Science.gov

Sample records for community garden scheme

  1. Community Organic Gardening Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, S.

    1982-01-01

    Final recommendations as to the further use and development of solar pods, developed by the participants of the Community Organic Gardening Project, are presented. The solar pods tested were dome-shaped, double glazed, fiberglass covers which were hinged to a permanent insulated frame enabling fall and late winter crops to survive outdoor temperatures as low as 10/sup 0/F. A list of materials and the instructions for constructing the pods is provided. Temperature performance and crop yields of the pods are briefly discussed. Very brief discussions of other solar gardening devices include Dutch lights and frames, slitted-row covers, and the Swiss made Xiro-Ag plant protection film. Cost information is included for each of the solar devices discussed. (BCS)

  2. Involving Families and Community through Gardening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Gardens are complex and require a variety of skills. Gross- and fine-motor activities, science concepts, language and literacy development, math, and community involvement are all part of the preschool gardening project the authors describe. They list gardening books for children and suggest container gardens for urban school settings. The authors…

  3. Multi-agent modelling of climate outlooks and food security on a community garden scheme in Limpopo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bharwani, Sukaina; Bithell, Mike; Downing, Thomas E; New, Mark; Washington, Richard; Ziervogel, Gina

    2005-11-29

    Seasonal climate outlooks provide one tool to help decision-makers allocate resources in anticipation of poor, fair or good seasons. The aim of the 'Climate Outlooks and Agent-Based Simulation of Adaptation in South Africa' project has been to investigate whether individuals, who adapt gradually to annual climate variability, are better equipped to respond to longer-term climate variability and change in a sustainable manner. Seasonal climate outlooks provide information on expected annual rainfall and thus can be used to adjust seasonal agricultural strategies to respond to expected climate conditions. A case study of smallholder farmers in a village in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa has been used to examine how such climate outlooks might influence agricultural strategies and how this climate information can be improved to be more useful to farmers. Empirical field data has been collected using surveys, participatory approaches and computer-based knowledge elicitation tools to investigate the drivers of decision-making with a focus on the role of climate, market and livelihood needs. This data is used in an agent-based social simulation which incorporates household agents with varying adaptation options which result in differing impacts on crop yields and thus food security, as a result of using or ignoring the seasonal outlook. Key variables are the skill of the forecast, the social communication of the forecast and the range of available household and community-based risk coping strategies. This research provides a novel approach for exploring adaptation within the context of climate change.

  4. Multi-agent modelling of climate outlooks and food security on a community garden scheme in Limpopo, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bharwani, Sukaina; Bithell, Mike; Downing, Thomas E; New, Mark; Washington, Richard; Ziervogel, Gina

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal climate outlooks provide one tool to help decision-makers allocate resources in anticipation of poor, fair or good seasons. The aim of the ‘Climate Outlooks and Agent-Based Simulation of Adaptation in South Africa’ project has been to investigate whether individuals, who adapt gradually to annual climate variability, are better equipped to respond to longer-term climate variability and change in a sustainable manner. Seasonal climate outlooks provide information on expected annual rainfall and thus can be used to adjust seasonal agricultural strategies to respond to expected climate conditions. A case study of smallholder farmers in a village in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa has been used to examine how such climate outlooks might influence agricultural strategies and how this climate information can be improved to be more useful to farmers. Empirical field data has been collected using surveys, participatory approaches and computer-based knowledge elicitation tools to investigate the drivers of decision-making with a focus on the role of climate, market and livelihood needs. This data is used in an agent-based social simulation which incorporates household agents with varying adaptation options which result in differing impacts on crop yields and thus food security, as a result of using or ignoring the seasonal outlook. Key variables are the skill of the forecast, the social communication of the forecast and the range of available household and community-based risk coping strategies. This research provides a novel approach for exploring adaptation within the context of climate change. PMID:16433103

  5. Impact of urbanization and gardening practices on common butterfly communities in France.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Benoît; Bergerot, Benjamin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the interacting impacts of urban landscape and gardening practices on the species richness and total abundance of communities of common butterfly communities across France, using data from a nationwide monitoring scheme. We show that urbanization has a strong negative impact on butterfly richness and abundance but that at a local scale, such impact could be mitigated by gardening practices favoring nectar offer. We found few interactions among these landscape and local scale effects, indicating that butterfly-friendly gardening practices are efficient whatever the level of surrounding urbanization. We further highlight that species being the most negatively affected by urbanization are the most sensitive to gardening practices: Garden management can thus partly counterbalance the deleterious effect of urbanization for butterfly communities. This holds a strong message for park managers and private gardeners, as gardens may act as potential refuge for butterflies when the overall landscape is largely unsuitable.

