for time, not just to allow for delays, but to ensure genuine participatory engagement from all members of the community. We also challenge researchers to consider the outcomes of their research, on the basis that increasing clinical evidence does not always result in better outcomes for the community involved.

  7. Cultural Relevance as Program-to-Community Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Jayanthi; Jacobs, Francine; Jacobs, Leah

    2009-01-01

    Calls for cultural sensitivity in the design and implementation of human services programs have become a standard response to the increasing diversity among the families and communities being served. In this article, we take a critical look at the construct, using data from a multi-year evaluation of a statewide family support program. We examine…

  8. Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.L.; Budinoff, C.R.; Belnap, J.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

    2005-01-01

    Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N2 fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater nitrate/ nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in wetted BSCs were high in comparison with those typical of aridosoils. They remained stable during incubations, indicating that input and output processes were of similar magnitude. Areal N2 fixation rates (6.5-48 ??mol C2H2 m-2 h -1) were high, the vertical distribution of N2 fixation peaking close to the surface if populations of heterocystous cyanobacteria were present, but in the subsurface if they were absent. Areal AO rates (19-46 ??mol N m-2 h-1) were commensurate with N2 fixation inputs. When considering oxygen availability, AO activity invariably peaked 2-3 mm deep and was limited by oxygen (not ammonium) supply. Most probable number (MPN)-enumerated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (6.7-7.9 ?? 103 cells g-1 on average) clearly peaked at 2-3 mm depth. Thus, AO (hence nitrification) is a spatially restricted but important process in the nitrogen cycling of BSC, turning much of the biologically fixed nitrogen into oxidized forms, the fate of which remains to be determined.

  9. Psychological Factors in Community College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Chad; Redekop, Frederick; Burgin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study explored psychological factors in the context of a community college population purported to impact decisions to remain in college from one semester to another. Researchers examined results from 1191 responses from students attending a community college in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The study further explored the predictive power…

  10. Searching for feminism: an analysis of community psychology literature relevant to women's concerns.

    PubMed

    Angelique, H L; Culley, M R

    2000-12-01

    Articles published in both the American Journal of Community Psychology and Journal of Community Psychology, from their inception in 1973 through 1997, were content analyzed for women relevance, diversity, feminism, and historical change. Overall, 9.8% of the articles reviewed (N = 2,178) were considered women relevant, 4% recognized diversity among women, and 3% were considered feminist. There was an average yearly increase in women-relevant and feminist articles from 7.3 pre-1990 to 11.2 post-1990, and 1.6 pre-1990 to 4.6 post-1990, respectively. Overall, mental health and motherhood were the most addressed content areas. Among feminist articles, gender roles and violence against women were most salient. Race and SES were the most noted issues of diversity in both women-relevant and feminist articles. While an increase in feminist publications by both journals is promising, stereotypes of women and other oppressed groups continue to be perpetuated.

  11. The effects of space relevant environmental factors on halophilic Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    Within the last 50 years, space technology has provided tools for transporting terrestrial (microbial) life beyond Earth's protective shield in order to study its responses to selected conditions of space. Microorganisms are ubiquitous and can be found in almost every environment on Earth. They thrive and survive in a broad spectrum of environments and are true masters in adapting to rapidly changing external conditions. Although microorganisms cannot actively grow under the harsh conditions of outer space or other known planets, some microorganisms might be able to survive for a time in space or other planets as dormant, inactive spores or in similar desiccation-resistant resting states, e.g., enclosed in halite crystals or biofilms. Halite crystals are the realm of halophilic Archaea as they have adapted to life at extreme salt concentrations. They can stay entrapped in such crystals for millions of years without losing viability and therefore the family Halobacteriaceae belongs to the group of microorganisms which may survive space travel or may even be found on other planets. Several members of this family have been utilized in space relevant experiments where they were exposed to detrimental environmental conditions such as UV-C radiation, vacuum, temperature cycles (+60(°) C and -25(°) C) and heavy iron bombardment (150 MeV He, 500 MeV Ar and 500 MeV Fe ions). The viability was evaluated by colony forming unit (cfu) counts as well as with the LIFE/DEAD kit. Results revealed that UV-C radiation (up to 1.000 J/m (2) ) has a considerable effect on the viability, whereas the other tested parameters inflict little damage onto the organisms. Repair of UV-C inflicted damage is efficient and several DNA damage repair genes are up-regulated following exposure. Halophilic archaea display a strong resistance against heavy iron bombardment, with dosages of up to 2.000 Gy 500 MeV Fe ions needed to establish a visible effect on the vitality. Genomic integrity after

  12. One White Teacher's Struggle for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: The Problem of the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Nora E.

    2009-01-01

    This is a case of one novice White teacher whose strong commitment to becoming a culturally relevant teacher was hindered by her struggle to develop meaningful connections to the home community of her mostly African American students. Using a hybrid methodology of action research, discourse analysis, and critical interpretive analysis of…

  13. Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) play important roles on degradation of organic/inorganic substances in wastewaters, while microbial deposition/growth and microbial product accumulation on membranes potentially induce membrane fouling. Generally, there is a need to characterize membrane foulants and to determine their relations to the evolution of membrane fouling in order to identify a suitable fouling control approach in MBRs. This review summarized the factors in MBRs that influence microbial behaviors (community compositions, physical properties, and microbial products). The state-of-the-art techniques to characterize biofoulants in MBRs were reported. The strategies for controlling microbial relevant fouling were discussed and the future studies on membrane fouling mechanisms in MBRs were proposed. PMID:24958297

  14. Pathologically Relevant Prelamin A Interactions with Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Infante, Arantza; Rodríguez, Clara I

    2016-01-01

    LMNA-linked laminopathies are a group of rare human diseases caused by mutations in LMNA or by disrupted posttranslational processing of its largest encoded isoform, prelamin A. The accumulation of mutated or immature forms of farnesylated prelamin A, named progerin or prelamin A, respectively, dominantly disrupts nuclear lamina structure with toxic effects in cells. One hypothesis is that aberrant lamin filament networks disrupt or "trap" proteins such as transcription factors, thereby interfering with their normal activity. Since laminopathies mainly affect tissues of mesenchymal origin, we tested this hypothesis by generating an experimental model of laminopathy by inducing prelamin A accumulation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We provide detailed protocols for inducing and detecting prelamin A accumulation in hMSCs, and describe the bioinformatic analysis and in vitro assays of transcription factors potentially affected by prelamin A accumulation.

  15. Are soluble factors relevant for polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysregulation in septicemia?

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Graninger, W

    1995-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of twelve patients with gram-negative septicemia exhibited a decreased capacity to phagocytize Escherichia coli and generate reactive oxygen products which normalized within 7 days of treatment. Ex vivo exchange of plasma from age-, sex-, and blood-group-identical normal controls resulted in an increase of both phagocytic capacity and reactive oxygen intermediate generation in PMNs of septicemic patients and transiently reduced phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediate production in PMNs of normal controls. These results suggest that extrinsic factors are crucial for PMN function. PMID:7697538

  16. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  17. Clinical relevance of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)

    PubMed Central

    Bassenge, E.

    1992-01-01

    1 In addition to metabolic and neurohumoral factors endothelium-derived autacoids like the nitric oxide radical NO and prostacyclin are effective regulators of vascular tone and thus tissue perfusion. NO is produced in endothelial cells from L-arginine by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme NO synthase. In addition, the NO radical is ultimately cleaved from all nitrovasodilators and resembles their vasoactive and antiaggregatory principle, which is used under pathological conditions as substitution therapy for impaired endothelial function and autacoid production. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasomotor control has been documented in hypercholesterolaemia, atheromatosis, diabetes, hypertension, and in reperfusion damage. L-arginine supplementation is effective in a few instances. PMID:1633078

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes at environmentally relevant concentrations affect the composition of benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Velzeboer, I; Peeters, E T H M; Koelmans, A A

    2013-07-01

    To date, chronic effect studies with manufactured nanomaterials under field conditions are scarce. Here, we report in situ effects of 0, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 g/kg multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in sediment on the benthic community composition after 15 months of exposure. Effects observed after 15 months were compared to those observed after 3 months and to community effects of another carbonaceous material (activated carbon; AC), which was simultaneously tested in a parallel study. Redundancy analysis with variance partitioning revealed a total explained variance of 51.7% of the variation in community composition after 15 months, of which MWCNT dose explained a statistically significant 9.9%. By stepwise excluding the highest MWCNT concentrations in the statistical analyses, MWCNT effects were shown to be statistically significant already at the lowest dose investigated, which can be considered environmentally relevant. We conclude that despite prolonged aging, encapsulation, and burial, MWCNTs can affect the structure of natural benthic communities in the field. This effect was similar to that of AC observed in a parallel experiment, which however was applied at a 50 times higher maximum dose. This suggests that the benthic community was more sensitive to MWCNTs than to the bulk carbon material AC.

  19. Community Factors and Hospital Readmission Rates

    PubMed Central

    Herrin, Jeph; St Andre, Justin; Kenward, Kevin; Joshi, Maulik S; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Hines, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between community factors and hospital readmission rates. Data Sources/Study Setting We examined all hospitals with publicly reported 30-day readmission rates for patients discharged during July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2010, with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), or pneumonia (PN). We linked these to publicly available county data from the Area Resource File, the Census, Nursing Home Compare, and the Neilsen PopFacts datasets. Study Design We used hierarchical linear models to assess the effect of county demographic, access to care, and nursing home quality characteristics on the pooled 30-day risk-standardized readmission rate. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Not applicable. Principal Findings The study sample included 4,073 hospitals. Fifty-eight percent of national variation in hospital readmission rates was explained by the county in which the hospital was located. In multivariable analysis, a number of county characteristics were found to be independently associated with higher readmission rates, the strongest associations being for measures of access to care. These county characteristics explained almost half of the total variation across counties. Conclusions Community factors, as measured by county characteristics, explain a substantial amount of variation in hospital readmission rates. PMID:24712374

  20. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities.

    PubMed

    Imam, Emad H; Elnakar, Haitham Y

    2014-09-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows.

  1. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Emad H.; Elnakar, Haitham Y.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows. PMID:25685521

  2. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities.

    PubMed

    Imam, Emad H; Elnakar, Haitham Y

    2014-09-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows. PMID:25685521

  3. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M; Lindh, Markus V; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An "epidemic population structure" (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  4. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  5. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  6. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  7. Atrazine does not affect algal biomass or snail populations in microcosm communities at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan R; Moore, Dana L; Sibley, Paul K; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a photosynthetic inhibitor used around the world in agricultural applications. Contamination of surface waters adjacent to treated areas can directly reduce growth of nontarget aquatic autotrophs, but the severity of impacts is highly dependent on species sensitivity and exposure concentration. Secondary effects resulting from macrophyte or phytoplankton decline may include an expansion of the more tolerant periphyton community. Recently, this shift in the autotrophic community has been proposed as a mechanism for increased rates of parasite infections in amphibians via augmented populations of aquatic snails which act as intermediate hosts to larval trematodes. To further clarify this relationship, an outdoor microcosm study was conducted to examine the effects of atrazine on primary production and snail populations over a range of environmentally relevant concentrations. In July 2009, 15 experimental ponds were treated to achieve initial concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 30, and 100 µg/L atrazine. Over a period of 73 d, measures were taken of macrophyte, phytoplankton, and periphyton biomass, growth, and fecundity of caged snails (Physella spp. and Stagnicola elodes) and free-living snails (Physella spp.). Except for declines in macrophyte biomass at the highest treatment level, no consistent relationships were found between atrazine concentration and any measured parameter. Comparison of these results with previous findings highlights the variability of responses to atrazine exposure between similarly constructed freshwater communities, even at concentrations up to 20 times higher than sustained environmental levels. PMID:21567448

  8. Atrazine does not affect algal biomass or snail populations in microcosm communities at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan R; Moore, Dana L; Sibley, Paul K; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a photosynthetic inhibitor used around the world in agricultural applications. Contamination of surface waters adjacent to treated areas can directly reduce growth of nontarget aquatic autotrophs, but the severity of impacts is highly dependent on species sensitivity and exposure concentration. Secondary effects resulting from macrophyte or phytoplankton decline may include an expansion of the more tolerant periphyton community. Recently, this shift in the autotrophic community has been proposed as a mechanism for increased rates of parasite infections in amphibians via augmented populations of aquatic snails which act as intermediate hosts to larval trematodes. To further clarify this relationship, an outdoor microcosm study was conducted to examine the effects of atrazine on primary production and snail populations over a range of environmentally relevant concentrations. In July 2009, 15 experimental ponds were treated to achieve initial concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 30, and 100 µg/L atrazine. Over a period of 73 d, measures were taken of macrophyte, phytoplankton, and periphyton biomass, growth, and fecundity of caged snails (Physella spp. and Stagnicola elodes) and free-living snails (Physella spp.). Except for declines in macrophyte biomass at the highest treatment level, no consistent relationships were found between atrazine concentration and any measured parameter. Comparison of these results with previous findings highlights the variability of responses to atrazine exposure between similarly constructed freshwater communities, even at concentrations up to 20 times higher than sustained environmental levels.

  9. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  10. Bacterial Community Dynamics in Full-Scale Activated Sludge Bioreactors: Operational and Ecological Factors Driving Community Assembly and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Massol-Deyá, Arturo A.

    2012-01-01

    The assembling of bacterial communities in conventional activated sludge (CAS) bioreactors was thought, until recently, to be chaotic and mostly unpredictable. Studies done over the last decade have shown that specific, and often, predictable random and non-random factors could be responsible for that process. These studies have also motivated a “structure–function” paradigm that is yet to be resolved. Thus, elucidating the factors that affect community assembly in the bioreactors is necessary for predicting fluctuations in community structure and function. For this study activated sludge samples were collected during a one-year period from two geographically distant CAS bioreactors of different size. Combining community fingerprinting analysis and operational parameters data with a robust statistical analysis, we aimed to identify relevant links between system performance and bacterial community diversity and dynamics. In addition to revealing a significant β-diversity between the bioreactors’ communities, results showed that the largest bioreactor had a less dynamic but more efficient and diverse bacterial community throughout the study. The statistical analysis also suggests that deterministic factors, as opposed to stochastic factors, may have a bigger impact on the community structure in the largest bioreactor. Furthermore, the community seems to rely mainly on mechanisms of resistance and functional redundancy to maintain functional stability. We suggest that the ecological theories behind the Island Biogeography model and the species-area relationship were appropriate to predict the assembly of bacterial communities in these CAS bioreactors. These results are of great importance for engineers and ecologists as they reveal critical aspects of CAS systems that could be applied towards improving bioreactor design and operation. PMID:22880016

  11. Predicting Children's Depressive Symptoms from Community and Individual Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Cole, David A.; Smith, Thomas M.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; LaGrange, Beth; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Truss, Alanna E.; Folmer, Amy S.

    2008-01-01

    Community, demographic, familial, and personal risk factors of childhood depressive symptoms were examined from an ecological theoretical approach using hierarchical linear modeling. Individual-level data were collected from an ethnically diverse (73% African-American) community sample of 197 children and their parents; community-level data were…

  12. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS... consideration of all relevant factors. The character of a practice as a part of the agricultural activity or...

  13. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  14. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  15. How Do Principals' Behaviors Facilitate or Inhibit the Development of a Culturally Relevant Learning Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Gwendolyn Julia

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the question: "How do principals facilitate or inhibit the development of a culturally responsive learning environment?" A second question asked, "What is the principal's role in developing a culturally relevant learning community?" The criteria for purposely…

  16. On the form factors of relevant operators and their cluster property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acerbi, C.; Mussardo, G.; Valleriani, A.

    1997-05-01

    We compute the form factors of the relevant scaling operators in a class of integrable models without internal symmetries by exploiting their cluster properties. Their identification is established by computing the corresponding anomalous dimensions by means of the Delfino - Simonetti - Cardy sum rule and further confirmed it by comparing some universal ratios of the nearby non-integrable quantum field theories with their independent numerical determination.

  17. Commitment to Community Practice among Social Work Students: Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Cohen, Ayala

    2013-01-01

    It is important to develop commitment to community practice among social work students to encourage their engagement in this field as professionals later in life. This research examines factors that affect commitment to community practice among social work students. A structured questionnaire was administered to 277 social work students in one…

  18. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  19. Planning Community-Based Youth Services in Cork, Ireland: The Relevance of the Concepts "Youth" and "Community."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaetz, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    A weakness in the approach to community-based youth services in Cork (Ireland) involves viewing the terms "youth" and "community" as though they represented homogeneous categories. Ethnographic data highlight the difficulties of monolithic classification by describing the experiences of three distinct categories of young people. (SLD)

  20. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

  1. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement.

  2. Mycobacterium biofilms: factors involved in development, dispersal, and therapeutic strategies against biofilm-relevant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaohong; Deng, Wanyan; Liu, Minqiang; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria can develop biofilm (BF), a multicellular structure largely combining bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The formation of biofilm results in an alternative existence in which microbes ensure their survival in adverse environments. Biofilm-relevant infections are more persistent, resistant to most antibiotics, and more recalcitrant to host immunity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, can develop biofilm, though whether M. tuberculosis can form biofilm within tuberculosis patients has yet to be determined. Here, we summarize the factors involved in the development and dispersal of mycobacterial biofilms, as well as underlying regulatory factors and inhibitors against biofilm to deepen our understanding of their development and to elucidate potential novel modes of action for future antibiotics. Key factors in biofilm formation identified as drug targets represent a novel and promising avenue for developing better antibiotics.

  3. Link community detection using generative model and nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Baquero, Carlos; Liu, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of communities in complex networks is a fundamental data analysis problem with applications in various domains. While most of the existing approaches have focused on discovering communities of nodes, recent studies have shown the advantages and uses of link community discovery in networks. Generative models provide a promising class of techniques for the identification of modular structures in networks, but most generative models mainly focus on the detection of node communities rather than link communities. In this work, we propose a generative model, which is based on the importance of each node when forming links in each community, to describe the structure of link communities. We proceed to fit the model parameters by taking it as an optimization problem, and solve it using nonnegative matrix factorization. Thereafter, in order to automatically determine the number of communities, we extend the above method by introducing a strategy of iterative bipartition. This extended method not only finds the number of communities all by itself, but also obtains high efficiency, and thus it is more suitable to deal with large and unexplored real networks. We test this approach on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks including an application on a large biological network, and compare it with two highly related methods. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over competing methods for the detection of link communities.

  4. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  5. A Relevant War Against Poverty. A Study of Community Action Programs and Observable Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth B.; Hopkins, Jeannette

    Twelve urban community action programs (CAP) were examined in depth to determine how each of them operationally defined community action and to evaluate their performance. The criteria used were: (1) a clear statement of purpose and programs consistent with that purpose; (2) strong independent leadership and a built-in evaluation and…

  6. Factors that Influence Community College Faculty Participation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Quinn, Lisa Rosanne

    The purpose of this study was to determine what factors motivated community college faculty to participate in distance education. It examined the following factors from the perspective of faculty and division chairs: (1) preference toward synchronous and asynchronous course delivery; (2) rewards for distance education faculty; (3) rewards for…

  7. Relevant factors to consider prior to an investor-owned acquisition of a nonprofit healthcare entity.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kelvin; Childs, Brad; Wainright, Charles F; Young, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the factors that affect the negotiations for an acquisition of a nonprofit system by an investor-owned entity. The recent economic downturn, accompanying credit crisis, and healthcare reform legislation will likely encourage and accelerate the pace of merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions between investor-owned entities and nonprofit hospitals. As many nonprofits are smaller, more financially vulnerable, and more limited in their access to capital than their investor-owned counterparts, nonprofits could be prime targets for investor-owned acquirers during the healthcare reform implementation period. In M&A transactions of this type, the investor-owned acquirer typically is motivated to pursue an acquisition when the deal promises an acceptable return on investment and decreased operating costs from economies of scale. Alternatively, the nonprofit target is typically seeking funding for upgrades to facilities and information technology systems as well as a continued commitment to charity care and managed-care contracting leverage. A successful acquisition of a nonprofit hospital by an investor-owned company requires a careful analysis of relevant tax, economic, and strategic factors prior to closing the deal. This article lists the most significant factors to consider in these deals and explains how these factors should influence the purchase price and postacquisition cash flow.

  8. Relevant Obstetric Factors for Cerebral Palsy: From the Nationwide Obstetric Compensation System in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Asano, Yuri; Satoh, Shoji; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Tamiya, Nanako; Nakai, Akihito; Fujimori, Keiya; Maeda, Tsugio; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ueda, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify the relevant obstetric factors for cerebral palsy (CP) after 33 weeks’ gestation in Japan. Study design This retrospective case cohort study (1:100 cases and controls) used a Japanese national CP registry. Obstetric characteristics and clinical course were compared between CP cases in the Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy database and controls in the perinatal database of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology born as live singleton infants between 2009 and 2011 with a birth weight ≥ 2,000 g and gestation ≥ 33 weeks. Results One hundred and seventy-five CP cases and 17,475 controls were assessed. Major relevant single factors for CP were placental abnormalities (31%), umbilical cord abnormalities (15%), maternal complications (10%), and neonatal complications (1%). A multivariate regression model demonstrated that obstetric variables associated with CP were acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status (relative risk [RR]: 37.182, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.028–69.032), uterine rupture (RR: 24.770, 95% CI: 6.006–102.160), placental abruption (RR: 20.891, 95% CI: 11.817–36.934), and preterm labor (RR: 3.153, 95% CI: 2.024–4.911), whereas protective factors were head presentation (RR: 0.199, 95% CI: 0.088–0.450) and elective cesarean section (RR: 0.236, 95% CI: 0.067–0.828). Conclusion CP after 33 weeks’ gestation in the recently reported cases in Japan was strongly associated with acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status, uterine rupture, and placental abruption. PMID:26821386

  9. Therapy-relevant factors in adult ADHD from a cognitive behavioural perspective.

    PubMed

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Adult individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been suffering from this neurobiological and highly heritable disorder chronically since childhood. Resulting from their longstanding neuropsychological impairments, such as attentional problems, emotional instability, and disinhibition, they are familiar to a multiplicity of negative life outcomes and underachievement. Furthermore, a large part of this population suffers from psychiatric comorbidity. This accumulation of negative experiences has an impact on therapy-relevant factors such as the individual's self-esteem, self-efficacy, development of core beliefs/schemas, and coping strategies. Based on negative beliefs about the self, individuals confronted with difficult situations develop maladaptive coping strategies, for instance avoidance and procrastination. These strategies lead to maintenance and reinforcement of maladaptive beliefs, and as such they acquit themselves as schema-confirming. Captured in this vicious cycle, the individual sees her negative view of the self confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate these interactive factors that influence the aforementioned cycle in order to emphasize the cognitive behavioural interventions tailored to those factors on the basis of latest research. Furthermore, the authors want to attract notice to the resources people with ADHD are said to have, namely creativity and resilience. These postulated resources could be therapy-relevant by creating positive beliefs about the self, hence improving coping skills and breaking the vicious circle of negative appraisal. Taking into account personal resources and their fostering may be an important fundament for the treatment plan of adult ADHD. Information on the current state of research and theoretical approaches concerning the below-mentioned key words was gathered through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus, and PubMed databases. PMID:21432591

  10. Community-Oriented Primary Care: New Relevance in a Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Epstein, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception in rural, pre-apartheid South Africa, community-oriented primary care (COPC) has intrigued and informed public health and primary care leaders worldwide. COPC has influenced such programs as the US community health center movement, the general practice movement in the United Kingdom, and recent reforms in the public health system of South Africa. We provide a global overview of COPC, tracing its conceptual roots, reviewing its many manifestations, and exploring its future prospects as an organizational paradigm for the democratic organization of community health services. We examine the pitfalls and paradoxes of COPC and suggest its future utility. COPC has important values and methods to offer disparate but powerful movements in public health worldwide. PMID:12406800

  11. Policy-Relevant Research within the Community Colleges: An IHE Focus for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Dennis A., II; Campbell, Dale F.

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in policy-relevant research, the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida is focused on supporting local, state, and national postsecondary policy development as well as training the next generation of institutional leaders. IHE conducts rigorous scholarship focused on postsecondary policy analysis and supporting the…

  12. On Diversity, Empathy, and Community: The Relevance of Johann Gottfried Herder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Howard M.; Durrant, Marie B.; Evans, Matthew T.; Maughan, Suzanne L.

    2008-01-01

    The writings of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) foreshadowed several of the dominant theories of sociology, social psychology, aesthetics, linguistics and literary theory. His ideas impacted generations of thinkers, but today he is uncelebrated, mostly unknown. His writings on populism, expressionism, and pluralism are relevant to contemporary…

  13. Increasing the Relevance of Curricular and Student Services in the Urban Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón, Eduardo J.

    2013-01-01

    As one of the country's biggest and most diverse institutions of higher education, Miami Dade College (MDC) has also grown into a leader among urban community colleges operating in very similar conditions. Here, MDC President Eduardo J. Padrón summarizes the extra measures behind a graduation rate that is among the highest for this sector of…

  14. Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

  15. Community Inquiry and Curriculum Development: A Relevant Education for Teachers about the Vietnam War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey M.; McCarry, David S.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an innovative university-based project that connected graduate-level, preservice, and beginning teachers enrolled in a curriculum class for secondary and elementary teaching certification with a community-based war museum memorial and educational center. The course required these teachers to construct units on…

  16. The New Urban Community: Mutual Relevance of the Social and Physical Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellow, Deborah; Bedger, Jean E.

    This report presents a study carried out in the near southside Chicago community of South Commons. The site was chosen because it was considered planned, heterogeneous, and located in the inner-city. The analysis is based on preliminary work carried out in the summer of 1973. This project focuses on the social and physical construction of…

  17. Exploring the Relevance of Feminist Pedagogy to Community Psychology: Continuing the Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Germaine-Small, Melissa; Walsh-Bowers, Richard; Mitchell, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychology has made advances in rectifying its historical negation of women's perspectives, as evidenced by a steady increase in women's scholarship and distinctly feminist works. However, in community psychology, the scope and magnitude of works generated both by and about women from a feminist framework have not kept pace with discourse on the…

  18. Troubled Diversities, Multiple Identities and the Relevance of Royce: What Makes a Community Worth Caring about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raposa, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article raises questions about what it means to be a diverse academic community and about why such diversity is worth struggling to achieve. The controversial arguments of Walter Benn Michaels are critically examined as a stimulus and prelude to considering the more constructive perspectives supplied by Amartya Sen and Josiah Royce. Royce's…

  19. Complement Factor B Mutations in Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome—Disease-Relevant or Benign?

    PubMed Central

    Marinozzi, Maria Chiara; Vergoz, Laura; Rybkine, Tania; Ngo, Stephanie; Bettoni, Serena; Pashov, Anastas; Cayla, Mathieu; Tabarin, Fanny; Jablonski, Mathieu; Hue, Christophe; Smith, Richard J.; Noris, Marina; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Donadelli, Roberta; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a genetic ultrarare renal disease associated with overactivation of the alternative pathway of complement. Four gain-of-function mutations that form a hyperactive or deregulated C3 convertase have been identified in Factor B (FB) ligand binding sites. Here, we studied the functional consequences of 10 FB genetic changes recently identified from different aHUS cohorts. Using several tests for alternative C3 and C5 convertase formation and regulation, we identified two gain-of-function and potentially disease-relevant mutations that formed either an overactive convertase (M433I) or a convertase resistant to decay by FH (K298Q). One mutation (R178Q) produced a partially cleaved protein with no ligand binding or functional activity. Seven genetic changes led to near-normal or only slightly reduced ligand binding and functional activity compared with the most common polymorphism at position 7, R7. Notably, none of the algorithms used to predict the disease relevance of FB mutations agreed completely with the experimental data, suggesting that in silico approaches should be undertaken with caution. These data, combined with previously published results, suggest that 9 of 15 FB genetic changes identified in patients with aHUS are unrelated to disease pathogenesis. This study highlights that functional assessment of identified nucleotide changes in FB is mandatory to confirm disease association. PMID:24652797

  20. Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2001-05-15

    With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which

  1. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training within the Intelligence Community and Beyond: A Study of Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanard, Stephanie Vernice Overton

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found…

  2. Cancer-relevant Splicing Factor CAPERα Engages the Essential Splicing Factor SF3b155 in a Specific Ternary Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Loerch, Sarah; Maucuer, Alexandre; Manceau, Valérie; Green, Michael R.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2014-01-01

    U2AF homology motifs (UHMs) mediate protein-protein interactions with U2AF ligand motifs (ULMs) of pre-mRNA splicing factors. The UHM-containing alternative splicing factor CAPERα regulates splicing of tumor-promoting VEGF isoforms, yet the molecular target of the CAPERα UHM is unknown. Here we present structures of the CAPERα UHM bound to a representative SF3b155 ULM at 1.7 Å resolution and, for comparison, in the absence of ligand at 2.2 Å resolution. The prototypical UHM/ULM interactions authenticate CAPERα as a bona fide member of the UHM family of proteins. We identify SF3b155 as the relevant ULM-containing partner of full-length CAPERα in human cell extracts. Isothermal titration calorimetry comparisons of the purified CAPERα UHM binding known ULM-containing proteins demonstrate that high affinity interactions depend on the presence of an intact, intrinsically unstructured SF3b155 domain containing seven ULM-like motifs. The interplay among bound CAPERα molecules gives rise to the appearance of two high affinity sites in the SF3b155 ULM-containing domain. In conjunction with the previously identified, UHM/ULM-mediated complexes of U2AF65 and SPF45 with SF3b155, this work demonstrates the capacity of SF3b155 to offer a platform for coordinated recruitment of UHM-containing splicing factors. PMID:24795046

  3. Factors That Develop Effective Professional Learning Communities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peiying; Lee, Che-Di; Lin, Hongda; Zhang, Chun-Xi

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the key factors of developing effective professional learning communities (PLCs) within the Taiwanese context. Four constructs--supportive and shared leadership, shared visions, collegial trust, and shared practices--were adopted and developed into an instrument for measuring PLC function. A stratified random…

  4. More than a bookstore: the continuing relevance of feminist bookstores for the lesbian community.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Feminist bookstores serve as hubs for the lesbian community, offering a "safe space" for gatherings, information dissemination, and personal exploration. In recent years, the number of feminist bookstores in the U.S. has drastically declined. This trend is often attributed to the increase in corporate bookstore chains and the emergence of online merchants. Given the wider availability of feminist and lesbian reading material, have feminist bookstores outlived their usefulness? Using survey and interview data collected from lesbian feminist bookstore customers, I show that feminist bookstores continue to be perceived as vital to the lesbian community. Respondents share powerful memories of their first visits to feminist bookstores and articulate the continued need for such enterprises in their communities. Despite these assertions, however, more than half of the women surveyed indicate that their visits to the stores have grown less frequent over time due to changes in life circumstances or decreased salience of lesbian identity. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19780272

  5. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is

  6. Challenge of investigating biologically relevant functions of virulence factors in bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Moxon, R; Tang, C

    2000-01-01

    Recent innovations have increased enormously the opportunities for investigating the molecular basis of bacterial pathogenicity, including the availability of whole-genome sequences, techniques for identifying key virulence genes, and the use of microarrays and proteomics. These methods should provide powerful tools for analysing the patterns of gene expression and function required for investigating host-microbe interactions in vivo. But, the challenge is exacting. Pathogenicity is a complex phenotype and the reductionist approach does not adequately address the eclectic and variable outcomes of host-microbe interactions, including evolutionary dynamics and ecological factors. There are difficulties in distinguishing bacterial 'virulence' factors from the many determinants that are permissive for pathogenicity, for example those promoting general fitness. A further practical problem for some of the major bacterial pathogens is that there are no satisfactory animal models or experimental assays that adequately reflect the infection under investigation. In this review, we give a personal perspective on the challenge of characterizing how bacterial pathogens behave in vivo and discuss some of the methods that might be most relevant for understanding the molecular basis of the diseases for which they are responsible. Despite the powerful genomic, molecular, cellular and structural technologies available to us, we are still struggling to come to grips with the question of 'What is a pathogen?' PMID:10874737

  7. Relevance of psychosomatic factors in psoriasis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Janković, Slavenka; Raznatović, Milena; Marinković, Jelena; Maksimović, Natasa; Janković, Janko; Djikanović, Bosiljka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of stressful life events, lack of social support and attachment insecurity in triggering exacerbations of psoriasis. Outpatients experiencing exacerbation of psoriasis in the last 6 months (n = 110) were compared with outpatients affected by skin conditions in which psychosomatic factors are believed to play a minor role (n = 200). Stressful life events during the last 12 months were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events. Perceived social support and attachment relationship were assessed with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, respectively. In comparison with controls the patients with psoriasis reported more stressful life events in the last year. The statistically significant difference was found only for the sum of the first 25 events (odds ratio (OR) 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.87; p < 0.001). Also, patients with psoriasis were more likely to score higher on both anxiety (OR = 1.44; CI = 1.09-1.92; p = 0.011) and avoidance attachment scale (OR = 1.49; CI = 1.04-2.14; p = 0.030), and perceived less support from their social network than did the comparison subjects. The results of this study confirm the relevance of psychosocial factors in psoriasis.

  8. Estimating cyanobacteria community dynamics and its relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-20

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.

  9. Estimating Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and its Relationship with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632

  10. Review of community intervention studies on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gyarfas, I

    1992-01-01

    The concept of community intervention in the field of cardiovascular disease prevention was introduced in the late sixties and early seventies. The WHO European Collaborative Trial in the multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease used communities (factories) in a traditional controlled trial. The intervention used in this trial was an extension of a medical care model with preventive elements. The first two major community intervention projects in CVD prevention--the North Karelia Project and the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Programme--were the basis of further WHO and NHLBI coordinated projects. They have used community-based population-wide strategies including existing community leadership, social networks, mass campaigns and extensive direct education for the general population. In the evaluation of those projects quasi-experimental models are used because "perfect experiments" are not possible. Some projects have proven the feasibility of community intervention and its positive impact on lifestyles and cardiovascular risk factors in a whole population and that such a development is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality rates. PMID:1541038

  11. Expression, regulation and clinical relevance of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Aragó, M; Formentini, L; Martínez-Reyes, I; García-Bermudez, J; Santacatterina, F; Sánchez-Cenizo, L; Willers, I M; Aldea, M; Nájera, L; Juarránz, Á; López, E C; Clofent, J; Navarro, C; Espinosa, E; Cuezva, J M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings in colon cancer cells indicate that inhibition of the mitochondrial H+-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase by the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) promotes aerobic glycolysis and a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signal that enhances proliferation and cell survival. Herein, we have studied the expression, biological relevance, mechanism of regulation and potential clinical impact of IF1 in some prevalent human carcinomas. We show that IF1 is highly overexpressed in most (>90%) of the colon (n=64), lung (n=30), breast (n=129) and ovarian (n=10) carcinomas studied as assessed by different approaches in independent cohorts of cancer patients. The expression of IF1 in the corresponding normal tissues is negligible. By contrast, the endometrium, stomach and kidney show high expression of IF1 in the normal tissue revealing subtle differences by carcinogenesis. The overexpression of IF1 also promotes the activation of aerobic glycolysis and a concurrent ROS signal in mitochondria of the lung, breast and ovarian cancer cells mimicking the activity of oligomycin. IF1-mediated ROS signaling activates cell-type specific adaptive responses aimed at preventing death in these cell lines. Remarkably, regulation of IF1 expression in the colon, lung, breast and ovarian carcinomas is exerted at post-transcriptional levels. We demonstrate that IF1 is a short-lived protein (t1/2 ∼100 min) strongly implicating translation and/or protein stabilization as main drivers of metabolic reprogramming and cell survival in these human cancers. Analysis of tumor expression of IF1 in cohorts of breast and colon cancer patients revealed its relevance as a predictive marker for clinical outcome, emphasizing the high potential of IF1 as therapeutic target. PMID:23608753

  12. Prognostic Factors Toward Clinically Relevant Radiographic Progression in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044

  13. A review of abiotic and biotic interactions in pelagic communities: Processes relevant to L Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a state-of-the-art review of structural and functional processes in pelagic communities and extrapolate these empirical and theoretical results to L Lake, the once-through cooling reservoir at the Savannah River Plant. Man-made reservoirs differ from natural lakes in their origins, hydrodynamics, sedimentation patterns, and general eutrophication histories. Phosphorus and nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton productivity controls the rate of eutrophication, while also determining algal community structure. Here the Lean and Monod models of nutrient fluxing and uptake kinetics provide useful constructs for predictive purposes. Much of the reduced carbon synthesized by primary production is shunted through the microbial loop where heterotrophic flagellates and protozoans pass this carbon on to the macrozooplankton. This recently discovered pathway is common to eutrophic reservoirs where blue-green species dominate phytoplankton assemblages. Through selective grazing and tactile oriented predation, the crustacean zooplankton partially regulates the relative abundance of algae and microzooplankton species. 194 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'.

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Career Factors Inventory on a Community College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Merril A.; Tovar, Esau

    2004-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 4.0 to validate the 21-item Career Factors Inventory on a community college student sample. The multidimensional inventory assesses types and levels of career indecision antecedents. The sample consisted of 512 ethnically diverse freshmen students; 46% were men and 54% were women.…

  16. Community level risk factors for maternal mortality in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Julio C; Moser, Christine M

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the community level in Madagascar using a unique, nationwide panel of communes (i.e., counties). Previous work in this area uses individual or cross-country data to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community level is imperative because this is the level at which most policy is implemented. The results show that longer travel time from the community to the hospital leads to a high level of maternal mortality. The findings suggest that improvement to transportation systems and access to hospitals with surgery rooms are needed to deal with obstetric complications and reduce maternal mortality.

  17. The Ivory Tower and the Community: A New Approach to Emphasizing the Relevance of Environmental Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past eight years we have developed and implemented several U.C. Berkeley-based outreach programs that provide opportunities for grades nine through eleven students in the East San Francisco Bay Area to gain skills and understandings that increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future, which enhances their capacity to decide to pursue STEM careers. A common element of these programs is the opportunity they provide participants to engage in environmental science research projects that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews and specific assessment instruments indicates that these programs have consistently achieved a high degree of success in that they have: significantly increased participants' understanding of the process and nature of science; enhanced their intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. These results corroborate recent research studies that indicate a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Moreover, they support the notion that providing opportunities for students to develop personal connections with particular issues discussed, and real-world STEM experiences that make STEM more relevant and interesting can help to bring about changes in attitude, which is a key component in improving STEM learning and understanding particularly among urban youth. Overall, our work suggests that in order for a given STEM

  18. Factors influencing HIV vaccine community engagement in the urban South.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Clifton, Sarah; Archibald, Matthew; Hormes, Joseph T; Mulligan, Mark J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine personal characteristics, socio-environmental conditions, and motivational factors that potentially influence HIV vaccine research community engagement. Specifically, the study identified predictive aspects that may aid in future community program development on HIV vaccine issues. A cross-sectional survey consisting of evaluative measures, demographics, social interaction, and health information-seeking behaviors was conducted. Participants were a diverse group of 452 adults (>or=18 years) at HIV vaccine awareness-building and community education gatherings in Atlanta. The sample included large numbers of women (n=251) and minorities (n=224). In multivariate analysis, the overall logistic regression model was significant, with a resulting coefficient of determination (Nagelkerke R(2)) of .505. Highly significant factors included an excellent activity/event rating (log odds beta = 4.521, P< .001), White race (beta= -.835, P= .005), greater educational attainment (beta= .725, P= .011), travel distance (beta = 1.186, P= .002), and excellent perception of the study site (beta=2.131, P< .001). Subgroup analyses by gender and race revealed similar findings. These data demonstrate the importance of building a favorable study site image and gaining familiarity in the community to aid in the promotion of HIV vaccine research on an ongoing basis. PMID:18389351

  19. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5–FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad–FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy. PMID:27014840

  20. The death drive: conceptual analysis and relevance in the Spanish psychoanalytic community.

    PubMed

    Armengou, Frank García-Castrillón

    2009-04-01

    Based on a six-year doctoral research, the author carries out a historical, epistemological and paradigmatic assessment of the controversial concept of the death instinct. The author analyses this notion's speculative nature; its relation with the second principle of thermodynamics; the feasibility of a return to an inorganic state; the death drive's metaphorical and isomorphic uses, as well as its theoretical and doctrinaire approaches; its relationship with repetition compulsion and masochism; the influence of Freud 's scientific background on its formulation; and its context-dependent meaning. Although this paper stems mainly from the theoretical aspects of the study, it also offers some clinical thoughts on the basis of a clinical vignette. The author stresses the underlying healing aspects of repetition in the analytic situation. Next, he presents concise comments on his empirical research on the current professional usage of the death drive in the Spanish psychoanalytical community. This research covered more than 27% of Spanish psychoanalysts (IPA) and psychotherapists (EFPP). The essay's conclusions point to the ambiguous character of the death drive concept and its literal unacceptability and the absence of consistent arguments for its acceptance.

  1. From Practice to Research: Training Health Care Providers to Conduct Culturally Relevant Community Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative data from focus groups can provide an “insiders’ view” of the culture of those being studied. Such data can help health care providers and program planners understand how people perceive themselves, and therefore guide providers and planners in developing culturally appropriate outcome measures that can strengthen the planning, implementation, and evaluation of future programs. This article discusses the process used to train Latino and African American health care providers to moderate focus groups that will be conducted as one phase of a research study looking at health beliefs and health practices in an urban arthritis health center. After taking part in two lecture and discussion training sessions, members of the training class were asked to participate in a pilot focus group. The ½ to 2 hour focus group included nine individuals who fulfilled the roles of moderator, facilitator, or respondent. Community health center practitioners provided valuable insight into the design and feasibility of the focus groups during their training sessions. PMID:26225128

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  3. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands.

    PubMed

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation. PMID:27353723

  4. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    PubMed Central

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation. PMID:27353723

  5. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation.

  6. Environmental factors influencing diatom communities in Antarctic cryoconite holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanish, L. F.; Bagshaw, E. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Fountain, A. G.; Tranter, M.

    2013-12-01

    Cryoconite holes are ice-bound habitats that can act as refuges for aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms on glacier surfaces. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, these holes are often capped by an ice lid that prevents the exchange of material and gases with the surrounding atmosphere and aquatic environment. Diatoms have been documented in cryoconite holes, and recent findings suggest that these habitats may harbour a distinctive diatom flora compared to the surrounding aquatic environments. In this study, we examined diatom community composition in cryoconite holes and environmental correlates across three glaciers in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The diatom communities were dominated by two genera, Muelleria and Diadesmis, both of which had high viability and could have been seeded from the surrounding ephemeral streams. The location of the cryoconite hole within the valley was a key determinant of community composition. A diatom species richness gradient was observed that corresponded to distance inland from the coast and co-varied with species richness in streams within the same lake basin. Cryoconite holes that were adjacent to streams with higher diversity displayed greater species richness. However, physical factors, such as the ability to withstand freeze-thaw conditions and to colonize coarse sediments, acted as additional selective filters and influenced diatom diversity, viability and community composition.

  7. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands.

    PubMed

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2016-06-29

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation.

  8. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  9. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  10. Local and regional factors influencing bacterial community assembly.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Eva S; Langenheder, Silke

    2012-02-01

    The classical view states that microbial biogeography is not affected by dispersal barriers or historical events, but only influenced by the local contemporary habitat conditions (species sorting). This has been challenged during recent years by studies suggesting that also regional factors such as mass effect, dispersal limitation and neutral assembly are important for the composition of local bacterial communities. Here we summarize results from biogeography studies in different environments, i.e. in marine, freshwater and soil as well in human hosts. Species sorting appears to be the most important mechanism. However, this result might be biased since this is the mechanism that is easiest to measure, detect and interpret. Hence, the importance of regional factors may have been underestimated. Moreover, our survey indicates that different assembly mechanisms might be important for different parts of the total community, differing, for example, between generalists and specialists, and between taxa of different dispersal ability and motility. We conclude that there is a clear need for experimental studies, first, to clearly separate regional and local factors in order to study their relative importance, and second, to test whether there are differences in assembly mechanisms depending on different taxonomic or functional groups.

  11. Protective factors in American Indian communities and adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2013-09-01

    With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence-parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents' self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents' interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6-12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents' self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents' involvement in violence. Female adolescents' self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe's culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents.

  12. Protective Factors in American Indian Communities and Adolescent Violence

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St. Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence - parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents’ self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents’ interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. Methods In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6–12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. Results There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents’ self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents’ involvement in violence. Female adolescents’ self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe’s culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. Conclusions These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents. PMID:22926269

  13. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  14. Factors that Influence the Perceived Advantages and Relevance of Facebook as a Learning Tool: An Extension of the UTAUT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Carvajal-Trujillo, Elena; Monge-Lozano, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Social media technologies are becoming a fundamental component of education. This study extends the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to identify factors that influence the perceived advantages and relevance of Facebook as a learning tool. The proposed model is based on previous models of UTAUT. Constructs from previous…

  15. Training community health workers: factors that influence mammography use.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Garzon, Laurel; Lombard, John; Karlowicz, Karen

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors that influence mammography use among volunteer community health workers (CHWs). Data trends indicate lower mammography rates among minority and low-income women. Although CHW interventions have been shown to promote mammography use among this population, training strategies and the use of a comprehensive needs assessment are lacking. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected via a mailed survey. The dependent variable was mammography use within the past 2 years. The independent variables were categorized according to the factors in the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Predisposing factors included susceptibility, barriers, benefits, health motivation, self-efficacy, education, and age. Enabling factors included income, health insurance, and regular source of care. Reinforcing factors included physician recommendation to get a mammogram, social norms, and family history of breast cancer. Self-reported data from a mailed survey were obtained from a convenience sample of urban CHWS (N = 109) ages 40-73 with a mean age of 55 (SD = 9.43). The sample included 90% African American and 8% White women. Logistic regression results showed barriers to be predictive of mammography use among CHWs controlling for age, self-efficacy, health motivation, and social norms. The findings suggest CHW training focus on how to identify and address barriers to increase the likelihood of mammography use among CHWs. Future research is needed to identify cultural differences in barriers for minority CHWs.

  16. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps

    PubMed Central

    Awor, Phyllis; Miller, Jane; Peterson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community–acquired malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea. Methods We reviewed the published literature for integrated community case management (iCCM) related experiences within both the public and private sector. We searched PubMed and Google/Google Scholar for all relevant literature until July 2014. The search terms used were “malaria”, “pneumonia”, “diarrhoea”, “private sector” and “community case management”. Results A total of 383 articles referred to malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea in the private sector. The large majority of these studies (290) were only malaria related. Most of the iCCM–related studies evaluated introduction of only malaria drugs and/or diagnostics into the private sector. Only one study evaluated the introduction of drugs and diagnostics for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in the private sector. In contrast, most iCCM–related studies in the public sector directly reported on community case management of 2 or more of the illnesses. Conclusions While the private sector is an important source of care for children in low income countries, little has been done to harness the potential of this sector in improving access to care for non–malaria–associated fever in children within the community. It would be logical for iCCM programs to expand their activities to include the private sector to achieve higher population coverage. An implementation research agenda for private sector integrated care of febrile childhood illness needs to be developed and implemented in

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of depression among community dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Yaka, Erdem; Keskinoglu, Pembe; Ucku, Reyhan; Yener, Görsev Gülmen; Tunca, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    Depression in the elderly is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of depression among community-dwelling older population in an urban setting in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 482 elderly individuals 65 years and over in an urban area. Cluster sampling method was used for sample size. Depression in the elderly had been diagnosed by a clinical interview and Geriatric Depression Scale. Data were collected by door-to-door survey. Chi square test was used for statistical analysis. P value, which was calculated by the results of chi square test and coefficient of phi (φ), below 0.05 was included in the analysis of logistic regression. Depression was significantly associated with female gender, being single or divorced, lower educational status, low income, unemployment, and lack of health insurance. However, logistic regression analysis revealed higher depression rates in the elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychiatric disease, cerebrovascular disease, low income and being dependent. Depression is common among community-dwelling older people in an urban area of Izmir, Turkey. Older adults living in community should be cautiously screened to prevent or manage depression. PMID:24767692

  18. Plant community assembly at small scales: Spatial vs. environmental factors in a European grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Sebastian; Hempel, Stefan; Ristow, Michael; Rillig, Matthias C.; Kowarik, Ingo; Caruso, Tancredi

    2015-02-01

    Dispersal limitation and environmental conditions are crucial drivers of plant species distribution and establishment. As these factors operate at different spatial scales, we asked: Do the environmental factors known to determine community assembly at broad scales operate at fine scales (few meters)? How much do these factors account for community variation at fine scales? In which way do biotic and abiotic interactions drive changes in species composition? We surveyed the plant community within a dry grassland along a very steep gradient of soil characteristics like pH and nutrients. We used a spatially explicit sampling design, based on three replicated macroplots of 15 × 15, 12 × 12 and 12 × 12 m in extent. Soil samples were taken to quantify several soil properties (carbon, nitrogen, plant available phosphorus, pH, water content and dehydrogenase activity as a proxy for overall microbial activity). We performed variance partitioning to assess the effect of these variables on plant composition and statistically controlled for spatial autocorrelation via eigenvector mapping. We also applied null model analysis to test for non-random patterns in species co-occurrence using randomization schemes that account for patterns expected under species interactions. At a fine spatial scale, environmental factors explained 18% of variation when controlling for spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of plant species, whereas purely spatial processes accounted for 14% variation. Null model analysis showed that species spatially segregated in a non-random way and these spatial patterns could be due to a combination of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. Our grassland study suggests that environmental factors found to be directly relevant in broad scale studies are present also at small scales, but are supplemented by spatial processes and more direct interactions like competition.

  19. [Functional fitness and related factors in community-dwelling elderly].

    PubMed

    Arao, T; Oida, Y; Nagamatsu, T

    1998-05-01

    To examine the association of level of functional fitness to demographic, health, and life behavioral or social factors, cross sectional data were obtained for 737 persons aged 60 years or older, and who were independently living in the community. Functional fitness was measured with a functional fitness test containing 4 task items: standing, walking, hand performance, and self-care performance. Among the demographic factors, statistically significant associations with functional fitness were found for age in both male and female and for the presence of spouse in male. Health status, previous or present history of circulatory diseases and musculo-skeletal diseases were significantly associated with lower levels of functional fitness in male, and previous or present history of musculo-skeletal diseases and presence of higher obesity associated with lower fitness level in female. With life behaviors, men who had habitual exercise activities and women who had no habitual nap but habitual exercise activities and frequent out-of-home activities showed significantly higher fitness level than their counterparts. These results suggest that level of functional fitness in independently living aged people in the community was significantly associated with the presence of spouse, history of circulatory and musculo-skeletal diseases, and habitual exercise activities in males; and with the history of musculo-skeletal diseases, obesity, and habitual exercise activities, napping, and frequent out-of-home activities in females.

  20. Alcohol Use Disorder and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Rural Communities in Cambodia: Risk Factors and Community-Perceived Strategies.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wesley; Leong, Wei-Yee; Khoun, Kimsong; Ong, Warren; Sambi, Sundesh; Lim, Su-Min; Bieber, Bill; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol misuse is increasing in Southeast Asia. We investigated the extent of and risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in a rural community in Cambodia. We also attempted to explore the communities' perception of alcohol misuse and elicited potential community-based strategies to address the alcohol problem. A mixed-methods study design was used, combining a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with qualitative interviews (focus group discussions and key informant interviews). AUD and HED were measured using the AUDs Identification Test Alcohol Consumption questionnaire. The prevalence of AUD and HED was high: 25% and 31%, respectively. Male sex, younger age, and increasing income were significant risk factors. The communities were well aware of the harmful effects of alcohol, expressed the importance of implementing community-based measures, and proposed various community-led solutions. Evidence-based strategies that are culturally appropriate, accepted, and driven by communities are urgently needed.

  1. [Stationary thromboprophylaxis in casualty surgery. Relevance of postoperative mobility and preexisting risk factors].

    PubMed

    Eisele, R; Maier, E; Kinzl, L; Gude, U

    2004-04-01

    The presented thromboprophylactic concept includes weight bearing and ankle motion as well as breathing therapy and drug prophylaxis (antiphlogistics, analgesic drugs, heparin). Routinely performed ultrasound screening of the deep veins (legs and pelvis) before release showed a low DVT incidence of 2.5% in a prospective clinical observation of 841 inpatients. Obesity, venous insufficiency, and a history of previous thromboembolic events were associated with a significantly increased risk of thrombosis (relative risk 4.1, 4,9, and 5.8, respectively) The duration of immobilization also had a relevant influence indicating that early postoperative physiotherapy in traumatology and orthopedic surgery has a widely underestimated thromboprophylactic effect.

  2. The effects of innovation factors on smartphone adoption among nurses in community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Putzer, Gavin J; Park, Yangil

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new mobile technological device is the smartphone-a phone with advanced features such as Windows Mobile software, access to the Internet, and other computer processing capabilities. This article investigates the decision to adopt a smartphone among healthcare professionals, specifically nurses. The study examines constructs that affect an individual's decision to adopt a smartphone by employing innovation attributes leading to perceived attitudes. We hypothesize that individual intentions to use a smartphone are mostly determined by attitudes toward using a smartphone, which in turn are affected by innovation characteristics. Innovation characteristics are factors that help explain whether a user will adopt a new technology. The study consisted of a survey disseminated to 200 practicing nurses selected from two community hospitals in the southeastern United States. In our model, the innovation characteristics of observability, compatibility, job relevance, internal environment, and external environment were significant predictors of attitude toward using a smartphone. PMID:20697467

  3. The effects of innovation factors on smartphone adoption among nurses in community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Putzer, Gavin J; Park, Yangil

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new mobile technological device is the smartphone-a phone with advanced features such as Windows Mobile software, access to the Internet, and other computer processing capabilities. This article investigates the decision to adopt a smartphone among healthcare professionals, specifically nurses. The study examines constructs that affect an individual's decision to adopt a smartphone by employing innovation attributes leading to perceived attitudes. We hypothesize that individual intentions to use a smartphone are mostly determined by attitudes toward using a smartphone, which in turn are affected by innovation characteristics. Innovation characteristics are factors that help explain whether a user will adopt a new technology. The study consisted of a survey disseminated to 200 practicing nurses selected from two community hospitals in the southeastern United States. In our model, the innovation characteristics of observability, compatibility, job relevance, internal environment, and external environment were significant predictors of attitude toward using a smartphone.

  4. Factors driving distribution limits in an annual plant community.

    PubMed

    Emery, Nancy C; Stanton, Maureen L; Rice, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    Studies examining plant distribution patterns across environmental gradients have generally focused on perennial-dominated systems, and we know relatively little about the processes structuring annual communities. Here, the ecological factors determining local distribution patterns of five dominant annual species distributed across micro-topographic gradients in ephemeral California wetlands are examined. Over two growing seasons in three vernal pools, patterns of inundation and above-ground biomass were characterized across the microtopographic gradient, population boundaries for five dominant species were documented and a reciprocal transplant experiment and neighbor removal treatment were conducted to test the relative effects of within-pool elevation, competition and seed dispersal on plant performance. Despite large differences in inundation time between growing seasons, above-ground biomass and the elevation of population boundaries remained consistent. The predicted 'optimal' depth for each species shifted between years, but competition and recruitment limitation restricted species' abilities to track these conditions. The distributions of the focal taxa are primarily driven by differential responses to environmental conditions associated with different microtopographic positions along pool inundation gradients, and are reinforced by competition and dispersal constraints. The relative importance of competition, other environmental factors and dispersal patterns appear to contrast with results obtained in systems dominated by perennial plants. PMID:19154319

  5. On the Relevance of Assumptions Associated with Classical Factor Analytic Approaches†

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Daniel; Ünlü, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A personal trait, for example a person’s cognitive ability, represents a theoretical concept postulated to explain behavior. Interesting constructs are latent, that is, they cannot be observed. Latent variable modeling constitutes a methodology to deal with hypothetical constructs. Constructs are modeled as random variables and become components of a statistical model. As random variables, they possess a probability distribution in the population of reference. In applications, this distribution is typically assumed to be the normal distribution. The normality assumption may be reasonable in many cases, but there are situations where it cannot be justified. For example, this is true for criterion-referenced tests or for background characteristics of students in large scale assessment studies. Nevertheless, the normal procedures in combination with the classical factor analytic methods are frequently pursued, despite the effects of violating this “implicit” assumption are not clear in general. In a simulation study, we investigate whether classical factor analytic approaches can be instrumental in estimating the factorial structure and properties of the population distribution of a latent personal trait from educational test data, when violations of classical assumptions as the aforementioned are present. The results indicate that having a latent non-normal distribution clearly affects the estimation of the distribution of the factor scores and properties thereof. Thus, when the population distribution of a personal trait is assumed to be non-symmetric, we recommend avoiding those factor analytic approaches for estimation of a person’s factor score, even though the number of extracted factors and the estimated loading matrix may not be strongly affected. An application to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is given. Comments on possible implications for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) complete the

  6. On the relevance of assumptions associated with classical factor analytic approaches.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Daniel; Unlü, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A personal trait, for example a person's cognitive ability, represents a theoretical concept postulated to explain behavior. Interesting constructs are latent, that is, they cannot be observed. Latent variable modeling constitutes a methodology to deal with hypothetical constructs. Constructs are modeled as random variables and become components of a statistical model. As random variables, they possess a probability distribution in the population of reference. In applications, this distribution is typically assumed to be the normal distribution. The normality assumption may be reasonable in many cases, but there are situations where it cannot be justified. For example, this is true for criterion-referenced tests or for background characteristics of students in large scale assessment studies. Nevertheless, the normal procedures in combination with the classical factor analytic methods are frequently pursued, despite the effects of violating this "implicit" assumption are not clear in general. In a simulation study, we investigate whether classical factor analytic approaches can be instrumental in estimating the factorial structure and properties of the population distribution of a latent personal trait from educational test data, when violations of classical assumptions as the aforementioned are present. The results indicate that having a latent non-normal distribution clearly affects the estimation of the distribution of the factor scores and properties thereof. Thus, when the population distribution of a personal trait is assumed to be non-symmetric, we recommend avoiding those factor analytic approaches for estimation of a person's factor score, even though the number of extracted factors and the estimated loading matrix may not be strongly affected. An application to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is given. Comments on possible implications for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) complete the presentation. PMID

  7. Inhaled drugs as risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Bolíbar, I; Serra-Prat, M; Palomera, E; Roig, J; Hospital, I; Carandell, E; Agustí, M; Ayuso, P; Estela, A; Torres, A

    2010-11-01

    The effect of inhaled drugs in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unclear. This case-control study was designed to determine whether inhaled drugs were risk factors for CAP. All incident cases of confirmed CAP that occurred over 1 yr in patients with chronic bronchitis (CB), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma were included, as well as CB, COPD and asthma controls. Risk factors for CAP and inhaled treatment were recorded during a personal interview. An effect of inhaled drugs on the risk of CAP was observed in COPD and asthma patients after adjusting for the effect of other respiratory diseases and their concomitant treatments. In COPD patients, inhaled steroids had a risk OR of 3.26 (95% CI 1.07-9.98) and in asthma patients inhaled anticholinergics had a risk OR of 8.80 (95% CI 1.02-75.7). In CB patients, no association with CAP was observed for any inhaler. These effects were independent of adjusting variables related to severity and other respiratory and non-respiratory risk factors for CAP, including vaccines. Inhaled β(2)-adrenergic agonists did not show a significant effect on the risk of CAP in any of the respiratory diseases. Inhaled steroids may favour CAP in COPD patients, whereas anticholinergics may favour CAP in asthma patients. It is difficult to differentiate the effect of inhaled therapy from the effect of COPD or asthma severity on the risk of CAP, and these relationships may not be causal, but could call attention to inhaled therapy in COPD and asthma patients.

  8. Contextual Factors Relevant to Elementary Teachers Using Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using…

  9. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Incident to Or in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.145 The relationship is determined by... be considered an incident to farming within the intent of the Act. Thus, the general relationship, if any, of the practice to farming as evidenced by common understanding, competitive factors, and...

  10. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Incident to Or in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.145 The relationship is determined by... be considered an incident to farming within the intent of the Act. Thus, the general relationship, if any, of the practice to farming as evidenced by common understanding, competitive factors, and...

  11. 29 CFR 780.145 - The relationship is determined by consideration of all relevant factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Incident to Or in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.145 The relationship is determined by... be considered an incident to farming within the intent of the Act. Thus, the general relationship, if any, of the practice to farming as evidenced by common understanding, competitive factors, and...

  12. The Assessment of the Likelihood of Mammography Usage with Relevant Factors among Women with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    Research that identifies the determinants of low mammography use among disabled people is scant. This study examines the determining factors related to the low usage of mammography among women with disabilities. To identify the barriers that prevent women with disabilities from participating in mammography screening can help authorities conceive…

  13. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  14. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems.

  15. Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System on Youth Reports of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, B. K. Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across 7 states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4,407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from Grade 5 through Grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in Grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in Grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain specific results. This is consistent with CTC’s theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  16. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  17. Risk Factors for Sexual Offending in Men Working With Children: A Community-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Hoyer, Juergen; Schmidt, Alexander F; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-10-01

    Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major scientific and societal relevance. A total of 8649 German men from the community were assessed in an extensive anonymous and confidential online survey. Of those, 37 (0.4 %) could be classified as child sexual abusers working with children, 90 (1.0 %) as child sexual abusers not working with children, and 816 (9.4 %) as men who work with children and who have not abused a child. We assessed the impact of working with children as an individual risk factor for self-reported child sexual abuse and compared personal factors, pedophilic sexual fantasies, deviant sexual behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and hypersexuality among the three groups. Most interestingly, working with children was significantly associated with a self-reported sexual offense against children; however, it explained only three percent of its variance. Child sexual abusers working with children admitted more antisocial and more sexually deviant behaviors than child sexual abusers not working with children and than men working with children who have not abused a child. Our findings support some of the suggestions made by other researchers concerning factors that could be considered in applicants for child- or youth-serving institutions. However, it has to be pointed out that the scientific basis still seems premature. PMID:27184566

  18. Risk Factors for Sexual Offending in Men Working With Children: A Community-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Hoyer, Juergen; Schmidt, Alexander F; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-10-01

    Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major scientific and societal relevance. A total of 8649 German men from the community were assessed in an extensive anonymous and confidential online survey. Of those, 37 (0.4 %) could be classified as child sexual abusers working with children, 90 (1.0 %) as child sexual abusers not working with children, and 816 (9.4 %) as men who work with children and who have not abused a child. We assessed the impact of working with children as an individual risk factor for self-reported child sexual abuse and compared personal factors, pedophilic sexual fantasies, deviant sexual behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and hypersexuality among the three groups. Most interestingly, working with children was significantly associated with a self-reported sexual offense against children; however, it explained only three percent of its variance. Child sexual abusers working with children admitted more antisocial and more sexually deviant behaviors than child sexual abusers not working with children and than men working with children who have not abused a child. Our findings support some of the suggestions made by other researchers concerning factors that could be considered in applicants for child- or youth-serving institutions. However, it has to be pointed out that the scientific basis still seems premature.

  19. Factors Influencing Teachers' Level of Participation in Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Fariza; Joyes, Gordon; Ellison, Linda; Daud, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    The use of an online learning community is one possible approach to teachers' professional development that can enhance the opportunity for collaboration. Discussions in online learning communities not only allow community members to share resources, ideas and expertise, but also contribute to the fulfilment of teachers' needs in terms of…

  20. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China.

  1. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events Amsterdam-score, based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-antibodies and family history. Subjects at risk may ask what they can do to prevent development of AITD. This review summarizes what is known about modulation of exposure to environmental factors in terms of AITD prevention. To stop smoking decreases the risk on Graves disease but increases the risk on Hashimoto disease. Moderate alcohol intake provides some protection against both Graves and Hashimoto disease. Low selenium intake is associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity, but evidence that selenium supplementation may lower TPO antibodies and prevent subclinical hypothyroidism remains inconclusive. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of TPO antibodies, but intervention studies with extra vitamin D have not been done yet. Stress may provoke Graves hyperthyroidism but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Estrogen use have been linked to a lower prevalence of Graves disease. The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of AITD. Taking together, preventive interventions to diminish the risk of AITD are few, not always feasible, and probably of limited efficacy. PMID:27184015

  2. A teacher-centered exploration of the relevance of social factors to theory of mind development.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2014-02-01

    Many accounts of children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development favor a cognitive explanation, for example, in terms of mental representational improvements at or before 4 years. Here, we investigated whether social factors as rated by a child's teacher, are related to ToM development. We tested 82 children of 3-6 years on each of four ToM tasks, and their class teacher completed a social questionnaire about each child's playing behavior, sharing, talkativeness, confidence, aggressiveness and outgoingness. A measure of task memory and the child's gender were also recorded. Here, children generally passed ToM tasks after 5 years-old, but no one gender performed reliably better than the other. Teacher-rated confidence and playing behavior were correlated to ToM. But in a regression analysis, these were replaced by teacher-rated talkativeness; with age and memory given primacy in both sets of analyses. It is concluded that maturation and cognitive factors may well have primacy but social factors, facilitated during early primary education, must also be given a role in ToM development.

  3. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events Amsterdam-score, based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-antibodies and family history. Subjects at risk may ask what they can do to prevent development of AITD. This review summarizes what is known about modulation of exposure to environmental factors in terms of AITD prevention. To stop smoking decreases the risk on Graves disease but increases the risk on Hashimoto disease. Moderate alcohol intake provides some protection against both Graves and Hashimoto disease. Low selenium intake is associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity, but evidence that selenium supplementation may lower TPO antibodies and prevent subclinical hypothyroidism remains inconclusive. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of TPO antibodies, but intervention studies with extra vitamin D have not been done yet. Stress may provoke Graves hyperthyroidism but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Estrogen use have been linked to a lower prevalence of Graves disease. The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of AITD. Taking together, preventive interventions to diminish the risk of AITD are few, not always feasible, and probably of limited efficacy. PMID:27184015

  4. A teacher-centered exploration of the relevance of social factors to theory of mind development.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2014-02-01

    Many accounts of children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development favor a cognitive explanation, for example, in terms of mental representational improvements at or before 4 years. Here, we investigated whether social factors as rated by a child's teacher, are related to ToM development. We tested 82 children of 3-6 years on each of four ToM tasks, and their class teacher completed a social questionnaire about each child's playing behavior, sharing, talkativeness, confidence, aggressiveness and outgoingness. A measure of task memory and the child's gender were also recorded. Here, children generally passed ToM tasks after 5 years-old, but no one gender performed reliably better than the other. Teacher-rated confidence and playing behavior were correlated to ToM. But in a regression analysis, these were replaced by teacher-rated talkativeness; with age and memory given primacy in both sets of analyses. It is concluded that maturation and cognitive factors may well have primacy but social factors, facilitated during early primary education, must also be given a role in ToM development. PMID:24303951

  5. Influence of information sources on hepatitis B screening behavior and relevant psychosocial factors among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-08-01

    This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580

  6. [Effect of environmental factors on fish community structure in the Huntai River Basin at multiple scales].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2014-09-01

    In June 2012, fishes was investigated at 65 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. Forty species were collected, belonging to 9 orders, 14 families,33 genera. Cobitidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant fishes in the community structure in the Huntai River basin, accounting for 13. 21% and 65. 83% of the fish community, respectively. There were two types of spatial distribution of fish community, one was distributed in the head water and tributaries in the upstream, and the other was in the plain rivers. Nemachilus nudus, Cobitis granoei and Phoxinus lagowskii dominated the local community in the upper reaches of the Dahuofang Reservoir and shenwo River, while Carassius ayratus and Hemiculter leucisculdus dominated the local community in the plain rivers. CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) was used to distinguish the primary environmental variables that affected the fish community structure. The results indicated fish community was mainly affected by environment factors at watershed and reach scales. Proportions of woodland and urban land, and altitude were three important environmental factors affecting the fish community at the watershed scale. Dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, pH and habitat inhomogeneity significantly affected the fish community at the reach scale, whereas substrate didn't show significant influence at the microhabitat scale. Environmental factors at watershed scale explained 7. 66% of the variation of fish community structure, environmental factors at reach scale explained 10. 57% of the variation of fish community structure. Environmental factors at reach scale influenced the fish community more significantly.

  7. A review of foot-and-mouth disease with special consideration for the clinical and epidemiological factors relevant to predictive modelling of the disease.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P; Hutber, A M; Thrusfield, M V

    2005-03-01

    Modelling the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been undertaken since the early 1970s. We review here clinical factors and modelling procedures that have been used in the past, differentiating between those that have proved to be more relevant in controlling FMD epidemics, and those that have showed less significance. During the 2001 UK FMD epidemic, many previously developed FMD models were available for consideration and use. Accurate epidemiological models can become useful tools for determining relevant control policies for different scenarios and, conversely, inaccurate models may become an abuse for disease control. Inaccuracy presents two opposing difficulties. Firstly, too much control (in terms of animal slaughter for 2001) would negatively impact the farming community for many subsequent years, whilst too little control would permit an epidemic to persist. Accuracy however, presents the optimal permutation of control measures that could be implemented for a given set of conditions, and is a prerequisite to boosting public confidence in the use of epidemiological models for future epidemics.

  8. Soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (sEGFRs) in Cancer: Biological Aspects and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maramotti, Sally; Paci, Massimiliano; Manzotti, Gloria; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gugnoni, Mila; Galeone, Carla; Cesario, Alfredo; Lococo, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of molecules that can reliably detect the presence of a tumor or predict its behavior is one of the biggest challenges of research in cancer biology. Biological fluids are intriguing mediums, containing many molecules that express the individual health status and, accordingly, may be useful in establishing the potential risk of cancer, defining differential diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to treatment, and monitoring the disease progression. The existence of circulating soluble growth factor receptors (sGFRs) deriving from their membrane counterparts has stimulated the interest of researchers to investigate the use of such molecules as potential cancer biomarkers. But what are the origins of circulating sGFRs? Are they naturally occurring molecules or tumor-derived products? Among these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface molecule significantly involved in cancer development and progression; it can be processed into biological active soluble isoforms (sEGFR). We have carried out an extensive review of the currently available literature on the sEGFRs and their mechanisms of regulation and biological function, with the intent to clarify the role of these molecules in cancer (and other pathological conditions) and, on the basis of the retrieved evidences, speculate about their potential use in the clinical setting. PMID:27104520

  9. Physiologic and clinical relevance of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P; Rosenfeld, R G

    1994-08-01

    The insulin-like growht factors (IGFs) are potent mitogenic agents that have been recognized for three decades. Recently, however, the complex milieu in which they operate has begun to be unraveled. Endocrine and autocrine patterns of IGF secretion have been identified and specific receptors that bind IGFs and mediate their biologic actions have been characterized. A family of six peptides, which bind IGFs with high affinity, the IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), have been recognized as a new class of growth modulators. The IGFBPs can inhibit IGF actions, enhance IGF actions, or function as independent cell regulatory factors, possibly by interacting with their own receptors on the cell membrane. The IGFBPs, in turn, are regulated by a group of proteolytic enzymes, which are capable of cleaving IGFBPs into smaller fragments with lower affinity for the IGFs, thus enhancing IGF action. The size IGFBPs, although similar, have unique biologic properties, and appear to have specific patterns of expression and function. Radioimmunoassays for IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 are currently commercially available and information is accumulating on their diagnostic usefulness. This includes several clinical situations, such as growth disorders, where serum IGFBP-3 is a highly specific screening tool for growth hormone deficiency, various malignancies in which serum IGFBP-2 levels are elevated, and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism that display an inverse relationship between serum IGFBP-1 and insulin secretion. Current clinical practice may include the judicious use of these tests for the diagnosis and for monitoring the therapeutic response, of such disorders. PMID:7951670

  10. Posttraumatic stress reactions in siblings after mutual disaster: relevance of family factors.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the importance of family factors in the development of posttraumatic stress reactions in children after trauma is studied by comparing siblings and nonsiblings who experienced the tsunami in Southeast Asia in 2004 as tourists. Thirty-eight sibling pairs aged 6-17 years were interviewed using the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index. The sibling differences were similar to differences found in randomly selected children in the same sample, indicating that family influences may not be as important as anticipated. The results are an important contribution to our understanding of what contributes to and influences the development of posttrauma reactions in children. They also suggest the importance of conducting individual assessments even after mutually experienced trauma.

  11. Lift Every Voice and Sing: Constructing Community through Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in the University of Illinois Black Chorus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Sheelagh

    2011-01-01

    For Gloria Ladson-Billings, culturally relevant pedagogy is characterized by three criteria: academic success, cultural competence and critical consciousness. Those engaged in culturally relevant pedagogy are connected by how they see themselves as teachers and how they see their students, how they view knowledge and how they structure social…

  12. 48 CFR 1609.7101-2 - Community-rated carrier performance factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Community-rated carrier... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Performance Evaluation 1609.7101-2 Community-rated carrier performance factors. OPM... specified by the contracting officer when a community-rated carrier does not provide the...

  13. Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kathryn Baker

    In response to legislative mandate, the North Carolina State Board of Community Colleges developed a list of Critical Success Factors (CSF) to help define statewide measures of accountability for all community colleges. Developed by staff members of the State Board with input from the state's community college presidents, the CSFs emphasize…

  14. Virtual Knowledge-Sharing Communities of Practice at Caterpillar: Success Factors and Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexander; Page, Vaughn; Wentling, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a qualitative study of success factors and barriers to the development of virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice at Caterpillar Inc. Identified prerequisites for successful knowledge management through virtual communities of practice, as well as barriers to virtual community development, and discusses future…

  15. 48 CFR 1609.7101-2 - Community-rated carrier performance factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Community-rated carrier... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Performance Evaluation 1609.7101-2 Community-rated carrier performance factors. OPM... specified by the contracting officer when a community-rated carrier does not provide the...

  16. Lack of Congruence in Species Diversity Indices and Community Structures of Planktonic Groups Based on Local Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hideyuki; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Nishibe, Yuichiro; Imai, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    The importance of analyzing the determinants of biodiversity and community composition by using multiple trophic levels is well recognized; however, relevant data are lacking. In the present study, we investigated variations in species diversity indices and community structures of the plankton taxonomic groups–zooplankton, rotifers, ciliates, and phytoplankton–under a range of local environmental factors in pond ecosystems. For each planktonic group, we estimated the species diversity index by using linear models and analyzed the community structure by using canonical correspondence analysis. We showed that the species diversity indices and community structures varied among the planktonic groups and according to local environmental factors. The observed lack of congruence among the planktonic groups may have been caused by niche competition between groups with similar trophic guilds or by weak trophic interactions. Our findings highlight the difficulty of predicting total biodiversity within a system, based upon a single taxonomic group. Thus, to conserve the biodiversity of an ecosystem, it is crucial to consider variations in species diversity indices and community structures of different taxonomic groups, under a range of local conditions. PMID:23936054

  17. Use of allogenic epidermal sheets for difficult wound healing: selection and testing of relevant growth factors.

    PubMed

    Auxenfans, C; Colloud, M; Debard, A L; Braye, F M; Amini, M; Allombert-Blaise, V; Builles, N; Claudy, A; Damour, O

    2006-01-01

    The clinical interest of using allogenic epidermal sheets (AES) has largely been shown [1,2,3]. As well as covering, they also stimulate healing, by simultaneously secreting numerous growth factors (GFs), although little is known on their mechanism of action. Our objectives were to: (a) devise a test for the efficacy of AES release, (b) select keratinocyte-secreting strains and optimal culture conditions. Three GFs were selected: IL-1alpha, IL-8 and VEGF. Three different keratinocyte strains were cultured for 3 and 6 days after confluence for 3 passages. Assays were performed after 3 h and 24 h+3 h after dispase treatment (AES conservation for 24 h then change of medium and sampling after 3 h). AES were found to secrete GFs in DMEM and the amounts were greater when cultured for 6 rather than 3 days after confluence. Each strain had different secretory patterns depending on passage and time in culture, this variability being explained by inter-individual heterogeneity.

  18. Physiologically relevant factors influence tau phosphorylation by leucine-rich repeat kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Matthew; Bailey, Rachel; Shaw, Gerry; Yen, Shu-Hui; Lewis, Jada; Giasson, Benoit I

    2015-10-01

    Hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau are observed in multiple neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Tau has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonisms. Some PD patients with mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene exhibit tau pathology. Mutations in LRRK2 are a major risk factor for PD, but LRRK2 protein function remains unclear. The most common mutation, G2019S, is located in the kinase domain of LRRK2 and enhances kinase activity in vitro. This suggests that the kinase activity of LRRK2 may underlie its cellular toxicity. Recently, in vitro studies have suggested a direct interaction between tubulin-bound tau and LRRK2 that results in tau phosphorylation at one identified site. Here we present data suggesting that microtubules (MTs) enhance LRRK2-mediated tau phosphorylation at three different epitopes. We also explore the effect of divalent cations as catalytic cofactors for G2019S LRRK2-mediated tau phosphorylation and show that manganese does not support kinase activity but inhibits the efficient ability of magnesium to catalyze LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation of tau. These results suggest that cofactors such as MTs and cations in the cellular milieu have an important impact on LRRK2-tau interactions and resultant tau phosphorylation.

  19. Glucocorticoid regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: relevance to hippocampal structural and functional plasticity.

    PubMed

    Suri, D; Vaidya, V A

    2013-06-01

    Glucocorticoids serve as key stress response hormones that facilitate stress coping. However, sustained glucocorticoid exposure is associated with adverse consequences on the brain, in particular within the hippocampus. Chronic glucocorticoid exposure evokes neuronal cell damage and dendritic atrophy, reduces hippocampal neurogenesis and impairs synaptic plasticity. Glucocorticoids also alter expression and signaling of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Since BDNF is known to promote neuroplasticity, enhance cell survival, increase hippocampal neurogenesis and cellular excitability, it has been hypothesized that specific adverse effects of glucocorticoids may be mediated by attenuating BDNF expression and signaling. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of literature examining the influence of glucocorticoids on BDNF, and to address whether specific effects of glucocorticoids arise through perturbation of BDNF signaling. We integrate evidence of glucocorticoid regulation of BDNF at multiple levels, spanning from the well-documented glucocorticoid-induced changes in BDNF mRNA to studies examining alterations in BDNF receptor-mediated signaling. Further, we delineate potential lines of future investigation to address hitherto unexplored aspects of the influence of glucocorticoids on BDNF. Finally, we discuss the current understanding of the contribution of BDNF to the modulation of structural and functional plasticity by glucocorticoids, in particular in the context of the hippocampus. Understanding the mechanistic crosstalk between glucocorticoids and BDNF holds promise for the identification of potential therapeutic targets for disorders associated with the dysfunction of stress hormone pathways.

  20. Students’ Aggression and Its Relevance to Personal, Family, and Social Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Ali; Shahghasemi, Zohreh; Davarinia Motlagh Ghochan, Arezoo; Baratpour, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aggression is defined as behaviors intended to hurt, harm, or injure another person. Aggression is by no means a new concern in human society, especially in youth. Universities are among the institutions in which most of the members are young people and because of facing with various personal and social stressors, the students usually experience high level of stress. Objectives: This study aimed to determine aggression among university students and its association with their personal, family, and social characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on a representative sample (n = 809) of university students (1 state university and 2 private universities) locating in Gonabad, Iran in 2012. Using proportional to size stratified sampling, we selected the respondents and gathered the required data using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The data were entered into SPSS (version 20) and analyzed through t test, ANOVA, and regression model. Results: A total of 381 (47.2%) male and 428 (52.8%) female students participated in the study. Mean (SD) age of the respondents was 21.79 (2.86) years. Overall mean aggression score (SD) in the students was 72.45 (15.49) and this score for in dorm and out of dorm students was 74.31 (15.59) and 70.93 (15.23), respectively. There were significant associations between the mean aggression score of dormitory students and sex (P = 0.004), age (P = 0.044), and type of the university (P = 0.039). On the other hand, there was no significant association between all independent factors and mean aggression score of students living out of dorm. Conclusions: Regarding the control of aggressive behaviors, paying attention to male, young students living in dormitory, especially in non-governmental universities has the highest priority. PMID:26756005

  1. The Potential Risk Factors Relevant to Lateral Epicondylitis by Wrist Coupling Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Ya; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Chien-Ju; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The use of awkward wrist postures and unskilled techniques might induce lateral epicondylitis. This study thus investigated the effects of wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity on the dynamic performances of the wrist muscles during the coupling posture via a custom-made bi-planar isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty subjects were recruited to perform the isokinetic testing. We measured the muscle strengths and activities for the wrist extensors and flexors during concentric and eccentric contractions at three movement velocities, 30°s-1, 90°s-1, and 180°s-1, combined with three wrist postures, neutral position (NP), radial deviation (RD), and ulnar deviation (UD). The root mean square (RMS) of the electromyographic signal in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC), normalized peak torque of extensors, and ratio of normalized peak torque between wrist extensors and flexors, were all greater in the NP than RD and UD in both contractions. The ratio of RMS between EDC and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) had a significantly greater value in RD than UD during the concentric contraction. The EDC showed significantly higher activity at the fast velocity in both contractions. Nevertheless, a significantly higher RMS of the electromyographic signal between EDC and FDS and the ratio of strength between wrist extensors and flexors were found at slow velocity in both contractions. The wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity of the wrist joint should thus be considered as influential factors which might alter the dynamic performances, and may result in further injury of the elbow joint. PMID:27171198

  2. Pediatric intracranial ependymomas: prognostic relevance of histological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric factors.

    PubMed

    Zamecnik, Josef; Snuderl, Matija; Eckschlager, Tomas; Chanova, Marketa; Hladikova, Marie; Tichy, Michal; Kodet, Roman

    2003-10-01

    The correlation between the histological features and clinical outcome remains poor in pediatric intracranial ependymomas. We performed a retrospective study of a group of 31 patients (diagnosed from 1985 to 1995) to assess prognostic implications of the current grading system, of histological and immunohistochemical features, and of ploidy status estimated by flow cytometry. Immunoexpression of a broad spectrum of antigens was evaluated, including MIB-1, topoisomerase-IIalpha, cyclin D1, glial and epithelial proteins (GFAP, EMA, cytokeratins), molecules involved in controlling apoptosis (bcl-2, caspase-3/CPP32), and p53 oncoprotein. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of each variable on both the progression free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) with at least 7-year follow up. Although we showed a significant correlation between histological grade and prognosis, the current grading system failed in predicting outcome in nearly one third of individual cases. Problems with interpathologist reproducibility were also demonstrated. The extent of surgical resection was the only clinical factor that was associated with survival. Both the PFS and the OS were significantly decreased for the following pathological variables: increased cellularity (>300 nuclei per HPF), mitotic activity of >7 per 10 HPF, increased MIB-1 labeling index (LI), topoisomerase-IIalpha LI, S-phase fraction, and p53 and bcl-2 positivity. Increased cyclin D1 LI was demonstrated to have only a marginally significant impact on PFS. A flow chart modeling was further performed to formulate a scheme for discriminating of prognostic subgroups. Based on that, p53 immunopositivity and/or MIB-1 LI of >5% (after subtotal resection) or MIB-1 LI of >15% (after complete resection) were the strongest indicators of the tumor's aggressive behavior and of a poor prognosis of the disease. Foci of hypercellularity should be specifically looked for in

  3. Hazardous Drinking and Military Community Functioning: Identifying Mediating Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…

  4. Revisiting the Sense of Community Index: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obst, Patricia L.; White, Katherine M.

    2004-01-01

    The Sense of Community Index (SCI) is one of the most commonly used measures of Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC). There is much discussion in the literature as to the validity of the scale as a measure not only of overall PSOC, but also of the dimensions (Membership, Influence, Needs Fulfillment, and Emotional Connection) theorized by…

  5. Factors Correlated with the Interactional Diversity of Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) to examine how student background characteristics, student engagement, and institutional characteristics correlate with the frequency of interactional diversity among community college students. Given the current lack of research on interactional diversity among…

  6. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.

  7. Non-cardiac, non-oesophageal chest pain: the relevance of psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Ho, K; Kang, J; Yeo, B; Ng, W

    1998-01-01

    Background—No cause has been determined for chest pain that is neither cardiac nor oesophageal in origin. 
Aims—To compare the prevalence of lifetime psychiatric disorders and current psychological distress in three consecutive series of patients with chronic chest or abdominal pain. 
Patients—Thirty nine patients with non-cardiac chest pain and no abnormality on oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, oesophageal manometry, and 24 hour pH monitoring; 22 patients with non-cardiac chest pain having endoscopic abnormality, oesophageal dysmotility, and/or pathological reflux; and 36 patients with biliary colic. 
Methods—The Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the 28 item General Health Questionnaire were administered to all patients. 
Results—Patients with non-cardiac chest pain and no upper gastrointestinal disease had a higher proportion of panic disorder (15%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (21%), and major depressive episodes (28%) than patients with gallstone disease (0%, p<0.02; 3%, p<0.02; and 8%, p<0.05, respectively). In contrast, there were no differences between patients with non-cardiac chest pain and upper gastrointestinal disease and patients with gallstone disease in any of the DSM-111 defined lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Using the General Health Questionnaire, 49% of patients with non-cardiac chest pain without upper gastrointestinal disease scored above the cut off point (that is, more than 4), which was considered indicative of non-psychotic psychiatric disturbance, whereas only 14% of patients with gallstones did so (p<0.005). The proportions of such cases were however similar between patients with non-cardiac chest pain and upper gastrointestinal disease (27%) and patients with gallstones. 
Conclusions—Psychological factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of chest pain that is neither cardiac nor oesophagogastric in origin. Keywords: chest pain;  oesophageal manometry;  gastro-oesophageal reflux disease;  oesophageal p

  8. Measuring Community Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Evidence from a Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…

  9. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  10. Advancing coalition theory: the effect of coalition factors on community capacity mediated by member engagement.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W

    2012-08-01

    Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community's capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity.

  11. Community Size as a Factor in Health Partnerships in Community Parks and Recreation, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Jo An M.; Mowen, Andrew J.; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although partnerships between park and recreation agencies and health agencies are prevalent, little research has examined partnership characteristics and effectiveness among communities of different sizes. The objective of this study was to determine whether park and recreation leaders’ perceptions of partnership characteristics, effectiveness, and outcomes vary by community size. Methods A web-based survey was completed in 2007 by 1,217 National Recreation and Park Association members. Community size was divided into 4 categories: very small, small, medium, and large. Questions measured agencies’ recognition of the need for partnerships, their level of experience, and the effectiveness and outcomes of partnerships. Results Larger communities were significantly more likely to recognize the need for and have more experience with partnerships than smaller communities. Very small and large communities partnered significantly more often with senior services, nonprofit health promotion agencies, and public health agencies than did small and medium ones. Large and small communities were significantly more likely than very small and medium communities to agree that their decision making in partnerships is inclusive and that they have clearly defined goals and objectives. Large communities were significantly more likely than very small communities to report that their partnership helped leverage resources, make policy changes, meet their mission statement, and link to funding opportunities. Conclusion Community size shapes partnership practices, effectiveness, and outcomes. Very small communities are disadvantaged in developing and managing health partnerships. Increasing education, training, and funding opportunities for small and rural park and recreation agencies may enable them to more effectively partner with organizations to address community health concerns. PMID:23886043

  12. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  13. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS): a novel tool that captures the impact of the built environment on lifestyle factors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Fiona; Stevens, Denise; O'Connor-Duffany, Kathleen; Siegel, Karen; Gao, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Background Novel efforts and accompanying tools are needed to tackle the global burden of chronic disease. This paper presents an approach to describe the environments in which people live, work, and play. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS) is an empirical assessment tool that measures the availability and accessibility, of healthy lifestyle options lifestyle options. CHESS reveals existing community assets as well as opportunities for change, shaping community intervention planning efforts by focusing on community-relevant opportunities to address the three key risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use). Methods The CHESS tool was developed following a review of existing auditing tools and in consultation with experts. It is based on the social-ecological model and is adaptable to diverse settings in developed and developing countries throughout the world. Results For illustrative purposes, baseline results from the Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Mexico site are used, where the CHESS tool assessed 583 food stores and 168 restaurants. Comparisons between individual-level survey data from schools and community-level CHESS data are made to demonstrate the utility of the tool in strategically guiding intervention activities. Conclusion The environments where people live, work, and play are key factors in determining their diet, levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS is the first tool of its kind that systematically and simultaneously examines how built environments encourage/discourage healthy eating, physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS can help to design community interventions to prevent chronic disease and guide healthy urban planning. PMID:21394246

  14. Measuring Sense of Community: A Methodological Interpretation of the Factor Structure Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, N. Andrew; Speer, Paul W.; Hughey, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Instability in the factor structure of the Sense of Community Index (SCI) was tested as a methodological artifact. Confirmatory factor analyses, tested with two data sets, supported neither the proposed one-factor nor the four-factor (needs fulfillment, group membership, influence, and emotional connection) SCI. Results demonstrated that the SCI…

  15. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between Pap smear test usage and several variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the factors that influence Pap smear test usage. Results The results show that 4.83% (n =880) of women with intellectual disabilities underwent Pap smear tests. Pap smear test usage rates exhibit a declining trend with increases in age. Factors that significantly influence Pap smear test use include age, urbanization level of resident area, monthly salary, aboriginal status, marital status, existence of DM, severity of disability. Conclusions The women with intellectual disabilities had a low use rate of Pap smear test, which is significantly less than the 28.8% usage rate for the general population of women aged 30 years and above. PMID:24890828

  16. Relevance of the transcription factor PdSte12 in Penicillium digitatum conidiation and virulence during citrus fruit infection.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Laura; Teixidó, Neus; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Torres, Paloma

    2016-10-17

    Green mould, resulting from Penicillium digitatum, is the most important postharvest disease of citrus. In a previous study, the PdSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and disruption mutants were obtained. In the present study, the ΔPdSte12 mutants generated through gene replacement showed significantly reduced virulence during citrus fruit infection. Virulence was affected not only in mature fruit but also in immature fruit, and disease severity was markedly reduced when the oranges were stored at 20 or 4°C. In addition, the ΔPdSte12 mutants were defective in asexual reproduction, producing few conidia. The conidiophores of these mutants had longer metulae with fewer branches at the tip of the hyphae. Gene expression analysis revealed that PdSte12 might act as a negative regulator of several transporter-encoding genes and a positive regulator of two sterol demethylases, all of which are involved in fungicide resistance and fungal virulence. Moreover, PdSte12 exhibited the negative regulation of another transcription factor PdMut3, putatively involved in fungal pathogenesis but with no effect on the MAPK SLT2 P. digitatum orthologue belonging to different transcription pathways relevant to cell integrity. These results indicate the PdSte12 transcription factor is functionally conserved in P. digitatum for infection and asexual reproduction, similar to other Ste12 fungal plant pathogens.

  17. Relevance of the transcription factor PdSte12 in Penicillium digitatum conidiation and virulence during citrus fruit infection.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Laura; Teixidó, Neus; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Torres, Paloma

    2016-10-17

    Green mould, resulting from Penicillium digitatum, is the most important postharvest disease of citrus. In a previous study, the PdSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and disruption mutants were obtained. In the present study, the ΔPdSte12 mutants generated through gene replacement showed significantly reduced virulence during citrus fruit infection. Virulence was affected not only in mature fruit but also in immature fruit, and disease severity was markedly reduced when the oranges were stored at 20 or 4°C. In addition, the ΔPdSte12 mutants were defective in asexual reproduction, producing few conidia. The conidiophores of these mutants had longer metulae with fewer branches at the tip of the hyphae. Gene expression analysis revealed that PdSte12 might act as a negative regulator of several transporter-encoding genes and a positive regulator of two sterol demethylases, all of which are involved in fungicide resistance and fungal virulence. Moreover, PdSte12 exhibited the negative regulation of another transcription factor PdMut3, putatively involved in fungal pathogenesis but with no effect on the MAPK SLT2 P. digitatum orthologue belonging to different transcription pathways relevant to cell integrity. These results indicate the PdSte12 transcription factor is functionally conserved in P. digitatum for infection and asexual reproduction, similar to other Ste12 fungal plant pathogens. PMID:27479695

  18. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    Kocken, Pl; van Dorst, Ag; Schaalma, H

    2006-04-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power relationships is addressed. The study was conducted among 346 Dutch Antilleans from a random sample of an Antillean population aged 15-50 years. The response rate was 37.8%. The results showed that condom-use intentions were primarily determined by perceived subjective norms, the perceived taboo on discussing sex, machismo attitudes, gender, age and educational background. Moreover, the respondent's opinion regarding machismo was an effect modificator for the association between condom-use intentions and subjective social norm. It is concluded that, in predicting condom-use intentions, factors specific to the culture of a population contribute significantly to the determinants drawn from the general social-cognition models. It is recommended that future research should use measurement instruments that are adapted to culture-specific beliefs, and should explore the influence of cultural factors on actual condom use. Moreover, interventions promoting condom use among migrant populations should target the cultural correlates of condom use.