  6. Community Gardening in Rural Regions: Enhancing Food Security and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    Community gardening projects can enhance community food security and improve the nutrition of project participants. However, limited information exists on the most effective models and methods for establishing community gardens in rural areas. A survey of 12 rural community gardening projects found a variety of program models: community gardens…

  7. Community Gardens: Lessons Learned From California Healthy Cities and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Twiss, Joan; Dickinson, Joy; Duma, Shirley; Kleinman, Tanya; Paulsen, Heather; Rilveria, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Community gardens enhance nutrition and physical activity and promote the role of public health in improving quality of life. Opportunities to organize around other issues and build social capital also emerge through community gardens. California Healthy Cities and Communities (CHCC) promotes an inclusionary and systems approach to improving community health. CHCC has funded community-based nutrition and physical activity programs in several cities. Successful community gardens were developed by many cities incorporating local leadership and resources, volunteers and community partners, and skills-building opportunities for participants. Through community garden initiatives, cities have enacted policies for interim land and complimentary water use, improved access to produce, elevated public consciousness about public health, created culturally appropriate educational and training materials, and strengthened community building skills. PMID:12948958

  8. Community gardens: lessons learned from California Healthy Cities and Communities.

    PubMed

    Twiss, Joan; Dickinson, Joy; Duma, Shirley; Kleinman, Tanya; Paulsen, Heather; Rilveria, Liz

    2003-09-01

    Community gardens enhance nutrition and physical activity and promote the role of public health in improving quality of life. Opportunities to organize around other issues and build social capital also emerge through community gardens. California Healthy Cities and Communities (CHCC) promotes an inclusionary and systems approach to improving community health. CHCC has funded community-based nutrition and physical activity programs in several cities. Successful community gardens were developed by many cities incorporating local leadership and resources, volunteers and community partners, and skills-building opportunities for participants. Through community garden initiatives, cities have enacted policies for interim land and complimentary water use, improved access to produce, elevated public consciousness about public health, created culturally appropriate educational and training materials, and strengthened community building skills.

  9. Perceived Effects of Community Gardening in Lower Mississippi Delta Gardening Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Alicia S.; Chittendon, Nikki; Coker, Christine E. H.; Weiss, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the perceived physical and psychological health impacts of community gardening on participants in the Mississippi Delta. Themes identified include the use of gardening as an educational tool and as a means to increase self-efficacy and responsibility for personal and community health. Additional benefits of gardening as…

  10. Community Gardening, Neighborhood Meetings, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Katherine; Reischl, Thomas M.; Allen, Julie Ober

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between participation in community gardening/beautification projects and neighborhood meetings with perceptions of social capital at both the individual and neighborhood levels. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional stratified random telephone survey conducted in Flint, Michigan (N=1916). Hierarchical linear…

  11. Growing urban health: community gardening in South-East Toronto.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Sarah; Yeudall, Fiona; Taron, Carolin; Reynolds, Jennifer; Skinner, Ana

    2007-06-01

    This article describes results from an investigation of the health impacts of community gardening, using Toronto, Ontario as a case study. According to community members and local service organizations, these gardens have a number of positive health benefits. However, few studies have explicitly focused on the health impacts of community gardens, and many of those did not ask community gardeners directly about their experiences in community gardening. This article sets out to fill this gap by describing the results of a community-based research project that collected data on the perceived health impacts of community gardening through participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Results suggest that community gardens were perceived by gardeners to provide numerous health benefits, including improved access to food, improved nutrition, increased physical activity and improved mental health. Community gardens were also seen to promote social health and community cohesion. These benefits were set against a backdrop of insecure land tenure and access, bureaucratic resistance, concerns about soil contamination and a lack of awareness and understanding by community members and decision-makers. Results also highlight the need for ongoing resources to support gardens in these many roles.

  12. Urban Community Gardeners' Knowledge and Perceptions of Soil Contaminant Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brent F.; Poulsen, Melissa N.; Margulies, Jared D.; Dix, Katie L.; Palmer, Anne M.; Nachman, Keeve E.