  19. The Relevancy of Community-Based Methods: Using Diet within Native American and Alaska Native Adult Populations as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in Native Americans and Alaska Natives far exceed that of the general US population. There are many postulating reasons for these excessive rates including the transition from a traditional to a contemporary diet. Although information on the dietary intakes of Native American and Alaska Native communities are limited, there seems to be a consensus that the Native American and Alaska Native diet is high in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Further information on the diet needs to be attained so that dietary interventions can effectively be implemented in these communities. An approach that is community based is proposed as the best solution to understanding the Native diet and developing culturally tailored interventions to sustainably improve diet. PMID:22686210

  20. Where are the food deserts? An evaluation of policy-relevant measures of community food access in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Hibbert, James D.; Ma, Xiaoguang; Bell, Bethany A.; Battersby, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent United States (US) policies target spatial access to healthier food retailers. We evaluated two measures of community food access developed by two different agencies, using a 2009 food environment validation study in South Carolina as a reference. While the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service’s (USDA ERS) measure designated 22.5% of census tracts as food deserts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) measure designated 29.0% as non-healthier retail tracts; 71% of tracts were designated consistently between USDA ERS and CDC. Our findings suggest a need for greater harmonization of these measures of community food access. PMID:26294937

  1. Community perceptions and factors influencing utilization of health services in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bakeera, Solome K; Wamala, Sarah P; Galea, Sandro; State, Andrew; Peterson, Stefan; Pariyo, George W

    2009-01-01

    Background Healthcare utilization has particular relevance as a public health and development issue. Unlike material and human capital, there is little empirical evidence on the utility of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization in a developing country context. We sought to assess the relevance of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization. Study Objective To explore community perceptions among three different wealth categories on factors influencing healthcare utilization in Eastern Uganda. Methods We used a qualitative study design using Focus Group Discussions (FGD) to conduct the study. Community meetings were initially held to identify FGD participants in the different wealth categories, ('least poor', 'medium' and 'poorest') using poverty ranking based on ownership of assets and income sources. Nine FGDs from three homogenous wealth categories were conducted. Data from the FGDs was analyzed using content analysis revealing common barriers as well as facilitating factors for healthcare service utilization by wealth categories. The Health Access Livelihood Framework was used to examine and interpret the findings. Results Barriers to healthcare utilization exist for all the wealth categories along three different axes including: the health seeking process; health services delivery; and the ownership of livelihood assets. Income source, transport ownership, and health literacy were reported as centrally useful in overcoming some barriers to healthcare utilization for the 'least poor' and 'poor' wealth categories. The 'poorest' wealth category was keen to utilize free public health services. Conversely, there are perceptions that public health facilities were perceived to offer low quality care with chronic gaps such as shortages of essential supplies. In addition to individual material resources and the availability of free public healthcare services, social resources are perceived as important in overcoming

  2. Analysis of factors affecting the accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of microbial community carbon source utilization patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Garchow, H.; Klug, M.J.; Forney, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    We determined factors that affect responses of bacterial isolates and model bacterial communities to the 95 carbon substrates in Biolog microliter plates. For isolates and communities of three to six bacterial strains, substrate oxidation rates were typically nonlinear and were delayed by dilution of the inoculum. When inoculum density was controlled, patterns of positive and negative responses exhibited by microbial communities to each of the carbon sources were reproducible. Rates and extents of substrate oxidation by the communities were also reproducible but were not simply the sum of those exhibited by community members when tested separately. Replicates of the same model community clustered when analyzed by principal- components analysis (PCA), and model communities with different compositions were clearly separated un the first PCA axis, which accounted for >60% of the dataset variation. PCA discrimination among different model communities depended on the extent to which specific substrates were oxidized. However, the substrates interpreted by PCA to be most significant in distinguishing the communities changed with reading time, reflecting the nonlinearity of substrate oxidation rates. Although whole-community substrate utilization profiles were reproducible signatures for a given community, the extent of oxidation of specific substrates and the numbers or activities of microorganisms using those substrates in a given community were not correlated. Replicate soil samples varied significantly in the rate and extent of oxidation of seven tested substrates, suggesting microscale heterogeneity in composition of the soil microbial community.

  3. Factors associated with antipsychotic medication adherence in community-based patients with schizophrenia in Hong Kong: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bressington, Dan; Mui, Jolene; Gray, Richard

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the factors affecting adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia registered with a community psychiatric nursing service in Hong Kong. The study was a cross-sectional observational survey; symptoms, drug attitudes, insight, side-effects, and sociodemographic characteristics were measured and explored in terms of their relationship with medication adherence. A total of 584 patients who were visited by community psychiatric nurses (CPN) participated, and 30% of these patients were non-adherent with their antipsychotic medication. Positive treatment attitudes, awareness of the need for treatment, being prescribed clozapine, receiving state benefits, lower levels of symptoms, and fewer side-effects were associated with adherence. The findings from this study suggest that the clinical efforts of CPN to improve adherence should aim to help patients amplify the personal relevance of treatment and modify patients' attitudes towards medication.

  4. An Analysis of the Relationship between Select Organizational Climate Factors and Job Satisfaction Factors as Reported by Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Giacomo, Rose-Marie Carla

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall satisfaction with organizational climate factors across seven studies of various levels of community college personnel. A secondary purpose was to determine if there was a significant relationship between satisfaction with organizational climate factors and the importance of job satisfaction…

  5. Collective Bargaining in Public Community Colleges; A Survey of Relevant Contract Provisions from 84 Professional Contracts Covering 120 Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Board of Regional Community Colleges, Boston.

    This study was undertaken in an effort to provide community college administrators with a resource tool from which they may readily obtain comparative data on current negotiated contract provisions at other institutions. The report is the first in a projected series of nationwide studies conducted by the Massachusetts State Board of Regional…

  6. Do climate factors govern soil microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Lü, X.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil microbial communities play important role in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling and vegetation dynamic. However, little is known about factors driving soil microbial community composition at large scales. The objective of this study was to determine whether climate dominates among environmental factors governing microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale. Here, we compared soil microbial communities using phospholipid fatty acid method across 7 land use types from 23 locations in North-East China Transect (850 km x 50 km). The results showed that soil water availability and land use changes exhibited the dominant effects on soil microbial community composition and biomass at the regional scale, while climate factors (expressed as a function of large-scale spatial variation) did not show strong relationships with distribution of microbial community composition. Likewise, factors such as spatial structure, soil texture, nutrient availability and vegetation types were not important. Wetter soils had higher contributions of gram-positive bacteria, whereas drier soils had higher contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Heavily disturbed soils had lower contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi than historically disturbed and undisturbed soils. The lowest microbial biomass appeared in the wettest and driest soils. In conclusion, dominant climate factors, commonly known to structure distribution of macroorganisms, were not the most important drivers governing regional pattern of microbial communities because of inclusion of irrigated and managed practices. In comparison, soil water regime and land use types appear to be primary determinants of microbial community composition and biomass.

  7. Factors Predicting Community College Faculty Satisfaction with Instructional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongbin; Twombly, Susan; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    In light of growing speculation that the autonomy of community college faculty members is eroding, this study draws on the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to explore the institutional and personal variables that predict faculty satisfaction with authority to make decisions about content and methods in instructional activities. Results…

  8. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  9. Influencing factors on health promoting behavior among the elderly living in the community

    PubMed Central

    Harooni, Javad; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health promotion behavior is one of the main criteria for determining health that is recognized as the basic factor in catching numerous diseases. Observing such behaviors by the elderly prevents affliction to various diseases and has potential effect in promoting health and increasing the elderly quality of life. This research was done for the aim of determining effective factors on health promotion behaviors and health status in the elderly of the Dena province. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty elderly of over 65 years of age were selected randomly to do this descriptive-analytical study (cross-sectional type). The questionnaire regarding health promoting lifestyle profile 2 (HPLP2) was used for measuring the rate of health promotion behaviors. The data was collected by personal interviews and face to face method for completing the relevant questionnaire and was analyzed by SPSS software version 20 and also proper tests. Results: The average score of the elderly health promotion behaviors in the Dena province (143.8) indicated the acceptable level of performing health promoting behaviors in this group, such that 85% of the elderly had intermediate health promoting behaviors and 15% had proper behaviors. Also, the results showed that the average score of the physical activity and nutrition sub-measuring conditions was lower than the average score of other sub measures of prevention had the highest average. Moreover, comparison of the correlation of health promotion behaviors with the sub-measures showed that apart from the healthy nutrition sub-measure, all the other sub-measures have significant correlation with health promotion behaviors. Conclusion: From the findings of this study, the authors recommend health providers to promote elderly health promotion behaviors in all communities by identifying health promotion behaviors in other parts of the country, and also designing suitable intervention programs based on effective factors on

  10. Identifying overlapping communities as well as hubs and outliers via nonnegative matrix factorization

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Di; Cao, Yixin; He, Dongxiao

    2013-01-01

    Community detection is important for understanding networks. Previous studies observed that communities are not necessarily disjoint and might overlap. It is also agreed that some outlier vertices participate in no community, and some hubs in a community might take more important roles than others. Each of these facts has been independently addressed in previous work. But there is no algorithm, to our knowledge, that can identify these three structures altogether. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel model where vertices are measured by their centrality in communities, and define the identification of overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers as an optimization problem, calculated by nonnegative matrix factorization. We test this method on various real networks, and compare it with several competing algorithms. The experimental results not only demonstrate its ability of identifying overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers, but also validate its superior performance in terms of clustering quality. PMID:24129402

  11. Identifying overlapping communities as well as hubs and outliers via nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Di; Cao, Yixin; He, Dongxiao

    2013-10-21

    Community detection is important for understanding networks. Previous studies observed that communities are not necessarily disjoint and might overlap. It is also agreed that some outlier vertices participate in no community, and some hubs in a community might take more important roles than others. Each of these facts has been independently addressed in previous work. But there is no algorithm, to our knowledge, that can identify these three structures altogether. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel model where vertices are measured by their centrality in communities, and define the identification of overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers as an optimization problem, calculated by nonnegative matrix factorization. We test this method on various real networks, and compare it with several competing algorithms. The experimental results not only demonstrate its ability of identifying overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers, but also validate its superior performance in terms of clustering quality.

  12. Proteomic Assessment of the Relevant Factors Affecting Pork Meat Quality Associated with Longissimus dorsi Muscles in Duroc Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Jeon, Young-Joo; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Kim, Seok-Ho; Jeong, Jin Young; Kang, Hyun-sung; Choi, Nag-Jin; Seo, Kang Seok; Cho, Young Sik; Kim, MinSeok S.; Ko, Sungho; Seo, Jae-Min; Lee, Seung-Youp; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD) and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD) from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)–based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20) and LQLD (n = 20) Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%), ATPase activity (19%), oxidoreductase activity (13%), cytoskeletal protein binding (13%), actin binding (12%), calcium ion binding (6%), and structural constituent of muscle (6%). Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of meat

  13. Individual and Service Factors Affecting Deinstitutionalization and Community Use of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the effect of the closure of a small intellectual disability hospital on the community use of those people involved. In addition, the study sought to identify those factors that might influence the community use of people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The impact of resettlement was investigated using…

  14. Contributory Factors to Teachers' Sense of Community in Public Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkhus, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to teachers' sense of community within public, urban, elementary schools. Because previous research has touted the benefits of teacher communities within schools (Kruse, 2001; Leana & Pil, 2006; Ware & Kitsantas, 2007) educational leaders are challenged with creating school…

  15. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  16. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  17. Exploring Critical Factors of Self Concept among High Income Community College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Nor, Ahmad Rosli Mohd; Amat, Salleh; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the critical factors influencing the self-concept of community college graduates in the development of their careers. Individuals with a positive self-concept are often associated with a good career choices and a well-panned career development path. Hence community college students should be girded with a…

  18. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  19. Factors Cultivating Sustainable Online Communities for K-12 Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Hara, Noriko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discover factors related to fostering a sustainable online community for K-12 teachers. This study was conducted through the investigation of an online teacher community called INDISCHOOL in Korea. Data were gathered through in-depth telephone interviews with INDISCHOOL members, the examination of archived postings…

  20. Effect of Community Factors on Primary School Learners' Achievement in Rural Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Shafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Community plays an important role in childhood education. This research has identified the community factors that affect learners' achievement through the use of case studies. Qualitative data were captured by semi-structured interview and data interpretation was underpinned by concepts derived from human capital and social capital theories. This…

  1. Community Perspectives on Factors that Influence Collaboration in Public Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Rogerio M.

    2009-01-01

    Community collaboration in research may lead to better methods, results, and dissemination of interventions. Little systematic research has examined specific factors that influence community-based organizations (CBOs) to collaborate in public health research. There is an urgent need to advance knowledge on this topic so that together, researchers…

  2. Factors Related to Communication of Forest Fire Prevention Messages, a Study of Selected Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of…

  3. Factors Affecting Change in Major and College Persistence for Traditional and Nontraditional Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Shuntay

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges enroll a substantial proportion of both traditional and nontraditional students pursuing various academic goals. Consequently, these types of students have different characteristics that influence their success in community colleges. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contributing factors in traditional and…

  4. Using the "Risk Factor Paradigm" in Prevention: Lessons from the Evaluation of Communities That Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan; Crow, Iain

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses results from an evaluation of the UK-based Communities that Care programme. This "risk and protective" programme was set up in 1997 by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation with a central aim of exploring if such an approach could be successful in the UK context. Communities that Care puts into operation the "risk factor paradigm" by…

  5. Factors contributing to participation of a rural community in health education: a case study from ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Abebaw Yirga

    This study investigated factors that contributed to the participation of a rural community in health education. It was conducted in the Awi zone of the Amhara region in Ethiopia. The participants were rural community members and health extension workers. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit rural community members, whereas convenient sampling was used to recruit health extension workers. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews, and focus group discussions. The study revealed various factors contributing to the participation of a rural community in health education, including attainability of the objectives of health education, profiles of the health extension workers, peer influence, organization of the health education program in terms of place and time, and meaningfulness of the health education in terms of rural community lives. Although the ultimate goal of participation in health education is similar for all rural community members, they were attracted to the program by one or more than one different factor. Efforts aimed at enhancing participation of a rural community in health education program should address each factor that contributes to the participation of community members. PMID:23000462

  6. Motivating Factors of Florida Community and State College Information Technology Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Wendy Louise

    2013-01-01

    In this study the core job characteristics that contribute to the internal motivational factors and job satisfaction of information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida were investigated. Fifty-four information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida completed the Job…

  7. Rethinking the Factors of Success: Social Support and Community Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa; DeWeese, Amanda; Goodman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coalitions are often the strategy of choice when needs are great, resources are few, and individual efforts have proven unsuccessful in addressing serious health issues. Despite the widespread use of coalitions and extensive research, no definitive list of factors predicting coalition success has been identified. One factor, social…

  8. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    PubMed

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the

  9. The level of knowledge and awareness about prostate cancer in the Turkish male and the relevant effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Doğan, Faruk; Ekmekçioğlu, Ozan; Çolak, Aslıhan; Kalkan, Mehmet; Şahin, Çoşkun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the general knowledge and awareness levels, information sources, and the state of medical check-up for prostate cancer (PCa) and relevant effective factors. Material and methods The participants were asked to answer to 14 questions of a questionnaire about age, education, economic and social condition, knowledge about PCa, state of being examined and their related factors. According to demographic characteristics of the participants, levels of awareness about PCa, sources of information, affecting factors and their interrelationships were examined. Two groups were formed according to age (<60 years, >60 years) and variations according to ages were investigated. Results Two hundred and ninety-three men with an average age of 57 years (range 40–85) were included in the study. Our findings showed that 68.3% of the participants were thinking that PCa is a frequently seen disease, 88.4% were thinking that it can be treated and 62.8% of men specified that their information sources are doctors. We also found that 60.8% of the participants had not undergone prostate examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) control. The most reason for not having annual examinations was (44.4%) “negligence”. Significantly greater number of men with higher education (high school/university) were highly informed about PCa (p=0.037). Check-up rates were statistically significantly higher among men with intermediate income (p=0.041). Curability of PCa diagnosed at an early stage was acknowledged by statistically higher number of individuals under the age 60 (p<0.05). Health control, prostate examination and/or PSA control rates were higher in men with a family history of PCa and in the group of >60 years. Conclusion Although PCa has a high prevalence and mortality rates, personal and social information and sensitivity levels must be increased as it can be treated if diagnosed at an early stage. We think that social and medical impact of the

  10. The level of knowledge and awareness about prostate cancer in the Turkish male and the relevant effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Doğan, Faruk; Ekmekçioğlu, Ozan; Çolak, Aslıhan; Kalkan, Mehmet; Şahin, Çoşkun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the general knowledge and awareness levels, information sources, and the state of medical check-up for prostate cancer (PCa) and relevant effective factors. Material and methods The participants were asked to answer to 14 questions of a questionnaire about age, education, economic and social condition, knowledge about PCa, state of being examined and their related factors. According to demographic characteristics of the participants, levels of awareness about PCa, sources of information, affecting factors and their interrelationships were examined. Two groups were formed according to age (<60 years, >60 years) and variations according to ages were investigated. Results Two hundred and ninety-three men with an average age of 57 years (range 40–85) were included in the study. Our findings showed that 68.3% of the participants were thinking that PCa is a frequently seen disease, 88.4% were thinking that it can be treated and 62.8% of men specified that their information sources are doctors. We also found that 60.8% of the participants had not undergone prostate examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) control. The most reason for not having annual examinations was (44.4%) “negligence”. Significantly greater number of men with higher education (high school/university) were highly informed about PCa (p=0.037). Check-up rates were statistically significantly higher among men with intermediate income (p=0.041). Curability of PCa diagnosed at an early stage was acknowledged by statistically higher number of individuals under the age 60 (p<0.05). Health control, prostate examination and/or PSA control rates were higher in men with a family history of PCa and in the group of >60 years. Conclusion Although PCa has a high prevalence and mortality rates, personal and social information and sensitivity levels must be increased as it can be treated if diagnosed at an early stage. We think that social and medical impact of the

  11. Plant community feedbacks and long-term ecosystem responses to multi-factored global change

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    While short-term plant responses to global change are driven by physiological mechanisms, which are represented relatively well by models, long-term ecosystem responses to global change may be determined by shifts in plant community structure resulting from other ecological phenomena such as interspecific interactions, which are represented poorly by models. In single-factor scenarios, plant communities often adjust to increase ecosystem response to that factor. For instance, some early global change experiments showed that elevated CO2 favours plants that respond strongly to elevated CO2, generally amplifying the response of ecosystem productivity to elevated CO2, a positive community feedback. However, most ecosystems are subject to multiple drivers of change, which can complicate the community feedback effect in ways that are more difficult to generalize. Recent studies have shown that (i) shifts in plant community structure cannot be reliably predicted from short-term plant physiological response to global change and (ii) that the ecosystem response to multi-factored change is commonly less than the sum of its parts. Here, we survey results from long-term field manipulations to examine the role community shifts may play in explaining these common findings. We use a simple model to examine the potential importance of community shifts in governing ecosystem response. Empirical evidence and the model demonstrate that with multi-factored change, the ecosystem response depends on community feedbacks, and that the magnitude of ecosystem response will depend on the relationship between plant response to one factor and plant response to another factor. Tradeoffs in the ability of plants to respond positively to, or to tolerate, different global change drivers may underlie generalizable patterns of covariance in responses to different drivers of change across plant taxa. Mechanistic understanding of these patterns will help predict the community feedbacks that determine

  12. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Efigênia F.; Vargas, Andréa Maria D.; Castilho, Lia S.; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M.; Fantinel, Lucia M.; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N. G.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p < 0.05). No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value. PMID:20948951

  13. Operational factors of air service to small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using 30-passenger jet aircraft to service low density, short haul markets was analyzed. Aircraft characteristics, market potential, and economic factors were among the areas evaluated.

  14. Effect of inoculum conditioning on hydrogen fermentation and pH effect on bacterial community relevant to hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Kawagoshi, Yasunori; Hino, Naoe; Fujimoto, Aya; Nakao, Masaharu; Fujita, Yukiko; Sugimura, Seiji; Furukawa, Kenji

    2005-11-01

    The effect of conditioning for a variety of inoculums on fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. In addition, the effects of pH condition on hydrogen fermentation and bacterial community were investigated. The effect of conditioning on hydrogen production was different depending on the inoculum types. An appreciable hydrogen production was shown with anaerobic digested sludge and lake sediment without conditioning, however, no hydrogen was produced when refuse compost and kiwi grove soil were used as inoculums without conditioning. The highest hydrogen production was obtained with heat-conditioned anaerobic digested sludge, almost the same production was also obtained with unconditioned digested sludge. The pH condition considerably affected hydrogen fermentation, hydrogen gas was efficiently produced with unconditioned anaerobic sludge when the pH was controlled at 6.0 throughout the culture period and not when only the initial pH was adjusted to 6.0 and 7.0. Hydrogen production decreased when the culture pH was only adjusted at the beginning of each batch in continuous batch culture, and additionally, bacterial community varied with the change in hydrogen production. It was suggested that Clostridium and Coprothermobacter species played important role in hydrogen fermentation, and Lactobacillus species had an adverse effect on hydrogen production.

  15. Analisys of the therapeutic factors in the Therapeutic Community Podsused among the war related diagnosis and the others.

    PubMed

    Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Sakoman, Mirna Pandzic; Bosak, Josipa; Stipic, N

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic community/TC/ is a sociotherapeutic method that uses sociotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic techniques for various mental disorders. In Croatia, during and after the war many war veterans have been in treatment through TC and many of them still participate in it. Majority of them were diagnosed with PTSD diagnosis, but some of them also had other diagnosis, e.g. depression, paranoid delusion, etc. In this paper we describe principles of TC that we use in Croatia and we also try to find out which curative factors of TC are the most important for this population. We applied semistructured intervju based on Yalom book of practice and theory of psychotherapy to explore what factors do war veterans find the most important and relevant for their resilience and better coping with everyday issues.

  16. Clinical relevance of and risk factors for HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia: results of an outbreak investigation

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Ilka; Gottlieb, Jens; Meier, Astrid; Sohr, Dorit; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Henke-Gendo, Cornelia; Gastmeier, Petra; Welte, Tobias; Schulz, Thomas Friedrich; Mattner, Frauke

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 was identified in respiratory specimens from a cluster of eight patients on a surgical intensive care unit within 8 weeks. Six of these patients suffered from HSV-related tracheobronchitis and one from HSV-related pneumonia only. Our outbreak investigation aimed to determine the clinical relevance of and risk factors associated with HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia in critically ill patients, and to investigate whether the cluster was caused by nosocomial transmission. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for the outcomes of HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia and death using univariable analysis as well as logistic regression analysis. Viruses were typed by molecular analysis of a fragment of the HSV type 1 glycoprotein G. Results The cohort of patients covering the outbreak period comprised 53 patients, including six patients with HSV-related tracheobronchitis and one patient with pneumonia only. HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia was associated with increased mortality (100% in patients with versus 17.8% in patients without HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia; P < 0.0001). The interaction of longer duration of ventilation and tracheotomy was associated with HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia in multivariable analysis. Identical HSV type 1 glycoprotein G sequences were found in three patients and in two patients. The group of three identical viral sequences belonged to a widely circulating strain. The two identical viral sequences were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavages of one patient with HSV-related tracheobronchitis and of one patient without clinical symptoms. These viral sequences showed unique polymorphisms, indicating probable nosocomial transmission. Conclusion HSV-related tracheobronchitis or pneumonia is associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. Care should be taken to avoid nosocomial transmission and

  17. Which intervention design factors influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kok, Maryse C; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kane, Sumit S; Ormel, Hermen; Tijm, Mandy M; de Koning, Korrie A M

    2015-11-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors influence CHW performance. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention design related factors influencing performance of CHWs. We systematically searched six databases for quantitative and qualitative studies that included CHWs working in promotional, preventive or curative primary health services in LMICs. One hundred and forty studies met the inclusion criteria, were quality assessed and double read to extract data relevant to the design of CHW programmes. A preliminary framework containing factors influencing CHW performance and characteristics of CHW performance (such as motivation and competencies) guided the literature search and review.A mix of financial and non-financial incentives, predictable for the CHWs, was found to be an effective strategy to enhance performance, especially of those CHWs with multiple tasks. Performance-based financial incentives sometimes resulted in neglect of unpaid tasks. Intervention designs which involved frequent supervision and continuous training led to better CHW performance in certain settings. Supervision and training were often mentioned as facilitating factors, but few studies tested which approach worked best or how these were best implemented. Embedment of CHWs in community and health systems was found to diminish workload and increase CHW credibility. Clearly defined CHW roles and introduction of clear processes for communication among different levels of the health system could strengthen CHW performance.When designing community-based health programmes, factors that increased CHW performance in comparable settings should be taken into account. Additional intervention research to develop a better evidence base for the most effective training and supervision mechanisms and qualitative research to inform

  18. Incident sexually transmitted infections and their risk factors in an Aboriginal community in Australia: a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, P; Law, M; Torzillo, P; Kaldor, J

    2001-01-01

    website extra Extended tables can be found on the STI website www.sextransinf.com Objective: To identify risk factors for incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a remote Aboriginal community in Australia. Design: A population based cohort study. Setting: An Aboriginal community in central Australia. Participants: 1034 Aboriginal people aged 12–40 years, resident in the study region, seen during the period 1 January 1996 to 30 June 1998 for STI diagnosis. Main outcome measures: Incident rate of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis per 100 person years. Results: There were 313 episodes of incident gonorrhoea, 240 of incident chlamydial infection, and 17 of incident syphilis. For gonorrhoea, risk factors were age, substance abuse, and previous prevalent chlamydial infection with a rate ratio (RR) of 3.2 in people aged 15–19 years, 1.6 in people who abused alcohol, and 3.2 in women who had sniffed petrol on a regular basis. For chlamydia, risk factors were sex, age, and a previous history of STI with a RR of 2.7 in people aged 15–19 years. Similar factors were associated with an increased risk of syphilis but the associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study identified objective predictors of incident STI which can be used to target interventions and maximise their impact. The results of this study may well have relevance to indigenous communities in other countries that are faced with high levels of STI and substance abuse. Key Words: Aborigines; sexually transmitted infections; risk factors; Australia PMID:11158687

  19. Which intervention design factors influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Maryse C; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline EW; Kane, Sumit S; Ormel, Hermen; Tijm, Mandy M; de Koning, Korrie AM

    2015-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors influence CHW performance. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention design related factors influencing performance of CHWs. We systematically searched six databases for quantitative and qualitative studies that included CHWs working in promotional, preventive or curative primary health services in LMICs. One hundred and forty studies met the inclusion criteria, were quality assessed and double read to extract data relevant to the design of CHW programmes. A preliminary framework containing factors influencing CHW performance and characteristics of CHW performance (such as motivation and competencies) guided the literature search and review. A mix of financial and non-financial incentives, predictable for the CHWs, was found to be an effective strategy to enhance performance, especially of those CHWs with multiple tasks. Performance-based financial incentives sometimes resulted in neglect of unpaid tasks. Intervention designs which involved frequent supervision and continuous training led to better CHW performance in certain settings. Supervision and training were often mentioned as facilitating factors, but few studies tested which approach worked best or how these were best implemented. Embedment of CHWs in community and health systems was found to diminish workload and increase CHW credibility. Clearly defined CHW roles and introduction of clear processes for communication among different levels of the health system could strengthen CHW performance. When designing community-based health programmes, factors that increased CHW performance in comparable settings should be taken into account. Additional intervention research to develop a better evidence base for the most effective training and supervision mechanisms and qualitative research to

  20. Emission of climate-relevant trace gases and succession of microbial communities during open-windrow composting

    SciTech Connect

    Hellmann, B.; Zelles, L.; Palojaervi, A.; Bai, Q.

    1997-03-01

    Municipal solid-waste composting is a process of increasing importance, based primarily on augmentation of microbial activity. The composting of organic matter leads not only to a reduction in waste but a sensible recycling of residuals to their origin. Carbon dioxide derived from plant matter degradation does not contribute to global warming. However, emitted nitrous oxide and methane molecules contribute to the enhancement of the greenhouse effect. This study determined a wide variety of microbial properties during the composting processes at a whole windrow level and quantified the emission rates of the climate relevant trace gases, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane during the course of maturation of a compost row. 47 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Preliminary assessment of factors influencing riverine fish communities in Massachusetts.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MDCR), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP), and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game (MDFG), conducted a preliminary investigation of fish communities in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this investigation was to determine relations between fish-community characteristics and anthropogenic alteration, including flow alteration and impervious cover, relative to the effect of physical basin and land-cover (environmental) characteristics. Fish data were obtained for 756 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select a set of fish metrics responsive to flow alteration. Fish metrics tested include two fish-community metrics (fluvial-fish relative abundance and fluvial-fish species richness), and five indicator species metrics (relative abundance of brook trout, blacknose dace, fallfish, white sucker, and redfin pickerel). Streamflows were simulated for each fish-sampling site using the Sustainable Yield Estimator application (SYE). Daily streamflows and the SYE water-use database were used to determine a set of indicators of flow alteration, including percent alteration of August median flow, water-use intensity, and withdrawal and return-flow fraction. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine a set of environmental characteristics, including elevation, basin slope, percent sand and gravel, percent wetland, and percent open water, and a set of anthropogenic-alteration variables, including impervious cover and dam density. Two analytical techniques, quantile regression and generalized linear modeling, were applied to determine the association between fish-response variables and the selected environmental and

  2. Soil Microbial Community Responses to Long-Term Global Change Factors in a California Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, K.; Peay, K.

    2015-12-01

    Soil fungal and bacterial communities act as mediators of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycling, and interact with the aboveground plant community as both pathogens and mutualists. However, these soil microbial communities are sensitive to changes in their environment. A better understanding of the response of soil microbial communities to global change may help to predict future soil microbial diversity, and assist in creating more comprehensive models of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles. This study examines the effects of four global change factors (increased temperature, increased variability in precipitation, nitrogen deposition, and CO2 enrichment) on soil microbial communities at the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE), a full-factorial global change manipulative experiment on three hectares of California grassland. While similar studies have examined the effects of global change on soil microbial communities, few have manipulated more factors or been longer in duration than the JRGCE, which began field treatments in 1998. We find that nitrogen deposition, CO2 enrichment, and increased variability in precipitation significantly affect the structure of both fungal and bacterial communities, and explain more of the variation in the community structures than do local soil chemistry or aboveground plant community. Fungal richness is correlated positively with soil nitrogen content and negatively with soil water content. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which associate closely with herbaceous plants' roots and assist in nutrient uptake, decrease in both richness and relative abundance in elevated CO2 treatments.

  3. Analyzing the Role of Community and Individual Factors in Food Insecurity: Identifying Diverse Barriers Across Clustered Community Members.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Becca B R; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Colpaart, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    This paper uses the results from a community food security assessment survey of 684 residents and three focus groups in Pueblo County, Colorado to examine the question: what community and individual factors contribute to or alleviate food insecurity, and are these factors consistent throughout a sub-county population. Importantly, we use a technique called cluster analysis to endogenously determine the key factors pertinent to food access and fruit and vegetable consumption. Our results show significant heterogeneity among sub-population clusters in terms of the community and individual factors that would make it easier to get access to fruits and vegetables. We find two distinct clusters of food insecure populations: the first was significantly less likely to identify increased access to fruits and vegetables proximate to where they live or work as a way to improve their household's healthy food consumption despite being significantly less likely to utilize a personal vehicle to get to the store; the second group did not report significant challenges with access, rather with affordability. We conclude that though interventions focused on improving the local food retail environment may be important for some subsamples of the food insecure population, it is unclear that proximity to a store with healthy food will support enhanced food security for all. We recommend that future research recognizes that determinants of food insecurity may vary within county or zip code level regions, and that multiple interventions that target sub-population clusters may elicit better improvements in access to and consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  4. The helping relationship in the community setting: the relevance of Rogerian theory to the supervision of Project 2000 students.

    PubMed

    Hallett, C E

    1997-12-01

    A series of twenty-six interviews, fourteen with district nursing sisters and twelve with students they supervised, was conducted in 1992 in one Project 2000 demonstration district in England. The data were collected as part of an English National Board funded research study; data were reinterpreted in 1994 and formed one element in the author's PhD thesis. Participants described the ways in which a supervisor might enable a student to learn during a community placement. One of the most important means by which supervisors could provide assistance was by creating an environment in which the students felt supported. Students described how supervisors demonstrated concern, acceptance and understanding, attributes which bore striking resemblance to the qualities of congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding identified by Carl Rogers as enabling learning.

  5. The helping relationship in the community setting: the relevance of Rogerian theory to the supervision of Project 2000 students.

    PubMed

    Hallett, C E

    1997-12-01

    A series of twenty-six interviews, fourteen with district nursing sisters and twelve with students they supervised, was conducted in 1992 in one Project 2000 demonstration district in England. The data were collected as part of an English National Board funded research study; data were reinterpreted in 1994 and formed one element in the author's PhD thesis. Participants described the ways in which a supervisor might enable a student to learn during a community placement. One of the most important means by which supervisors could provide assistance was by creating an environment in which the students felt supported. Students described how supervisors demonstrated concern, acceptance and understanding, attributes which bore striking resemblance to the qualities of congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding identified by Carl Rogers as enabling learning. PMID:9559391

  6. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds

  7. [Relationships between characteristics of ground bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Pi, Chun-yan; Tian, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on bryophyte species composition, species diversity and the relationship between bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing City, by using biodiversity indices and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), based on the data of 44 plots. The results revealed that 86 species belonging to 43 genera and 25 families were found in saxicolous bryophyte communities, while 46 species belonging to 28 genera and 22 families were found in terricolous ones. The diversity indices of both saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities from campuses were higher than those of parks, natural scenic resorts, Jinyunshan National Nature Reserve. TWINSPAN classified saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities into three and two groups, respectively. CCA results showed canopy density was the major environmental factor of saxicolous bryophyte communities influencing bryophyte distribution in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. Soil pH, canopy density and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in terricolous bryophyte communities in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and water content of the soil were the major environmental factors in those of natural scenic resorts and nature reserve.

  8. [Relationships between characteristics of ground bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Pi, Chun-yan; Tian, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on bryophyte species composition, species diversity and the relationship between bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing City, by using biodiversity indices and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), based on the data of 44 plots. The results revealed that 86 species belonging to 43 genera and 25 families were found in saxicolous bryophyte communities, while 46 species belonging to 28 genera and 22 families were found in terricolous ones. The diversity indices of both saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities from campuses were higher than those of parks, natural scenic resorts, Jinyunshan National Nature Reserve. TWINSPAN classified saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities into three and two groups, respectively. CCA results showed canopy density was the major environmental factor of saxicolous bryophyte communities influencing bryophyte distribution in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. Soil pH, canopy density and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in terricolous bryophyte communities in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and water content of the soil were the major environmental factors in those of natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. PMID:26995924

  9. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  10. Factors that Promote Progression in Schools Functioning as Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclerc, Martine; Moreau, Andre C.; Dumouchel, Catherine; Sallafranque-St-Louis, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify factors that influence the functioning of a school working as a Professional Learning Community (PLC) and to analyze the links between these factors and the school's progression. This research was developed within the context of an interpretative research paradigm. The primary data collection tool…

  11. Evaluating Iowa Community College Student Demographics, Characteristics, Enrollment Factors, and Educational Goals Influence on Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…

  12. Economic and Social Factors in Mate Selection: An Ethnographic Analysis of an Agricultural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Brown, Karen; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the impact of a variety of causal factors--economic, social, familial, and dyadic--on ethnoreligious marriages over 50 years in an Illinois agricultural community. Indicated that economic and social factors were more powerful influences in mate selection than is evident in much of the current research on premarital relationships.…

  13. Factors predicting drop-out in community mental health centres

    PubMed Central

    RENESES, BLANCA; MUÑOZ, ELENA; LÓPEZ-IBOR, JUAN JOSÉ

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify treatment, therapist and patient factors associated with dropping out of treatment in four outpatient mental health services. The experimental group comprised all 789 individuals who attended for the first time the mental health services during one year and dropped out of treatment in the same year or during the two following ones. The control group consisted of the same number of individuals, chosen at random from patients who, in the same year, attended for the first time the services and did not subsequently drop out of treatment. The overall drop-out rate was 33.2%. According to logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of dropping out were: being treated in a particular centre, the involvement of more than one therapist in treatment, having no previous history of psychiatric disorders, being young and being male. PMID:19812755

  14. Non-motor Factors Associated with the Attainment of Community Ambulation after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Milene Silva; Chamlian, Therezinha Rosane; França, Carolina Nunes; Massaro, Ayrton Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Detect the main predictive non-motor factors related to independent community ambulation after stroke. Furthermore, we propose a scale to estimate the probability of a stroke patient achieving independent community ambulation after 6 months of rehabilitation. Design and Settings Prospective cohort. Subjects treated in a rehabilitation center in a large metropolitan area. Independent community ambulation was evaluated after rehabilitation according to the Hoffer classification. Functional ambulation was assessed at four levels: nonambulatory, nonfunctional ambulation, household ambulation, and community ambulation. Participants Patients (n=201) with a moderate disability after stroke. Results The average time of hospitalization was 19.3 days. However, only 32.8% of the patients started the rehabilitation program during the first 6 months after stroke. We found that 121 patients achieved community ambulation (60.2%), 40 achieved household ambulation (19.9%), 12 achieved therapeutic ambulation (5.9%), and 28 were non-ambulatory after 6 months of treatment. Based on our final model, a scoring scale was created in order to evaluate the probability of stroke patients achieving independent community ambulation after 6 months of rehabilitation. Higher scores were associated with better chances of community ambulation within 6 months. Conclusions The scale that evaluated these factors proved to have acceptable sensitivity and specificity to establish the prognosis of community ambulation after 6 months of rehabilitation. PMID:25380611

  15. Environmental and ecological factors that shape the gut bacterial communities of fish: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sullam, Karen E; Essinger, Steven D; Lozupone, Catherine A; O'Connor, Michael P; Rosen, Gail L; Knight, Rob; Kilham, Susan S; Russell, Jacob A

    2012-07-01

    Symbiotic bacteria often help their hosts acquire nutrients from their diet, showing trends of co-evolution and independent acquisition by hosts from the same trophic levels. While these trends hint at important roles for biotic factors, the effects of the abiotic environment on symbiotic community composition remain comparably understudied. In this investigation, we examined the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the gut bacterial communities of fish from different taxa, trophic levels and habitats. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of 25 16S rRNA libraries revealed that salinity, trophic level and possibly host phylogeny shape the composition of fish gut bacteria. When analysed alongside bacterial communities from other environments, fish gut communities typically clustered with gut communities from mammals and insects. Similar consideration of individual phylotypes (vs. communities) revealed evolutionary ties between fish gut microbes and symbionts of animals, as many of the bacteria from the guts of herbivorous fish were closely related to those from mammals. Our results indicate that fish harbour more specialized gut communities than previously recognized. They also highlight a trend of convergent acquisition of similar bacterial communities by fish and mammals, raising the possibility that fish were the first to evolve symbioses resembling those found among extant gut fermenting mammals.

  16. Environmental and ecological factors that shape the gut bacterial communities of fish: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sullam, Karen E.; Essinger, Steven D.; Lozupone, Catherine A.; O’Connor, Michael P.; Rosen, Gail L.; Knight, Rob; Kilham, Susan S.; Russell, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria often help their hosts acquire nutrients from their diet, showing trends of co-evolution and independent acquisition by hosts from the same trophic levels. While these trends hint at important roles for biotic factors, the effects of the abiotic environment on symbiotic community composition remain comparably understudied. In this investigation, we examined the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the gut bacterial communities of fish from different taxa, trophic levels and habitats. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of 25 16S rRNA libraries revealed that salinity, trophic level and possibly host phylogeny shape the composition of fish gut bacteria. When analysed alongside bacterial communities from other environments, fish gut communities typically clustered with gut communities from mammals and insects. Similar consideration of individual phylotypes (vs. communities) revealed evolutionary ties between fish gut microbes and symbionts of animals, as many of the bacteria from the guts of herbivorous fish were closely related to those from mammals. Our results indicate that fish harbour more specialized gut communities than previously recognized. They also highlight a trend of convergent acquisition of similar bacterial communities by fish and mammals, raising the possibility that fish were the first to evolve symbioses resembling those found among extant gut fermenting mammals. PMID:22486918

  17. Preliminary study of blood methylmercury effects on reproductive hormones and relevant factors among infertile and pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiao-Ling; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Chen, Po-Hsi; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most poisonous mercury species and an endocrine-disrupting chemical that could cause reproductive and developmental harm effects in animals. In this study, we recruited 310 infertile women and 57 pregnant women and investigated their blood MeHg levels. The distribution of blood reproductive hormone, selenium and zinc levels, and the difference of relevant factors by the reference level of blood MeHg (5.8 μg/L) of infertile women were further examined. Results showed that greater percentages of sashimi consumption, frequencies of Chinese herbal medicine use, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity were observed in infertile women than those for pregnant women. Blood MeHg concentration was significantly greater in infertile than that in pregnant women. Significant concentration differences for FSH and LH by the dichotomized reference level of blood MeHg (5.8 μg/L) in infertile women were not observed, which may stem from that these reproductive hormones in participated infertile women were mostly in the normal reference range. Consumption of fish and sashimi represented the major source of MeHg exposure in infertile women. MeHg levels were elevated in infertile women, and consistent with fish consumption frequency. Compared to the referent level of blood MeHg levels <5.8 μg/L, the elevated blood MeHg levels (⩾5.8 μg/L) in infertile women were 3.35 and 4.42 folds risk in categorized frequencies of fish consumption 1-2 meals per week and more than 3 meals per week, respectively. The obtained results provide evidences and help updating the advisory of fish consumption and improving women's reproductive health. PMID:26002048

  18. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  19. Influence of geogenic factors on microbial communities in metallogenic Australian soils

    PubMed Central

    Reith, Frank; Brugger, Joel; Zammit, Carla M; Gregg, Adrienne L; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Andersen, Gary L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    Links between microbial community assemblages and geogenic factors were assessed in 187 soil samples collected from four metal-rich provinces across Australia. Field-fresh soils and soils incubated with soluble Au(III) complexes were analysed using three-domain multiplex-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phylogenetic (PhyloChip) and functional (GeoChip) microarrays. Geogenic factors of soils were determined using lithological-, geomorphological- and soil-mapping combined with analyses of 51 geochemical parameters. Microbial communities differed significantly between landforms, soil horizons, lithologies and also with the occurrence of underlying Au deposits. The strongest responses to these factors, and to amendment with soluble Au(III) complexes, was observed in bacterial communities. PhyloChip analyses revealed a greater abundance and diversity of Alphaproteobacteria (especially Sphingomonas spp.), and Firmicutes (Bacillus spp.) in Au-containing and Au(III)-amended soils. Analyses of potential function (GeoChip) revealed higher abundances of metal-resistance genes in metal-rich soils. For example, genes that hybridised with metal-resistance genes copA, chrA and czcA of a prevalent aurophillic bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, occurred only in auriferous soils. These data help establish key links between geogenic factors and the phylogeny and function within soil microbial communities. In particular, the landform, which is a crucial factor in determining soil geochemistry, strongly affected microbial community structures. PMID:22673626

  20. Influence of geogenic factors on microbial communities in metallogenic Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Brugger, Joel; Zammit, Carla M; Gregg, Adrienne L; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Andersen, Gary L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Links between microbial community assemblages and geogenic factors were assessed in 187 soil samples collected from four metal-rich provinces across Australia. Field-fresh soils and soils incubated with soluble Au(III) complexes were analysed using three-domain multiplex-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phylogenetic (PhyloChip) and functional (GeoChip) microarrays. Geogenic factors of soils were determined using lithological-, geomorphological- and soil-mapping combined with analyses of 51 geochemical parameters. Microbial communities differed significantly between landforms, soil horizons, lithologies and also with the occurrence of underlying Au deposits. The strongest responses to these factors, and to amendment with soluble Au(III) complexes, was observed in bacterial communities. PhyloChip analyses revealed a greater abundance and diversity of Alphaproteobacteria (especially Sphingomonas spp.), and Firmicutes (Bacillus spp.) in Au-containing and Au(III)-amended soils. Analyses of potential function (GeoChip) revealed higher abundances of metal-resistance genes in metal-rich soils. For example, genes that hybridised with metal-resistance genes copA, chrA and czcA of a prevalent aurophillic bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, occurred only in auriferous soils. These data help establish key links between geogenic factors and the phylogeny and function within soil microbial communities. In particular, the landform, which is a crucial factor in determining soil geochemistry, strongly affected microbial community structures. PMID:22673626

  1. Factor Structure and Reliability of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales' (CTS2) 10-Factor Model in a Community-Based Female Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Sung Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure and reliability of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales' (CTS2) 10-factor model in a community-based female sample (N = 261). The underlying factor structure of the 10-factor model was tested by the confirmatory multiple group factor analysis, which demonstrated complex factor cross-loadings…

  2. Community coalitions for prevention and health promotion: factors predicting satisfaction, participation, and planning.

    PubMed

    Butterfoss, F D; Goodman, R M; Wandersman, A

    1996-02-01

    Coalitions currently are a popular tool for promoting community-based solutions to health problems, such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) abuse. Private foundations, granting agencies, and other public health organizations assume that participation of community members in health promotion coalitions will increase the likelihood of program success. This article examines whether key characteristics of coalitions are related to effectiveness as measured by member satisfaction, commitment to the coalition, and the quality of planning efforts. Member survey data from the first year evaluation of an ATOD coalition were analyzed using factor analysis, chi-square, and multiple regression techniques at both the individual and group levels. The results suggest that community leadership, shared decision making, linkages with other organizations, and a positive organizational climate were key determinants of member satisfaction and participation. These same factors were not related to the quality of coalition plans. However, the significance of coalitions for community empowerment and health promotion is discussed.

  3. Defining Community Disaster Preparedness as a Resilience Factor for Earthquake Risk Assessment in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungay, B.; Durukal, E.; Kilic, O.; Konukcu, B.; Basmaci, A. E.; Khazai, B.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The natural events such as earthquakes turn out to be disasters as a result of not only the poor conditions of the built area and infrastructure, but also affected by the socioeconomic fragility and lack of resilience of the community exposed. Likewise, resilience factors play role in increasing the ability of people to cope with hazards. Social resilience is the capacity of social groups and communities to recover from, or respond positively to, crises. Emergency management plans must recognize and build on this capacity, and that improved indicators of social resilience should receive priority consideration in the application of these plans. The physical risk factors and their damage assessment have been pointed out in previous earthquake risk assessment and scenario studies conducted by Bogazici University and OYO International. A rational assessment of the risk aggravating factors is essential in order to reach to a more complete coverage of the overall risk. It would also introduce the social factors that need to be reduced or strengthened through public policies and actions in order to increase the resilience of the community. With experience from several social studies conducted under CENDIM, Kandilli Observatory & Earthquake Research Institute's Disaster Preparedness Education Unit, and research of the studies conducted by several other national and international institutions, we are defining the community disaster preparedness as an indicator for resilience. Social resilience is understood to have two important properties: resistance, recovery. Resistance relates to a community's efforts to withstand a disaster and its consequences whereas recovery relates to a community's ability to coming back to its pre-disaster level of "normalcy". Researches also indicate that the need for local-level and community-based approaches is recognized in achieving sustainable hazard risk reduction. We will conceptually discuss the description and assessment of the community

  4. Temporal trends in earth-atmosphere system reflectance factor for sagebrush steppe vegetation communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    1987-01-01

    Four consecutive Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper acquisitions were used to examine trends in earth-atmosphere system reflectance factors of sagebrush steppe vegetation communities following soil moisture recharge from snow melt. Significant differences in trends between vegetation communities correspond to known differences in the initiation and duration of active vegetation growth. Information on short-term vegetation processes are a valuable supplement to estimates of total vegetation cover which can be obtained using satellite brightness images at less frequent temporal intervals.

  5. Engaging a Community in Developing an Entertainment–Education Spanish-Language Radio Novella Aimed at Reducing Chronic Disease Risk Factors, Alabama, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Massingale, Shermetria; Bowen, Michelle; Kohler, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Background US Hispanics have disproportionate rates of diabetes and other chronic diseases. We used the entertainment–education approach to develop a Spanish-language radio novella aimed at reducing risk factors for diabetes, obesity, and tobacco use. The approach is based on social cognitive theory and proposes modeling as a source of vicarious learning of outcome and efficacy expectations. Community Context The Hispanic population in Alabama increased by 145% between 2000 and 2010. Nearly one-quarter of Hispanics aged 18 to 64 live below the federal poverty level, and 49% are uninsured. Several lifestyle factors lead to poor health behaviors in this community. Radio is a popular medium among Hispanic immigrants. The single local Spanish-language radio station reaches a large proportion of the local community and several communities beyond. Methods Through various methods, including workshops, review sessions, and other feedback mechanisms, we engaged stakeholders and community members in developing and evaluating a 48-episode radio novella to be broadcast as part of a variety show. We tracked participation of community members in all phases. Outcome Community members participated significantly in developing, broadcasting, and evaluating the intervention. The desired outcome — development of a culturally relevant storyline that addresses salient health issues and resonates with the community — was realized. Interpretation Our approach to community engagement can serve as a model for other organizations wishing to use community-based participatory methods in addressing Hispanic health issues. The radio novella was a unique approach for addressing health disparities among our community’s Hispanic population. PMID:22863307

  6. Factors Associated with Community Participation among Individuals Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng-Hang; Helfrich, Christine A.; Coster, Wendy J.; Rogers, E. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Community participation is an important goal for people who have experienced homelessness. The aim of this study was to use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework to examine factors associated with community participation among people who are homeless or recently housed through housing programs. Participants (n = 120) recruited from six housing placement and search programs completed measures of community participation (including productivity, social and leisure, and community-services-use domains), psychiatric and physical symptoms, functional limitations, and a demographic form. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of overall community participation and subdomain scores. Results suggested that cognitive and mobility limitations, relationship status, and housing status significantly predicted both overall participation and participation in productivity and social and leisure subdomains. Participants who were housed through housing programs, who had cognitive and mobility limitations, and who were single showed less community participation. The findings suggest that activity limitations and environmental and personal factors may need to be addressed in efforts to enhance community participation in this population. PMID:26378558

  7. Sustained Implementation of Evidence-based Programs in Disadvantaged Communities: A Conceptual Framework of Supporting Factors.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a review of the empirical literature for studies evaluating factors that facilitate and create barriers to sustained program implementation in disadvantaged communities. It outlines study methodology and sustainment outcomes and proposes a conceptual model that involves implementation sustainment support for providers delivering evidence-based health and family services in disadvantaged communities. Sustained program implementation in the community setting is a significant issue as only 43% of studies reported successfully sustained programs. The review identified 18 factors that facilitate success and create barriers to program sustainment. The factors are synthesized into three themes; program characteristics, workplace capacity, and process and interaction factors. The majority of factors map onto commonly cited sustainability influences in implementation science. However, there was an additional focus for studies included in this review on the importance of factors such as program burden, program familiarity and perceived competence in program skills, workplace support for the program, staff mobility and turnover, supervision and peer support, and ongoing technical assistance. The need to use a conceptual framework and develop measures to guide and evaluate capacity building in EBP implementation and sustainment in low-resource community settings is highlighted. PMID:27624514

  8. Factors that influence the beta-diversity of spider communities in northwestern Argentinean Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Artigas, Sandra M; Ballester, Rodrigo; Corronca, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Beta-diversity, defined as spatial replacement in species composition, is crucial to the understanding of how local communities assemble. These changes can be driven by environmental or geographic factors (such as geographic distance), or a combination of the two. Spiders have been shown to be good indicators of environmental quality. Accordingly, spiders are used in this work as model taxa to establish whether there is a decrease in community similarity that corresponds to geographic distance in the grasslands of the Campos & Malezales ecoregion (Corrientes). Furthermore, the influence of climactic factors and local vegetation heterogeneity (environmental factors) on assemblage composition was evaluated. Finally, this study evaluated whether the differential dispersal capacity of spider families is a factor that influences their community structure at a regional scale. Spiders were collected with a G-Vac from vegetation in six grassland sites in the Campos & Malezales ecoregion that were separated by a minimum of 13 km. With this data, the impact of alpha-diversity and different environmental variables on the beta-diversity of spider communities was analysed. Likewise, the importance of species replacement and nesting on beta-diversity and their contribution to the regional diversity of spider families with different dispersion capacities was evaluated. The regional and site-specific inventories obtained were complete. The similarity between spider communities declined as the geographic distance between sites increased. Environmental variables also influenced community composition; stochastic events and abiotic forces were the principal intervening factors in assembly structure. The differential dispersal capacity of spider groups also influenced community structure at a regional scale. The regional beta-diversity, as well as species replacement, was greater in high and intermediate vagility spiders; while nesting was greater in spiders with low dispersion

  9. Factors that influence the beta-diversity of spider communities in northwestern Argentinean Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Artigas, Sandra M.; Ballester, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Beta-diversity, defined as spatial replacement in species composition, is crucial to the understanding of how local communities assemble. These changes can be driven by environmental or geographic factors (such as geographic distance), or a combination of the two. Spiders have been shown to be good indicators of environmental quality. Accordingly, spiders are used in this work as model taxa to establish whether there is a decrease in community similarity that corresponds to geographic distance in the grasslands of the Campos & Malezales ecoregion (Corrientes). Furthermore, the influence of climactic factors and local vegetation heterogeneity (environmental factors) on assemblage composition was evaluated. Finally, this study evaluated whether the differential dispersal capacity of spider families is a factor that influences their community structure at a regional scale. Spiders were collected with a G-Vac from vegetation in six grassland sites in the Campos & Malezales ecoregion that were separated by a minimum of 13 km. With this data, the impact of alpha-diversity and different environmental variables on the beta-diversity of spider communities was analysed. Likewise, the importance of species replacement and nesting on beta-diversity and their contribution to the regional diversity of spider families with different dispersion capacities was evaluated. The regional and site-specific inventories obtained were complete. The similarity between spider communities declined as the geographic distance between sites increased. Environmental variables also influenced community composition; stochastic events and abiotic forces were the principal intervening factors in assembly structure. The differential dispersal capacity of spider groups also influenced community structure at a regional scale. The regional beta-diversity, as well as species replacement, was greater in high and intermediate vagility spiders; while nesting was greater in spiders with low dispersion

  10. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks.

  11. Geogenic Factors as Drivers of Microbial Community Diversity in Soils Overlying Polymetallic Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Carla M.; Pohrib, Rebecca; Gregg, Adrienne L.; Wakelin, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the geogenic factors landform, lithology, and underlying mineral deposits (expressed by elevated metal concentrations in overlying soils) are key drivers of microbial community diversity in naturally metal-rich Australian soils with different land uses, i.e., agriculture versus natural bushland. One hundred sixty-eight soil samples were obtained from two metal-rich provinces in Australia, i.e., the Fifield Au-Pt field (New South Wales) and the Hillside Cu-Au-U rare-earth-element (REE) deposit (South Australia). Soils were analyzed using three-domain multiplex terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (M-TRFLP) and PhyloChip microarrays. Geogenic factors were determined using field-mapping techniques and analyses of >50 geochemical parameters. At Fifield, microbial communities differed significantly with geogenic factors and equally with land use (P < 0.05). At Hillside, communities in surface soils (0.03- to 0.2-m depth) differed significantly with landform and land use (P < 0.05). Communities in deeper soils (>0.2 m) differed significantly with lithology and mineral deposit (P < 0.05). Across both sites, elevated metal contents in soils overlying mineral deposits were selective for a range of bacterial taxa, most importantly Acidobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. In conclusion, long-term geogenic factors can be just as important as land use in determining soil microbial community diversity. PMID:26341204

  12. Geogenic Factors as Drivers of Microbial Community Diversity in Soils Overlying Polymetallic Deposits.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M; Pohrib, Rebecca; Gregg, Adrienne L; Wakelin, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    This study shows that the geogenic factors landform, lithology, and underlying mineral deposits (expressed by elevated metal concentrations in overlying soils) are key drivers of microbial community diversity in naturally metal-rich Australian soils with different land uses, i.e., agriculture versus natural bushland. One hundred sixty-eight soil samples were obtained from two metal-rich provinces in Australia, i.e., the Fifield Au-Pt field (New South Wales) and the Hillside Cu-Au-U rare-earth-element (REE) deposit (South Australia). Soils were analyzed using three-domain multiplex terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (M-TRFLP) and PhyloChip microarrays. Geogenic factors were determined using field-mapping techniques and analyses of >50 geochemical parameters. At Fifield, microbial communities differed significantly with geogenic factors and equally with land use (P < 0.05). At Hillside, communities in surface soils (0.03- to 0.2-m depth) differed significantly with landform and land use (P < 0.05). Communities in deeper soils (>0.2 m) differed significantly with lithology and mineral deposit (P < 0.05). Across both sites, elevated metal contents in soils overlying mineral deposits were selective for a range of bacterial taxa, most importantly Acidobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. In conclusion, long-term geogenic factors can be just as important as land use in determining soil microbial community diversity. PMID:26341204

  13. Young, Black, and Male in Foster Care: Relationship of Negative Social Contextual Experiences to Factors Relevant to Mental Health Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lionel D.; Davis, Larry E.

    2006-01-01

    Among a small, cross-sectional sample of young Black males transitioning from foster care (n=74), this study explored the relationship of their negative social contextual experiences to two factors relevant to the delivery of mental health services to them: cultural mistrust of mental health professionals and attitudes toward seeking professional…

  14. Inequality and adolescent violence: an exploration of community, family, and individual factors.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study seeks to examine whether the relationships among community, family, individual factors, and violent behavior are parallel across race- and gender-specific segments of the adolescent population. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are analyzed to highlight the complex relationships between inequality, community, family, individual behavior, and violence. RESULTS: The results from robust regression analysis provide evidence that social environmental factors can influence adolescent violence in race- and gender-specific ways. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study establish the plausibility of multidimensional models that specify a complex relationship between inequality and adolescent violence. PMID:15101669

  15. Factors affecting screening for diabetic complications in the community: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that affect screening for diabetic complications by sex in the community. METHODS: This study used individual-level data from the 2013 Community Health Survey (CHS) for 20,806 (male, 9,958; female, 10,848) adults aged 30 years or older who were diagnosed with diabetes. Community-level data for 253 communities were derived from either CHS or national statistics. A chi-square test and multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the rate of screening for diabetic complications according to individual-level and community-level variables. In the multilevel analysis, the community-level variance ratio of the null model was 7.4% and 9.2% for males and females, respectively. With regard to community-level variables, males were affected by the city type, number of physicians, and their living environment, while females were affected by number of physicians, natural and living environments, and public transportation. CONCLUSIONS: The factors that influenced individual willingness to undergo screening for diabetic complications differed slightly by sex; however, both males and females were more likely to undergo screening when they recognized their health status as poor or when they actively sought to manage their health conditions. Moreover, in terms of community-level variables, both males and females were affected by the number of physicians. It is essential to provide sufficient and ongoing opportunities for education on diabetes and its management through collaboration with local communities and primary care medical centers. PMID:27156347

  16. [Shrimp community structure and its influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary during spring and autumn].

    PubMed

    Qi, Hai-Ming; Sun, Yue; Xu, Zhao-Li; Sun, Lu-Feng; Gao, Qian; Que, Jiang-Long; Tian, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Based on the data from two oceanographic surveys during April and October 2010, the spatial and seasonal variations in composition, dominance, and diversity of shrimp communities, as well as the influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary were analyzed. A total of 16 species of shrimp were found, which belonged to 12 families under 8 genera. 14 species of shrimp were found in spring (April) and 12 species in autumn (October). With the employment of index of relative importance (IRI), in spring 6 dominant species were identified, as Acetes chinensis, Alpheus distinguendus, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii, Leptochela gracilis, Alpheus juponicus and Palaemon gravieri, and in autumn 3 dominant species were found as Solenocera crassicornis, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii and Metapenaeus joyneri. Eurythermal and eurysaline shrimp community prevailed in the Jiaojiang River estuary, followed by eurythermal and hyposaline shrimp community. Margalef index (D), Shannon index (H) and Pielou's evenness index were used to evaluate the diversity of shrimp community in the studied area. The stations with higher value of D and H were mainly located in the west of the Dachen Island, whereas the Pielou's evenness index was stable all across the Jiaojiang River estuary. By hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) method, the results indicated that shrimp communities had significant seasonal and spatial variations. Depth was the most important factor that affected variations in the shrimp community structure in the Jiaojiang River estuary.

  17. [Academic discussion of adverse reaction of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ping; Yu, Ming; Wang, Li; Jiang, Xi-ren; Li, Xiao-bin; Wang, Hua-wei; Cao, Ying; Liu, Kai; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-01-01

    Data of clinical trial projects involved by clinical trial institutions certified by the State Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to November 2012 were collected to summarize adverse reactions in project summary/statistical reports, analyze the rate of adverse reactions of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors, and increase the awareness of the safety of new traditional Chinese medicines. A total of 73 050 cases in 209 projects of 14 specialties were collected, including 49 689 cases in the new traditional Chinese medicine group and 271 adverse reaction cases, with an incidence rate of adverse reactions at 0.55%. The adverse reaction rate in 3 months < middle long course ≤ 6 months was the highest (1.04%), whereas that in short course ≤ half a month was the lowest (0.48%). The adverse reaction was closely related with the route of administration, 1.28% for topical > 0.63% for injection > 0.50% for oral. In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate of patches was the highest (2.68%), whereas that of aerosols and suppositories was lowest (0). In the combined administration of the test drug and the simulation agent, the adverse reaction rate of external test patch + capsule was the highest (3.38%), whereas that of capsule + oral liquid, pills + granules, tablets + oral liquid, tablets + pills, tablet + capsule was the lowest (0). In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate was 0.47%; In the combined administration with simulation agent (drug volume increase), the adverse reaction rate was 0.74%. Different doses caused adverse reaction different rates; The adverse reaction rate of drugs with whole-course dose between 1 100-1 200 g was the highest (3.36%), that for whole-course doses of 500-600, 900-1 000, 1 400-1 500, 1 600-1 700, 1 800-1 900 g was the lowest (0). In conclusion, the adverse reaction rate of new traditional Chinese medicines was still up to 0

  18. Evaluation and comparison of benchmark QSAR models to predict a relevant REACH endpoint: The bioconcentration factor (BCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Gissi, Andrea; Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Gadaleta, Domenico; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Nicolotti, Orazio; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-02-15

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is an important bioaccumulation hazard assessment metric in many regulatory contexts. Its assessment is required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and by CLP (Classification, Labeling and Packaging). We challenged nine well-known and widely used BCF QSAR models against 851 compounds stored in an ad-hoc created database. The goodness of the regression analysis was assessed by considering the determination coefficient (R{sup 2}) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE); Cooper's statistics and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) were calculated for all the thresholds relevant for regulatory purposes (i.e. 100 L/kg for Chemical Safety Assessment; 500 L/kg for Classification and Labeling; 2000 and 5000 L/kg for Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) and very Persistent, very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) assessment) to assess the classification, with particular attention to the models' ability to control the occurrence of false negatives. As a first step, statistical analysis was performed for the predictions of the entire dataset; R{sup 2}>0.70 was obtained using CORAL, T.E.S.T. and EPISuite Arnot–Gobas models. As classifiers, ACD and log P-based equations were the best in terms of sensitivity, ranging from 0.75 to 0.94. External compound predictions were carried out for the models that had their own training sets. CORAL model returned the best performance (R{sup 2}{sub ext}=0.59), followed by the EPISuite Meylan model (R{sup 2}{sub ext}=0.58). The latter gave also the highest sensitivity on external compounds with values from 0.55 to 0.85, depending on the thresholds. Statistics were also compiled for compounds falling into the models Applicability Domain (AD), giving better performances. In this respect, VEGA CAESAR was the best model in terms of regression (R{sup 2}=0.94) and classification (average sensitivity>0.80). This model also showed the best regression (R{sup 2

  19. GIS as a community engagement tool: developing a plan to reduce infant mortality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Detres, Maridelys; Lucio, Robert; Vitucci, Judi

    2014-07-01

    This article describes how a community coalition focusing on maternal and child health engages community participation through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, developing strategies that culminate in the implementation of a service delivery plan to improve birth outcomes. Vital statistics data from 2007 to 2009 was analyzed by zip code in Pinellas County Florida to produce choropleth thematic maps using ArcGIS for 3 year rolling average infant deaths and single year percentages for prematurity. The maps were presented at the organization's annual coalition meeting to discuss risk areas, changes over time in the selected indicators and solicit community feedback on how to best target issues addressing infant mortality and prematurity. The maps identified new zip codes of concern for prematurity in addition to known high risk zip codes for both infant mortality and prematurity. The community identified changes in demographic composition and changes in housing patterns, such as new mobile home areas, in the high risk areas. In response, the community assisted the Coalition in developing a holistic plan addressing risk factors affecting birth outcomes by expanding current services, hiring a nutritionist, and contracting a health navigator. When compared to tables and charts, a visual depiction of a neighborhood by recognizable zip codes is a useful tool to help community decision makers better visualize public health concerns and interpret trends based on local knowledge. Public health professionals should use this community knowledge to interpret research results and implement strategies to improve birth outcomes. PMID:23934057

  20. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions. PMID:26184407

  1. New evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Bolíbar, I; Serra-Prat, M; Roig, J; Hospital, I; Carandell, E; Agustí, M; Ayuso, P; Estela, A; Torres, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with special emphasis on modifiable risk factors and those applicable to the general population. A population-based, case-control study was conducted, with a target population of 859,033 inhabitants aged >14 yrs. A total of 1,336 patients with confirmed CAP were matched to control subjects by age, sex and primary centre over 1 yr. In the univariate analysis, outstanding risk factors were passive smoking in never-smokers aged >65 yrs, heavy alcohol intake, contact with pets, households with >10 people, contact with children, interventions on the upper airways and poor dental health. Risky treatments included amiodarone, N-acetylcysteine and oral steroids. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine, and visiting the dentist were protective factors. Multivariable analysis confirmed cigarette smoking, usual contact with children, sudden changes of temperature at work, inhalation therapy (particularly containing steroids and using plastic pear-spacers), oxygen therapy, asthma and chronic bronchitis as independent risk factors. Interventions for reducing community-acquired pneumonia should integrate health habits and lifestyle factors related to household, work and community, together with individual clinical conditions, comorbidities and oral or inhaled regular treatments. Prevention would include vaccination, dental hygiene and avoidance of upper respiratory colonisation.

  2. SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS IN EMPLOYMENT SUCCESS OF TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL COURSE GRADUATES. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALTMAN, JAMES W.; MORRISON, EDWARD J.

    THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) IDENTIFY SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS RELATED TO THE PLACEMENT AND EMPLOYMENT SUCCESS OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY COURSE GRADUATES FROM VOCATIONAL AND COMPREHENSIVE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS, AND (2) DEVELOP BROAD RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE PLACEMENT AND EMPLOYMENT PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOLS. SELECTED FROM A PREVIOUS…

  3. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  4. The Evolution of a Teacher Community of Practice: Identifying Facilitating and Constraining Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a larger, qualitative study that explored the potential of a school-based teacher community of practice as a model for a transformative form of teacher professional development. This paper reports on initial findings from a grounded theory exploration of the factors that facilitated and constrained the evolution…

  5. Factors Influencing the Integration of Technology by Community College Adjunct Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paver, Jonathan David

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the factors that predict intention to integrate technology into instruction by community college adjunct faculty. For this study the integration of technology was defined as beyond simple occasional use, within the next academic year. The decomposed theory of planned behavior was tested for its predictive ability with this…

  6. Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

  7. Community Violence, School-Related Protective Factors, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Kristy A.; Warren, Jared S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two putative school-based protective factors--student identification with school and perceived teacher support--to psychosocial outcomes in a sample of urban youth exposed to community violence. Participants were 175 high school students ages 14-19 in grades 9-12 from a large urban school district. Results…

  8. Identifying the Factors That Predict Degree Completion for Entirely Online Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kishia R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to identify demographic characteristics, academic factors, and student behaviors that contributed to successful degree and certificate completion for entirely online, nontraditional undergraduate students at a large community college. A discrete-time event history analysis was used to model the retention of…

  9. What's Working: Program Factors Influencing California Community College Basic Skills Mathematics Students' Advancement to Transfer Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiero, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels…

  10. Factor Patterns That Foster or Impede Distance Education in Washington State Community and Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ronald L.

    A study was conducted to determine factors that foster or impede the development of distance education (DE) programs. A review of the literature related to transformation in higher education, technology and learning, and DE was conducted and the history of DE in the Washington State Community and Technical College System was reviewed. In addition,…

  11. Women Chief Academic Officers of Public Community Colleges: Career Paths and Mobility Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Cynthia B.

    This study investigates the career paths and mobility factors of female chief academic officers (CAOs) in public community colleges. Analysis revealed the most significant predictors for the career paths to be entry port, number of higher education positions held, and the first prior position held. Gender did not significantly influence mobility…

  12. Factors to be Considered: Overlapping Communities of Inquiry and a Knowledge-Building Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Richard; Lamon, Mary

    This paper describes a 4-month discourse in Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) databases and the resulting classroom curriculum to identify potential factors for consideration when implementing a knowledge-building environment utilizing overlapping communities of inquiry. The study was part of a larger study of fifth and…

  13. Examining the Factors Influencing Participants' Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2009-01-01

    Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…

  14. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Delinquency: Examining a Spectrum of Promotive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…

  15. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  16. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges. WISCAPE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating the psychological perspective, this study examines factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, the study tests a logistic regression model to predict…

  17. Comparing Protective Factors and Resilience among Classroom-Based Teachers and Community-Based Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Dodd, Amelia; Fiala, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Attrition is a major problem for all areas of education. The presence of protective factors has been shown to promote resiliency, which might influence retention. This study was designed to examine characteristics associated with resiliency among a population of pre-service educators, public school teachers, and community-based health educators.…

  18. Measuring the Accountability of CTE Programs: Factors that Influence Postcollege Earnings among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Kenneth J.; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos; Friedel, Janice N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study specific factors were examined to determine their ability to influence fifth-year earnings of community college students in the Manufacturing/Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) career cluster and the Arts/Audiovisual/Technology/ Communication career cluster. State and national data sets from Iowa's Management…

  19. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

  20. Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

  1. Hearing Impairment Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Dinces, Elizabeth; Fifer, Robert C.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffman, Howard J.; Lee, David J.; Newhoff, Marilyn; Tocci, Laura; Torre, Peter; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    associated with higher odds of HI. Conclusions and Relevance HI is a common problem for older Hispanics/Latinos in these communities and is associated with socioeconomic factors, noise exposure and abnormal glucose metabolism. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if these factors are involved in the etiology of HI and to identify ways to prevent or delay age-related changes in hearing. PMID:26021283

  2. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  3. Effects of Host Plant Factors on the Bacterial Communities Associated with Two Whitefly Sibling Species

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ming-Ming; Guo, Lei; Tao, Yun-Li; Zhang, You-Jun; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Although discrepancy in the specific traits and ecological characteristics of Bemisia tabaci between species are partially attributed to the B. tabaci-associated bacteria, the factors that affect the diversity of B. tabaci-associated bacteria are not well-understood. We used the metagenomic approach to characterize the B. tabaci-associated bacterial community because the approach is an effective tool to identify the bacteria. Methodology and Results To investigate the effects of the host plant and a virus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), on the bacterial communities of B. tabaci sibling species B and Q, we analyzed the bacterial communities associated with whitefly B and Q collected from healthy cotton, healthy tomato, and TYLCV-infected tomato. The analysis used miseq-based sequencing of a variable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene. For the bacteria associated with B. tabaci, we found that the influence of the host plant species was greater than that of the whitefly cryptic species. With further analysis of host plants infected with the TYLCV, the virus had no significant effects on the B. tabaci-associated bacterial community. Conclusions The effects of different plant hosts and TYLCV-infection on the diversity of B. tabaci-associated bacterial communities were successfully analyzed in this study. To explain why B. tabaci sibling species with different host ranges differ in performance, the analysis of the bacterial community may be essential to the explanation. PMID:27008327

  4. The factors controlling species density in herbaceous plant communities: An assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates both the ideas and empirical evidence pertaining to the control of species density in herbaceous plant communities. While most theoretical discussions of species density have emphasized the importance of habitat productivity and disturbance regimes, many other factors (e.g. species pools, plant litter accumulation, plant morphology) have been proposed to be important. A review of literature presenting observations on the density of species in small plots (in the vicinity of a few square meters or less), as well as experimental studies, suggests several generalizations: (1) Available data are consistent with an underlying unimodal relationship between species density and total community biomass. While variance in species density is often poorly explained by predictor variables, there is strong evidence that high levels of community biomass are antagonistic to high species density. (2) Community biomass is just one of several factors affecting variations in species density. Multivariate analyses typically explain more than twice as much variance in species density as can be explained by community biomass alone. (3) Disturbance has important and sometimes complex effects on species density. In general, the evidence is consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis but exceptions exist and effects can be complex. (4) Gradients in the species pool can have important influences on patterns of species density. Evidence is mounting that a considerable amount of the observed variability in species density within a landscape or region may result from environmental effects on the species pool. (5) Several additional factors deserve greater consideration, including time lags, species composition, plant morphology, plant density and soil microbial effects. Based on the available evidence, a conceptual model of the primary factors controlling species density is presented here. This model suggests that species density is controlled by the effects of

  5. Factors influencing trust in doctors: a community segmentation strategy for quality improvement in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Trust is a forward-looking covenant between the patient and the doctor where the patient optimistically accepts his/her vulnerability. Trust is known to improve the clinical outcomes. Objectives To explore the factors that determine patients’ trust in doctors and to segment the community based on factors which drive their trust. Setting Resource-poor urban and rural settings in Tamil Nadu, a state in southern India. Participants A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 625 adult community-dwelling respondents from four districts of Tamil Nadu, India, chosen by multistage sampling strategy. Outcome measures The outcomes were to understand the main domains of factors influencing trust in doctors and to segment the community based on which of these domains predominantly influenced their trust. Results Factor analysis revealed five main categories, namely, comfort with the doctor, doctor with personal involvement with the patient, behaviourally competent doctor, doctor with a simple appearance and culturally competent doctor, which explained 49.3% of the total variance. Using k-means cluster analysis the respondents were segmented into four groups, namely, those who have ‘comfort-based trust’, ‘emotionally assessed trust’, who were predominantly older and belonging to lower socioeconomic status, those who had ‘personal trust’, who were younger people from higher socioeconomic strata of the community and the group who had ‘objectively assessed trust’, who were younger women. Conclusions Trust in doctors seems to be influenced by the doctor's behaviuor, perceived comfort levels, personal involvement with the patient, and to a lesser extent by cultural competence and doctor's physical appearance. On the basis of these dimensions, the community can be segmented into distinct groups, and trust building can happen in a strategic manner which may lead to improvement in perceived quality of care. PMID:24302512

  6. Factors shaping communities of pyrophilous macrofungi in microhabitats destroyed by illegal campfires.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Jolanta J; Kruk, Andrzej; Penczak, Tadeusz; Minter, David

    2012-09-01

    Pyrophilous macrofungi (PM) are a narrowly specialised group appearing exclusively in plant communities recently destroyed by fire. Their significance has hitherto been studied only for vegetation destroyed over large areas, while in small areas of fire, i.e., microhabitats they are viewed as independent components of the community linked only to the substratum. In the present work, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) species structures of PM in microhabitats depend on the type of plant community, (2) PM form communities on a small scale which are similar in structure and function to analogous large scale communities. We studied 20 surfaces destroyed by illegal campfires in four natural plant communities: oak-hornbeam forest Tilio-Carpinetum (TC), lowland acidophilus beech forest Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum (LF), suboceanic pine forest Leucobryo-Pinetum (LP), and an initial-phase xerothermic grassland community on a transitional habitat (MH). TC and LF habitats were conspicuously more favourable for PM than LP and MH. In TC and LF fire leads to significant loss of mycorrhizae in the upper layer of leaf litter. This provides a development opportunity for ectomycorrhizal PM species which, having little competition, substitute for the destroyed fragments of mycorrhizal networks. In LP and MH fire over a small surface does not destroy more deeply located mycorrhizal associations. Another important factor for PM influencing the quality of environment is the fertility of soil: highest in TC, intermediate in LF and lowest in LP and MH. The results casts doubt on the concept that PM are only synusia linked to the substratum (burnt wood). PM growing in microhabitats constitute an important group of organisms which facilitate rapid regeneration of plant community fragments destroyed by fire. PMID:22954342

  7. Environmental factors shape the community of symbionts in the hoopoe uropygial gland more than genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Méndez, María; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M; Ananou, Samir; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Exploring processes of coevolution of microorganisms and their hosts is a new imperative for life sciences. If bacteria protect hosts against pathogens, mechanisms facilitating the intergenerational transmission of such bacteria will be strongly selected by evolution. By disentangling the diversity of bacterial strains from the uropygium of hoopoes (Upupa epops) due to genetic relatedness or to a common environment, we explored the importance of horizontal (from the environment) and vertical (from parents) acquisition of antimicrobial-producing symbionts in this species. For this purpose, we compared bacterial communities among individuals in nonmanipulated nests; we also performed a cross-fostering experiment using recently hatched nestlings before uropygial gland development and some nestlings that were reared outside hoopoe nests. The capacity of individuals to acquire microbial symbionts horizontally during their development was supported by our results, since cross-fostered nestlings share bacterial strains with foster siblings and nestlings that were not in contact with hoopoe adults or nests also developed the symbiosis. Moreover, nestlings could change some bacterial strains over the course of their stay in the nest, and adult females changed their bacterial community in different years. However, a low rate of vertical transmission was inferred, since genetic siblings reared in different nests shared more bacterial strains than they shared with unrelated nestlings raised in different nests. In conclusion, hoopoes are able to incorporate new symbionts from the environment during the development of the uropygium, which could be a selective advantage if strains with higher antimicrobial capacity are incorporated into the gland and could aid hosts in fighting against pathogenic and disease-causing microbes.

  8. Environmental factors shape the community of symbionts in the hoopoe uropygial gland more than genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Méndez, María; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M; Ananou, Samir; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Exploring processes of coevolution of microorganisms and their hosts is a new imperative for life sciences. If bacteria protect hosts against pathogens, mechanisms facilitating the intergenerational transmission of such bacteria will be strongly selected by evolution. By disentangling the diversity of bacterial strains from the uropygium of hoopoes (Upupa epops) due to genetic relatedness or to a common environment, we explored the importance of horizontal (from the environment) and vertical (from parents) acquisition of antimicrobial-producing symbionts in this species. For this purpose, we compared bacterial communities among individuals in nonmanipulated nests; we also performed a cross-fostering experiment using recently hatched nestlings before uropygial gland development and some nestlings that were reared outside hoopoe nests. The capacity of individuals to acquire microbial symbionts horizontally during their development was supported by our results, since cross-fostered nestlings share bacterial strains with foster siblings and nestlings that were not in contact with hoopoe adults or nests also developed the symbiosis. Moreover, nestlings could change some bacterial strains over the course of their stay in the nest, and adult females changed their bacterial community in different years. However, a low rate of vertical transmission was inferred, since genetic siblings reared in different nests shared more bacterial strains than they shared with unrelated nestlings raised in different nests. In conclusion, hoopoes are able to incorporate new symbionts from the environment during the development of the uropygium, which could be a selective advantage if strains with higher antimicrobial capacity are incorporated into the gland and could aid hosts in fighting against pathogenic and disease-causing microbes. PMID:25172851

  9. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  10. Factors Influencing the Pursuit of IT Certifications: A Study of Minnesota Public Community and Technical College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study attempted to understand the factors that influence Minnesota community and technical college students to pursue Information Technology (IT) certification. The study investigated the problem of determining the factors that influence Minnesota community and technical college students to pursue IT certification along with…

  11. Factors impacting the decision to participate in and satisfaction with public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-10-01

    During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership.

  12. Relevancy 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Newman, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Where we present an overview on why relevancy is a problem, how important it is and how we can improve it. The topic of relevancy is becoming increasingly important in earth data discovery as our audience is tuned to the accuracy of standard search engines like Google.

  13. [Spatiotemporal distribution of macrobenthic communities and its relationships with environmental factors in Sanmen Bay].

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-bo; Shou, Lu; Zeng, Jiang-ning; Gao, Ai-gen

    2011-09-01

    In November 2006 and in January, April, and August 2007, an investigation on the macrobenthic communities was conducted at 18 stations in Sanmen Bay to study the relationships between the macrobenthic communities and environmental factors. A total of 124 taxa were collected, including 44 species of Polychaeta, 34 species of Crustacea, 22 species of Mollusca, 11 species of Echinodermata, and 13 species of others. The species of Polychaeta and Mollusca accounted for 62.9% of the total, which constituted the main population of the communities. Aglaophamus dibranchis, Capitella capitata, and Sternaspis scutata were the dominant species in spring, Sternaspis scutata, Aglaophamus dibranchis, and Spionidae spp. were the dominant species in summer, S. scutata, C. capitata, A. dibranchis and Virgularia gustaviana were the dominant species in autumn, and A. dibranchis, S. scutata, C. capitata, and Spionidae spp. were the dominant species in winter. There was a significant difference in the average biomass and average density of the macrobenthic communities between different seasons. The annual average biomass was 17.36 g x m(-2) and the annual average density was 72 ind x m(-1). The diversity indices of the macrobenthic communities also differed significantly between different seasons. The seasonal average Shannon diversity index was from 1.53 to 1.89, seasonal average Margalef species richness index was from 2. 25 to 2. 96, and seasonal average Pielou evenness index was from 0.83 to 0.94. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the sea water temperature, salinity, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in surface sediment were the main environmental factors affecting the macrobenthic communities. Environmental variables could better explain the changes of main macrobenthic species.

  14. Evaluation of Cholangiocarcinoma Risk and its Related Factors in Wetland Geographical Communities of Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Bureelerd, Onanong; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Wetland geographical areas have a higher incidence of Opisthorchis viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), confirmed by data from geographic information systems, than other areas. Behavioral data also indicate that people in these areas traditionally eat uncooked freshwater fish dishes, a vehicle for O. viverrini infection. The best approach to reducing CCA incidence is decreasing risk factors together with behavior alteration. Evaluation of CCA risk and its related factors are first needed for planning the prevention and control programs in the future. We therefore aimed to evaluate the CCA risk and explore its related factors among people in wetland communities of Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August 2014. In total 906 participants, with informed consent, completed questionnaires. Overall risk of CCA was determined by multiplying odds ratios (ORs) of the risk factors for CCA from literature reviews. A mean score of 5.95 was applied as the cut-off point. Assessment of factors related to overall risk of CCA was accomplished using conditional logistic regression. Of all participants, 60.15% had a high level of the overall risk of CCA. Factors related to the overall risk of CCA were gender (<0.001), marital status (<0.001), perceived susceptibility (p=0.043) and prevention behavior for CCA (<0.001). In conclusion, most participants in this community had a high level of overall risk of CCA. Therefore, integrated prevention and control programs continue to be urgently required. PMID:27221857

  15. Synthesis of bradyrhizose, a unique inositol-fused monosaccharide relevant to a Nod-factor independent nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Yu, Biao

    2015-04-25

    The symbiosis of Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 with its host plant Aeschynomene indica relies on a Nod-factor independent mechanism, wherein the Bradyrhizobium O-antigen is regarded as a key factor. This O-antigen polysaccharide is composed of a unique C10 monosaccharide, namely bradyrhizose, which has a galactose-inositol trans-fused scaffold, via a homogeneous α-(1 → 7)-linkage. Herein, we report the first synthesis of bradyrhizose. The scalable synthesis requires 26 steps in a high overall yield of 9%, with the inositol scaffold being constructed effectively via a Ferrier II rearrangement from a fully functionalized C2 and C4 branched pyranose derivative.

  16. [Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level.

  17. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  18. Seasonal variation of plankton communities influenced by environmental factors in an artificial lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuemei; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Feng, Weisong; Ao, Hongyi; Yan, Qingyun

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the seasonal variation in plankton community composition in an artificial lake. We conducted microscopic analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes to characterize the plankton community. The clustering of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the similarity of these plankton communities. DGGE fingerprinting revealed that samples collected at the different sites within a season shared high similarity and were generally grouped together. In contrast, we did not observe any seasonal variation based on microscopic analysis. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of the plankton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in relation to environmental factors revealed that transparency was negatively correlated with the first axis ( R=-0.931), and temperature and total phosphorus (TP) were positively correlated with the first axis ( R=0.736 and R=0.660, respectively). In conclusion, plankton communities in the artificial lake exhibited significant seasonal variation. Transparency, phosphorus and temperature appear to be the major factors driving the differences in plankton composition.

  19. Characteristics of aquatic bacterial community and the influencing factors in an urban river.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Bo; Yuan, Ruiqiang; Li, Chuangqiong; Li, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria play a critical role in environmental and ecological processes in river ecosystems. We studied the bacterial community in the Ganjiang River, a major tributary of the Yangtze River, as it flowed through Nanchang, the largest city in the Ganjiang River basin. Water was sampled at five sites monthly during the wet season, and the bacterial community was characterized using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. A total of 811 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed for all samples, ranging from 321 to 519 for each sample. The bacterial communities were maintained by a core of OTUs that persisted longitudinally and monthly. Actinobacteria (41.17% of total sequences) and Proteobacteria (31.80%) were the dominant phyla, while Firmicutes (mostly genus Lactococcus) became most abundant during flooding. Temperature and flow rate, rather than water chemistry, were the main factors influencing the bacterial community in river water. Temperature was the best individual parameter explaining the variations in OTU abundance, while flow rate was the best individual parameter explaining the variations in phylum abundance. Except for Proteobacteria, the relative abundance of bacterial phyla did not differ significantly between sites, and the degrees of influence of urban landscape on the bacterial community were estimated to be 17%-34%.

  20. Community detection enhancement using non-negative matrix factorization with graph regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Wei, Yi-Ming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wen-Jun; He, Dong-Xiao; Song, Zhan-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Community detection is a meaningful task in the analysis of complex networks, which has received great concern in various domains. A plethora of exhaustive studies has made great effort and proposed many methods on community detection. Particularly, a kind of attractive one is the two-step method which first makes a preprocessing for the network and then identifies its communities. However, not all types of methods can achieve satisfactory results by using such preprocessing strategy, such as the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) methods. In this paper, rather than using the above two-step method as most works did, we propose a graph regularized-based model to improve, specialized, the NMF-based methods for the detection of communities, namely NMFGR. In NMFGR, we introduce the similarity metric which contains both the global and local information of networks, to reflect the relationships between two nodes, so as to improve the accuracy of community detection. Experimental results on both artificial and real-world networks demonstrate the superior performance of NMFGR to some competing methods.

  1. [Quilombo communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: hypertension and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2013-09-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) and to evaluate possible associated factors. A population-based survey included 797 individuals 18 years or older. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90mmHg or reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used Poisson regression with robust variance and hierarchical entry of variables. Prevalence of hypertension was 45.4% (95%CI: 41.89-48.85). Factors associated with hypertension were: neighborhood security (distal), age, economic class, education, and physical inactivity (intermediate), and body mass index (proximal). Health promotion is needed in the quilombo communities through action at the individual and population levels. The high prevalence of hypertension highlights the need for broad access to health services for prevention, early diagnosis, and guidelines for adequate management.

  2. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p < .0001). Demographic characteristics, including age, gender, race, education, and employment status, also demonstrated varied degrees of capability for predicting the different HELP scales (e.g., Exercise, Diet, Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  3. Assessment of Relevant Parenting Factors in Families of Clinically Anxious Children: The Family Assessment Clinician-Rated Interview (FACI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Micco, Jamie A.; Fisher, Paige H.; Warner, Carrie Masia

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research on child and adolescent anxiety disorders has seen a surge in investigations of parenting factors potentially associated with their etiology. However, many of the well-established parenting measures are limited by over-reliance on self-report or lengthy behavioral observation procedures. Such measures may not assess factors…

  4. Are opossums a relevant factor associated with asymptomatic Leishmania infection in the outskirts of the largest Brazilian cities?

    PubMed

    Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect(®)) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence. Data on the epidemiological, clinical and environmental characteristics of individuals were collected along with the diagnostic tests. After sampling and enrollment, seven hundred people from 2 to 14 years of age were included in the study. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was 33.28% (95% CI 29.87-36.84). The factors associated with Leishmania infection according to the multivariate analysis were age of more than seven years and the presence of opossums near the home. Age is a known factor associated with Leishmania infection; however, the presence of wild animals, as described, is an understudied factor. The presence of opossums, which are known reservoirs of Leishmania, in peri-urban areas could be the link between the rural and urban occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the outskirts of largest Brazilian cities, as suggested by previous studies. PMID:26867473

  5. Are opossums a relevant factor associated with asymptomatic Leishmania infection in the outskirts of the largest Brazilian cities?

    PubMed

    Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect(®)) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence. Data on the epidemiological, clinical and environmental characteristics of individuals were collected along with the diagnostic tests. After sampling and enrollment, seven hundred people from 2 to 14 years of age were included in the study. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was 33.28% (95% CI 29.87-36.84). The factors associated with Leishmania infection according to the multivariate analysis were age of more than seven years and the presence of opossums near the home. Age is a known factor associated with Leishmania infection; however, the presence of wild animals, as described, is an understudied factor. The presence of opossums, which are known reservoirs of Leishmania, in peri-urban areas could be the link between the rural and urban occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the outskirts of largest Brazilian cities, as suggested by previous studies.

  6. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Manohara, S R; Hanagodimath, S M; Gerward, L

    2011-11-15

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Z(eff). These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues. With the proper knowledge of buildup factors of human organs and tissues, energy absorption in the human body can be carefully controlled. The present results will help in estimating safe dose levels for radiotherapy patients and also useful in diagnostics and dosimetry. The tissue-equivalent materials for skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, cortical bone, and lung tissue are also discussed. It is observed that water and MS20 are good tissue equivalent materials for skeletal muscle in the extended energy range.

  7. Student, Home, and School Socio-Demographic Factors: Links to School, Home, and Community Arts Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…

  8. Factors influencing the demand of the service of community based animal health care in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mutambara, J; Dube, I; Matangi, E; Majeke, F

    2013-11-01

    This study was done to find out about animal health service providers and factors that determined demand for community based veterinary service delivery in smallholder sector of Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions and a questionnaire was used to collect data on veterinary services providers and socio-economic factors related to animal health from a sample (N=333) smallholder livestock farmers from Gutu district of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe. Analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, K-mean cluster analysis and Tobit regression model. Results showed that the majority of farmers (45%) obtained services from both Community Based Animal Health Workers (CBAHWs) and Department of Veterinary Service (DVS), 25% DVS only, 20% used CBAHWs while 10% did not seek any services. Further analysis showed that distance to CBAHW, distance to AHMC and employment status were significantly related to demand for CBAHWs with coefficients of -1.5, 0.7 and -10.3, respectively. The study thus concluded that CBAHW is an alternative animal health service delivery approach already practiced in smallholder farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Socio-economic factors significantly influenced the demand for CBAHW services. Given limited resources by state sponsored veterinary services, it is recommended that the CBAHWs approach should be encouraged as supplementary service provider especially in areas further DVS. These community organizations can be empowered by the state to deliver more improved services based on hygiene and modern science at a relatively low cost to farmers.

  9. Mining 3D genome structure populations identifies major factors governing the stability of regulatory communities

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chao; Li, Wenyuan; Tjong, Harianto; Hao, Shengli; Zhou, Yonggang; Li, Qingjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Bing; Alber, Frank; Jasmine Zhou, Xianghong

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) genome structures vary from cell to cell even in an isogenic sample. Unlike protein structures, genome structures are highly plastic, posing a significant challenge for structure-function mapping. Here we report an approach to comprehensively identify 3D chromatin clusters that each occurs frequently across a population of genome structures, either deconvoluted from ensemble-averaged Hi-C data or from a collection of single-cell Hi-C data. Applying our method to a population of genome structures (at the macrodomain resolution) of lymphoblastoid cells, we identify an atlas of stable inter-chromosomal chromatin clusters. A large number of these clusters are enriched in binding of specific regulatory factors and are therefore defined as ‘Regulatory Communities.' We reveal two major factors, centromere clustering and transcription factor binding, which significantly stabilize such communities. Finally, we show that the regulatory communities differ substantially from cell to cell, indicating that expression variability could be impacted by genome structures. PMID:27240697

  10. Microbial community changes as a possible factor controlling carbon sequestration in subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strücker, Juliane; Jörgensen, Rainer Georg

    2015-04-01

    was also able to differentiate between the two sites proves the assumption that resources are an important factor controlling the functional diversity of the microbial community, as abiotic factors are very similar for the two profiles, but the sites show a different depth gradient for SOC.

  11. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults.

  12. Epidemiological profiles of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections in Malian women: Risk factors and relevance of disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bouare, Nouhoum; Gothot, Andre; Delwaide, Jean; Bontems, Sebastien; Vaira, Dolores; Seidel, Laurence; Gerard, Paul; Gerard, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To document the epidemiologic patterns and risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Mali in order to develop prevention means for both diseases. METHODS: Two prospective studies were conducted in Bamako in 2009 among 1000 pregnant women (i.e., young women) who consulted six reference health centers, and in 2010, among 231 older women who attended general practice in two hospitals. Antibody tests and molecular analysis (performed only for HCV) were used to quantify the frequencies of both infections. The data were collected from patients recruited through a questionnaire. Transmission risk factors of both diseases were identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 0.2% for young and 6.5% for older women. HIV prevalence was similar in both populations (4.1% vs 6.1%). In older women, the analysis of risk factors highlighted an association between HCV infection and episodes of hospitalization (P < 0.01). The study did not show an association between HIV infection and the variables such as hospitalization, transfusion, tattoo, dental care, and endoscopy. A significant decrease of HIV seroprevalence was detected in young women who used condoms for contraception more than for other purposes (P < 0.01). By contrast, HIV seroprevalence was significantly increased in young women using condoms mainly to prevent sexual infections rather than for contraception (P < 0.01). No HCV/HIV coinfection was detected in our study. CONCLUSION: Risk factors and epidemiologic data of HIV and HCV as well as the absence of co-infection strongly suggest epidemiological disparities between these diseases. PMID:23671724

  13. Community factors shaping early age at first sex among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.

  14. Community Factors Shaping Early Age at First Sex among Adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents’ sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents’ sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions. PMID:25076654

  15. Structuring factors and recent changes in subtidal macrozoobenthic communities of a coastal lagoon, Arcachon Bay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Hugues; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Chardy, Pierre; Bachelet, Guy

    2005-09-01

    Fourteen years after a previous investigation in Arcachon Bay (SW France), the quantitative distribution of subtidal macrozoobenthic communities was assessed in 2002 through a stratified sampling strategy involving a larger number of stations (89 vs. 18) than in 1988. A total of 226 taxa were recorded. Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis identified nine station groups corresponding to benthic faunal assemblages and their characteristic species. Multiple Discriminant Analysis showed that the main environmental factors influencing the distribution of faunal assemblages were sediment parameters and distance from the ocean. Depth was a minor structuring factor. At the scale of the lagoon, biogenic structures such as Zostera marina beds, Crepidula fornicata-dominated bottoms or dead oyster shell bottoms did not display any particular assemblage of infauna. Comparison with previous quantitative data from the 1988 survey provided more precision on the distribution of benthic assemblages and revealed community changes at a 14-year scale. These modifications reflected a general increase of silt and clay content in the sediment in the internal parts of channels, inducing community change. These changes can be correlated to the recent first signs of a moderate eutrophication process which have appeared, since 1988, through the development of green macroalgae in some parts of the lagoon. This trend was enhanced in transverse channels with reduced hydrodynamics and led to muddy areas where green macroalgae tended to accumulate. Locally, the dredging of sandbanks induced stronger currents and allowed the marine influence to occur, and also induced community change. These observations confirm that surveys of macrobenthic communities are useful tools to assess coastal ecosystem change even in moderately disturbed environments.

  16. Smoking behaviours in a remote Australian Indigenous community: the influence of family and other factors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Vanessa; Thomas, David P

    2008-12-01

    In Australia, tobacco smoking is more than twice as common among Indigenous people as non-Indigenous people. Some of the highest smoking rates in the country are in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Owing to this high prevalence, tobacco use today is the single biggest contributing risk factor for excess morbidity and mortality among Indigenous Australians. Despite this, there is a lack of published research which qualitatively explores the social context of Indigenous smoking behaviour or of meanings and perceptions of smoking among Indigenous people. The aim of this study was to understand why Indigenous people start to smoke, the reasons why they persist in smoking and the obstacles and drivers of quitting. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 25 Indigenous community members in two remote communities in the Northern Territory and 13 health staff. The results indicate that there is a complex interplay of historical, social, cultural, psychological and physiological factors which influence the smoking behaviours of Indigenous adults in these communities. In particular, the results signal the importance of the family and kin relations in determining smoking behaviours. While most community participants were influenced by family to initiate and continue to smoke, the health and well being of the family was also cited as a key driver of quit attempts. The results highlight the importance of attending to social and cultural context when designing tobacco control programs for this population. Specifically, this research supports the development of family-centred tobacco control interventions alongside wider policy initiatives to counter the normalisation of smoking and assist individuals to quit.

  17. [Darkling beetle community structure and its relations with environmental factors in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-jun; He, Qi; Wang, Xin-pu

    2010-09-01

    From March to October 2009, a field survey was conducted on the darkling beetle community structure and related environmental factors in the desert grasslands with different vegetation cover and human disturbance intensity in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China. By using diversity index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) , the relationships between the beetle community structure and related environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 5431 individuals were collected, belonging to 20 species and 10 genera. Blaps femoralis femoralis, Microdera kraatzi kraatzi, and Platyope mongolica were the dominant species, accounting for 47.30%, 39.90%, and 3.59% of the total, respectively. CCA explained 100% of the correlations between the beetle species and related environmental factors, suggesting that the occurrence of the beetle species had close relations to the changes of related environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, the Shannon diversity index of plant community (HP), plant biomass (BP), and soil water content (SW) affected the beetle species occurrence most. The occurrence frequency of Mantichorula semenowi, Anatolica amoenula, A. sternalis, and A. gravidula was negatively correlated with BP and plant coverage (CP), and that of B. gobiensis, Cyphogenia chinensis, Gonocephalum reticuluatum, and Crypticus rufipes was positively correlated with plant density (DP) and SW. The distribution of P. mongolica, M. kraatzi kraatzi, Scytosoma pygmaeum, and B. kiritshenkoi showed a positive correlation to HP, and that of Eumylada oberbergeri, B. femoralis femoralis, and B. davidea showed a positive correlation to BP and CP. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.943, P = 0.005) between the beetle activity density and SW. The CCA ordination showed that the darkling beetles had different demands for multidimensional ecological resources in desert and semi-desert ecosystems.

  18. Psychological Factors in Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: Relevance and Application of the Fear-Avoidance Model of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in women is a debilitating, costly condition often treated by physical therapists. The etiology of this condition is multifactorial and poorly understood, given the complex interplay of muscles, bones, and soft tissue that comprise the pelvis. There are few guidelines directing treatment interventions for this condition. In the last decade, several investigators have highlighted the role of psychological variables in conditions such as vulvodynia and painful bladder syndrome. Pain-related fear is the focus of the fear-avoidance model (FAM) of pain, which theorizes that some people are more likely to develop and maintain pain after an injury because of their emotional and behavioral responses to pain. The FAM groups people into 2 classes on the basis of how they respond to pain: people who have low fear, confront pain, and recover from injury and people who catastrophize pain—a response that leads to avoidance/escape behaviors, disuse, and disability. Given the presence of pain-related cognitions in women with chronic pelvic pain, including hypervigilance, catastrophizing, and anxiety, research directed toward the application of the FAM to guide therapeutic interventions is warranted. Isolated segments of the FAM have been studied to theorize why traditional approaches (ie, medications and surgery) may not lead to successful outcomes. However, the explicit application of the FAM to guide physical therapy interventions for women with chronic pelvic pain is not routine. Integrating the FAM might direct physical therapists' clinical decision making on the basis of the pain-related cognitions and behaviors of patients. The aims of this article are to provide information about the FAM of musculoskeletal pain and to provide evidence for the relevance of the FAM to chronic pelvic pain in women. PMID:21835893

  19. Influence of clinically relevant factors on the immediate biomechanical surrounding for a series of dental implant designs.

    PubMed

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Gupta, Nikhil; Pessoa, Roberto Sales; Janal, Malvin N; Coelho, Paulo G

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of various clinically relevant scenarios on the strain distribution in the biomechanical surrounding of five different dental implant macrogeometries. The biomechanical environment surrounding an implant, i.e., the cortical and trabecular bone, was modeled along with the implant. These models included two different values of the study parameters including loading conditions, trabecular bone elastic modulus, cortical/trabecular bone thickness ratio, and bone loss for five implant designs. Finite element analysis was conducted on the models and strain in the bones surrounding the implant was calculated. Bone volumes having strains in four different windows of 0-200 με, 200-1000 με, 1000-3000 με, and > 3000 με were measured and the effect of each biomechanical variable and their two-way interactions were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance method. This study showed that all the parameters included in this study had an effect on the volume of bones in all strain windows, except the implant design, which affected only the 0-200 με and >3000 με windows. The two-way interaction results showed that interactions existed between implant design and bone loss, and loading condition, bone loss in the 200-1000 με window, and between implant design and loading condition in the 0-200 με window. Within the limitations of the present methodology, it can be concluded that although some unfavorable clinical scenarios demonstrated a higher volume of bone in deleterious strain levels, a tendency toward the biomechanical equilibrium was evidenced regardless of the implant design.

  20. Blood lead and cadmium levels and relevant factors among children from an e-waste recycling town in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Liangkai; Wu Kusheng; Li Yan; Qi Zongli; Han Dai; Zhang Bao; Gu Chengwu; Chen Gangjian; Liu Junxiao; Chen Songjian; Xu Xijin; Huo Xia

    2008-09-15

    Background: Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is ongoing in Guiyu, and thus toxic heavy metals may keep on threatening to the health of local children. Some related factors may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) or blood cadmium levels (BCLs). Objective: To investigate the children's BLLs and BCLs in Guiyu and Chendian as compare to discuss the effects of primitive e-waste recycling activities on children's health. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight children less than 8 years who lived in Guiyu and Chendian were observed, and their BLLs and BCLs were determined by graphite atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Questionnaire survey for risk factors was also performed and data were analyzed using spearman correlation analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results: Children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs and BCLs as compared with those living in Chendian (p<0.01). In Guiyu, 70.8% of children (109/154) had BLLs>10 {mu}g/dL, and 20.1% of children (31/154) had BCLs>2 {mu}g/L, compared with 38.7% of children (48/124) had BLLs>10 {mu}g/dL and 7.3% of children (9/124) had BCLs>2 {mu}g/L in Chendian (p<0.01, respectively). We also observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p<0.01). Mean height of children in Guiyu was significantly lower than that in Chendian (p<0.01). The risk factors related to children's BLLs and BCLs mainly included father's engagement in the work related to e-waste, children's residence in Guiyu and the amount of time that children played outside near the road everyday. Conclusions: There are close relationships between the BLLs, BCLs in children and the primitive e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu. Environmental pollution, especially lead pollution, has threatened the health of children living around e-waste recycling site.

  1. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetu; Webster, Premila; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita

    2014-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Design The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. The findings are based on 63 in-depth interviews with ASHAs, their co-workers and representatives from the two departments. The interviews were conducted using interview guides. An inductive approach with open coding was used for manual data analysis. Results This study shows that an ASHA's motivation and performance are affected by a variety of factors that emerge from the complex context in which she works. These include various personal (e.g. education), professional (e.g. training, job security), and organisational (e.g. infrastructure) factors along with others that emerge from external work environment. The participants suggested various ways to address these challenges. Conclusion In order to improve the performance of ASHAs, apart from taking corrective actions at the professional and organisational front on a priority basis, it is equally essential to promote cordial work relationships amongst ASHAs and other community-level workers from the two departments. This will also have a positive impact on community health. PMID:25319596

  2. Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang) and a small city (Benxi) in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately. Results The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p < 0.05). In Shenyang, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the fourth model explained 36%, 32% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. In Benxi, the fourth model explained 48%, 52% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. Three significant predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions for the two cities were the two dimensions (social support and decision latitude) of stress and cynicism of burnout. Conclusion From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully

  3. The effects of community factors on school participation in Turkey: A multilevel analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumus, Sedat

    2014-05-01

    Turkey, like many developing countries, is facing considerable problems in terms of low school attendance rates, late enrolment and early dropout of girls in particular. Numerous studies have already been conducted, both in Turkey and elsewhere, to determine the factors affecting school enrolment of boys and girls. Existing studies in Turkey, however, have focused extensively on the association between household-level factors and school participation, ignoring the role of the broader environment in which children live. Using a recent, large-scale and nationally representative data set, this paper investigates school participation at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey, giving specific attention to community- level factors. In taking into account socioeconomic context variables using the multilevel modelling method, this study contributes significantly to current school participation literature in Turkey. The author's findings highlight the importance of community/context factors in explaining low school enrolment in Turkey. The results of the study can help policy makers develop a systematic understanding of the relationship between socioeconomic context and school participation, and enable them to make more appropriate decisions for improving school participation across the country.

  4. Risk factor knowledge, status, and change in a community screening project.

    PubMed

    Sutterer, J R; Carey, M P; Silver, D K; Nash, D T

    1989-01-01

    This report describes a community-based cardiovascular risk-reduction program which targeted high-risk individuals. A total of 1,471 individuals participated and were screened for blood pressure, fasting serum cholesterol, blood glucose level, and appearance of the serum. These individuals also completed a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of heart disease. Overall, 522 (35.5%) individuals had a cholesterol level of 240+ mg/dl; 261 (17.7%) had hypertension; 118 (8%) had a glucose level of 120+ mg/100 ml blood; 266 (18.1%) smoked; and the serum was evaluated as "turbid" or "lipemic" in 105 (7.1%). Therefore, of the 1,471 individuals examined, 733 (49.8%) could be considered "at risk" due to the presence of one or more risk factors. Interestingly, 73% of respondents knew their blood pressure, whereas only 15% and 12%, respectively, knew their cholesterol and glucose levels. Eighty percent of the sample knew that smoking, hypertension, and cholesterol were risk factors, but only 50% of the sample identified diabetes as an independent risk factor. Contrary to expectation, knowledge of heart disease and diabetes was not related to either initial level or change in cholesterol at 18-month retest. Overall, these results indicate that a community screening program can identify high risk individuals at a relatively low cost, and that knowledge of risk factors and disease is not related to initial risk status or self-initiated change in risk status.

  5. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    DAWAKI, Salwa; AL-MEKHLAFI, Hesham Mahyoub; ITHOI, Init; IBRAHIM, Jamaiah; ABDULSALAM, Awatif Mohammed; AHMED, Abdulhamid; SADY, Hany; ATROOSH, Wahib Mohammed; AL-AREEQI, Mona Abdullah; ELYANA, Fatin Nur; NASR, Nabil Ahmed; SURIN, Johari

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  6. Ethnobotanical knowledge in rural communities of Cordoba (Argentina): the importance of cultural and biogeographical factors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility to better understand the relationships within the men, the nature and their culture has extreme importance because allows the characterisation of social systems through their particular environmental perception, and provides useful tools for the development of conservation policies. Methods The present study was planned to disentangle environmental and cultural factors that are influencing the perception, knowledge and uses of edible and medicinal plants in rural communities of Cordoba (Argentina). Interviews an participant observation were conducted in nine rural communities located in three different biogeographical areas. Data about knowledge of medicinal and edible plants and sociocultural variables were obtained. Data were analysed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Results The analysis of data confirmed that medicinal species are widely used whereas the knowledge on edible plants is eroding. The PCA showed four groups of communities, defined by several particular combinations of sociocultural and/or natural variables. Conclusion This comprehensive approach suggests that in general terms the cultural environment has a stronger influence than the natural environment on the use of medicinal and edible plants in rural communities of Cordoba (Argentina). PMID:20003502

  7. Success Factors for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM): Lessons from Kenya and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measham, Thomas G.; Lumbasi, Jared A.

    2013-09-01

    Recent concerns over a crisis of identity and legitimacy in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) have emerged following several decades of documented failure. A substantial literature has developed on the reasons for failure in CBNRM. In this paper, we complement this literature by considering these factors in relation to two successful CBNRM case studies. These cases have distinct differences, one focusing on the conservation of hirola in Kenya on community-held trust land and the other focusing on remnant vegetation conservation from grazing pressure on privately held farm land in Australia. What these cases have in common is that both CBNRM projects were initiated by local communities with strong attachments to their local environments. The projects both represent genuine community initiatives, closely aligned to the original aims of CBNRM. The intrinsically high level of "ownership" held by local residents has proven effective in surviving many challenges which have affected other CBNRM projects: from impacts on local livelihoods to complex governance arrangements involving non-government organizations and research organizations. The cases provide some signs of hope among broader signs of crisis in CBNRM practice.

  8. Success factors for community-based natural resource management (CBNRM): lessons from Kenya and Australia.

    PubMed

    Measham, Thomas G; Lumbasi, Jared A

    2013-09-01

    Recent concerns over a crisis of identity and legitimacy in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) have emerged following several decades of documented failure. A substantial literature has developed on the reasons for failure in CBNRM. In this paper, we complement this literature by considering these factors in relation to two successful CBNRM case studies. These cases have distinct differences, one focusing on the conservation of hirola in Kenya on community-held trust land and the other focusing on remnant vegetation conservation from grazing pressure on privately held farm land in Australia. What these cases have in common is that both CBNRM projects were initiated by local communities with strong attachments to their local environments. The projects both represent genuine community initiatives, closely aligned to the original aims of CBNRM. The intrinsically high level of "ownership" held by local residents has proven effective in surviving many challenges which have affected other CBNRM projects: from impacts on local livelihoods to complex governance arrangements involving non-government organizations and research organizations. The cases provide some signs of hope among broader signs of crisis in CBNRM practice.

  9. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham Mahyoub; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif Mohammed; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib Mohammed; Al-Areeqi, Mona Abdullah; Elyana, Fatin Nur; Nasr, Nabil Ahmed; Surin, Johari

    2016-07-11

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  10. Limitations in Activities of Daily Living in Community-Dwelling People Aged 75 and Over: A Systematic Literature Review of Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt; Witte, Nico De; Duppen, Daan; Stuck, Andreas E.; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Schols, Jos M. G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most older people wish to age in place, for which functional status or being able to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) is an important precondition. However, along with the substantial growth of the (oldest) old, the number of people who develop limitations in ADLs or have functional decline dramatically increases in this part of the population. Therefore, it is important to gain insight into factors that can contribute to developing intervention strategies at older ages. As a first step, this systematic review was conducted to identify risk and protective factors as predictors for developing limitations in ADLs in community-dwelling people aged 75 and over. Methods Four electronic databases (CINAHL (EBSCO), EMBASE, PsycINFO and PubMed) were searched systematically for potentially relevant studies published between January 1998 and March 2016. Results After a careful selection process, 6,910 studies were identified and 25 were included. By far most factors were examined in one study only, and most were considered risk factors. Several factors do not seem to be able to predict the development of limitations in ADLs in people aged 75 years and over, and for some factors ambiguous associations were found. The following risk factors were found in at least two studies: higher age, female gender, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. A high level of physical activity and being married were protective in multiple studies. Notwithstanding the fact that research in people aged 65 years and over is more extensive, risk and protective factors seem to differ between the ‘younger’ and ‘older’ olds. Conclusion Only a few risk and protective factors in community-dwelling people aged 75 years and over have been analysed in multiple studies. However, the identified factors could serve both detection and prevention purposes, and implications for future research are given as well. PMID:27760234

  11. Brain-immune interactions in neuropsychiatry: highlights of the basic science and relevance to pathogenic factors and epiphenomena.

    PubMed

    Petitto, J M; Repetto, M J; Hartemink, D A

    2001-05-01

    Unraveling the significant complexity of brain-immune interactions could provide essential new insights and potential treatment considerations for the clinical neurosciences. Despite considerable research relating immunological changes to major neuropsychiatric disorders, it has been difficult to establish that immunological processes are involved in the development of central nervous system pathology associated with these disorders. This brief article highlights some of the landmark basic studies and seeks to convey essential principles guiding research in brain-immune interactions. Research in this area often incorporates several disciplines, ranging from psychology and neuroscience to immunology and molecular genetics. The clinical implications of this area of research are discussed, with emphasis on the challenge of disentangling pathogenic factors and valid markers of disease from epiphenomena.

  12. Uncovering the uncertainty: Risk factors and clinical relevance of P1 lesions on small bowel capsule endoscopy of anemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Cúrdia Gonçalves, Tiago; Barbosa, Mara; Rosa, Bruno; Moreira, Maria João; Cotter, José

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify risk factors for P1 lesions on small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) and to describe the natural history of anemic patients with such type of lesions. METHODS One hundred patients were consecutively selected for a case-control analysis performed between 37 cases with P1 lesions and 63 controls with negative SBCE. Age, gender, comorbidities and regular medication were collected. Rebleeding, further investigational studies and death were also analyzed during the follow-up. RESULTS No significant differences on gender, median age or Charlson index were found between groups. Although no differences were found on the use of proton pump inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was associated with a higher risk of P1 lesions (OR = 12.00, 95%CI: 1.38-104.1). From the 87 patients followed at our center, 39 were submitted to additional studies for investigation of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and this was significantly more common in those patients with no findings on SBCE (53.7% vs 30.3%, P = 0.033). A total of 29 patients had at least one rebleeding or IDA recurrence episode and 9 patients died of non-anemia related causes but no differences were found between cases and controls. CONCLUSION P1 lesions are commonly found in patients with IDA submitted to SBCE. The use of NSAID seems to be a risk factor for P1 lesions. The outcomes of patients with P1 lesions do not differ significantly from those with P0 lesions or normal SBCE. PMID:27784969

  13. Factors associated with arsenicosis and arsenic exposure status in Nepal: implications from community based study.

    PubMed

    Maden, Narendra; Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Maharjan, Makhan; Shrestha, Shreekrishna

    2011-02-01

    A significant public health problem due to exposure to arsenic via groundwater in communities of lowland Terai region of Nepal has issued forth need to assess the exposure status and factors associated with arsenicosis. We observed arsenical dermal manifestations and collected and assessed total arsenic content in tubewell water, urine, and hair samples of study subjects at arsenic affected communities in Nawalparasi district of Nepal. The explanatory variables associated with arsenicosis were elevated arsenic in tubewell, male gender and increased age (P < 0.05). 67% (73/109) and 66% (77/117) of subjects exceeded the normal urinary and hair arsenic levels respectively. Among them 52% (57/109) and 47% (55/117) exceeded normal urinary and hair arsenic levels having no arsenical dermal manifestations. Males and symptomatic cases had significantly higher hair arsenic levels (P < 0.05). We also observed significant positive correlation of both urine and hair arsenic levels to tubewell arsenic levels (r = 0.27, 0.37, P < 0.01) and negative correlation of urine arsenic levels with the age of the subjects (r = -0.18, P = 0.06). We conclude that elucidating factors associated with arsenicosis could be of prime importance in intervention and preventive measures. In arsenic affected communities of Nepal exposure to arsenic is still a major problem despite mitigation efforts and the potential for sub-clinical effects in exposed population is high.

  14. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A Community-Based Intervention Targeting Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in a First Nations Community

    PubMed Central

    Kakekagumick, Kara E.; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B.; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22 year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners. PMID:24302919

  15. Sandy lake health and diabetes project: a community-based intervention targeting type 2 diabetes and its risk factors in a first nations community.

    PubMed

    Kakekagumick, Kara E; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22 year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners.

  16. Large-scale spatial variation in parasite communities influenced by anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Altman, Irit; Byers, James E

    2014-07-01

    Parasites are integral members of natural communities, but large-scale determinants of their abundance and diversity, including the importance of biotic and abiotic factors, both natural and anthropogenic, are often not well understood. Here, we examine which factors best predict larval trematode communities in the mudsnail host Ilyanassa obsoleta across a regional landscape. At 15 salt marsh sites spanning 200 km, we quantified the diversity of trematodes and the prevalence (i.e., proportion) of infected hosts and sampled a broad array of potential parasite predictors including abundance of intermediate and definitive hosts, habitat, nutrients, metals, roads, and sediment characteristics. We identified the set of best performing models to explain variability associated with five metrics of trematode prevalence and diversity using an information-theoretic approach. Results indicate that several anthropogenic factors associate with this trematode community and that the direction of their influence differs. Road density around sites was a strong negative predictor of all trematode prevalence and species richness metrics. Nitrogen, another human influenced variable, was a strong positive predictor for the most abundant trematode species in the system. In addition, the abundance of definitive fish hosts was a positive predictor in several models, confirming the importance of this direct biological link to parasites. Other influential variables included sediment composition and heavy metals (arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc). We discuss possible direct and indirect mechanisms to explain these findings including that anthropogenic factors may be directly influencing free-living stages of trematodes, or be acting as proxies of hard-to-measure hosts. PMID:25163120

  17. Large-scale spatial variation in parasite communities influenced by anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Altman, Irit; Byers, James E

    2014-07-01

    Parasites are integral members of natural communities, but large-scale determinants of their abundance and diversity, including the importance of biotic and abiotic factors, both natural and anthropogenic, are often not well understood. Here, we examine which factors best predict larval trematode communities in the mudsnail host Ilyanassa obsoleta across a regional landscape. At 15 salt marsh sites spanning 200 km, we quantified the diversity of trematodes and the prevalence (i.e., proportion) of infected hosts and sampled a broad array of potential parasite predictors including abundance of intermediate and definitive hosts, habitat, nutrients, metals, roads, and sediment characteristics. We identified the set of best performing models to explain variability associated with five metrics of trematode prevalence and diversity using an information-theoretic approach. Results indicate that several anthropogenic factors associate with this trematode community and that the direction of their influence differs. Road density around sites was a strong negative predictor of all trematode prevalence and species richness metrics. Nitrogen, another human influenced variable, was a strong positive predictor for the most abundant trematode species in the system. In addition, the abundance of definitive fish hosts was a positive predictor in several models, confirming the importance of this direct biological link to parasites. Other influential variables included sediment composition and heavy metals (arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc). We discuss possible direct and indirect mechanisms to explain these findings including that anthropogenic factors may be directly influencing free-living stages of trematodes, or be acting as proxies of hard-to-measure hosts.

  18. SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION AMONG RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    ROSTAMI, Ali; SEYYEDTABAEI, Seyyed Javad; AGHAMOLAIE, Somayeh; BEHNIAFAR, Hamed; LASJERDI, Zohreh; ABDOLRASOULI, Alireza; MEHRAVAR, Saeed; ALVARADO-ESQUIVEL, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis is the fourth most common cause of hospitalization and the second cause of death due to food-borne infections. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence, disease awareness and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis among rural communities in Northern Iran. Data were obtained from serological testing and from participant's questionnaires and were analyzed using a logistic regression. Of the 630 participants, 465 (73.8%), and 12 (1.9%) had IgG and both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, T. gondii seropositivity was associated with the following factors: age, occupation, consumption of undercooked meat, and of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits (p < 0.001). Our study showed a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in the general population of Northern Iran. A health program is needed to increase the public awareness of toxoplasmosis, and its associated risk factors. PMID:27680175

  19. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll Project" (Anami Naths); (3)…

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural community in mukim dengkil, selangor.

    PubMed

    Yunus, A Mohd; Sherina, Ms; Nor Afiah, Mz; Rampal, L; Tiew, Kh

    2004-03-01

    Hypertension and obesity are established and independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. There are important inter-relationships between these two factors that may explain the aetiology of coronary heart disease. To determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity in a rural community setting in Malaysia, and to identify their associated factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted among residents aged 15 years and above in Mukim Dengkil, Selangor from June to October 1999. Sample size was 570, giving a response rate of 86.7%. Prevalence of hypertension was 26.8%, with the highest prevalence among those aged 60 years and above (57.3%), and 50 to 59 years old (53.3%). Factors found to be significantly associated with hypertension were male (χ²=4.71, df=1, p<0.05) and age (t=10.7, df=568, p<0.01). Prevalence of obesity was 11.4%, with the highest prevalence among those aged 40 to 49 years (22.7%) and 30 to 39 years (14.4%). The factors associated with obesity were age (p<0.01), female (χ²=12.45, df=1, p<0.05) and ethnicity (Fisher's Exact probability, p<0.05) with Chinese and Malays having a higher prevalence compared to other ethnic groups. However, there was no significant association between hypertension and obesity (OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.65, 2.02). The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in this study is high. There is a need for prevention programs for these risk factors in rural communities in Malaysia.

  1. Fish communities and their relation to environmental factors in the eastern Iowa basins in Iowa and Minnesota, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Several indexes of biotic integrity (IBI) based on fish community were applied to the dataand results were generally comparable. In general, the IBIs indicate higher biotic integrity at the stream sites than the large-river sites. Based on IBI classifications, fish communities at most sites were degraded compared to reference conditions. The fish communities at the 12 study sites appear to be related to a number of environmental factors. Obvious differences in fish communities occur between the stream sites and the large-river sites, the result of differences in both physical and chemical characteristics of the streams. Important physical factors related to fish communities included several directly related to stream size as well as human population density and percent of rowcrops in the watershed. Chemical factors that were important included median total phosphorus, suspended-sediment, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations.

  2. Gene regulation knowledge commons: community action takes care of DNA binding transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Sushil; Vercruysse, Steven; Chawla, Konika; Christie, Karen R.; Blake, Judith A.; Huntley, Rachael P.; Orchard, Sandra; Hermjakob, Henning; Thommesen, Liv; Lægreid, Astrid; Kuiper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A large gap remains between the amount of knowledge in scientific literature and the fraction that gets curated into standardized databases, despite many curation initiatives. Yet the availability of comprehensive knowledge in databases is crucial for exploiting existing background knowledge, both for designing follow-up experiments and for interpreting new experimental data. Structured resources also underpin the computational integration and modeling of regulatory pathways, which further aids our understanding of regulatory dynamics. We argue how cooperation between the scientific community and professional curators can increase the capacity of capturing precise knowledge from literature. We demonstrate this with a project in which we mobilize biological domain experts who curate large amounts of DNA binding transcription factors, and show that they, although new to the field of curation, can make valuable contributions by harvesting reported knowledge from scientific papers. Such community curation can enhance the scientific epistemic process. Database URL: http://www.tfcheckpoint.org PMID:27270715

  3. Relevance of psychosocial factors to quality of life in oral cancer and oral lichen planus: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2015-09-01

    We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC.

  4. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis.

  5. Variability and reduced performance of preschool- and early school-aged children on psychoacoustic tasks: What are the relevant factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Prudence

    2003-04-01

    Young children typically perform more poorly on psychoacoustic tasks than do adults, with large individual differences. When performance is averaged across children within age groups, the data suggest a gradual change in performance with increasing age. However, an examination of individual data suggests that the performance matures more rapidly, although at different times for different children. The mechanisms of development responsible for these changes are likely very complex, involving both sensory and cognitive processes. This paper will discuss some previously suggested mechanisms including attention and cue weighting, as well as possibilities suggested from more recent studies in which learning effects were examined. In one task, a simple frequency discrimination was required, while in another the listener was required to extract regularities in complex sequences of sounds that varied from trial to trial. Results suggested that the ability to select and consistently employ an effective listening strategy was especially important in the performance of the more complex task, while simple stimulus exposure and motivation contributed to the simpler task. These factors are important for understanding the perceptual development and for the subsequent application of psychoacoustic findings to clinical populations. [Work supported by the NSERC and the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.

  6. The impact factor of a journal is a poor measure of the clinical relevance of its papers.

    PubMed

    Kodumuri, P; Ollivere, B; Holley, J; Moran, C G

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the top 13 journals in trauma and orthopaedics by impact factor and looked at the longer-term effect regarding citations of their papers. All 4951 papers published in these journals during 2007 and 2008 were reviewed and categorised by their type, subspecialty and super-specialty. All citations indexed through Google Scholar were reviewed to establish the rate of citation per paper at two, four and five years post-publication. The top five journals published a total of 1986 papers. Only three (0.15%) were on operative orthopaedic surgery and none were on trauma. Most (n = 1084, 54.5%) were about experimental basic science. Surgical papers had a lower rate of citation (2.18) at two years than basic science or clinical medical papers (4.68). However, by four years the rates were similar (26.57 for surgery, 30.35 for basic science/medical), which suggests that there is a considerable time lag before clinical surgical research has an impact. We conclude that high impact journals do not address clinical research in surgery and when they do, there is a delay before such papers are cited. We suggest that a rate of citation at five years post-publication might be a more appropriate indicator of importance for papers in our specialty.

  7. The impact factor of a journal is a poor measure of the clinical relevance of its papers.

    PubMed

    Kodumuri, P; Ollivere, B; Holley, J; Moran, C G

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the top 13 journals in trauma and orthopaedics by impact factor and looked at the longer-term effect regarding citations of their papers. All 4951 papers published in these journals during 2007 and 2008 were reviewed and categorised by their type, subspecialty and super-specialty. All citations indexed through Google Scholar were reviewed to establish the rate of citation per paper at two, four and five years post-publication. The top five journals published a total of 1986 papers. Only three (0.15%) were on operative orthopaedic surgery and none were on trauma. Most (n = 1084, 54.5%) were about experimental basic science. Surgical papers had a lower rate of citation (2.18) at two years than basic science or clinical medical papers (4.68). However, by four years the rates were similar (26.57 for surgery, 30.35 for basic science/medical), which suggests that there is a considerable time lag before clinical surgical research has an impact. We conclude that high impact journals do not address clinical research in surgery and when they do, there is a delay before such papers are cited. We suggest that a rate of citation at five years post-publication might be a more appropriate indicator of importance for papers in our specialty. PMID:24589801

  8. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis. PMID:26020415

  9. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis. PMID:26020415

  10. Factor Analysis and Norms for Parent Ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community for Young People in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elaine C.; Aman, Michael G.; Havercamp, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Parents of 601 children and adolescents with mental retardation rated their children on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC). Factor analysis revealed a factor structure similar to the original ABC but without the inappropriate speech factor. Analysis of subject variables revealed main effects for gender, age, and classroom assignment…

  11. Periphyton communities in streams of the Ozark Plateaus and their relations to selected environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2003-01-01

    During August through September of 1993-95, 83 periphyton samples were collected at 51 stream sites in the Ozark Plateaus. These sites were categorized into six land-use categories (20 forest, 18 agriculture, 10 mining, 1 urban, 1 urban/mining, and 1 mix), based on land-use percentages in the basin upstream from the site. Results indicate that periphyton communities of riffles of Ozark streams are affected by natural and land-use related factors. These factors include nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, alkalinity, canopy shading, suspended sediment, embeddedness, stream morphometry, and velocity. For several measures of periphyton communities, statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were found among sites assigned to agriculture, forest, and mining categories. Blue-green algae biovolume, relative abundance of blue-green algae, relative biovolume of diatoms, relative abundance of oligotrophic algae, relative abundance of tolerant taxa, and condition index values were among the measures that differed among land-use categories. Although no environmental factors were significantly correlated with total biovolume, several factors were significantly correlated with biovolume of blue-green algae or biovolume of diatoms. Biovolume of blue-green algae was correlated with percent agriculture land use. Biovolume of diatoms was correlated with orthophosphate, total phosphorus, alkalinity, velocity, embeddedness, and dissolved organic carbon.Diatoms often composed the largest percentage of the biovolume (relative biovolume). Diatom relative biovolume was much higher at mining sites (generally 75 to 90 percent of the total biovolume) than at forest or agriculture sites (generally 15 to 80 percent) and was correlated with several factors, including many land-use related factors. The diatoms Cymbella affinis and Cymbella delicatula and the blue-green algae Calothrix often were the most common (relative abundance and relative biovolume) algae in samples

  12. Risk behaviours and associated factors among medical students and community youths in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Htay, San San; Oo, Myo; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of the risk behaviours inherent in tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and premarital sex, among 400 medical students (186 males) from a medical university, Yangon, and 410 community youths (244 males) 15 to 24 years of age from selected townships in Myanmar. As a result, we found that 12.8% smoked, 34.5% consumed alcohol and 10.1% engaged in premarital sex, among medical students, whereas among community youths, the corresponding rates were 28.8%, 32.1% and 11.9%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of all risk behaviours between male and female respondents. Such risk behaviours were more dominant among males, while being very low among females. Among male respondents, the smoking rate was significantly higher among community youths (46.7%) than among medical students (26.9%); however, student alcohol consumption (58.5%) was greater than that of community youths (47.1%). Premarital sexual experience did not differ significantly between the two groups. These risk behaviours were correlated with one another. Having close friends who engaged in similar behaviours was found to be the major contributing factor for those kinds of risk among both groups. Our results highlighted the fact that, despite their relatively sophisticated knowledge of risks, the prevalence of risky behaviour among the medical students was no less frequent than among community youths. To diminish those risks, evaluations of actual conditions, behaviour modifications and specific preventive measures compatible with existing culture and changing lifestyles should be undertaken. Effective adolescent health programs at schools, colleges and universities should be revised and emphasized. PMID:20229705

  13. Behavior of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli relevant to lettuce washing processes and consideration of factors for evaluating washing process surrogates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kaiping; Wang, Xue; Yen, Li-Han; Ding, Hongliu; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-11-01

    Postharvest processes for fresh produce commonly include washing in water containing antimicrobial chemicals, such as chlorine; however, if the antimicrobials are not present in sufficient levels, washing can promote the spread of contamination that might be present. To understand cross-contamination risk during washing, we tested a collection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), including O157:H7 and other non-O157 strains, for certain traits during washing of fresh-cut lettuce, i.e., sensitivity to sublethal chlorine levels and ability to cross-contaminate (detach from and attach to) lettuce in the presence of sublethal chlorine levels. Nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Pediococcus pentosaceus lactic acid bacterial species (LAB) were included as potential washing process validation surrogates. As measured by extension of the lag phase of growth in media containing 0.15 ppm of chlorine, chlorine sensitivity varied among the STECs. Cross-contamination was assessed by evaluating transfer of bacteria from inoculated to uninoculated leaves during washing. Without chlorine, similar transfer to wash water and uninoculated leaves was shown. In 1 ppm of chlorine, cross-contamination was not detected with most strains, except for the substantial transfer by a STEC O111 strain and EcN in some replicates. Strain O111 and EcN showed less inactivation in 0.25 ppm of chlorine water compared with O157 (P < 0.05). LAB showed similar transfer and similar chlorine inactivation to O157. Considering together the sublethal chlorine sensitivity and detachment/attachment traits, neither EcN nor LAB displayed optimal characteristics as washing process surrogates for the STEC strains, although further evaluation is needed. This work demonstrated a range of behaviors of STEC strains during lettuce washing and may be helpful in hazard characterization, identifying factors to consider for evaluating washing process efficacy, and identifying phenotypic traits to select

  14. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  15. CTLA-4 in mesothelioma patients: tissue expression, body fluid levels and possible relevance as a prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    Roncella, Silvio; Laurent, Stefania; Fontana, Vincenzo; Ferro, Paola; Franceschini, Maria Cristiana; Salvi, Sandra; Varesano, Serena; Boccardo, Simona; Vigani, Antonella; Morabito, Anna; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Giannoni, Ugo; Rosenberg, Ilan; Valentino, Alessandro; Fedeli, Franco; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Ceppi, Marcello; Riggio, Salvatore; Romani, Massimo; Saverino, Daniele; Poggi, Alessandro; Pistillo, Maria Pia

    2016-08-01

    CTLA-4 function as a negative regulator of T cell-mediated immune response is well established, whereas much less is known about the immunoregulatory role of its soluble isoform (sCTLA-4). No data are available on CTLA-4 expression and prognostic impact in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We investigated, by immunohistochemistry, CTLA-4 expression in tumor tissues and, by ELISA, sCTLA-4 levels in sera and matched pleural effusions from 45 MPM patients. Prognostic effect of CTLA-4 expression on overall survival (OS) was assessed through Cox regression and prognostic significance expressed as death rate ratio (HR). We found that 56.0 % of MPM tissues expressed CTLA-4 with variable intensity and percentage of positive cells estimated by the immunoreactive score. sCTLA-4 levels were significantly higher in sera (S-sCTLA-4) than in pleural effusions (PE-sCTLA-4) (geometric mean ratio = 2.70, P value = 0.020). CTLA-4 expression at the tissue level was higher in the epithelioid histological subtype than in the sarcomatoid, whereas at the serum level, it was higher in the sarcomatoid subtype. A homogeneous favorable prognostic effect was found for CTLA-4 overexpression in tissue, serum and pleural effusion. Interestingly, only the PE-sCTLA-4 was found to be a statistically significant positive prognostic factor (HR = 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.18-0.77, P value = 0.007). Indeed, PE-sCTLA-4 correlated with CTLA-4 expression in tissues, whereas this latter expression showed a weak association with OS. To confirm our findings, further experimental evidences obtained from a larger cohort of MPM patients are required. However, our results would indicate a positive correlation of PE-sCTLA-4 levels and OS in MPM patients.

  16. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  17. Factors influencing soil invertebrate communities in riparian grasslands of the central platte river floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, C.A.; Austin, J.E.; Buhl, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the Platte River Valley of central Nebraska, USA, riparian grasslands (also known as wet meadows) have been severely impacted by a reduction in river flows, causing lower ground-water levels and altered seasonal hydroperiods. The potential impacts of these hydrologic changes, as well as the environmental factors that influence wet meadow soil invertebrate communities, are not well understood. An understanding of the ecological processes that influence these invertebrate communities is crucial for maintaining and restoring wet meadows along the Platte River. Our objectives were to describe the soil invertebrate community of wet meadows throughout the growing season and to examine the relative roles of abiotic factors in determining patterns in invertebrate community structure. We conducted the study in 12 wet meadows along the Platte River during 1999 and 2000. We identified 73 invertebrate taxa; 39 were considered soil inhabitants. Total biomass was primarily composed of earthworms, Scarabaeidae, Isopoda, and Elateridae, with earthworms and Scarabaeidae accounting for >82%. Differences in river flow and precipitation patterns influenced some soil invertebrates. Earthworms and Scarabaeidae declined dramatically from 1999 (wet year) to 2000 (dry year). The topographic gradient created by the ridge-swale complex affected several soil invertebrate taxa; Scarabaeidae, Diplopoda, and Lepidoptera biomasses were greatest on drier ridges, while Tipulidae and Isopoda biomasscs were greatest in wetter sloughs. Responses of earthworm taxa to the topographic gradient were variable, but generally, greater biomasses occurred on ridges and mid-elevations. Water-table depth and soil moisture were the most important variables influencing wet meadow soil invertebrates. Because these communities are linked to the hydrologic processes of the Platte River, future alterations of wet meadow hydrology could shift the distribution patterns of many of these invertebrates and possibly

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Vascular Risk Factors in Community Elderly in Four Cities of Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lulu; Wang, Lan; An, Cuixia; Xun, Shunjiang; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence has demonstrated that vascular risk factors (VRFs) contribute to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the elderly population. Because of the race and different diagnosis standard, there is still no definitive conclusions. Objective To estimate the VRFs and potential protective factors for MCI in elderly population living in the community in North China. Methods A total of 3136 participants entered the study. They were screened for hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Cognitive function was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The diagnosis of MCI was made according to Petersen’s criteria. We investigated the relationship between vascular risk factors, potential protective factors and MCI. Results A total of 2511 (80%) participant belonged to normal group and 625 (20%) participants showed MCI. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that stroke and diabetes, but not hypertension or CHD was associated with MCI. Besides, exercise habit could lower the risk of MCI. Conclusions Vascular Risk Factors, including stroke and diabetes, rather than hypertension and CHD are independent risk factors of MCI. Involvement in physical activities seems to reduce the risk of MCI. PMID:25962184

  19. Individual and community resilience factors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and questioning youth and adults in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Guy; Antebi, Nadav; Mor, Zohar

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on resilience theories, this study examined the individual and community factors of Israeli lesbians, gays, bisexuals, queers, and questioning (LGBQs) that contribute to positive mental health and the degree to which individual and community protective factors mitigate the adverse effect of risk factors for poor mental health. Differences in resilience factors between LGBQ youth and adults were explored. Data were collected on 890 LGBQ youth and adults. Findings emphasize the role of community-level resilience factors in the lives of LGBQs, and that these support systems differ slightly between the two age groups. Among youth, family support was both a strong predictor for well-being and a protective factor for mental distress. Although family support was found as a resilience factor among adults as well, other community-level factors (friends' support, LGBT connectedness and having steady partner) were found as protective factors for poorer mental health. These findings suggest for efforts on fostering familial support for LGBQ youth and a multi-level system that offers support at the familial, peer, relationship and community levels for both LGBQ youth and adults.

  20. Individual and community resilience factors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and questioning youth and adults in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Guy; Antebi, Nadav; Mor, Zohar

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on resilience theories, this study examined the individual and community factors of Israeli lesbians, gays, bisexuals, queers, and questioning (LGBQs) that contribute to positive mental health and the degree to which individual and community protective factors mitigate the adverse effect of risk factors for poor mental health. Differences in resilience factors between LGBQ youth and adults were explored. Data were collected on 890 LGBQ youth and adults. Findings emphasize the role of community-level resilience factors in the lives of LGBQs, and that these support systems differ slightly between the two age groups. Among youth, family support was both a strong predictor for well-being and a protective factor for mental distress. Although family support was found as a resilience factor among adults as well, other community-level factors (friends' support, LGBT connectedness and having steady partner) were found as protective factors for poorer mental health. These findings suggest for efforts on fostering familial support for LGBQ youth and a multi-level system that offers support at the familial, peer, relationship and community levels for both LGBQ youth and adults. PMID:25510593

  1. Factors that promote success in women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural North Carolina community colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, Shannon D.

    Women have historically been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM fields). The underrepresentation of women in STEM may be attributable to a variety of factors. These may include different choices men and women typically make in response to incentives in STEM education. For example, STEM career paths may be less accommodating to people who are less resilient. Another factor may be that there are relatively few female STEM role models. Perhaps strong gender stereotypes discourage women from pursuing STEM education and STEM jobs. The factors that contribute to success and the barriers that impeded success must be identified before any steps can be taken to improve the educational outcomes for women in STEM disciplines. Consequently, relatively little is known about the role of resilience in academically successful adult women in rural community colleges enrolled in STEM disciplines and the mechanisms that underlie the performance deficits that occur as a result of stereotype threat effect. This mixed method study addressed those knowledge gaps by determining: (1) if high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and (2) if stereotype threat effect is a risk factor for these women. Quantitative data were collected by using "The Resilience Scale" (Wagnild & Young, 1987) and through examination of grade point average of students from Datatel data management software. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings from this study indicate high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and stereotype threat effect was a risk factor for low-scoring women (i.e. those women who reported resilience scores less than 121 and grade point averages lower than 2.70) and was not a

  2. Comparing factors of vulnerability and resilience of mountain communities affected by landslides in Eastern Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Dubois, Jerome; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing and quantifying vulnerability and resilience of mountain communities in Eastern Nepal increasingly affected by landslides and flooding. We are interested in improving our understanding of the complex interactions between land use, landslides and multiple dimensions of risk, vulnerability and resilience to better target risk management strategies. Our approach is based on assessing underlying social, ecological and physical factors that cause vulnerability and on the other hand, those resources and capacities that increase resilience. Increasing resilience to disasters is frequently used by NGOs, governments and donors as the main goal of disaster risk reduction policies and practices. If we are to increase resilience to disasters, we need better guidance and tools for defining, assessing and monitoring its parameters. To do so, we are establishing a methodology for quantifying and mapping an index of resilience to compare resilience factors between households and communities based on interdisciplinary research methods: remote sensing, GIS, qualitative and quantitative risk assessments, participatory risk mapping, household questionnaires and focus groups discussions. Our study applied this methodology to several communities in Eastern Nepal where small, frequent landslides are greatly affecting rural lives and livelihoods. These landslides are not captured by headlines or official statistics but are examples of cumulative, hidden disasters, which are impacting everyday life and rural poverty in the Himalayas. Based on experience, marginalized populations are often aware of the physical risks and the limitations of their land. However, they continue to live in dangerous places out of necessity and for the economic or infrastructure opportunities offered. We compare two communities in Nepal, both affected by landslides but with different land use, migration patterns, education levels, social networks, risk reduction

  3. Application of Internal Factors of Urbanite Female Learner's Participation in Mass Literacy Programme for Community Based Learning and Outreach Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saah, Albert Amoah; Mensah, Joseph Adia

    2013-01-01

    Community based learning and outreach is a strategy through which academic institutions worldwide including University of Ghana have successfully stayed relevant to less privileged communities; they exist in bringing benefits of education to their (less privileged communities) doorstep. Learner's participation has been an objective that any…

  4. Pressure ulcer prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors in the community.

    PubMed

    Oot-Giromini, B A

    1993-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers as well as associated risk factors in the community. By using the Web of Causation and the Braden conceptual schema, barriers to effective interventions were identified and analyzed. The Web of Causation for pressure ulcer development includes socioeconomic factors and personal belief systems. It also includes the following risk factors: mobility, activity, moisture, nutrition, friction, shear, and altered sensory perception. There were 103 participants in this study. Data gathered by public health nurses included occurrence, risk assessment score, and demographics. Significant demographics for the pressure ulcer group included age greater than 70 years and diagnoses related to altered mobility, activity, and circulatory status. Pressure ulcer patients who were incontinent accounted for 73% of the total, with urinary incontinence accounting for 33%. There were 1.4 ulcers per patient. Most of the ulcers (78%) occurred on the sacral/coccygeal area and were either Stage II or Stage III. The prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in the community was 29% and the incidence rate was 16.5%.

  5. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  6. Identification of Factors Related to the Engagement of Community College Faculty in Grant Writing Activities: A National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douma, Deborah Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, internet-based, self-reported study of grant personnel at 85 public community colleges, was to identify factors that indicate the optimum circumstances under which public community college faculty can be engaged in participating in resource development processes necessary to receive external funding in the form of…

  7. [Community structure of phytoplankton in Haizhou bay and adjacent waters and its relationships with environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Gai; Xue, Ying; Zan, Xiao-Xiao; Ren, Yi-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Based on the data collected from four seasonal surveys in 2011 in Haizhou Bay and adjacent waters, community structure of phytoplankton was studied and their relationships with environmental factors were evaluated by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). A total of 113 phytoplankton species belonging to 3 phyla and 44 genera were collected, among which Bacillariophyta species were the most abundant species, which included 39 genera and 99 species, accounting for 87.6% of total taxa, followed by Pyrrophyta, which included 4 genera and 13 species, accounting for 11.5 percent of total taxa. And the least abundant species were Chrysophyta species, which had only 1 species belonging to 1 genus. Among these dominant species, Coscinodiscus and Chaetoceros were the dominant groups in Bacillariophyta, while Ceratium was the dominant group in Dinophyta, and the dominant species were Meuniera membranacea, Coscinodiscus subtilis var. subtilis, Eucampia zodiacus and Bacillaria paxillifera. There were obvious seasonal variations in the species composition and predominant species. The abundances of phytoplankton in all the stations ranged from 0.08 x 10(5) cells m(-3) to 108.48 x 10(5) cells x m(-3) in Haizhou Bay. The average annual density of phytoplankton was 10.71 x 10(5) cells x m(-3), being the highest in autumn (29.08 x 10(5) cells x m(-3)) and the lowest in summer (1.69 x 10(5) cells x m(-3)). The Shannon index, Pielou index and Margalef index of the phytoplankton community were higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. CCA suggested that the main factors affecting the phytoplankton community were sea surface temperature (SST), followed by nutrients (NO(3-)-N, PO4(3-)-P, SiO3(2-)-Si) and dissolved oxygen (DO). The abundances and distribution of some dominant species were closely related with these main factors.

  8. Exploring the Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacterial Communities within the Rhizosphere of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Longfei; Song, Mengke; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dayi; Sun, Yingtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial communities of rhizospheric soils play an important role in the tolerance and uptake of metal-tolerant/hyperaccumulating plants to metals, e.g. the Cu-tolerant Elsholtzia splendens native to China. In this work, pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was firstly applied to investigate the rhizospheric bacterial community of E. splendens grown at Cu contaminated sites. The 47 phyla including 11 dominant phyla (>1%) in E. splendens rhizosphere were presented. The effects of Cu and other environmental factors (total organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH) on the rhizospheric bacterial community were studied comprehensively. The phyla abundances were affected by the environmental factors to different extent, and we found pH, instead of Cu concentration, influenced UniFrac distance significantly and was identified as the most important environmental factor affecting bacterial community. In addition, the influence of environmental factors on gene profiles was explored according to the predicted metagenomes obtained by PICRUSt (phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states). Our study illustrates a view about Cu-tolerant E. splendens rhizospheric bacterial communities (composition, diversity and gene profiles) and their influencing factors, giving a hand for the understanding on bacterial community is formed and affected in rhizosphere. PMID:27782202

  9. Adolescent Family Factors Promoting Healthy Adult Functioning: A Longitudinal Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Angela D.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although long-held wisdom and current research suggests that accepting and supportive family relationships may positively influence adult psychosocial functioning, few studies have prospectively investigated these associations. This study examined whether positive family factors during adolescence are associated with healthy adult functioning. Method The 353 participants were part of a single-age cohort whose psychosocial development has been prospectively traced. Two aspects of family functioning - feeling highly valued as a family member and having a family confidant - were measured at age 15. Developmentally-relevant areas of functioning were assessed at age 30. Results Both positive family factors were predictive of adaptive adult functioning across several domains, including mental health and social/interpersonal functioning. Conclusions Findings provide evidence about the salient relationships between positive family relationships and later healthy functioning. PMID:21532965

  10. Patterns in the Composition of Microbial Communities from a Subtropical River: Effects of Environmental, Spatial and Temporal Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guangjie; Yu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are key components of aquatic ecosystems and play crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of planktonic microbial community composition in riverine ecosystems are still poorly understood. In this study, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S and 18S rRNA gene fragments and multivariate statistical methods to explore the spatiotemporal patterns and driving factors of planktonic bacterial and microbial eukaryotic communities in the subtropical Jiulong River, southeast China. Both bacterial and microbial eukaryotic communities varied significantly in time and were spatially structured according to upper stream, middle-lower stream and estuary. Among all the environmental factors measured, water temperature, conductivity, PO4-P and TN/TP were best related to the spatiotemporal distribution of bacterial community, while water temperature, conductivity, NOx-N and transparency were closest related to the variation of eukaryotic community. Variation partitioning, based on partial RDA, revealed that environmental factors played the most important roles in structuring the microbial assemblages by explaining 11.3% of bacterial variation and 17.5% of eukaryotic variation. However, pure spatial factors (6.5% for bacteria and 9.6% for eukaryotes) and temporal factors (3.3% for bacteria and 5.5% for eukaryotes) also explained some variation in microbial distribution, thus inherent spatial and temporal variation of microbial assemblages should be considered when assessing the impact of environmental factors on microbial communities. PMID:24244735

  11. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Evapotranspiration in Response to Multiple Environmental Factors Simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Thornton, P.; Huang, Maoyi

    2013-04-25

    Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period from 1982 to 2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates. We find that climate dominates the predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, and replaces climate to function as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over the North America, South America and Asia regions. Compared to the effect of climate and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. The aerosol deposition contribution is the third most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.

  12. Risk Factors for Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection in Children of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Seifried, Steven E

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection overall, has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Children and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are disproportionately affected by CA-MRSA infection. The purpose of this case-control study was to identify risk factors for CA-S. aureus skin infections in children of Maui, Hawai‘i, as a foundation for reducing the transmission of these infections. Survey data were obtained from patients in pediatric clinician offices over an 8-month period. NHPI participants were well-represented as 58% of cases and 54% of controls. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used to identify risk factors. Significant risk factors predictive of infection among all participants were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) household contact, and (c) overweight or obesity. Risk factors predictive of infection among NHPI were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) antibiotic use within 6 months, (c) overweight or obesity, and (d) a history of eczema or other skin disorder. The role of overweight or obesity in S. aureus skin infections among NHPI has not been identified in previous research and indicates a focus for additional education. Further research is needed to better understand the role of eczema, antibiotic use, overweight and obesity, and socio-cultural factors in these infections. PMID:22900237

  13. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 in an Italian Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Marta; Bottesi, Gioia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Razzetti, Enrico; Melli, Gabriele; Sica, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) is defined as the fear of anxiety and of arousal-related bodily sensations, arising from erroneous beliefs that these sensations will have adverse consequences. AS plays a key role both in the onset and in the maintenance of several disorders, particularly anxiety disorders. To date, only two studies on American samples have examined the bifactor structure of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3); therefore, findings on different cultures are needed. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of the ASI-3 in an Italian community sample. Participants were recruited from the general population (N = 1507). The results of a series of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the bifactor structure fitted the data better than the most commonly accepted structure for the measure and that it was invariant across gender. Moreover, the current study provided evidence regarding the ASI-3's reliability and its convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, results pertaining incremental validity of the ASI-3 Physical and Cognitive Concerns subscales above and beyond the total showed that the former was not associated with a measure of physiological anxiety, whereas the latter was weakly associated with a measure of worry. Findings suggest that the ASI-3 is comprised of a dominant general factor and three specific independent factors; given the dominance of the general factor, the use of the ASI-3 total score as a measure of the general fear of anxiety is recommended in both clinical and research settings. PMID:26909057

  14. Stroke risk factors differ between rural and urban communities: population survey in central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Furlan, Anthony J; Kayima, James; Ddumba, Edward; Katabira, Elly; Byakika-Tusiime, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic transition is changing urban and rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed stroke risk factors and associated characteristics in urban and rural Uganda. Methods We surveyed 5420 urban and rural participants and assessed stroke risk factor prevalence and socio-behavioural characteristics associated with risk factors. Results Rural participants were older with higher proportions of men and fewer poor compared to urban areas. Most prevalent modifiable stroke risk factors in all areas were hypertension (27.1% rural and 22.4% urban, P=0.004), overweight and obesity (22.0% rural and 42% urban P<0.0001), and elevated waist hip ratio (25.8% rural and 24.1% urban P=0.045). Diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, harmful alcohol consumption were found in ≤5%. Age, family history of hypertension, and waist hip ratio were associated with hypertension in all while BMI, HIV were associated with hypertension only in urban dwellers. Sex and family history of hypertension were associated with BMI in all, while age and socio-economic status, diabetes were associated with BMI in urban dwellers only. Conclusions Stroke risk factors of diabetes, smoking, inactivity and harmful alcohol consumption are rare in Uganda. Rural dwellers tend to be older with hypertension and elevated waist hip ratio. Unlike high-income countries, higher socioeconomic status is associated with overweight and obesity. PMID:25967045

  15. Risk factors for symptomatic and asymptomatic norovirus infection in the community.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G; Tam, C C; Rodrigues, L C; Lopman, B

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID) and asymptomatic norovirus infection. Individuals with IID and healthy controls were recruited in a community-based study in England (1993-1996). This is the first risk-factor study to use viral load measurements, generated by real-time RT-PCR, to identify cases of norovirus-associated IID and asymptomatic infections. Using multivariable logistic regression the main risk factor identified for norovirus-associated IID was contact with a person with IID symptoms. Infectious contacts accounted for 54% of norovirus cases in young children and 39% of norovirus cases in older children and adults. For young children, contacts outside the household presented the highest risk; for older children and adults, the highest risk was associated with child contacts inside the household. Foreign travel and consumption of shellfish increased the risk of norovirus-associated IID. Lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with a decreased risk of both norovirus-associated IID and asymptomatic infection. No risk factors were identified for asymptomatic norovirus infection.

  16. Gender Differences in Community-acquired Meningitis in Adults: Clinical Presentations and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Lavanya; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired meningitis is a serious disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences involved with the clinical presentations of and prognostic factors for this disease. We conducted a retrospective study of 619 adults diagnosed with community-acquired meningitis in Houston, Texas, who were hospitalized between 2005 and 2010. Patients were categorized as male or female. Those who were evaluated to have a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of four or less were classified to have an adverse clinical outcome. Males consisted of 47.2% (292/619) of the total cohort, and more often presented with coexisting medical conditions, fever, abnormal microbiology results, and abnormalities on head computed tomography. Females more often presented with nuchal rigidity. On logistic regression, fever, CSF glucose <45 mg/dL, and an abnormal neurological examination were predictors of an adverse outcome in male patients, while age greater than 60 years and an abnormal neurological examination were associated with a poor prognosis in female patients. Thus, community-acquired meningitis in males differs significantly from females in regards to comorbidities, presenting symptoms and signs, abnormal laboratory and imaging analysis, and predictors of adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:27500284

  17. Factors associated with residential placement in an assertive community treatment program.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Michelle DeCoux; Chafetz, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) programs originated to meet the needs of the severely mentally ill (SMI) for multiple psychosocial supports necessary for community living. Housing has been prominent among these needs and research to date on ACT programs has addressed residential outcomes, principally reduced homelessness and maintenance in some form of stable housing. However, limited studies have examined variables that might predict particular types of residential placements, which range from unsupervised to highly structured environments. The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to residential placement for the subjects in a model ACT program. Of multiple variables assessed, two were significantly related to residential placement. Chronic respiratory illness was strongly associated with placement in supervised group homes. Team assignment was associated with placement, with clients in one of three teams significantly more likely to live more independently. Clients assigned to this team showed higher psychosocial functioning than others in terms of functional ratings on the Multnomah Community Ability Scale. However, higher function alone was not significantly associated with placement, suggesting a role for clinical judgement and a need for future research in this area. PMID:12349837

  18. Environmental Factors Shape Sediment Anammox Bacterial Communities in Hypernutrified Jiaozhou Bay, China▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hongyue; Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Lin; Guo, Lizhong; Chen, Pingping; Tang, Zuwang; Tian, Fang; Li, Shaozheng; Klotz, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. Because ongoing eutrophication of coastal bays contributes significantly to the formation of low-oxygen zones, monitoring of the anammox bacterial community offers a unique opportunity for assessment of anthropogenic perturbations in these environments. The current study used targeting of 16S rRNA and hzo genes to characterize the composition and structure of the anammox bacterial community in the sediments of the eutrophic Jiaozhou Bay, thereby unraveling their diversity, abundance, and distribution. Abundance and distribution of hzo genes revealed a greater taxonomic diversity in Jiaozhou Bay, including several novel clades of anammox bacteria. In contrast, the targeting of 16S rRNA genes verified the presence of only “Candidatus Scalindua,” albeit with a high microdiversity. The genus “Ca. Scalindua” comprised the apparent majority of active sediment anammox bacteria. Multivariate statistical analyses indicated a heterogeneous distribution of the anammox bacterial assemblages in Jiaozhou Bay. Of all environmental parameters investigated, sediment organic C/organic N (OrgC/OrgN), nitrite concentration, and sediment median grain size were found to impact the composition, structure, and distribution of the sediment anammox bacterial community. Analysis of Pearson correlations between environmental factors and abundance of 16S rRNA and hzo genes as determined by fluorescent real-time PCR suggests that the local nitrite concentration is the key regulator of the abundance of anammox bacteria in Jiaozhou Bay sediments. PMID:20833786

  19. Owens Community College: A Case Study on the Effects of Politics, Economics, Social Factors, and Technological Factors on Future Educational Delivery Strategies, Space Needs, and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskvan, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore the influence of four factors--politics, economics, society, and technology--on educational delivery strategies, space needs, and design at Owens Community College. The future effects of these factors on the college were predicted four to six years from the time the study was conducted. The researcher…

  20. Factors associated with low life life satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly: FIBRA Study.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-12-01

    The objectives were to identify factors associated with decreased life satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly and describe such factors according to gender and age bracket. The study interviewed 2,472 elderly individuals 65 years or older without cognitive deficits suggestive of dementia, in probabilistic samples from seven Brazilian cities. All measures were self-reported except for functional performance, indicated by handgrip and gait speed. Women had more chronic diseases, worse functional performance, and greater social involvement when compared to men. The oldest participants showed worse functional performance and less social involvement when compared to the youngest. Low satisfaction was associated with three or more diseases, memory problems, low social involvement, low handgrip strength, and urinary incontinence. The authors conclude that health, functional performance, and social involvement interact with well-being, so interventions targeting these areas can favor quality of life for the elderly.

  1. Community factors affecting rising caesarean section rates in developing countries: an analysis of six countries.

    PubMed

    Leone, Tiziana; Padmadas, Sabu S; Matthews, Zoë

    2008-10-01

    Caesarean section rates have risen dramatically in several developing countries, especially in Latin America and South Asia. This raises a range of concerns about the use of caesarean section for non-emergency cases, not least the progressive shift of resources to non-essential medical interventions in resource-poor settings and additional health risks to mothers and newborns following a caesarean section. There are only a few studies that have systematically examined the factors influencing the recent increase in caesarean rates. In particular, it is not clear whether high elective caesarean rates are driven by medical, institutional or individual and family decisions. Where a woman's decisions predominate her interaction with peers and significant others have an impact on her caesarean section choices. Using random intercept logistic regression analyses, this paper analyses the institutional, socio-economic and community factors that influence caesarean section in six countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Morocco and Vietnam. The analyses, based on data from over 20,000 births, show that women of higher socio-economic background, who had better access to antenatal services are the most likely to undergo a caesarean section. Women who exchange reproductive health information with friends and family are less likely to experience a caesarean section than their counterparts. The study concludes that there is a need to pursue community-based approaches for curbing rising caesarean section rates in resource-poor settings.

  2. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities. PMID:25366301

  3. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous communities in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤ 12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities. PMID:25366301

  4. HealthPartners adopts community business model to deepen focus on nonclinical factors of health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Isham, George J; Zimmerman, Donna J; Kindig, David A; Hornseth, Gary W

    2013-08-01

    Clinical care contributes only 20 percent to overall health outcomes, according to a population health model developed at the University of Wisconsin. Factors contributing to the remainder include lifestyle behaviors, the physical environment, and social and economic forces--all generally considered outside the realm of care. In 2010 Minnesota-based HealthPartners decided to target nonclinical community health factors as a formal part of its strategic business plan to improve public health in the Twin Cities area. The strategy included creating partnerships with businesses and institutions that are generally unaccustomed to working together or considering how their actions could help improve community health. This article describes efforts to promote healthy eating in schools, reduce the stigma of mental illness, improve end-of-life decision making, and strengthen an inner-city neighborhood. Although still in their early stages, the partnerships can serve as encouragement for organizations inside and outside health care that are considering undertaking similar efforts in their markets.

  5. Incidence and risk factors of hookworm infection in a rural community of central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jiraanankul, Vittaya; Aphijirawat, Wongwarit; Mungthin, Mathirut; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Rangsin, Ram; Traub, Rebecca J; Piyaraj, Phunlerd; Naaglor, Tawee; Taamasri, Paanjit; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2011-04-01

    A cohort study to identify incidence and risk factors of hookworm infection was conducted in a rural community, central Thailand from November 2005 to February 2007. Stool specimens were examined for hookworm eggs using wet preparation, Kato thick smear, and water-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The incidence rate of hookworm infection was 7.5/100 person-years. The independent risk factors for acquiring hookworm infection were barefoot walking (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-14.5) and raising buffaloes around the house (IRR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.9-11.8). Sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal RNA gene were performed for identifying species of hookworm. Necator americanus was the most common hookworm identified in this population. Ancylostoma duodenale and A. ceylanicum were also detected. Our data suggest transmission of both human and animal hookworms in this community. Thus, prevention and control strategies of hookworm infection should cover both human and animal infection.

  6. What factors drive copepod community distribution in the Gulf of Gabes, Eastern Mediterranean Sea?

    PubMed

    Drira, Zaher; Bel Hassen, Malika; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-02-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in copepod communities were investigated during four oceanographic cruises conducted between July 2005 and March 2007 aboard the R/V Hannibal. A close relationship was observed between the temperature, salinity, hydrographic properties and water masses characterising the Gulf of Gabes. Indeed, water thermal stratification began in May-June, and a thermocline was established at a 20-m depth, but ranged from 25 m in July to more than 30 m in September. The zooplankton community is dominated by copepods representing 69 % to 83 % of total zooplankton. Spatial and temporal variation of copepods in relation to environmental factors shows their close relationship with the hydrodynamic features of the water column. Thermal stratification in the column, established in summer, supports copepod development. In fact, copepod abundance increases gradually with rising water temperature and salinity, starting from the beginning of thermal stratification (May-June 2006) and lasting until its completion (July 2005 and September 2006). When the water column is well mixed (March 2007), copepod abundance decreased. Our finding shows that temperature and salinity seem to be the most important physical factors and thus strongly influence the taxonomic diversity and distribution of the copepod population. They are characterised by the dominance of Oithona nana, representing 75-86 % of total cyclopoid abundance. The most abundant species during the stratification period were O. nana, Acartia clausi and Stephos marsalensis in July 2005 and September 2006. However, during the mixing period, Euterpina acutifrons was more abundant, representing 21 % of the total. Unlike the copepod community, which is more abundant during the period of high stratification, phytoplankton proliferates during semi-mixed conditions.

  7. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Pediculosis Capitis in an Impoverished Urban Community in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lesshafft, Hannah; Baier, Andreas; Guerra, Humberto; Terashima, Angelica; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease associated with intense pruritus of the scalp. In developing countries it frequently affects children and adults, but epidemiological data at the community level are rare. Objectives: To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in a resource-poor community in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods: In total, 736 persons living in 199 households in a circumscribed neighbourhood were examined for head lice and nits by visual inspection. At the same time, socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Variables associated with pediculosis were identified by performing a bivariate analysis, followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 9.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0-11.2 %) in the general population and 19.9% (CI: 15.4-24.4%) in children ≤15 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that pediculosis capitis was significantly associated with age ≤ 15 years (OR: 16.85; CI:7.42-38.24), female sex (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.58-5.12), household size of >4 persons (OR: 1.98; CI: 1.11-3.55), low quality of house construction material (OR:2.22; CI: 1.20-4.12), and presence of animals in the household (OR: 1.94; CI: 1.11-3.39). Conclusion: Pediculosis capitis was a very common disease in the studied community in Lima, Peru. Our logistic regression analysis affirms that young age is the most important risk factor for pediculosis capitis. Moreover, female sex, large household size, living in wooden houses and the presence of animals were identified as being significantly associated with head lice infestation. PMID:24672174

  9. [Shrimp community structure and its relationships with environmental factors in the Yellow Sea in summer].

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhi-wei; Li, Xian-sen; Ying, Yi-ping; Wu, Qiang; Luan, Qing-shan

    2015-11-01

    Based on the data collected from the bottom trawl survey in Yellow Sea, August, 2014, the community structure of shrimp assemblage and its relationships with environmental factors in summer was examined by using index of relative importance, ecological diversity indices and multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 20 shrimp species were captured, belonging to 3 orders, 10 families, 16 genera. The relative abundance of shrimp of all stations ranged from 13 to 45047 g · h(-1) and its mean value was 6838 g · h(-1). The dominant species was Crangon affinis, and the common species was Eualus sinensis. The rare species were Metapenaeopsis dalei, Palaemon gravieri and Oratosquilla oratoria. The ranges of Shannon diversity index (H) , Pielou' s evenness index (J) and the Margalef' s species richness index (D) of all stations of the shrimp community structure were 0.007-1.538, 0.101-1.138 and 0.006-0.947, respectively, and the mean values of H, Jand D were 0.391, 0.374 and 0.298, respectively. MDS and Cluster analyses revealed that two clusters of Group I named cold water mass group and Group II named coastal group, which were bounded by the 45 m isobaths, were identified for all the sampling stations. Significant difference was detected by ANOSIM analysis between Group I and Group II. BIOENV analysis indicated that bottom temperature and bottom salinity were the most important environmental factors for structuring the spatial distribution of the shrimp assemblage. Cold water mass group accounted for absolute advantage and Yellow Sea cold mass had a decisive influence on the distribution pattern of the shrimp community in the Yellow Sea in summer.

  10. Understanding Plant Community Responses to Combinations of Biotic and Abiotic Factors in Different Phases of the Plant Growth Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Clarke, Ralph T.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding plant community responses to combinations of biotic and abiotic factors is critical for predicting ecosystem response to environmental change. However, studies of plant community regulation have seldom considered how responses to such factors vary with the different phases of the plant growth cycle. To address this deficit we studied an aquatic plant community in an ecosystem subject to gradients in mute swan (Cygnus olor) herbivory, riparian shading, water temperature and distance downstream of the river source. We quantified abundance, species richness, evenness, flowering and dominance in relation to biotic and abiotic factors during the growth-, peak-, and recession-phases of the plant growth cycle. We show that the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors varied between plant community properties and between different phases of the plant growth cycle. Herbivory became more important during the later phases of peak abundance and recession due to an influx of swans from adjacent pasture fields. Shading by riparian vegetation also had a greater depressing effect on biomass in later seasons, probably due to increased leaf abundance reducing light intensity reaching the aquatic plants. The effect of temperature on community diversity varied between upstream and downstream sites by altering the relative competitiveness of species at these sites. These results highlight the importance of seasonal patterns in the regulation of plant community structure and function by multiple factors. PMID:23166777

  11. Clinical Manifestation and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Infection in Malaysia: Case Study of a Community Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Rohan; Shanmuganathan, Indra Devi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main aim of this study was to describe the clinical manifestation of tuberculosis infection cases in Malaysia and to determine the individual risk factors for their occurrence. Methodology: The study adopted a quantitative research approach with use of descriptive statistical approach. The study setting was a community clinic which treats walk in patients who are mainly living and working in the surrounding areas. The study was conducted for a period of one year. All tuberculosis patients who sought treatment in the clinic during the time were included in this study. The total number of cases was 40. Data was collected from the medical records of the tuberculosis patients. The risk factors selected for investigation were demographic characteristics of age and sex, personal habits such as smoking, drug use and alcohol and presence of diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+), diabetes mellitus, cancer, cyanotic heart disease, renal failure and steroid use. Results: Patients in the age group ranging from 41 to 50 years had the highest incidence of the infection. Smoking appears to be the most important risk factor for contracting followed by drug abuse, HIV+ infection and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: People with diseases such as diabetes mellitus and HIV that are high risk factors for TB should be screened for TB so that early detection and intervention is possible. Educational programs should be carried out to create awareness among the at risk groups. PMID:25946947

  12. Awareness of federal regulatory mechanisms relevant to community-engaged research: survey of health disparities-oriented NIH-funded investigators

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Emily E.; Cowan, Ketch; Malen, Rachel C.; Brugge, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Few studies or investigators involved in community engaged research or community-based participatory research have examined awareness and adoption of federal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted a survey of investigators affiliated with the ten National Institutes of Health (NIH) Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities. A questionnaire designed to capture experience with the conduct and oversight of community engaged research, and awareness of pertinent regulatory mechanisms, including Federalwide Assurances (FWAs), Individual Investigator Agreements (IIAs), and Institutional Review Board Authorization Agreements (IAAs), was completed by 101 respondents (68% response rate). Although most were aware of FWAs, only a minority of those surveyed reported knowledge of IAAs and IIAs and even fewer had used them in their research with community partners. Implications for future training and oversight are discussed. PMID:25742662

  13. Key factors controlling microbial community response after a fire: importance of severity and recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombao, Alba; Barreiro, Ana; Martín, Ángela; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in forest ecosystems, especially after fire when vegetation is destroyed and soil is bared. Fire severity and recurrence might be one of main factors controlling the microbial response after a wildfire but information about this topic is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of fire regimen (recurrence and severity) on soil microbial community structure by means of the analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA). The study was performed with unburned and burned samples collected from the top layer of a soil affected by a high severity fire (Laza, NW Spain) heated under laboratory conditions at different temperatures (50°C, 75°C, 100°C, 125°C, 150°C, 175°C, 200°C, 300°C) to simulate different fire intensities; the process was repeated after further soil recovery (1 month incubation) to simulate fire recurrence. The soil temperature was measured with thermocouples and used to calculate the degree-hours as estimation of the amount of heat supplied to the samples (fire severity). The PLFA analysis was used to estimate total biomass and the biomass of specific groups (bacteria, fungi, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria) as well as microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) and PLFA data were analyzed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) in order to identify main factors determining microbial community structure. The results of PCA, performed with the whole PLFA data set, showed that first component explained 35% of variation and clearly allow us to differentiate unburned samples from the corresponding burned samples, while the second component, explaining 16% of variation, separated samples according the heating temperature. A marked impact of fire regimen on soil microorganisms was detected; the microbial community response varied depending on previous history of soil heating and the magnitude of changes in the PLFA pattern was related to the amount of heat supplied to the

  14. Identifying Success Factors in Community College Grants Awarded under the U.S. Department of Labor's Community-Based Job Training Grants Program, 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Debra Linley

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of the Community-Based Job Training Grants awarded by the U.S. Department of Labor from 2005 to 2008. The primary research question is designed to identify the most important factors in meeting grant-training outcomes; however, numerous secondary questions were addressed to provide the reader with in-depth…

  15. Factors structuring the phytoplankton community in the upwelling site off El Loa River in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Liliana; Escribano, Ruben

    2006-06-01

    Understanding processes affecting the structure of the autotrophic community in marine ecosystems is relevant because species-dependent characters may affect productivity and carbon fluxes of the ocean. In this work, we studied the influence of oceanographic variability on phytoplankton species composition at a coastal upwelling site off northern Chile. Four seasonal cruises carried out during 2003 off El Loa River (21°S) showed that upwelling occurs year-round supporting a large number of diatoms, dinoflagellates, naked nanoflagellates, and silicoflagellates. The analysis of species composition showed that changes in the structure of the autotrophic community are expressed both in abundance and in differences in species assemblages. These changes occurred not only over the seasonal scale but also over the spatial pattern of distribution, and they correlated well to temporal variability of upwelling and spatial variation of upwelling conditions over the cross-shelf axis. A K-means clustering and principal component analyses showed that species assemblages can be represented by few dominant species strongly coupled to alternate upwelling vs. non-upwelling conditions. Both conditions are well defined, and mostly explained by changes in depth of the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) (a prominent feature in northern Chile), surface temperature and water column stratification. Abundance of dominant phytoplankton species were strongly correlated to both OMZ depth and water column stratification. Processes through which OMZ depth might influence species abundance and composition are unknown, although they may relate to changes in redox conditions which affect the nutrient field. Another explanation may relate to changes in grazing pressure derived from the effect of low oxygen water on zooplankton vertical distribution.

  16. Factors associated with use of community mental health services by schizophrenia patients using multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Persons with schizophrenia and related disorders may be particularly sensitive to a number of determinants of service use, including those related with illness, socio-demographic characteristics and organizational factors. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with outpatient contacts at community mental health services of patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed 1097 patients. The main outcome measure was the total number of outpatient consultations during one year. Independent variables were related to socio-demographic, clinical and use of service factors. Data were collected from clinical records. Results The multilevel linear regression model explained 46.35% of the variance. Patients with significantly more contacts with ambulatory services were not working and were receiving welfare benefits (p = 0.02), had no formal education (p = 0.02), had a global level of severity of two or three (four being the most severe) (p < 0.001), with one or more inpatient admissions (p < 0.001), and in contact with both types of professional (nurses and psychiatrists) (p < 0.001). The patients with the fewest ambulatory contacts were those with diagnoses of persistent delusional disorders (p = 0.04) and those who were attended by four of the 13 psychiatrists (p < 0.001). Conclusions As expected, the variables that explained the use of community service could be viewed as proxies for severity of illness. The most surprising finding, however, was that a group of four psychiatrists was also independently associated with use of ambulatory services by patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. More research is needed to carefully examine how professional support networks interact to affect use of mental health. PMID:21982430

  17. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Rohr, Jason R.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Koehler, Anson V.; Johnson, Catherine M.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Beasley, Val R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  18. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    PubMed

    Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  19. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Schotthoefer, Anna M; Rohr, Jason R; Cole, Rebecca A; Koehler, Anson V; Johnson, Catherine M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Beasley, Val R

    2011-06-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  20. Predictive Factors of Spontaneous Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions among Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Lee, Euni; Koo, Bon Sun; Jeong, Kyeong Hye; Choi, Kyung Hee; Kang, Lee Kyung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon; Oh, Jung Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between spontaneous reporting (SR) and the knowledge, attitude, and needs of community pharmacists (CPs), using a questionnaire following a conceptual model known as the mixed model of knowledge-attitude-practices and the satisfaction of needs. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were used with a nationwide convenience sample of CPs between September 1, 2014 and November 25, 2014 in Korea. The association between SR and the predictive factors was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results In total, 1,001 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the respondents and the number of years spent in community pharmacy practice were 45.6 years and 15.3 years, respectively. CPs with experience of SR was 29.4%. Being older than 60 (ORadj, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.06–0.42), having prior experience with adverse drug reactions (ADR) (ORadj, 6.46; 95% CI, 2.46–16.98), having higher specific knowledge of SR (ORadj, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.96–6.56), and having less concern about the obstacles to SR (ORadj, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.23–0.57) were significant contributing factors to SR. The main obstacles to SR included perception of ADRs as ‘not serious ADR’ (77.9%), ‘already well known ADR’ (81.5%), and ‘uncertain about causality’ (73.3%). CPs without reporting experience had greater concerns related to the reporting method and the liability of the pharmacy than those with reporting experience (p<0.05). Conclusions Findings from our study showed around one in three CPs had ADR reporting experience in Korea, while 87.1% had prior experience with ADR cases. The knowledge of SR, prior experience of ADR, and less concern about the obstacles to SR were contributing factors for reporting levels. PMID:27192159

  1. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    PubMed

    Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales. PMID:25137311

  2. Impaired immune responses in diabetes mellitus: analysis of the factors and mechanisms involved. Relevance to the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients to specific infections.

    PubMed

    Moutschen, M P; Scheen, A J; Lefebvre, P J

    1992-01-01

    The reasons why diabetic patients present with an increased susceptibility to frequent and protracted infections remain unclear. The virtual absence of epidemiological studies of the independent risk factors involved contrasts with the multitude of in vitro models focused on the metabolism and function of immune cells from diabetic patients. This review analyzes some of these models and their clinical relevance. The different levels of diabetes pathogenesis: genetic (Type 1), autoimmune (Type 1) and metabolic (Type 1 and Type 2) are responsible for immune abnormalities demonstrated in in vitro models. The participation of genetic and autoimmune factors has been mainly characterized on T lymphocyte function. The B8 DR3 haplotype is associated with several minor immunologic abnormalities in vitro. However, the high frequency of this haplotype in healthy individuals argues against its involvement in significant defects of antimicrobial immunity. Genetic deficiency of C4, present in 25% of Type 1 diabetic patients could, on the other hand, be responsible for opsonization defects against encapsulated pathogens. Several immunological abnormalities related to the autoimmune process preceding the onset of Type 1 diabetes mellitus, such as the depletion of memory CD4+ cells and the defective natural killer activity could transiently impair host defences against viral diseases. Several in vitro functional defects of the immune system have been correlated with the metabolic control of diabetic patients. This suggests the involvement of insulinopenia in some of the abnormalities observed. Insulinopenia-induced enzymatic defects have often been proposed to inhibit energy-requiring functions of phagocytes and lymphocytes. However, the relevance of this mechanism could be confined to patients with extremely severe metabolic abnormalities. The importance of systemic consequences of insulinopenia such as hyperglycaemia and ketosis has also been addressed. Usually, the defects

  3. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community: Factor Validity and Effect of Subject Variables for Adults in Group Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The factor validity of the new Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) was determined with 1,040 adults, ages 18-89, who were mentally retarded and living in group homes. The original ABC factor structure appeared valid for scoring the ABC-C with this population. Variables studied included age, gender, level of mental retardation,…

  4. Factors Influencing Students' Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction with the Online Learning Community for Korean High School Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Yoo, Jung-Moon; Oh, Phil Seok; Kong, Myung Hee

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing students' satisfaction and dissatisfaction with an Online Learning Community (OLC). The OLC was a Web-based system that was used to supplement school science curriculum. Data was collected from 62 Korean high school students using an open-ended questionnaire. The factors related to…

  5. Responses of an old-field plant community to interacting factors of elevated [CO2], warming, and soil moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Elizabeth C.; Weltzin, Jake; Norby, Richard J; Classen, Aimee T

    2009-01-01

    Aims The direct effects of atmospheric and climatic change factors atmospheric [CO2], air temperature, and changes in precipitation can shape plant community composition and alter ecosystem function, but it is essential to understand how these factors interact to make better predictions about how ecosystem may respond to change. We investigated the direct and interactive effects of [CO2], warming, and altered soil moisture in open-top chambers enclosing a constructed old-field community to test how the these factors shape plant communities. Materials and methods The experimental facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA made use of 4-m diameter open-top chambers and rain shelters to manipulate [CO2] (ambient, ambient + 300 ppm), air temperature (ambient, ambient + 3.5 C), and soil moisture (wet, dry). The plant communities within the chambers comprised seven common old-field species, including grasses, forbs, and legumes. We tracked foliar cover for each species and calculated community richness, evenness, and diversity from 2003-2005. Important findings This work resulted in three main results: 1) warming had species-specific effects on foliar cover that varied through time and were altered by soil moisture treatments; 2) [CO2] had little effect on individual species or the community; 3) diversity, evenness, and richness were influenced most by soil moisture, primarily reflecting the response of one dominant species. This experiment demonstrated that individualistic species responses to atmospheric and climatic change can alter community composition, and plant community response should be an important component of analyses of terrestrial ecosystem response. Prediction of plant community changes will remain difficult, however, given the occurrence of interactions between factors and the changes in response through time.

  6. Factors of ecologic succession in oligotrophic fish communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1972-01-01

    Oligotrophic fish communities of the Great Lakes have undergone successive disruptions since the mid-1800s. Major contributing factors have been intensive selective fisheries, extreme modification of the drainage, invasion of marine species, and progressive physical–chemical changes of the lake environments. Lake Ontario was the first to be affected as its basin was settled and industrialized earliest, and it was the first to be connected by canals to the mid-Atlantic where the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which ultimately became established in the Great Lakes were abundant. Oligotrophic fish communities were successively disrupted in Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior as the affects of population growth, industrialization, and marine invaders spread upward in the Laurentian drainage.The degree and sequence of response of families offish and species within families differed for each factor, but the sequence of change among families and species has been the same in response to each factor as it affected various lakes at different times. The ultimate result of the disruption of fish communities has been a reduction of productivity of oligotrophic species that ranges from extreme in Lake Ontario to moderate in Lake Superior, and which has reached a state of instability and rapid change in the upper three Great Lakes by the rnid-1900s similar to the situation in Lake Ontario in the mid-1800s. Since oligotrophic species (primarily salmonines, coregonines, and deepwater cottids) are the only kinds of fish that fully occupied the entire volume of the deepwater Great Lakes (Ontario, Huron, Michigan, and Superior), the fish biomass of these lakes has been reduced as various species declined or disappeared. In Lake Erie, which is shallow, and in the shallow bays of the deep lakes, oligotrophic species were replaced by mesotrophic species, primarily percids, which have successively increased and declined. All oligotrophic

  7. Tigecycline Versus Levofloxacin in Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Analysis of Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dartois, Nathalie; Cooper, C Angel; Castaing, Nathalie; Gandjini, Hassan; Sarkozy, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of tigecycline (TGC) versus levofloxacin (LEV) in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using pooled data and to perform exploratory analyses of risk factors associated with poor outcome. Materials and Methodology: Pooled analyses of 2 phase 3 studies in patients randomized to intravenous (IV) TGC (100 mg, then 50 mg q12h) or IV LEV (500 mg q24h or q12h). Clinical responses at test of cure visit for the clinically evaluable (CE) and clinical modified intention to treat populations were assessed for patients with risk factors including aged ≥65 years, prior antibiotic failure, bacteremia, multilobar disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcohol abuse, altered mental status, hypoxemia, renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, white blood cell count >30 x 109/L or <4 x 109/L, CURB-65 score ≥2, Fine score category of III to V and at least 2 clinical instability criteria on physical examination. Results: In the CE population of 574 patients, overall cure rates were similar: TGC (253/282, 89.7%); LEV (252/292, 86.3%). For all but one risk factor, cure rates for TGC were similar to or higher than those for LEV. For individual risk factors, the greatest difference between treatment groups was observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (difference of 22.9 for TGC versus LEV; 95% confidence interval, 4.8 - 39.9). Conclusions: TGC achieved cure rates similar to those of LEV in hospitalized patients with CAP. For patients with risk factors, TGC provided generally favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:23526572

  8. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 in an Italian Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ghisi, Marta; Bottesi, Gioia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Razzetti, Enrico; Melli, Gabriele; Sica, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) is defined as the fear of anxiety and of arousal-related bodily sensations, arising from erroneous beliefs that these sensations will have adverse consequences. AS plays a key role both in the onset and in the maintenance of several disorders, particularly anxiety disorders. To date, only two studies on American samples have examined the bifactor structure of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3); therefore, findings on different cultures are needed. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of the ASI-3 in an Italian community sample. Participants were recruited from the general population (N = 1507). The results of a series of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the bifactor structure fitted the data better than the most commonly accepted structure for the measure and that it was invariant across gender. Moreover, the current study provided evidence regarding the ASI-3’s reliability and its convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, results pertaining incremental validity of the ASI-3 Physical and Cognitive Concerns subscales above and beyond the total showed that the former was not associated with a measure of physiological anxiety, whereas the latter was weakly associated with a measure of worry. Findings suggest that the ASI-3 is comprised of a dominant general factor and three specific independent factors; given the dominance of the general factor, the use of the ASI-3 total score as a measure of the general fear of anxiety is recommended in both clinical and research settings. PMID:26909057

  9. Knowledge of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors among a Community Sample in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ammouri, Ali A.; Tailakh, Ayman; Isac, Chandrani; Kamanyire, Joy K.; Muliira, Joshua; Balachandran, Shreedevi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Omani adults regarding conventional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and to identify demographic variables associated with these knowledge levels. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was carried out among a convenience sample of 130 adults attending a health awareness fair held in a local shopping mall in Muscat, Oman, in November 2012. A modified version of the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire in both English and Arabic was used to assess knowledge of CHD risk factors. Scores were calculated by summing the correct answers for each item (range: 0–21). Inadequate knowledge was indicated by a mean score of <70%. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to establish the participants’ knowledge levels and identify associated demographic variables. Results: A total of 114 subjects participated in the study (response rate: 87.7%). Of these, 69 participants (60.5%) had inadequate mean CHD knowledge scores. Knowledge of CHD risk factors was significantly associated with body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 0.739; P = 0.023), marital status (OR = 0.057; P = 0.036) and education level (OR = 9.243; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Low knowledge levels of CHD risk factors were observed among the studied community sample in Oman; this is likely to limit the participants’ ability to engage in preventative practices. These findings support the need for education programmes to enhance awareness of risk factors and prevention of CHD in Oman. PMID:27226910

  10. Arbuscular Mycorhizal Fungi Associated with the Olive Crop across the Andalusian Landscape: Factors Driving Community Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Metsis, Madis; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last years, many olive plantations in southern Spain have been mediated by the use of self-rooted planting stocks, which have incorporated commercial AMF during the nursery period to facilitate their establishment. However, this was practised without enough knowledge on the effect of cropping practices and environment on the biodiversity of AMF in olive orchards in Spain. Methodology/Principal Findings Two culture-independent molecular methods were used to study the AMF communities associated with olive in a wide-region analysis in southern Spain including 96 olive locations. The use of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing analysis of rDNA sequences provided the first evidence of an effect of agronomic and climatic characteristics, and soil physicochemical properties on AMF community composition associated with olive. Thus, the factors most strongly associated to AMF distribution varied according to the technique but included among the studied agronomic characteristics the cultivar genotype and age of plantation and the irrigation regimen but not the orchard management system or presence of a cover crop to prevent soil erosion. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the AMF community composition included pH, textural components and nutrient contents of soil, and average evapotranspiration, rainfall and minimum temperature of the sampled locations. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed 33 AMF OTUs belonging to five families, with Archaeospora spp., Diversispora spp. and Paraglomus spp., being first records in olive. Interestingly, two of the most frequent OTUs included a diverse group of Claroideoglomeraceae and Glomeraceae sequences, not assigned to any known AMF species commonly used as inoculants in olive during nursery propagation. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggests that AMF can exert higher host specificity in olive than previously thought, which may have important implications for redirecting the

  11. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64%), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  12. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64%), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans. PMID:26404430

  13. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  14. Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

  15. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed.

  16. Social factors ameliorate psychiatric disorders in community-based asylum seekers independent of visa status.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Debbie C; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sundram, Suresh

    2015-12-15

    The impact of industrialised host nations' deterrent immigration policies on the mental health of forced migrants has not been well characterised. The present study investigated the impact of Australia's refugee determination process (RDP) on psychiatric morbidity in community-based asylum-seekers (AS) and refugees. Psychiatric morbidity was predicted to be greater in AS than refugees, and to persist or increase as a function of time in the RDP. The effect on mental health of demographic and socio-political factors such as health cover and work rights were also investigated. Psychiatric morbidity was measured prospectively on five mental health indices at baseline (T1, n=131) and an average of 15.7 months later (T2, n=56). Psychiatric morbidity in AS significantly decreased between time points such that it was no longer greater than that of refugees at T2. Caseness of PTSD and demoralisation reduced in AS who gained protection; however, those who maintained asylum-seeker status at T2 also had a significant reduction in PTS and depression symptom severity. Reduced PTS and demoralisation symptoms were associated with securing work rights and health cover. Living in the community with work rights and access to health cover significantly improves psychiatric symptoms in forced migrants irrespective of their protection status.

  17. Social factors ameliorate psychiatric disorders in community-based asylum seekers independent of visa status.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Debbie C; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sundram, Suresh

    2015-12-15

    The impact of industrialised host nations' deterrent immigration policies on the mental health of forced migrants has not been well characterised. The present study investigated the impact of Australia's refugee determination process (RDP) on psychiatric morbidity in community-based asylum-seekers (AS) and refugees. Psychiatric morbidity was predicted to be greater in AS than refugees, and to persist or increase as a function of time in the RDP. The effect on mental health of demographic and socio-political factors such as health cover and work rights were also investigated. Psychiatric morbidity was measured prospectively on five mental health indices at baseline (T1, n=131) and an average of 15.7 months later (T2, n=56). Psychiatric morbidity in AS significantly decreased between time points such that it was no longer greater than that of refugees at T2. Caseness of PTSD and demoralisation reduced in AS who gained protection; however, those who maintained asylum-seeker status at T2 also had a significant reduction in PTS and depression symptom severity. Reduced PTS and demoralisation symptoms were associated with securing work rights and health cover. Living in the community with work rights and access to health cover significantly improves psychiatric symptoms in forced migrants irrespective of their protection status. PMID:26518226

  18. Association of Socioeconomic Factors and Sedentary Lifestyle in Belgrade’s Suburb, Working Class Community

    PubMed Central

    KONEVIC, Slavica; MARTINOVIC, Jelena; DJONOVIC, Nela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sedentary lifestyle represents a growing health problem and considering that there is already a range of unhealthy habits that are marked as health risk factors and the increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyle worldwide, we aimed to investigate association of sedentary way of living in suburb, working class local community with socioeconomic determinants such as educational level, occupation and income status. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, 1126 independently functioning adults were enrolled into the study. The study protocol included a complete clinical and biochemical investigation revealing age, gender, lipid status, height, weight and blood pressure. Trained interviewers (nurses) collected information from patients about current state of chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension) smoking, medication and other socioeconomic data. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square and logistic regression were performed as statistical calculations. Results: Patients with elementary school were seven times more likely to be classified in category with sedentary lifestyle compared to patients with college or faculty degree. Being retired and reporting low income were significantly associated with higher odds of sedentary behavior when compared with students and patients with high-income status, respectively. Conclusions: The significance of this study lies in the fact that our results may help to easier identification of patients who may have a tendency towards a sedentary lifestyle. PMID:26587469

  19. Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Developing Depressive Symptoms among Community-Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    García-Fabela, Luis; Melano-Carranza, Efrén; Aguilar-Navarro, Sara; García-Lara, Juan M. A.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether hypertension (HTA) is an independent predictor of depressive symptoms (DS) in a sample of elderly Mexican community-dwelling persons. Patients and methods Two-year longitudinal study of 3276 community-dwelling persons aged 60 years and older, participating in the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Subjects that self-reported both having or not having HTA while denying DS at baseline were included. Two-year follow-up data were analyzed, and multiple regression analyses were used to test whether HTA is an independent predictor of incident DS after adjusting for many potential confounders. Results Mean age of participants was 68.4 ± 6.9 years. Prevalence of HTA was 36.6%. At follow-up, 28.7% developed DS. After adjusting for multiple covariates (age, sex, education level, relationship status, self-reported health and economic status, diabetes, arthritis, stroke, ischemic cardiopathy, falls, pain, hearing impairment, visual impairment, urinary incontinence, cognitive impairment, smoking, alcohol use, and baseline disability), HTA was an independent predictor of DS at two years follow-up (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.18; 95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.40). Conclusions Hypertension is an independent risk factor for the development of depressive symptoms. Programs to support early treatment of cardiovascular disease and hypertension should be implemented in order to prevent late-onset of depressive symptoms. PMID:19848303

  20. Factors contributing to disproportionality in the child welfare system: views from the legal community.

    PubMed

    Dettlaff, Alanj; Rycraft, Joan R

    2010-07-01

    A critical shortcoming in the existing body of research addressing racial disproportionality in the child welfare system is the lack of inclusion of external stakeholders in attempts to understand and address this issue.This article reports the results ofa study designed to develop a deeper understanding of disproportionality from the views of the legal community, a critical stakeholder in child welfare. Using a qualitative approach, with focus groups as the method of data collection, data were collected to provide a greater depth of information that could be used alongside existing studies to develop an enhanced understanding of disproportionality in the child welfare system. Factors contributing to disproportionality include cultural bias, a fearful agency climate, communication barriers, ineffective service delivery, and workforce issues. Recommendations from focus group participants and implications are presented.

  1. Neighborhood and community factors: effects on deviant behavior and social competence.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Francisca; Arce, Ramón; Novo, Mercedes

    2008-05-01

    Socialization in a neighborhood and community at risk, defined in terms of violence, social alienation, school failure, and disruptive behavior, is a risk factor for the acquisition of antisocial and delinquent behavior. In order to test this hypothesis and examine the underlying mechanisms involved, 346 participants, 155 high-risk and 191 low-risk, aged 11 to 13, that is, under the age of criminal responsibility as established by the Spanish Law 5/2000 were selected. The results reveal that high-risk youngsters had higher rates of antisocial behavior and lower levels of social skills (i.e., greater tendency to externalize attribution of responsibility, fewer conflict resolution strategies, lower self esteem, and a lower degrees of emotional intelligence) in comparison to the lower-risk group. Finally, the results and implications of the study are discussed in the light of designing prevention programs.

  2. Patients’ Willingness on Community Health Centers as Gatekeepers and Associated Factors in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yong; Li, Wenzhen; Cao, Shiyi; Dong, Xiaoxin; Li, Liqing; Mkandawire, Naomie; Chen, Yawen; Herath, Chulani; Song, Xingyue; Yin, Xiaoxv; Yang, Tingting; Li, Jing; Deng, Jian; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The gate-keeping function of primary healthcare facilities has not been fully implemented in China. This study was aiming at assessing the willingness on community health centers (CHCs) as gatekeepers among a sample of patients and investigating the influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013. A total of 7761 patients aged 18 to 90 years from 8 CHCs in Shenzhen (China) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the characteristics of patients, their willingness on the gatekeeper policy, and identify the associated factors. On willingness of patients to select CHCs as gatekeepers, 70.03% of respondents were willing, 18.95% were neutral, and 9.02% were unwilling. Multivariable analysis indicated that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.30); patients with health insurance (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.07–1.36); patients who lives near CHC (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.17–3.05); and patients who were more familiar with the gatekeeper policy (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.85–2.36), had higher level of willingness on the policy. Conversely, reporting with good health status was independently associated with the decreased willingness on gatekeeper policy (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.53–0.90). The findings indicated that patients’ willingness on CHCs as gatekeepers is high. More priority measures, such as expanding medical insurance coverage of patients, strengthening the propaganda of gatekeeper policy, and increasing the access to community health service, are warranted to be taken. This will help to further improve the patients’ willingness on CHCs as gatekeepers. It is thus feasible to implement the gatekeeper policy among patients in China. PMID:27057877

  3. E-Prescribing Errors in Community Pharmacies: Exploring Consequences and Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Methods Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Results Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 hour observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Conclusion Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors are encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. PMID:24657055

  4. [Zooplankton community structure in relation to influencing factors in different parts of Hangzhou Bay in autumn].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-rong; Xu, Zhao-li; Xu, Jia-yi; Chen, Jia-jie

    2015-09-01

    Based on the data collected from three oceanographic surveys in the east area of north (30.68°-30.83° N,121.67°-121.87° E), the east area of south (29.95°-30.24° N,121.60°- 121.85° E), and the west area of north (30.58°--30.77° N,121.31°--121.56° E) Hangzhou Bay during the autumn of 2009, 2011 and 2012, we analyzed the species composition, ecological groups and the similarity of zooplankton community, as well as influencing factors. The results indicated that a total of 14 species belonging to 6 groups were identified in the west area of north Hangzhou Bay. Tortanus vermiculus was the predominant species. The zooplankton assembles were mainly influenced by the runoff strength of the Qiantang River. The zooplankton fauna was mainly composed of the subtropical estuarine brackish-water species, accounting for 79.8% in the total abundance. A total of 19 species belonging to 6 groups were identified in the east area of north Hangzhou Bay. The composition of zooplankton community was mainly influenced by the Changjiang diluted water and offshore water of the East China Sea. It was mainly composed of warm-temperature and subtropical nearshore low-salinity species, accounting for 43.5% and 31.1% in the total abundance, respectively. In the east area of south Hangzhou Bay, a total of 25 species belonging to 7 groups were identified. The composition of zooplankton community was mainly influenced by the offshore water of the East China Sea. The dominate eco-group types were subtropical nearshore low-salinity and subtropical nearshore species, accounting for 72.3% and 18.3% in the total abundance, respectively. And the ecological groups of species with the highest abundance was Labidocera sinilobata, accounting for 65.3% in the total abundance. By hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) method, it was found that the zooplankton communities in the three parts of Hangzhou Bay were significantly different, which were closely

  5. [Effect of environmental factors on macroinvertebrate community structure in the Huntai River basin in the Huntai River basin].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2015-01-01

    In May-June 2012, macroinvertebrates were investigated at 66 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. A total of 72 macrobenthos species were collected, of which, 51 species (70.83%) were aquatic insects, 10 species (13.89%) were mollusks, 7 species (9.72%) were annelids, and 4 species (5.56%) were arthropods. First, 13 candidate metrics (EPT taxa, Dominant taxon%, Ephemeroptera%, Trichoptera%, mollusks%, Heptageniidae/Ephemeroptera; Hydropsychidae/ Trichoptera, Oligochaeta%, intolerant taxon% , tolerant taxon%, Collector%, Clingers%, Shannon-wiener index.) which belonged to six types were chosen to represent macroinvertebrate community structure by correlation analysis. Then, relationships between anthropogenic and physiography pressures and macroinvertebrate community structure variables were measured using redundancy analysis. Then, this study compared the relative influences of anthropogenic and physiographic pressures on macroinvertebrate community structure and the relative influences of anthropogenic pressures at reach, riparian and catchment scales by pRDA. The results showed all environmental factors explained 72.23% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. In addition, a large proportion of the explained variability in macroinvertebrate community structure was related to anthropogenic pressures (48.9%) and to physiographic variables (11.8%), anthropogenic pressures at reach scale influenced most significantly macroinvertebrate community structure which explained 35.3% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. pH, habitat, TN, CODMn, hardness, conductivity, total dissolved particle and ammonia influenced respectively explained 4%, 3.6%, 1.8%, 1.7%, 1.7%, 0.9%, 0.9% and 0.9% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. The land use at riparian and catchment scale respectively explained 10% and 7% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. Finally, the relationships of

  6. [Effect of environmental factors on macroinvertebrate community structure in the Huntai River basin in the Huntai River basin].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2015-01-01

    In May-June 2012, macroinvertebrates were investigated at 66 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. A total of 72 macrobenthos species were collected, of which, 51 species (70.83%) were aquatic insects, 10 species (13.89%) were mollusks, 7 species (9.72%) were annelids, and 4 species (5.56%) were arthropods. First, 13 candidate metrics (EPT taxa, Dominant taxon%, Ephemeroptera%, Trichoptera%, mollusks%, Heptageniidae/Ephemeroptera; Hydropsychidae/ Trichoptera, Oligochaeta%, intolerant taxon% , tolerant taxon%, Collector%, Clingers%, Shannon-wiener index.) which belonged to six types were chosen to represent macroinvertebrate community structure by correlation analysis. Then, relationships between anthropogenic and physiography pressures and macroinvertebrate community structure variables were measured using redundancy analysis. Then, this study compared the relative influences of anthropogenic and physiographic pressures on macroinvertebrate community structure and the relative influences of anthropogenic pressures at reach, riparian and catchment scales by pRDA. The results showed all environmental factors explained 72.23% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. In addition, a large proportion of the explained variability in macroinvertebrate community structure was related to anthropogenic pressures (48.9%) and to physiographic variables (11.8%), anthropogenic pressures at reach scale influenced most significantly macroinvertebrate community structure which explained 35.3% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. pH, habitat, TN, CODMn, hardness, conductivity, total dissolved particle and ammonia influenced respectively explained 4%, 3.6%, 1.8%, 1.7%, 1.7%, 0.9%, 0.9% and 0.9% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. The land use at riparian and catchment scale respectively explained 10% and 7% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. Finally, the relationships of

  7. Risk factors for chronic diarrhoea in the community in the absence of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, J Y; Locke, G Richard; Schleck, C D; Zinsmeister, A R; Talley, N J

    2009-10-01

    In contrast to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the prevalence and risk factors for diarrhoea in the absence of IBS in the community are unknown. We aimed to evaluate potential risk factors for chronic diarrhoea (non-IBS). A valid questionnaire that recorded gastrointestinal symptoms required for a diagnosis of chronic diarrhoea, self-reported measures of potential risk factors, and a somatic symptom checklist was mailed to an age- and gender-stratified random sample of Olmsted County, Minnesota residents (30-64 year). Chronic diarrhoea was defined as reporting one or more of the following symptoms more than 25% of the time in the past 3 months: > or =3 bowel movements a day, loose or watery stools, or faecal urgency. Subjects with IBS (Rome III) were excluded. Of 892 eligible subjects, 653 (73%) responded. Among 523 respondents not reporting IBS, chronic diarrhoea was reported by 148 (28%); 90 (61%) had chronic painless diarrhoea. Chronic diarrhoea was significantly associated with self-reported food sensitivity (OR = 2.05 [1.31-3.20]) and stress (OR = 1.99 [1.03-3.85]). Both remained significant in the adjusted variable models that excluded subjects with any abdominal pain. Female gender (OR = 0.67 [0.45-0.98]) and higher education level (OR = 0.60 [0.39-0.92]) had smaller odds for chronic diarrhoea. No association was detected for age, marital status, body mass index, cigarette or alcohol use, coffee, analgesics, emotional support, pets or water source. Chronic diarrhoea in the absence of IBS is common; self-reported food sensitivity, male gender and a lower level of education are risk factors. PMID:19460105

  8. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community: factor validity and effect of subject variables for adults in group homes.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Burrow, W H; Wolford, P L

    1995-11-01

    The factor validity of the new Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) was determined with 1,040 group home residents. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure derived from the original ABC appears to be valid for the ABC-C when used with this population. Coefficients of congruence showed a high level of concordance with the original factor structure, and internal consistency continued to be high for each of the five subscales. Analyses for the effects of age, gender, and level of mental retardation indicated that some correction is appropriate for each of these variables when scoring the ABC-C. Further analyses explored the effects of subjects variables such as visual and auditory handicaps and the presence of epilepsy or Down syndrome. Psychotropic medication use was often associated with subscale score differences. The original ABC factor structure appears valid for scoring the ABC-C with community-based adults, at least those living in group homes.

  9. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs.

  10. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs. PMID:26838035

  11. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs. PMID:26838035

  12. The Five Factor Model of personality and job performance in the European Community.

    PubMed

    Salgado, J F

    1997-02-01

    In 3 prior meta-analyses, the relationship between the Big Five factors of personality and job criteria was investigated. However, these meta-analyses showed different findings. Furthermore, these reviews included studies carried out only in the United States and Canada. This study reports meta-analytic research on the same topic but with studies conducted in the European Community, which were not included in the prior reviews. The results indicate that Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability are valid predictors across job criteria and occupational groups. The remaining factors are valid only for some criteria and for some occupational groups. Extraversion was a predictor for 2 occupations, and Openness and Agreeableness were valid predictors of training proficiency. These findings are consistent with M.R. Barrick and M.K. Mount (1991) and L.M. Hough, N.K. Eaton, M.D. Dunnette, J.D. Kamp, and R.A. McCloy (1990). Implications of the results for future research and the practice of personnel selection are suggested. PMID:9119797

  13. Factors influencing mental health providers' intention to use telepsychotherapy in First Nations communities.

    PubMed

    Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Bouchard, Stéphane; Maïano, Christophe; Séguin, Monique

    2013-04-01

    Telemental health is the use of information and communications technologies and broadband networks to deliver mental health services and support wellness. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the efficiency and utility of telemental health, certain barriers may impede its implementation, including the attitudes of mental health service providers. The current study draws on the technology acceptance model (TAM) to understand the role of mental health service providers' attitudes and perceptions of telemental health (psychotherapy delivered via videoconferencing) on their intention to use this technology with their patients. A sample of 205 broadly defined mental health service providers working on 32 First Nations reserves in the province of Quebec completed the questionnaire adapted to assess TAM for telepsychotherapy. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the TAM in this sample. The key predictor of the intention to use telepsychotherapy was not mental health providers' attitude toward telepsychotherapy, nor how much they expected this service to be complicated to use, but essentially how useful they expect it to be for their First Nations patients. If telemental health via videoconferencing is to be implemented in First Nations communities, it is essential to thoroughly demonstrate its utility to mental health providers. Perceived usefulness will have a positive impact on attitudes toward this technology, and perceived ease of use will positively influence perceived usefulness. Cultural issues specific to the populations receiving telemental health services may be more efficiently addressed from the angle of perceived usefulness.

  14. Spatiotemporal variation of bacterial community composition and possible controlling factors in tropical shallow lagoons.

    PubMed

    Laque, Thaís; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Rosado, Alexandre S; Esteves, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was sampled monthly for 1 year and eight lagoons were sampled once for temporal and spatial analysis, respectively. BCC was evaluated by bacteria-specific PCR-DGGE methods. Great variations were observed in limnological conditions and BCC on both temporal and spatial scales. Changes in the BCC of Visgueiro lagoon throughout the year were best related to salinity and concentrations of NO (3) (-) , dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a, while changes in BCC between lagoons were best related to salinity and dissolved phosphorus concentration. Salinity has a direct impact on the integrity of the bacterial cell, and it was previously observed that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in these lagoons. Therefore, we conclude that great variations in limnological conditions of coastal lagoons throughout time and space resulted in different BCCs and salinity and nutrient concentration, particularly dissolved phosphorus, are the main limnological factors influencing BCC in these tropical coastal lagoons.

  15. Factors associated with cell phone use in adolescents in the community of Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Otero, Angel

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure cell phone use among high school adolescents and the factors associated with intensive cell phone use (depressive symptoms, social isolation, drug and alcohol use, school failure, and cell phone dependence). We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of 1,328 adolescents aged 13 to 20 years in nine secondary schools of the Community of Madrid between January to April 2007. The mean age of sample participants was 15.7 years. Almost all (96.5%) had their own cell phone (80.5% had one, and 15.9% had two or more). Some 54.8% take it to school and 46.1% keep it on during class; 41.7% use it intensively. The estimated prevalence of cell phone dependence was 20% (26.1% in females, 13% in males). Intensive cell phone use was associated with female sex, rural school location, good family economy, smoking tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption, depression, cell phone dependence, and school failure. More health education is needed to promote correct and effective cell phone use among adolescents. Factors associated with intensive use and dependence should be considered for possible intervention activities. PMID:19072078

  16. Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Macedonian Adolescents in Albanian Ethnic Community

    PubMed Central

    GONTAREV, Seryozha; KALAC, Ruzdija; AMETI, Vullnet; REDJEPI, Agim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of demographic, psychological, social and environmental factors with physical activity and to determine whether indicators of physical activity differ by gender among Macedonian adolescents from Albanian ethnic community from 11 to 14 yr (N = 886). Methods: Research were conducted in 2014 in several primary schools randomly selected from Tetovo and Gostivar region of the R. Macedonia. Students completed a questionnaire which examined their level of participation in physical activity and sedentary behavior along with a number of potential correlates. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the relationship between hypothesised factors and physical activity. Results: The boys unlike the girls showed significantly higher levels of physical activity (P=0.001). Respondents of both genders who perceive greater benefits from the physical activity (P=0.010). They have more confidence in their abilities (P=0.001), enjoy more in the physical activities (P=0.016), perceive greater social support from friends (P=0.008) and parents (P=0.001) and have higher levels of physical activity. Conclusions: The results indicate the importance of developing a national plan and program to promote physical activity in order to help young people to change unhealthy lifestyle habits and increase the physical activity, thus improving their health. PMID:27252917

  17. [Effects of soil factors on vegetation community structure in an abandoned subtropical paddy wetland].

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Li, Yu-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Wu; Ye, Fang-Yi; Pan, Chun-Xiang; Xie, Xiao-Li

    2009-07-01

    Based on the investigation data from a subtropical wetland having been abandoned from paddy agriculture for one year, a redundancy analysis was conducted on the relationships between vegetation community and soil factors in the wetland. It was found that soil moisture regime, available K and P, and pH were the main factors affecting the distribution of plant species. The common plant species could be classified into three groups, i. e., Ludwigia prostrata - Murdannia triquetra group (G1), Hemarthria altissima - Rotala rotundifolia - Lapsana apogonoides group (G2), and Conyza canadensis - Polygonum hydropiper - Paspalum pasaloides group (G3). G1 mainly distributed on the soils with higher available K, G2 mainly distributed in periodically flooded area, while G3 mainly distributed in drainage area and was positively correlated to soil available P and pH. Species diversity and above-ground biomass had significant positive correlations with soil pH and total K, respectively, while evenness index was significantly negatively correlated with soil available N. No significant correlations were observed among other indices.

  18. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Tian, Yongfeng; Yan, Wenhua; Kong, Yue; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Anping; Dou, Jingtao; Liang, Ping; Mu, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years) from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001). The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001), and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007). There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015) and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001). The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.039 (1.034–1.044), p < 0.001), the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097)), Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034)), and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483)) were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and BMI

  19. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Tian, Yongfeng; Yan, Wenhua; Kong, Yue; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Anping; Dou, Jingtao; Liang, Ping; Mu, Yiming

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years) from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001). The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001), and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007). There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015) and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001). The Cochran-Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.039 (1.034-1.044), p < 0.001), the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527-2.097)), Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.019 (1.005-1.034)), and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046-1.483)) were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and BMI are

  20. Factors controlling the distribution of anaerobic methanotrophic communities in marine environments: Evidence from intact polar membrane lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossel, Pamela E.; Elvert, Marcus; Ramette, Alban; Boetius, Antje; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Three distinct types of microbial consortia appear to mediate the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate as electron acceptor in marine sediments and are distributed ubiquitously. These consortia consist of ANerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea of the ANME-1, ANME-2 and ANME-3 clades and their sulfate-reducing bacterial partners either of the Desulfosarcina- Desulfococcus (ANME-1/DSS and ANME-2/DSS) or Desulfobulbus spp. (ANME-3/DBB) branches. Frequently one consortium type dominates the community, but the selective factors are not well constrained. Here we analyzed patterns in the composition of intact polar lipids extracted from bacterial and archaeal communities of different marine seep environments. Further, we investigated if different environmental and geographical factors were responsible for the observed patterns, and hence could be important in the selection of seep communities. Intact polar lipids (IPLs) provide a more robust distinction of the composition of extant communities than their less polar derivatives. In ANME-1/DSS-dominated communities, glycosidic- and phospho-glyceroldialkylglyceroltetraethers were abundant, while ANME-2/DSS and ANME-3/DBB-dominated communities showed abundant archaeol-based IPLs, either with glycosidic and phospho-headgroups or only phospho-headgroups, respectively. The relative proportion of bacterial IPLs varied widely from 0% to 93% and was generally lower in samples of the ANME-1 type, suggesting lower bacterial biomasses in the respective communities. In addition to these lipid signatures, distinctive features were related to the habitat characteristics of these communities: lower amounts of phosphate-based IPLs were generally observed in communities from calcified microbial mats compared to sediments, which may reflect phosphate limitation. Based on statistical analyses of IPLs and environmental data this study constrained for the first time the occurrence of three environmental factors controlling the

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic Infection Among Municipality Solid-Waste Workers in an Egyptian Community.

    PubMed

    Eassa, Safaa M; El-Wahab, Ekram W Abd; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-04-01

    Solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. The objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in Alexandria. A total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (MSWWs) was interviewed using an in-depth questionnaire. The type of parasitic infections among waste handlers was determined using formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. About half of the workers were infected with parasites. The profile of parasitic infection revealed 12 parasitic species. These were comprised of the following helminths: Schistosoma mansoni (13.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), and Hymenolepis nana ova (0.6%). Among protozoa were pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica (3.2%), Giardia intestinalis (2.9%), nonpathogenic protozoa such as Entamoeba coli (1.7%), and potentially pathogenic or opportunistic ones as Cryptosporidium (23.4%), Microsporidia (20.25%), Cyclospora (2.0%), Blastocystis hominis (1.7%), and Cystoisospora belli (1.2%). About 1.4% of MSWWs have pediculosis and phthiriasis in their scalp and eyelashes respectively. Risk factors for infection were associated with direct exposure to solid fecal waste (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.0) and occupational activities that allowed for direct exposure to solid fecal waste (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-4.0). Logistic regression model has revealed that educational level and residence were the factors that contribute to parasitic infection among MSWWs (P < 0.05). MSWWs are at high risk of acquiring parasitic infections. Data of the present study highlighted the need for greater biomonitoring of MSWWs and the improvement of environmental conditions and health care in such marginalized

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic Infection Among Municipality Solid-Waste Workers in an Egyptian Community.

    PubMed

    Eassa, Safaa M; El-Wahab, Ekram W Abd; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-04-01

    Solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. The objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in Alexandria. A total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (MSWWs) was interviewed using an in-depth questionnaire. The type of parasitic infections among waste handlers was determined using formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. About half of the workers were infected with parasites. The profile of parasitic infection revealed 12 parasitic species. These were comprised of the following helminths: Schistosoma mansoni (13.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), and Hymenolepis nana ova (0.6%). Among protozoa were pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica (3.2%), Giardia intestinalis (2.9%), nonpathogenic protozoa such as Entamoeba coli (1.7%), and potentially pathogenic or opportunistic ones as Cryptosporidium (23.4%), Microsporidia (20.25%), Cyclospora (2.0%), Blastocystis hominis (1.7%), and Cystoisospora belli (1.2%). About 1.4% of MSWWs have pediculosis and phthiriasis in their scalp and eyelashes respectively. Risk factors for infection were associated with direct exposure to solid fecal waste (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.0) and occupational activities that allowed for direct exposure to solid fecal waste (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-4.0). Logistic regression model has revealed that educational level and residence were the factors that contribute to parasitic infection among MSWWs (P < 0.05). MSWWs are at high risk of acquiring parasitic infections. Data of the present study highlighted the need for greater biomonitoring of MSWWs and the improvement of environmental conditions and health care in such marginalized

  3. Prevalence of and factors influencing postnatal depression in a rural community in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge about postnatal depression (PND) and associated risk factors which influence the development of PND is vital for early detection, intervention and prevention. Setting The study was conducted in primary health care clinics (PHC) in the Witzenberg subdistrict, a rural community in South Africa. Objectives Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PND and to identify the contributing risk factors associated with PND. Methods A descriptive cross sectional research design with a quantitative approach was applied. The target population was mothers, 18 years and older. A convenience sampling method was used to select a sample of 159 (10%) from a population of 1605 live births. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), two validated self-rating questionnaires, including a questionnaire based on demographical, psychosocial and obstetrical data, were applied. The data was analysed using various statistical tests to determine statistical associations between variables using a 95% confidence interval. Results PND was a serious health problem with 50.3% of the mothers who suffered from PND. A BDI analysis showed that of the participants who had PND, 28.8% was severe, 48.8% moderate and 22.5% mild. Factors influencing the development of PND included most participants (63.5%) were unmarried, 61.3% were unemployed and the majority (53.8%) had a history of a psychiatric illness. Significant associations between PND and unplanned and unwelcome babies (p < 0.01); partner relationship (p < 0.01); were identified. Conclusion Prevention, early detection, appropriate referral and treatment of PND are critical in managing maternal, child and family well-being. PMID:26842515

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Rural Nepal: A Community Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Manandhar, K

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world and is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. It is important to detect and manage prehypertension and hypertension to reduce the risk of correlated complications especially cardiovascular diseases. Objective The objective of the study was to find the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the adults in rural Nepal. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 648 respondents. The information was obtained using pre-tested questionnaire which included demographic information of individuals and other risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity and diet preference. Height, weight and blood pressure were recorded and hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) VII guidelines. Result The overall prevalence of hypertension was 20.5 % and pre-hypertension was 46.6%. The males had higher prevalence of hypertension (30.6%) compared to females (13.8%). Bivariate analysis showed male gender, smoking and non vegetarian diet have association with hypertension. Male gender [OR 2.50 (1.68 - 3.74)] and non vegetarian diet [OR 0.11 (0.01 - 0.85)] were found to be significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was high in the study population. In absence of life style modification and risk reduction the individuals categorized as prehypertension have great risk of developing hypertension in the future which may pose a great challenge in the future. Hence, there is a big scope for screening and primary prevention strategies to curb the epidemic of hypertension. PMID:27423286

  5. Interethnic differences in the relevance of CYP2C9 genotype and environmental factors for diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain.

    PubMed

    Llerena, A; Alvarez, M; Dorado, P; González, I; Peñas-LLedó, E; Pérez, B; Cobaleda, J; Calzadilla, L R

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain and its relation to ethnicity, CYP2C9 genotypes and environmental factors. Diclofenac hydroxylation capacity (concentration ratios of diclofenac/metabolites in 8-h urine) was studied in 160 Cuban (classified as 76 Cuban-Whites-CWs and 84 Cuban-Mestizos-CMs) and 148 Spaniard (SPs) healthy volunteers. Diclofenac and its main metabolites, 4'-hydroxy (OH), 3'-OH and 5-OH diclofenac, and CYP2C9*2 to *6 and *8 alleles were also determined in 132 and 128 CWs and CMs, respectively. Gender, tobacco, caffeine and ethanol consumption were also evaluated. The mean diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratio was higher in CMs (0.72±0.25) than in CWs (0.64±0.20; P<0.05) and SPs (0.57±0.26; P<0.001). The mean diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratio was higher (P<0.05) in subjects with CYP2C9*1/*3 (0.77±0.19; n=22) and CYP2C9*1/*8 (0.93±0.33; n=4) genotypes than with CYP2C9*1/*1 (0.65±0.24; n=90). Environmental factors did not seem to influence the diclofenac metabolism in these populations. The present findings show for the first time interethnic differences between Hispanic groups in urinary diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratios, and the relevance of CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*8 alleles.

  6. Heritable major histocompatibility complex class II-associated differences in production of tumor necrosis factor. alpha. : Relevance to genetic predisposition to systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, C.O.; Fronek, Z.; Koo, M.; McDevitt, H.O. ); Lewis, G.C. ); Hansen, J.A. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors report on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and TNF-{beta} by mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes or enriched monocyte subpopulations from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed healthy subjects. The results indicate that HLA-DR2- and DQw1-positive donors frequently exhibit low production of TNF-{alpha}, whereas DR3- and DR4-positive subjects show high levels of TNF-{alpha} production. No correlation between TNF-{alpha} levels and HLA-A, -B, and -C genotype was found. The relevance of this quantitative polymorphism to the genetic predisposition to lupus nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients was investigated. DR2, DQw1-positive SLE patients show low levels of TNF-{alpha} inducibility; this genotype is also associated with an increased incidence of lupus nephritis. DR3-positive SLE patients, on the other hand, are not predisposed to nephritis, and these patients have high TNF-{alpha} production. DR4 haplotype is associated with high TNF-{alpha} inducibility and is negatively correlated with lupus nephritis. These data may help explain the strong association between HLA-DR2, DQw1 in SLE patients and their susceptibility to nephritis.

  7. Variation partitioning of diatom species data matrices: Understanding the influence of multiple factors on benthic diatom communities in tropical streams.

    PubMed

    Bere, Taurai; Mangadze, Tinotenda; Mwedzi, Tongai

    2016-10-01

    Elucidating the confounding influence of multiple environmental factors on benthic diatom communities is important in developing water quality predictive models for better guidance of stream management efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relative impact of metal pollution and hydromorphological alterations in, addition to nutrient enrichment and organic pollution, on diatom taxonomic composition with the view to improve stream diatom-based water quality inference models. Samples were collected twice at 20 sampling stations in the tropical Manyame Catchment, Zimbabwe. Diatom, macroinvertebrate communities and environmental factors were sampled and analysed. The variations in diatom community composition explained by different categories of environmental factors were analysed using canonical correspondence analysis using variance partitioning (partial CCA). The following variations were explained by the different predictor matrices: nutrient levels and organic pollution - 10.4%, metal pollution - 8.3% and hydromorphological factors - 7.9%. Thus, factors other than nutrient levels and organic pollution explain additional significant variation in these diatom communities. Development of diatom-based stream water quality inference models that incorporate metal pollution and hydromorphological alterations, where these are key issues, is thus deemed necessary.

  8. Variation partitioning of diatom species data matrices: Understanding the influence of multiple factors on benthic diatom communities in tropical streams.

    PubMed

    Bere, Taurai; Mangadze, Tinotenda; Mwedzi, Tongai

    2016-10-01

    Elucidating the confounding influence of multiple environmental factors on benthic diatom communities is important in developing water quality predictive models for better guidance of stream management efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relative impact of metal pollution and hydromorphological alterations in, addition to nutrient enrichment and organic pollution, on diatom taxonomic composition with the view to improve stream diatom-based water quality inference models. Samples were collected twice at 20 sampling stations in the tropical Manyame Catchment, Zimbabwe. Diatom, macroinvertebrate communities and environmental factors were sampled and analysed. The variations in diatom community composition explained by different categories of environmental factors were analysed using canonical correspondence analysis using variance partitioning (partial CCA). The following variations were explained by the different predictor matrices: nutrient levels and organic pollution - 10.4%, metal pollution - 8.3% and hydromorphological factors - 7.9%. Thus, factors other than nutrient levels and organic pollution explain additional significant variation in these diatom communities. Development of diatom-based stream water quality inference models that incorporate metal pollution and hydromorphological alterations, where these are key issues, is thus deemed necessary. PMID:27320742

  9. Fifty-Year Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; PhilimonGona; Larson, Martin G.; Beiser, Alexa S.; McManus, David D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; SudhaSeshadri; Wolf, Philip A; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Comprehensive long-term data on atrial fibrillation trends in men and women are scant. Methods We investigated trends in atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and risk factors, and in stroke and mortality following its onset in Framingham Heart Study participants (n=9511) from 1958 to 2007. To accommodate sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk factors and disease manifestations, sex-stratified analyses were performed. Findings During 50 years of observation (202,417 person-years), there were 1,544 new-onset atrial fibrillation cases (46.8% women). We observed about a fourfold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence and more than a tripling in age-adjusted incidence of atrial fibrillation (prevalence 20.4 versus 96.2 per 1000 person-years in men; 13.7 versus 49.4 in women; incidence rates in first versus last decade 3.7 versus 13.4 per 1000 person-years in men; 2.5 versus 8.6 in women, ptrend<0.0001). For atrial fibrillation diagnosed by ECG during routine Framingham examinations, age-adjusted prevalence increased (12.6versus 25.7 per 1000 person-years in men; 8.1 versus 11.8 in women, ptrend<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence increased, but did not achieve statistical significance. Although the prevalence of most risk factors changed over time, their associated hazards for atrial fibrillation changed little. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a 73.5% decline in stroke and a 25.4% decline in mortality following atrial fibrillation onset (ptrend=0.0001, ptrend=0.003, respectively). Interpretation Our data suggest that observed trends of increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the community were partially due to enhanced surveillance. Stroke occurrence and mortality following atrial fibrillation onset declined over the decades, and prevalence increased approximately fourfold. The hazards for atrial fibrillation risk factors remained fairly constant. Our data indicate a need for measures to enhance early

  10. The Limits to Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  11. Factors regulating the use of dissolved organic matter by heterotrophic biofilm communities in boreal headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Biofilm communities in headwater streams are the primary drivers of carbon and nutrient cycling, and are critical to our understanding of ecosystem processes and environmental change in boreal watersheds. In situ experiments were conducted using stream water and colonized tiles to assess how biofilm heterotrophic activity, e.g. use of dissolved organic matter (DOM), may be regulated by carbon and nutrient availability at sites within headwater streams of forest, wetland, and nutrient-impacted catchments. Community level respiration and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) uptake were measured and indicate highest microbial activity within wetland-dominated and pond-influenced sites congruent with both the elevated DOC concentrations and greater proportion of carbohydrate carbon in DOM sources in these watersheds. Further, trends of decreasing respiration rates downstream in the forest and wetland catchments followed decreases in DOM carbohydrate and aromatic relative to aliphatic content. These findings suggest that wetland and pond derived sources may increase the bioavailability of DOM relative to DOM derived from landscapes with lower contributions of these sources. To investigate this further, we conducted an additional set of short-term in situ experiments using additions of pond and bog derived DOM concentrates added as substrates to biofilms collected from sites that have exhibited significantly different levels of biofilm activity. Heterotrophic biofilm activity response to these changes in DOM source and composition did not vary significantly relative to the incubations without DOM additions, whether added within or outside the source area. This suggests that DOM lability and the microbial community developed to use this DOM are likely responsible for greater respiration rates and DOC uptake at pond and wetland-influenced locations. Furthermore, nutrient addition treatments in these experiments indicate heterotrophic activity within these catchments was co

  12. Factors that Influence Faculty Intentions to Support the Community College Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielty, Lori

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of community colleges in the United States are becoming baccalaureate-granting institutions. Proponents of the community college baccalaureate (CCB) argue that the CCB provides students with access to higher education, while others argue the CCB will compromise the community college's core values. The purpose of this study…

  13. Learning Communities for Curriculum Change: Key Factors in an Educational Change Process in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly school change processes are being facilitated through the formation and operation of groups of teachers working together for improved student outcomes. These groupings are variously referred to as networks, networked learning communities, communities of practice, professional learning communities, learning circles or clusters. The…

  14. Treatment resistant schizophrenia is associated with the worst community functioning among severely-ill highly-disabling psychiatric conditions and is the most relevant predictor of poorer achievements in functional milestones.

    PubMed

    Iasevoli, Felice; Giordano, Sara; Balletta, Raffaele; Latte, Gianmarco; Formato, Maria Vittoria; Prinzivalli, Emiliano; De Berardis, Domenico; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare achievements in milestones of community functioning in highly disabling psychiatric conditions, including treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), schizophrenia (responsive to antipsychotics), bipolar disorder, and anxiety/depressive diseases. Also, we investigated the predictors of community functioning outcomes across several domains. Among consecutive patients screened, 188 met inclusion criteria and 118 ultimately entered the study. Diagnosis of TRS was made by stringent criteria, including historic and perspective evaluations and excluding potential confounding factors. Achievements in functional milestones of everyday living were recorded. Performances in discrete cognitive tasks were assessed. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Personal and Social Performance Scale, the Drug Attitude Inventory-10, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire were administered. TRS patients showed the highest impairment in community functioning among diagnostic groups. TRS was found to have more severe psychopathology, more impaired cognitive functioning, and poorer psychosocial adjustment compared to all the other groups. In the whole sample, the main predictors of community functioning were the diagnostic group (with TRS diagnosis associated with worst functioning) and achievements in the other functional milestones. In psychotic patients, however, the main predictors of community functioning were clinical and psychopathological variables. These results may support the hypothesis that TRS represents a separate schizophrenia subtype, with its own neurobiology, psychopathology and clinical course. Our results identify a group of modifiable predictors to be addressed to prevent community disability. PMID:26320028

  15. Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions) in the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level) analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three notifiable (mandatory reporting to public health authorities at the time of diagnosis) enteric infections. Methods The rate of campylobacteriosis was modeled using a Poisson distribution while rates of giardiasis and salmonellosis were modeled using a Negative Binomial distribution. Rate ratios (the ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence of disease in the non-exposed group) were estimated for infections by the three major pathogens with potential community-level risk factors. Results Significant (p≤0.05) associations varied by etiology. There was increased risk of infection with Salmonella for communities with higher proportions of ‘households in core need’ (unsuitable, inadequate, and/or unaffordable housing) up to 42% after which the rate started to decrease with increasing core need. The risk of giardiasis was significantly higher both with increased ‘internal mobility’ (population moving between communities), and also where the community’s primary health facility was a health center rather than a full-service hospital. Communities with higher health expenditures had a significantly decreased risk of giardiasis. Results of modeling that focused on each of Giardia and Salmonella infections separately supported and expanded upon previous research outcomes that suggested health disparities are often associated with socioeconomic status, geographical and social mobility, as well as access to health care (e.g. facilities, services and professionals

  16. Mineral vs. Organic Amendments: Microbial Community Structure, Activity and Abundance of Agriculturally Relevant Microbes Are Driven by Long-Term Fertilization Strategies.

    PubMed

    Francioli, Davide; Schulz, Elke; Lentendu, Guillaume; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Reitz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Soil management is fundamental to all agricultural systems and fertilization practices have contributed substantially to the impressive increases in food production. Despite the pivotal role of soil microorganisms in agro-ecosystems, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of the soil microbiota to organic and mineral fertilization in the very long-term. Here, we report the effects of different fertilization regimes (mineral, organic and combined mineral and organic fertilization), carried out for more than a century, on the structure and activity of the soil microbiome. Organic matter content, nutrient concentrations, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly increased by mineral, and even more strongly by organic fertilization. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences between the structures of bacterial and fungal soil communities associated to each fertilization regime. Organic fertilization increased bacterial diversity, and stimulated microbial groups (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Zygomycota) that are known to prefer nutrient-rich environments, and that are involved in the degradation of complex organic compounds. In contrast, soils not receiving manure harbored distinct microbial communities enriched in oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments, as Acidobacteria. The fertilization regime also affected the relative abundances of plant beneficial and detrimental microbial taxa, which may influence productivity and stability of the agroecosystem. As expected, the activity of microbial exoenzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous mineralization were enhanced by both types of fertilization. However, in contrast to comparable studies, the highest chitinase and phosphatase activities were observed in the solely mineral fertilized soil. Interestingly, these two enzymes showed also a particular high biomass-specific activities and a strong negative relation with soil pH. As many soil parameters

  17. Mineral vs. Organic Amendments: Microbial Community Structure, Activity and Abundance of Agriculturally Relevant Microbes Are Driven by Long-Term Fertilization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Francioli, Davide; Schulz, Elke; Lentendu, Guillaume; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Reitz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Soil management is fundamental to all agricultural systems and fertilization practices have contributed substantially to the impressive increases in food production. Despite the pivotal role of soil microorganisms in agro-ecosystems, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of the soil microbiota to organic and mineral fertilization in the very long-term. Here, we report the effects of different fertilization regimes (mineral, organic and combined mineral and organic fertilization), carried out for more than a century, on the structure and activity of the soil microbiome. Organic matter content, nutrient concentrations, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly increased by mineral, and even more strongly by organic fertilization. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences between the structures of bacterial and fungal soil communities associated to each fertilization regime. Organic fertilization increased bacterial diversity, and stimulated microbial groups (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Zygomycota) that are known to prefer nutrient-rich environments, and that are involved in the degradation of complex organic compounds. In contrast, soils not receiving manure harbored distinct microbial communities enriched in oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments, as Acidobacteria. The fertilization regime also affected the relative abundances of plant beneficial and detrimental microbial taxa, which may influence productivity and stability of the agroecosystem. As expected, the activity of microbial exoenzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous mineralization were enhanced by both types of fertilization. However, in contrast to comparable studies, the highest chitinase and phosphatase activities were observed in the solely mineral fertilized soil. Interestingly, these two enzymes showed also a particular high biomass-specific activities and a strong negative relation with soil pH. As many soil parameters

  18. Mineral vs. Organic Amendments: Microbial Community Structure, Activity and Abundance of Agriculturally Relevant Microbes Are Driven by Long-Term Fertilization Strategies.

    PubMed

    Francioli, Davide; Schulz, Elke; Lentendu, Guillaume; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Reitz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Soil management is fundamental to all agricultural systems and fertilization practices have contributed substantially to the impressive increases in food production. Despite the pivotal role of soil microorganisms in agro-ecosystems, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of the soil microbiota to organic and mineral fertilization in the very long-term. Here, we report the effects of different fertilization regimes (mineral, organic and combined mineral and organic fertilization), carried out for more than a century, on the structure and activity of the soil microbiome. Organic matter content, nutrient concentrations, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly increased by mineral, and even more strongly by organic fertilization. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences between the structures of bacterial and fungal soil communities associated to each fertilization regime. Organic fertilization increased bacterial diversity, and stimulated microbial groups (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Zygomycota) that are known to prefer nutrient-rich environments, and that are involved in the degradation of complex organic compounds. In contrast, soils not receiving manure harbored distinct microbial communities enriched in oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments, as Acidobacteria. The fertilization regime also affected the relative abundances of plant beneficial and detrimental microbial taxa, which may influence productivity and stability of the agroecosystem. As expected, the activity of microbial exoenzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous mineralization were enhanced by both types of fertilization. However, in contrast to comparable studies, the highest chitinase and phosphatase activities were observed in the solely mineral fertilized soil. Interestingly, these two enzymes showed also a particular high biomass-specific activities and a strong negative relation with soil pH. As many soil parameters

  19. Mineral vs. Organic Amendments: Microbial Community Structure, Activity and Abundance of Agriculturally Relevant Microbes Are Driven by Long-Term Fertilization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Francioli, Davide; Schulz, Elke; Lentendu, Guillaume; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Reitz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Soil management is fundamental to all agricultural systems and fertilization practices have contributed substantially to the impressive increases in food production. Despite the pivotal role of soil microorganisms in agro-ecosystems, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of the soil microbiota to organic and mineral fertilization in the very long-term. Here, we report the effects of different fertilization regimes (mineral, organic and combined mineral and organic fertilization), carried out for more than a century, on the structure and activity of the soil microbiome. Organic matter content, nutrient concentrations, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly increased by mineral, and even more strongly by organic fertilization. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences between the structures of bacterial and fungal soil communities associated to each fertilization regime. Organic fertilization increased bacterial diversity, and stimulated microbial groups (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Zygomycota) that are known to prefer nutrient-rich environments, and that are involved in the degradation of complex organic compounds. In contrast, soils not receiving manure harbored distinct microbial communities enriched in oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments, as Acidobacteria. The fertilization regime also affected the relative abundances of plant beneficial and detrimental microbial taxa, which may influence productivity and stability of the agroecosystem. As expected, the activity of microbial exoenzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous mineralization were enhanced by both types of fertilization. However, in contrast to comparable studies, the highest chitinase and phosphatase activities were observed in the solely mineral fertilized soil. Interestingly, these two enzymes showed also a particular high biomass-specific activities and a strong negative relation with soil pH. As many soil parameters

  20. Stability of the Transthyretin Molecule as a Key Factor in the Interaction with A-Beta Peptide - Relevance in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carlos A.; Saraiva, Maria João; Cardoso, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) protects against A-Beta toxicity by binding the peptide thus inhibiting its aggregation. Previous work showed different TTR mutations interact differently with A-Beta, with increasing affinities correlating with decreasing amyloidogenecity of the TTR mutant; this did not impact on the levels of inhibition of A-Beta aggregation, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Our work aimed at probing differences in binding to A-Beta by WT, T119M and L55P TTR using quantitative assays, and at identifying factors affecting this interaction. We addressed the impact of such factors in TTR ability to degrade A-Beta. Using a dot blot approach with the anti-oligomeric antibody A11, we showed that A-Beta formed oligomers transiently, indicating aggregation and fibril formation, whereas in the presence of WT and T119M TTR the oligomers persisted longer, indicative that these variants avoided further aggregation into fibrils. In contrast, L55PTTR was not able to inhibit oligomerization or to prevent evolution to aggregates and fibrils. Furthermore, apoptosis assessment showed WT and T119M TTR were able to protect against A-Beta toxicity. Because the amyloidogenic potential of TTR is inversely correlated with its stability, the use of drugs able to stabilize TTR tetrameric fold could result in increased TTR/A-Beta binding. Here we showed that iododiflunisal, 3-dinitrophenol, resveratrol, [2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)amino] (DCPA) and [4-(3,5-difluorophenyl)] (DFPB) were able to increase TTR binding to A-Beta; however only DCPA and DFPB improved TTR proteolytic activity. Thyroxine, a TTR ligand, did not influence TTR/A-Beta interaction and A-Beta degradation by TTR, whereas RBP, another TTR ligand, not only obstructed the interaction but also inhibited TTR proteolytic activity. Our results showed differences between WT and T119M TTR, and L55PTTR mutant regarding their interaction with A-Beta and prompt the stability of TTR as a key factor in this interaction

  1. Seasonal dynamics of crustacean zooplankton community structure in Erhai Lake, a plateau lake, with reference to phytoplankton and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Deng, Daogui; Zhang, Sai; Hu, Cuilin

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal dynamics of a crustacean zooplankton community in Erhai Lake was investigated from May 2010 to April 2011. In total, 11 species were recorded, including six (6 genera) cladoceran and five (5 genera) copepod species. The crustacean zooplankton densities ranged from 24.3 to 155.4 ind./L. In winter and spring, the large-bodied cladoceran Daphnia galeata dominated the crustacean plankton community. In summer and autumn, when the colonial or filamentous algae dominated the phytoplankton communities, the small-bodied species (e.g. B osmina fatalis, Ceriodaphnia quadrangular, and Mesocyclops leuckarti) replaced the large-bodied ones. One-way ANOVA and redundancy analysis revealed that community structure was dependent upon total nitrogen, total phosphorus, water temperature, transparency, and the biomass of small algae. The variation in both phytoplankton structure and environmental variables were important factors in the seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton structure in Erhai Lake.

  2. A novel community-based model to enhance health promotion, risk factor management and chronic disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Carson, Shannon Ryan; Carr, Caroline; Kohler, Graeme; Edwards, Lynn; Gibson, Rick; Sampalli, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is a highly expensive but preventable problem to the healthcare system. Evidence suggests that impacting modifiable behaviours and risk management factors in the areas of physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, stress and obesity can alleviate the burden of chronic disease problem to a large extent. Despite this recognition, the challenge is embedding these recognized priorities into the community and in primary care in a sustainable and meaningful manner. Primary Health Care in Capital Health responded to this challenge by developing and implementing a free, interprofessional and community-based service, namely, the Community Health Teams (CHTs), that offers health and wellness, risk factor management, wellness navigation and behaviour-based programming. In this paper, the development and implementation of the CHTs are discussed. Preliminary outcomes for the model are significant and promising. Formal and large-scale studies are planned to validate these outcomes with additional research rigour. PMID:25591610

  3. [Community structure of phytoplankton and its relationships with environmental factors in drinking water source of Jinshu Bay, Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Li, Qin-qin; Deng, Jian-cai; Hu, Wei-ping; Hu, Liu-ming; Gao, Feng; Zhu, Jin-ge

    2010-07-01

    By using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), this paper studied the community structure of phytoplankton and its relationships with environmental factors in the drinking water source of Jinshu Bay, Taihu Lake. A total of 7 phylum and 58 genera were identified, and the phytoplankton community was dominated by Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Chlorophyta. The quantity of phytoplankton was slightly higher in summer (250 x 10(4) ind x L(-1)) than in spring (238 x 10(4) ind x L(-1)), but the community structure differed obviously between the two seasons. In spring, Cyanophyta was the dominant phylum, and Anabaena was the dominant genus; in summer, Chlorophyta was the dominant phylum, with no dominant genus but abundant quantity of Merismopedia and Scenedesmus. Besides temperature, the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of phytoplankton in spring were ammonium-nitrogen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and phosphate, while those in summer were total nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, phosphate, suspended solids, macrophytes, total phosphorus, and transparency.

  4. A novel community-based model to enhance health promotion, risk factor management and chronic disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Carson, Shannon Ryan; Carr, Caroline; Kohler, Graeme; Edwards, Lynn; Gibson, Rick; Sampalli, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is a highly expensive but preventable problem to the healthcare system. Evidence suggests that impacting modifiable behaviours and risk management factors in the areas of physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, stress and obesity can alleviate the burden of chronic disease problem to a large extent. Despite this recognition, the challenge is embedding these recognized priorities into the community and in primary care in a sustainable and meaningful manner. Primary Health Care in Capital Health responded to this challenge by developing and implementing a free, interprofessional and community-based service, namely, the Community Health Teams (CHTs), that offers health and wellness, risk factor management, wellness navigation and behaviour-based programming. In this paper, the development and implementation of the CHTs are discussed. Preliminary outcomes for the model are significant and promising. Formal and large-scale studies are planned to validate these outcomes with additional research rigour.

  5. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.

  6. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts. PMID:26433725

  7. Factors Affecting Student Success in Distance Learning Courses at a Local California Community College: Joint Governance Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…

  8. Factors Influencing Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine to Community-Dwelling Teenagers Aged 12-18 with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of…

  9. The Role of Community, Family, Peer, and School Factors in Group Bullying: Implications for School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael J.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. Methods: We used…

  10. Examining Risk and Protective Factors in Head Start Populations Located in High- and Low-Violence Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedor, Megan C.; Bender, Stacy L.; Carlson, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined parental reports of children attending Head Start programs in high- (N = 200) and low- (N = 188) violence communities to determine whether differences existed in the level of risk and protective factors as measured by the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (P. A. LeBuffe & J. A. Naglieri, 1999). Previous research has indicated…

  11. Risk and Protective Factors for Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence against Women in a Community of Lima, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayorga, Magaly Noblega

    2012-01-01

    This article shows risk and protective factors for both physical and emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. The study was carried out in a shanty town of Lima, Peru, which has a strong community organization. One hundred ninety-two women between 25 and 59 years old (M = 34.09, SD = 6.5) were interviewed; 44.3% had secondary…

  12. An Exploration of Factors That Impact the Satisfaction and Success of Low Socioeconomic Status Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Damon A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explored multiple factors that impact the satisfaction and success of low socioeconomic status students at a California community college. In an effort to illuminate this impact, a quantitative study investigating extant data collected from a campus climate survey was conducted. The researcher was specifically interested in…

  13. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most…

  14. The Effect of College Selection Factors on Persistence: An Examination of Black and Latino Males in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship (if any) between college selection factors and persistence for Black and Latino males in the community college. Using data derived from the Educational Longitudinal Study, backwards stepwise logistic regression models were developed for both groups. Findings are contextualized in light…

  15. Predicting Recidivism in Juvenile Offenders on Community-Based Orders: The Impact of Risk Factors and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Rebecca; Homel, Ross

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the Queensland government trialled the Youth Justice Service which fundamentally changed the way supervision, rehabilitation and reintegration services were provided to young offenders on community based orders. The Youth Justice Service aims to monitor order compliance, address risk factors associated with the offending behaviour and…

  16. An Analysis of the Factors Which Affect Instructional Unit Cost in the Public Community Colleges of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhaus, Penny; Lach, Ivan J.

    Methodology and findings are reported for a series of statistical analyses conducted to identify those factors that account for variations in instructional unit costs (IUC) among the Illinois community colleges. The first analysis described in the report correlates five measures of district wealth with total IUC (i.e., total instructional costs…

  17. Lead in New York City Community Garden Chicken Eggs: Influential Factors and Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A.; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48% of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (p<0.005) with lead concentrations in soil. The association between soil and egg lead has been evaluated only once before, by a study of a rural region in Belgium. In our study, the apparent lead soil-to-egg transfer efficiency was considerably lower than that found in Belgium, suggesting that there may be important geographic differences in this transfer. We developed models that suggested that, for sites like ours, lead concentrations in >50% of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (<7–13 μg/kg; 3% above detection limit) at soil lead concentrations >120 mg/kg, and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were <600 mg/kg, and considerably higher concentrations are not uncommon. Efforts to reduce lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers. PMID:24287691

  18. [The "healthy community" project--morbidity, risk factors, health behavior and psychiatric symptoms in Steiermark].

    PubMed

    Klebel, H; Stronegger, W J

    1996-01-01

    27,344 persons in Styria participated in a study of the "Steirische Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsschutz" in Graz, within the framework of the project "Healthy communities" and were asked about diseases and health attitudes. All analyses were made separately for men and women and were adjusted for age and education. The goal of this study was a regional comparison of chronic diseases, risk factors, health consciousness and psychiatric complaints. Thus it should be possible to define the problematic regions with regard to health, in order to take the necessary political action to improve the situation. Men and women show a relative lack of health consciousness in the Weinbauregion and East Styria. Psychiatric complaints of women are more frequent in the Weinbauregion than the other areas. It appears that the healthier people live in the regions Mur/Mürztal and the Ennstal. Women have less risk factors than men, but have more psychiatric complaints. Men live less healthy lives in relation to their nutrition, risk avoidance and dental hygiene, except with respect to sports. Of the interviewed people from the surroundings of Graz 63% suffer from chronic disease, whilst in the Mur/Mürz- and Ennstal the respective figure is 56%. In the wine growing regions 54% of men drink alcohol daily, whereas in the Mur/Mürz- and Ennstal 42% of men drink alcohol daily. In the wine-growing regions 35% of the women and 50% of the men are overweight; in the Ennstal only 28% of the women are overweight but 45% of the men. Regular sports activities are undertaken by 35% of the women and 38% of the men in the Ennstal, as compared with 22% of the women and 27% of the men in East Styria. Insomnia was recorded in 29% of the women in East Styria, but in only 22% of the women in the Mur/Mürztal.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for dysphagia: a U.S. community study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, So Yang; Choung, Rok Seon; Saito, Yuri A.; Schleck, Cathy D; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Locke, G. Richard; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysphagia is considered an alarm symptom but detailed population-based data on dysphagia are lacking. We aimed to estimate in a representative US Caucasian population the prevalence of dysphagia and potential risk factors. Methods A modified version of the previously validated Bowel Disease Questionnaire was mailed to a population based cohort (n=7640) of Olmsted County, MN. Dysphagia was measured by one validated question “In the last year, how often have you had difficulty swallowing (a feeling that food sticks in your throat or chest)?” The medical records were reviewed for organic causes of dysphagia. The associations of reported frequency of dysphagia with potential risk factors were assessed using logistic regression models. Results The sex-specific, age-adjusted (US White 2000) prevalence for dysphagia experienced at least weekly was 3.0 % (95% CI: 2.2, 3.7) in females and 3.0 % (95% CI: 2.0, 4.0) in males. Those with frequent heartburn [OR=5.9 (4.0, 8.6)] and acid regurgitation [OR=10.6 (6.8, 16.6)] were significantly more likely to report frequent dysphagia. PPI use was significantly associated with frequent (3.1, 95% CI 2.2, 4.4) and infrequent dysphagia (1.5, 955 CI 1.3, 1.8). GERD was the most common diagnosis in those reporting dysphagia on the medical record; other organic explanations were rare and only found in the frequent dysphagia group. Conclusions Frequent dysphagia is not rare in the community (3%), occurs in both women and men across all adult age groups, and is most likely to indicate underlying GERD. PMID:25376877

  20. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  1. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  2. Risk factors and the prevalence of leptospirosis infection in a rural community of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Castellanos, C. B.; García-Suárez, R.; González-Figueroa, E.; Fuentes-Allen, J. L.; Escobedo-de la Peñal, J.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mapastepec, a rural community of the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico. The overall prevalence of leptospirosis infection in 1169 subjects was 37.7% [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 34.9-40.5]. The main risk factors related to leptospirosis infection were flooding, mainly if subjects had a skin cut or abrasion [odds ratio (OR) 4.2; 95% CI 3.1-5.7], having domestic animals, either dogs and/or cats (OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.96-1.8) or cattle and/or pigs (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.7), contact with animal excreta with no protection and with a skin cut or abrasion (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.6). Those subjects with a dengue infection in the previous year had also an excess risk (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9-2.0). Mapastepec is a previously unknown area with high endemicity. Specific preventive measures should be adopted to prevent any contact with infected animals, and animal immunization should also be implemented. There is need of an epidemiological surveillance system to allow proper diagnosis. PMID:14959783

  3. Species richness and interacting factors control invasibility of a marine community.

    PubMed

    Marraffini, M L; Geller, J B

    2015-08-01

    Anthropogenic vectors have moved marine species around the world leading to increased invasions and expanded species' ranges. The biotic resistance hypothesis of Elton (in The ecology of invasions by animals and plants, 1958) predicts that more diverse communities should have greater resistance to invasions, but experiments have been equivocal. We hypothesized that species richness interacts with other factors to determine experimental outcomes. We manipulated species richness, species composition (native and introduced) and availability of bare space in invertebrate assemblages in a marina in Monterey, CA. Increased species richness significantly interacted with both initial cover of native species and of all organisms to collectively decrease recruitment. Although native species decreased recruitment, introduced species had a similar effect, and we concluded that biotic resistance is conferred by total species richness. We suggest that contradictory conclusions in previous studies about the role of diversity in regulating invasions reflect uncontrolled variables in those experiments that modified the effect of species richness. Our results suggest that patches of low diversity and abundance may facilitate invasions, and that such patches, once colonized by non-indigenous species, can resist both native and non-indigenous species recruitment.

  4. Species richness and interacting factors control invasibility of a marine community

    PubMed Central

    Marraffini, M. L.; Geller, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic vectors have moved marine species around the world leading to increased invasions and expanded species' ranges. The biotic resistance hypothesis of Elton (in The ecology of invasions by animals and plants, 1958) predicts that more diverse communities should have greater resistance to invasions, but experiments have been equivocal. We hypothesized that species richness interacts with other factors to determine experimental outcomes. We manipulated species richness, species composition (native and introduced) and availability of bare space in invertebrate assemblages in a marina in Monterey, CA. Increased species richness significantly interacted with both initial cover of native species and of all organisms to collectively decrease recruitment. Although native species decreased recruitment, introduced species had a similar effect, and we concluded that biotic resistance is conferred by total species richness. We suggest that contradictory conclusions in previous studies about the role of diversity in regulating invasions reflect uncontrolled variables in those experiments that modified the effect of species richness. Our results suggest that patches of low diversity and abundance may facilitate invasions, and that such patches, once colonized by non-indigenous species, can resist both native and non-indigenous species recruitment. PMID:26203005

  5. Factors affecting the helminth community structure of adult collared peccaries in southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Corn, J L; Pence, D B; Warren, R J

    1985-07-01

    Four species of nematodes (Gongylonema pulchrum, Parabronema pecariae, Texicospirura turki, and Physocephalus sexalatus) and one species of cestode (Moniezia sp.) comprised the helminth fauna of adult collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from the plains in southern Texas. The community structure of the helminth fauna of peccaries from this region was basically dissimilar to that from the more humid Gulf coastal prairies of southern Texas in composition (by the conspicuous absence of certain species) and relative abundance of shared species. The distributions of each of the three common species of helminths (G. pulchrum, T. turki, and P. sexalatus) were overdispersed. The effects of selected habitat variables operating across host subpopulations (delineated by condition and sex) and of the extrinsic variable of season on the dispersion patterns of the three common species of helminths were examined. The hypothesis that heterogeneity within the host population, rather than across the collective host population, is the main factor generating overdispersion in natural parasite populations was not confirmed for the three common species of helminths. Overdispersion in P. sexalatus resulted from seasonal changes across the collective host population, with the greatest abundances occurring during the cool season. Aggregated abundances of G. pulchrum resulted from variation generated across host sex subpopulations, while the dispersion patterns of T. turki appeared to be unaffected by the habitat variables examined in this study.

  6. Injury Risk Factors in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana's Upper East Region.

    PubMed

    Long, Rachel N; Sun, Kan; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-07-24

    Occupational injury is one of many health concerns related to small-scale gold mining (ASGM), but few data exist on the subject, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011 and 2013, we examined accidents, injuries, and potential risk factors in a Ghanaian ASGM community. In 2011, 173 participants were surveyed on occupational history and health, and 22 of these were surveyed again in 2013. Injury rates were estimated at 45.5 and 38.5 injuries per 100 person-years in 2011 and in 2013, respectively; these rates far surpass those of industrialized mines in the U.S. and South Africa. Demographic and job characteristics generally were not predictive of injury risk, though there was a significant positive association with injury risk for males and smokers. Legs and knees were the most common body parts injured, and falling was the most common cause of injury. The most common type of injuries were cuts or lacerations, burns and scalds, and contusions and abrasions. Only two miners had ever received any occupational safety training, and PPE use was low. Our results suggest that injuries should be a priority area for occupational health research in ASGM.

  7. Associated Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in the Older Adults with Chronic Virus Hepatitis in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yuan-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Chao; Kee, Kwong-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lin, Chun-Yin; Lin, Sheng-Che; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2016-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic virus hepatitis elders in the community. Those subjects with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) screened in the community before were invited to this study and 451 responded. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements, blood tests, ultrasound and fibroscan examinations. The cut-off of liver stiffness measurement-liver cirrhosis (LSM-LC) was 10 kPa for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 12 kPa for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, respectively. Among 451 responders, 56 were excluded due to negative HBsAg or anti-HCV. Three hundreds and ninety-five subjects included 228 CHB patients, 156 CHC patients and 11 dual hepatitis patients, had a mean age of 62±12.6 years. Fifty-four (23.7%) CHB patients coexisted with MetS whereas 40 (25.6%) CHC patients also had MetS. Those patients with MetS had more LSM-LC cases than those without (20.4% vs 9.8%, p = 0.04 in CHB patients; 28.2% vs 13.5%, p = 0.037 in CHC patients, respectively). In multivariate logistic analysis, detectable viremia was reversely associated with MetS in CHB patients after adjustment for age, gender and body mass index (odds ratio (OR): 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18–0.99; p = 0.047). Regarding CHC patients, higher LSM level was the only factor contributed to MetS (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.02–1.19; p = 0.012). In conclusion, elder CHB patients coexisted with MetS might experience an inactive virus replication but have an advanced liver fibrosis. In elder CHC patients, only higher LSM level was associated with MetS. PMID:27177024

  8. Salinity is the major factor influencing the sediment bacterial communities in a Mediterranean lagoonal complex (Amvrakikos Gulf, Ionian Sea).

    PubMed

    Pavloudi, Christina; Oulas, Anastasis; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Sarropoulou, Elena; Kotoulas, Georgios; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-08-01

    Lagoons are naturally enriched habitats, with unstable environmental conditions caused by their confinement, shallow depth and state of saprobity. The frequent fluctuations of the abiotic variables cause severe changes in the abundance and distribution of biota. This relationship has been studied extensively for the macrofaunal communities, but not sufficiently so for the bacterial ones. The aim of the present study was to explore the biodiversity patterns of bacterial assemblages and to examine whether these patterns are associated with biogeographic and environmental factors. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from five lagoons located in the Amvrakikos Gulf (Ionian Sea, Western Greece). DNA was extracted from the sediment and was further processed through 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. The results of this exploratory study imply that salinity is the environmental factor best correlated with the bacterial community pattern, which has also been suggested in similar studies but for macrofaunal community patterns. In addition, the bacterial community of the brackish lagoons is differentiated from that of the brackish-marine lagoons. The findings of this study indicate that the studied lagoons have distinct bacterial communities. PMID:26831186

  9. Environmental factors shaping cultured free-living amoebae and their associated bacterial community within drinking water network.

    PubMed

    Delafont, Vincent; Bouchon, Didier; Héchard, Yann; Moulin, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) constitute an important part of eukaryotic populations colonising drinking water networks. However, little is known about the factors influencing their ecology in such environments. Because of their status as reservoir of potentially pathogenic bacteria, understanding environmental factors impacting FLA populations and their associated bacterial community is crucial. Through sampling of a large drinking water network, the diversity of cultivable FLA and their bacterial community were investigated by an amplicon sequencing approach, and their correlation with physicochemical parameters was studied. While FLA ubiquitously colonised the water network all year long, significant changes in population composition were observed. These changes were partially explained by several environmental parameters, namely water origin, temperature, pH and chlorine concentration. The characterisation of FLA associated bacterial community reflected a diverse but rather stable consortium composed of nearly 1400 OTUs. The definition of a core community highlighted the predominance of only few genera, majorly dominated by Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Co-occurrence analysis also showed significant patterns of FLA-bacteria association, and allowed uncovering potentially new FLA - bacteria interactions. From our knowledge, this study is the first that combines a large sampling scheme with high-throughput identification of FLA together with associated bacteria, along with their influencing environmental parameters. Our results demonstrate the importance of physicochemical parameters in the ecology of FLA and their bacterial community in water networks.

  10. Environmental factors shaping cultured free-living amoebae and their associated bacterial community within drinking water network.

    PubMed

    Delafont, Vincent; Bouchon, Didier; Héchard, Yann; Moulin, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) constitute an important part of eukaryotic populations colonising drinking water networks. However, little is known about the factors influencing their ecology in such environments. Because of their status as reservoir of potentially pathogenic bacteria, understanding environmental factors impacting FLA populations and their associated bacterial community is crucial. Through sampling of a large drinking water network, the diversity of cultivable FLA and their bacterial community were investigated by an amplicon sequencing approach, and their correlation with physicochemical parameters was studied. While FLA ubiquitously colonised the water network all year long, significant changes in population composition were observed. These changes were partially explained by several environmental parameters, namely water origin, temperature, pH and chlorine concentration. The characterisation of FLA associated bacterial community reflected a diverse but rather stable consortium composed of nearly 1400 OTUs. The definition of a core community highlighted the predominance of only few genera, majorly dominated by Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Co-occurrence analysis also showed significant patterns of FLA-bacteria association, and allowed uncovering potentially new FLA - bacteria interactions. From our knowledge, this study is the first that combines a large sampling scheme with high-throughput identification of FLA together with associated bacteria, along with their influencing environmental parameters. Our results demonstrate the importance of physicochemical parameters in the ecology of FLA and their bacterial community in water networks. PMID:27219048

  11. Salinity is the major factor influencing the sediment bacterial communities in a Mediterranean lagoonal complex (Amvrakikos Gulf, Ionian Sea).

    PubMed

    Pavloudi, Christina; Oulas, Anastasis; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Sarropoulou, Elena; Kotoulas, Georgios; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-08-01

    Lagoons are naturally enriched habitats, with unstable environmental conditions caused by their confinement, shallow depth and state of saprobity. The frequent fluctuations of the abiotic variables cause severe changes in the abundance and distribution of biota. This relationship has been studied extensively for the macrofaunal communities, but not sufficiently so for the bacterial ones. The aim of the present study was to explore the biodiversity patterns of bacterial assemblages and to examine whether these patterns are associated with biogeographic and environmental factors. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from five lagoons located in the Amvrakikos Gulf (Ionian Sea, Western Greece). DNA was extracted from the sediment and was further processed through 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. The results of this exploratory study imply that salinity is the environmental factor best correlated with the bacterial community pattern, which has also been suggested in similar studies but for macrofaunal community patterns. In addition, the bacterial community of the brackish lagoons is differentiated from that of the brackish-marine lagoons. The findings of this study indicate that the studied lagoons have distinct bacterial communities.

  12. The use of a modified pairwise comparison method in evaluating critical success factors for community-based rural homestay programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  13. The diversity of coral associated bacteria and the environmental factors affect their community variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ying; Ling, Juan; Yang, Qing-Song; Wang, You-Shao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Sun, Hong-Yan; Feng, Jing-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wu, Mei-Lin; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Coral associated bacterial community potentially has functions relating to coral health, nutrition and disease. Culture-free, 16S rRNA based techniques were used to compare the bacterial community of coral tissue, mucus and seawater around coral, and to investigate the relationship between the coral-associated bacterial communities and environmental variables. The diversity of coral associated bacterial communities was very high, and their composition different from seawater. Coral tissue and mucus had a coral associated bacterial community with higher abundances of Gammaproteobacteria. However, bacterial community in seawater had a higher abundance of Cyanobacteria. Different populations were also found in mucus and tissue from the same coral fragment, and the abundant bacterial species associated with coral tissue was very different from those found in coral mucus. The microbial diversity and OTUs of coral tissue were much higher than those of coral mucus. Bacterial communities of corals from more human activities site have higher diversity and evenness; and the structure of bacterial communities were significantly different from the corals collected from other sites. The composition of bacterial communities associated with same coral species varied with season's changes, geographic differences, and coastal pollution. Unique bacterial groups found in the coral samples from more human activities location were significant positively correlated to chemical oxygen demand. These coral specific bacteria lead to coral disease or adjust to form new function structure for the adaption of different surrounding needs further research.

  14. Factor validity and reliability for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community in a Japanese population with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Y

    1996-01-01

    To assess the factor validity and reliability for the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-Community), 322 subjects with moderate to profound mental retardation (188 males and 134 females, mean age 29.79 +/- 12.45) were rated by the staff at the residential facilities in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Rating data were analyzed by factor analysis using the principal factoring method with iteration, followed by oblique rotation. The internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's alpha. Of these subjects, 43 were rated twice with an interval of 4 weeks to confirm the test-retest reliability and 33 were rated by pairs of raters for interrater reliability. Forty-eight of 58 items loaded most heavily on the same factors as in the original factor solution. Coefficient alpha raged from .85 to .95 across five subscales. The test-retest reliability was high with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ranging from .84 to .90. Although the correlation coefficients for interrater reliability tests were somewhat lower (.58 to .78), they were all statistically significant (p < .001). The Japanese version of ABC Community was comparative to the original and was useful for assessing behavior problems in Japanese persons with mental retardation.

  15. Factors enabling shared care with primary healthcare providers in community settings: the experiences of interdisciplinary palliative care teams.

    PubMed

    DeMiglio, Lily; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary palliative care (PC) teams experience a number of barriers in their efforts to establish and maintain shared care partnerships with primary health care providers (PHCPs) in caring for patients in community settings. A qualitative study,was undertaken in southern Ontario to examine how teams negotiate barriers in order to share mutual responsibility for patients with PHCPs (i.e., family physicians and community nurses). Over a one-year period, focus group interviews (n=15) were conducted with five teams to explore their experiences to better understand the factors that enable shared care. Using a conceptual framework put forth by Williams et al. (2010), the findings reveal that teams circumvent local level barriers through four enabling factors: team characteristics, geography, adaptation of practice, and relationship building. Understanding these factors and strategies to foster them will assist other jurisdictions wanting to establish a similar shared care service delivery model. PMID:23413764

  16. Traumatic physical health consequences of intimate partner violence against women: what is the role of community-level factors?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious public health issue with recognizable direct health consequences. This study assessed the association between IPV and traumatic physical health consequences on women in Nigeria, given that communities exert significant influence on the individuals that are embedded within them, with the nature of influence varying between communities. Methods Cross-sectional nationally-representative data of women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used in this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between IPV and several forms of physical health consequences. Results Bruises were the most common form of traumatic physical health consequences. In the adjusted models, the likelihood of sustaining bruises (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.05 - 3.46), wounds (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.31 - 4.95), and severe burns (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.63 - 6.28) was significantly higher for women exposed to IPV compared to those not exposed to IPV. However, after adjusting for individual- and community-level factors, women with husbands/partners with controlling behavior, those with primary or no education, and those resident in communities with high tolerance for wife beating had a higher likelihood of experiencing IPV, whilst mean community-level education and women 24 years or younger were at lower likelihood of experiencing IPV. Conclusions Evidence from this study shows that exposure to IPV is associated with increased likelihood of traumatic physical consequences for women in Nigeria. Education and justification of wife beating were significant community-level factors associated with traumatic physical consequences, suggesting the importance of increasing women's levels of education and changing community norms that justify controlling behavior and IPV. PMID:22185323

  17. Factors that predict financial sustainability of community coalitions: five years of findings from the PROSPER partnership project.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Johnson, Lesley E; Perkins, Daniel F; Welsh, Janet A; Spoth, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    This study is a longitudinal investigation of the Promoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) partnership model designed to evaluate the level of sustainability funding by community prevention teams, including which factors impact teams' generation of sustainable funding. Community teams were responsible for choosing, implementing with quality, and sustaining evidence-based programs (EBPs) intended to reduce substance misuse and promote positive youth and family development. Fourteen US rural communities and small towns were studied. Data were collected from PROSPER community team members (N = 164) and prevention coordinators (N = 10) over a 5-year period. Global and specific aspects of team functioning were assessed over six waves. Outcome measures were the total funds (cash and in-kind) raised to implement prevention programs. All 14 community teams were sustained for the first 5 years. However, there was substantial variability in the amount of funds raised, and these differences were predicted by earlier and concurrent team functioning and by team sustainability planning. Given the sufficient infrastructure and ongoing technical assistance provided by the PROSPER partnership model, local sustainability of EBPs is achievable.

  18. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  19. Development and laboratory evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detecting viruses and bacteria of relevance for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Edin, Alicia; Granholm, Susanne; Koskiniemi, Satu; Allard, Annika; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia may present with similar clinical symptoms, regardless of viral or bacterial cause. Diagnostic assays are needed to rapidly discriminate between causes, because this will guide decisions on appropriate treatment. Therefore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay with duplex reactions targeting eight bacteria and six viruses was developed. Technical performance was examined with linear plasmids. Upper and lower respiratory tract specimens were used to compare the qPCR assay with standard microbiological methods. The limit of detection was 5 to 20 DNA template copies with approximately 1000-fold differences in concentrations of the two competing templates. SDs for positive controls were <5%. The use of the qPCR assay resulted in 113 positive identifications in 94 respiratory specimens compared with 38 by using standard diagnostics. Diagnostic accuracy of the qPCR assay varied between 60% positive agreement with standard tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Negative percentage of agreement was >95% for M. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A virus; whereas it was only 56% for Haemophilus influenzae. Multiple microbial agents were identified in 19 of 44 sputum and 19 of 50 nasopharynx specimens. We conclude that in parallel qPCR detection of the targeted respiratory bacteria and viruses is feasible. The results indicate good technical performance of the assay in clinical specimens.

  20. Identifying Factors That Encourage and Hinder Knowledge Sharing in a Longstanding Online Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    Despite the strong interests among practitioners, there is a knowledge gap with regard to online communities of practice. This study examines knowledge sharing among critical-care and advanced-practice nurses, who are engaged in a longstanding online community of practice. Data were collected about members' online knowledge contribution as well as…

  1. Factor Analysis of the HEW National Strategy for Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The former HEW (Health, Education, and Welfare) National Strategy for Youth Development Model proposed a community-based program to promote positive youth development and to prevent delinquency through a sequence of youth needs assessments, needs-targeted programs, and program impact evaluation. HEW Community Program Impact Scales data obtained…

  2. Defining Factors of Successful University-Community Collaborations: An Exploration of One Healthy Marriage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Erik L.; Whiting, Jason B.; Bradford, Kay; Dyk, Patricia Hyjer; Vail, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study explored university-community collaborations by examining the workings of 1 healthy marriage initiative. An ethnographic case study research strategy was used to study the process of this initiative, specifically looking at how participants worked through and overcame traditional university-community collaboration challenges. Data…

  3. The God Factor of the Community College Ecological System: Future Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    A rationale and plan are presented for implementing a futures approach in many areas of community college activities. After the introduction, the paper cites several characteristics of the community college and its mission which mandate planned experimentation and innovation. Next, the relationship of future studies to the educational system as a…

  4. College Choice for Black Males in the Community College: Factors Influencing Institutional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Harrison, John D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the college choice process for Black males attending community colleges. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, findings indicated that Black males who attend community colleges select their institutions based upon having a degree in their chosen field, the coursework/curriculum, job placement record,…

  5. The Effects of Institutional Factors on the Success of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas; Calcagno, Juan Carlos; Jenkins, Davis; Kienzl, Greg; Leinbach, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this report is to measure the institutional characteristics that affect the success of community college students, particularly low-income and minority students. While there is a growing literature on this topic for baccalaureate institutions, few researchers have attempted to address the issue for community colleges. Since this line…

  6. Suicide Intervention Skills and Related Factors in Community and Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerder, Gert; Reynders, Alexandre; Andriessen, Karl; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Health and community professionals have considerable exposure to suicidal people and need to be well skilled to deal with them. We assessed suicide intervention skills with a Dutch version of the SIRI in 980 health and community professionals and psychology students. Suicide intervention skills clearly differed among professional groups and were…

  7. Identifying Success Factors of ICT in Developing a Learning Community: Case Study Charles Sturt University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Matthew; Uys, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A learning community has been developing in a distributed environment amongst the members of the Centre for Enhancing of Learning and Teaching (CELT) located in the Bathurst, Goulburn and Orange campuses of Charles Sturt University. This group is known by the acronym of GDMOB, with the purpose of the community to facilitate the…

  8. Factors that Predict the Integration of Technology for Instruction by Community College Adjunct Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paver, Jonathan; Walker, David A.; Hung, Wei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges have responded to the increased use of technology for instruction by providing support and professional development opportunities for faculty. However, differences in perceptions, expectations, and opportunities exist between full-time faculty at community colleges and their adjunct colleagues when it comes to adopting…

  9. Demographic and Instructor-Student Interaction Factors Associated with Community College Students' Intent to Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Yolanda F.; Hughes, Gail D.

    2014-01-01

    The classroom is the main point of contact for community college students due to their part-time status, employment, family responsibilities, and limited campus involvement. To examine the relationship between community college students' demographics and instructor interactions as they relate to intention to persist in college, researchers…

  10. The impact of arthritis on the physical function of a rural Maya-Yucateco community and factors associated with its prevalence: a cross sectional, community-based study.

    PubMed

    Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Wilkins, Seanne

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of arthritis on the physical function of people living in a Maya-Yucateco rural community and to assess the association of known modifiable risk factors with the prevalence of overall arthritis and its main types (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis). Using a cross-sectional, community-based census design, data collected from the adult population (≥18 years) of the Municipality of Chankom, Yucatán, México, were analyzed (n = 1523). Participants' physical function was assessed using a culturized version of the health assessment questionnaire disability index. Social, physical, and behavioral factors linked to overall arthritis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis, were assessed through the "Community-Oriented-Program-for-the-Control-of-Rheumatic-Diseases [COPCORD]" questionnaire. A physiatrist and a rheumatologist confirmed all osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis cases using the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Arthritis was confirmed in 169 cases (22 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19-25) of those assessed for musculoskeletal symptoms (n = 779): osteoarthritis = 144, rheumatoid arthritis = 17, and non-specific arthritis = 8. Arthritis was associated with a higher prevalence of disability after controlling for age, gender, and number of comorbidities (odds ratio = 4.0, 95 % CI 3.0-6.0). Higher level of wealth was associated with lower arthritis prevalence (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Higher body mass index was associated with higher hip and/or knee osteoarthritis prevalence (odds ratio = 1.1, 95 % CI 1.03-1.1). Arthritis is highly associated with disability in the Mayan people living in Chankom. The prevalence of arthritis in Chankom is associated with social factors, such as people's level of wealth, while the prevalence of low-extremity osteoarthritis is associated with people's body mass index.

  11. An examination of the factors fueling migration amongst Community Service practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Research is needed in order to understand the potential influence of the Bilateral Agreement between South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), as well as other more recent international and local policies restricting movement of South African health workers abroad; and to determine what effect they have on the migration intentions and plans of health professionals in South Africa. Aim The aims were to (1) explore the migration intentions and the factors that influence these intentions amongst Community Service (CS) nurses and doctors; (2) explore their views and opinions about the Bilateral Agreement between the UK and South Africa (SA) and other UK policies around the recruitment and employment of foreign health professionals; and (3) understand the impact of these policies on the migration plans of these CS doctors and nurses. Method Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with 23 CS doctors and nurses. To supplement this, 6 interviews were conducted with nurses and a doctor who had worked in the UK. Results A higher disposition toward moving abroad was apparent amongst those who had experienced a challenging and frustrating CS year. Poor working conditions, including long work hours, high patient loads and inadequate resources and equipment, as well as low salaries and the perceived ambivalence of the government to the complaints of health practitioners, were influencing decisions to migrate abroad. Conclusion The findings suggest that government efforts to better manage, recognise and respect the work and contribution of health professionals to the country would go a long way toward retaining health professionals. PMID:26245415

  12. Factors associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables among Community Kitchens customers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Garcés, Flavia A; Vargas-Matos, Iván; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Trujillo, Antonio J; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Community Kitchens (CKs) are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (< 5 vs. ≥ 5 servings/day) was the outcome. The exposures were grouped in sociodemographic variables (i.e. age, gender, education level, etc.), and self-reported intention to change eating- and exercise-related habits in the last four weeks just prior to the interview. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using Poisson regression. Data from 422 subjects were analyzed, 328 females (77.9%), mean age 43.7 (± 14.5) years. Only 36 (8.5%; 95% CI 5.9%-11.2%) customers reported consuming ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. This pattern was 4-fold more likely among those with higher levels of education (≥ 12 vs. < 7 years), and 64% less common for migrants relative to non-migrants. In terms of intentions to change habits, those who reported having tried to reduce sugar consumption or to eat more fruits were up to 90% more likely to meet the ≥ 5 servings/day target. A substantial gap in the consumption of ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day was found among CKs customers that does not appear to be dependent on familial income. The profiles reported in this study can inform appropriate strategies to increase healthier eating in this population. PMID:27617194

  13. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-03-01

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.

  14. Incidence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors of Community-Acquired and Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te; Su, Chien-Hao; Wang, Yu-Ching Lily; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The disease burden and outcomes of community-acquired (CA-) and hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) are not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of AKI in a large Taiwanese adult cohort. This retrospective cohort study examined 734,340 hospital admissions from a group of hospitals within an organization in Taiwan between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Patients with AKI at discharge were classified as either CA- or HA-AKI based on the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of function, end stage of kidney disease) classification criteria. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, dialysis, recovery of renal function, and length of stay. Risks of developing AKI were determined using multivariate logistic regression based on demographic and baseline clinical characteristics and nephrotoxin use before admission. AKI occurred in 1.68% to 2% hospital discharges among adults without and with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD), respectively. The incidence of CA-AKI was 17.25 and HA-AKI was 8.14 per 1000 admissions. The annual rate of CA-AKI increased from 12.43 to 19.96 per 1000 people, but the change in HA-AKI was insignificant. Comparing to CA-AKI, those with HA-AKI had higher levels of in-hospital mortality (26.07% vs 51.58%), mean length of stay (21.25 ± 22.35 vs 35.84 ± 34.62 days), and dialysis during hospitalization (1.45% vs 2.06%). Preexisting systemic diseases, including CKD were associated with increased risks of CA-AKI, and nephrotoxic polypharmacy increased risk of both CA- and HA-AKI. Patients with HA-AKI had more severe outcomes than patients with CA-AKI, and demonstrated different spectrum of risk factors. Although patients with CA-AKI with better outcomes, the incidence increased over time. It is also clear that optimal preventive and management strategies of HA- and CA-AKI are urgently needed to limit the risks in susceptible individuals. PMID:27175701

  15. Bryophyte communities as biomonitors of environmental factors in the Goujiang karst bauxite, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhihui

    2015-12-15

    Bauxite mining on karst results in several ecological and environmental issues including heavy metal pollution, soil erosion and the destruction of vegetation. In turn, these may affect the distribution of plant communities and endanger human health. In general, bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are pioneer plants, lacking roots, vascular systems and well-developed cuticles. Due to their high sensitivity to the environment, they are often used to monitor air and soil pollution. A total of 25 bryophyte taxa from 19 genera and 9 families were recorded on Goujiang karst bauxite near the city of Zunyi in the Guizhou Province of southwestern China. Eleven principal bryophyte communities were identified, most of which consisted of only one species (monospecific assemblage), although the proportion of these single-species communities differed at the six locations. The levels of heavy metals also differed in soil from the six locations: iron, 8748.9-10,023μg/g; zinc, 146.7-240.9μg/g; copper, 24.6-60.4μg/g; and nickel, 35.6-95.1μg/g. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the bryophyte communities and environmental variables revealed the effect of gradient (slope), altitude and heavy metals in the soil on the distribution of the principal bryophyte communities. More than 36% of bryophyte taxa identified reproduced asexually by gemmae, as gemmiferous bryophyte communities tolerate substrates with high levels of heavy metals more readily than non-gemmiferous communities do. The distribution of heavy metals in the soil is reflected in the distribution of the bryophyte communities. The distribution characteristics of the principal bryophyte communities and of the gemmiferous bryophyte communities are useful in monitoring heavy metal pollution in karst bauxite.

  16. Bryophyte communities as biomonitors of environmental factors in the Goujiang karst bauxite, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhihui

    2015-12-15

    Bauxite mining on karst results in several ecological and environmental issues including heavy metal pollution, soil erosion and the destruction of vegetation. In turn, these may affect the distribution of plant communities and endanger human health. In general, bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are pioneer plants, lacking roots, vascular systems and well-developed cuticles. Due to their high sensitivity to the environment, they are often used to monitor air and soil pollution. A total of 25 bryophyte taxa from 19 genera and 9 families were recorded on Goujiang karst bauxite near the city of Zunyi in the Guizhou Province of southwestern China. Eleven principal bryophyte communities were identified, most of which consisted of only one species (monospecific assemblage), although the proportion of these single-species communities differed at the six locations. The levels of heavy metals also differed in soil from the six locations: iron, 8748.9-10,023μg/g; zinc, 146.7-240.9μg/g; copper, 24.6-60.4μg/g; and nickel, 35.6-95.1μg/g. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the bryophyte communities and environmental variables revealed the effect of gradient (slope), altitude and heavy metals in the soil on the distribution of the principal bryophyte communities. More than 36% of bryophyte taxa identified reproduced asexually by gemmae, as gemmiferous bryophyte communities tolerate substrates with high levels of heavy metals more readily than non-gemmiferous communities do. The distribution of heavy metals in the soil is reflected in the distribution of the bryophyte communities. The distribution characteristics of the principal bryophyte communities and of the gemmiferous bryophyte communities are useful in monitoring heavy metal pollution in karst bauxite. PMID:26312404

  17. Disentangling the relative importance of host tree community, abiotic environment and spatial factors on ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages along an elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Mori, Akira S; Kawaguchi, Eri; Hobara, Satoru; Osono, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in community compositions of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi along elevation gradients are mainly affected by changes in host tree communities and/or in abiotic environments. However, few studies have taken the effects of processes related to fungal dispersal (i.e. spatial processes) into account and distinguished the effects of host community, abiotic environment and spatial processes on community composition along elevation gradients. This has left unclear the relative importance of these factors in structuring the ECM community assemblages. To address this, we investigated the community composition of ECM fungi along an elevation gradient in northern Japan with 454 meta-barcoding. We found that the community composition of ECM fungi changed along the elevation and that all three factors jointly affected the compositional changes. We separated the magnitude of importance of the three factors in structuring ECM fungal communities and found that most of the spatial variation in ECM fungal community was explained by host communities and abiotic environments. Our results suggest that while biotic and/or abiotic environments can be important factors in determining the ECM fungal community composition along an elevation gradient, spatial processes may also be a primary determinant. PMID:26917782

  18. Disentangling the relative importance of host tree community, abiotic environment and spatial factors on ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages along an elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Mori, Akira S; Kawaguchi, Eri; Hobara, Satoru; Osono, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in community compositions of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi along elevation gradients are mainly affected by changes in host tree communities and/or in abiotic environments. However, few studies have taken the effects of processes related to fungal dispersal (i.e. spatial processes) into account and distinguished the effects of host community, abiotic environment and spatial processes on community composition along elevation gradients. This has left unclear the relative importance of these factors in structuring the ECM community assemblages. To address this, we investigated the community composition of ECM fungi along an elevation gradient in northern Japan with 454 meta-barcoding. We found that the community composition of ECM fungi changed along the elevation and that all three factors jointly affected the compositional changes. We separated the magnitude of importance of the three factors in structuring ECM fungal communities and found that most of the spatial variation in ECM fungal community was explained by host communities and abiotic environments. Our results suggest that while biotic and/or abiotic environments can be important factors in determining the ECM fungal community composition along an elevation gradient, spatial processes may also be a primary determinant.

  19. Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG)

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background As trials of 5 years of tamoxifen in early breast cancer mature, the relevance of hormone receptor measurements (and other patient characteristics) to long-term outcome can be assessed increasingly reliably. We report updated meta-analyses of the trials of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. Methods We undertook a collaborative meta-analysis of individual patient data from 20 trials (n=21 457) in early breast cancer of about 5 years of tamoxifen versus no adjuvant tamoxifen, with about 80% compliance. Recurrence and death rate ratios (RRs) were from log-rank analyses by allocated treatment. Findings In oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease (n=10 645), allocation to about 5 years of tamoxifen substantially reduced recurrence rates throughout the first 10 years (RR 0·53 [SE 0·03] during years 0–4 and RR 0·68 [0·06] during years 5–9 [both 2p<0·00001]; but RR 0·97 [0·10] during years 10–14, suggesting no further gain or loss after year 10). Even in marginally ER-positive disease (10–19 fmol/mg cytosol protein) the recurrence reduction was substantial (RR 0·67 [0·08]). In ER-positive disease, the RR was approximately independent of progesterone receptor status (or level), age, nodal status, or use of chemotherapy. Breast cancer mortality was reduced by about a third throughout the first