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether. PMID:24516570

  13. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  14. Refugees Connecting with a New Country through Community Food Gardening

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Neil; Rowe Minniss, Fiona; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing. PMID:25198684

  15. Refugees connecting with a new country through community food gardening.

    PubMed

    Harris, Neil; Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-09-05

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing.

  16. Community Gardens as a Platform for Education for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkery, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Community gardens fulfil many roles, including the reclamation of public space, community building, and the facilitation of social and cultural expression. This paper discusses a nexus between research and education for sustainability that evolved out of an examination of the role of community gardens in fostering community development and…

  17. A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: implications for health promotion and community development.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D

    2000-12-01

    Twenty community garden programs in upstate New York (representing 63 gardens) were surveyed to identify characteristics that may be useful to facilitate neighborhood development and health promotion. The most commonly expressed reasons for participating in gardens were access to fresh foods, to enjoy nature, and health benefits. Gardens in low-income neighborhoods (46%) were four times as likely as non low-income gardens to lead to other issues in the neighborhood being addressed; reportedly due to organizing facilitated through the community gardens. Additional research on community gardening can improve our understanding of the interaction of social and physical environments and community health, and effective strategies for empowerment, development, and health promotion.

  18. Home gardening in urban poor communities of the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shoko; Kunii, Osamu; Wakai, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    The deficiencies of micronutrients, in particular iron and vitamin A, are common in the Philippines, but their control measures through supplementation and fortification have shown several weaknesses. The present study examines the outcomes of a community-based approach including promotion of home gardening and a diversified dietary practice. A total of 152 mothers in two poor urban communities in Davao City, the Philippines were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Participants were also asked to keep a brief 7-day self-administered household food record. Focus group discussions were conducted to obtain in-depth information on their attitudes toward home gardening and vegetable consumption. Home garden produce contributed to the diversification of carbohydrate consumed among participants. However, home garden produce reduced the consumption of protein-rich food. There was therefore no discernible improvement in the diets of participants from the consumption of home garden produce. In communities where there was no greengrocer, respondents shared the produce from home gardens. The community-based diet improvement program facilitated home gardening practices, which influenced the dietary practices of the urban poor. The monitoring of food consumption together with community-based programs needs to be expanded in urban poor communities. Our focus group discussion revealed that there was a cognition linking home gardening and vegetable consumption to poverty among some of the participants. More study is necessary on this finding.

  19. Produce Your Own: A Community Gardening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, JoLynn; Arnold, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Many County Extension offices offer an adult Master Gardener Program, which includes advanced gardening training, short courses, newsletters, and conferences. However, with the comprehensive training provided comes a large time commitment. The Produce Your Own program was created to introduce adults to gardening in a similar manner, but with…

  20. Cultivating Bakhtin in the garden: Children's ecological narratives on becoming community gardeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grugel, Annie H.

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation illustrates how a children's community garden, designed specifically to promote intergenerational, multi-sociocultural relationships, is an "ideological environment" linking individuals and their community and connecting people with nature, in order to promote feelings of belonging, social connection, and encourage a sense of stewardship and identification with the environment (Bakhtin, 1978). By spending time in a community garden, responding to the natural ecosystems which exist on this land, and reflecting, through image and story about our childhood experience, the participants and I engaged in the dialogic process of what Thomashow (1996) refers to as "doing ecological identity work." Throughout this study I question how our past experiences with nature in ideological environments shape our ecological epistemologies, and how the dialogic process of becoming a gardener within the context of a community garden shapes a person's ecological identity. To frame this exploration of ecological identity work as a dialogic process and its role in the development of an ecological identity, I draw from sociocultural theory (Holland, et al., 1998), Bakhtin's theory of dialogism, and ecological identity studies (Clayton and Opotow, 2003; Cobb, 1993; Orr, 1994, 2006; Sobel, 1996, 2008; Thomashow, 1996). A large body of scholarly writing done by environmental researchers is devoted to examining and describing how adults, who self-identify as environmentalists, developed an ecological worldview. However, only a fraction of research is devoted to theorizing how children develop an environmental epistemology. In this study, I focus on how community gardens are dialogic spaces that provide a place for elementary-aged children to "experience" the discourse of gardening. Here, I describe the discourses that shape the garden and describe how gardeners, as a result of their collaborative experiences between human and non-human actors, take up social and dialogical

  1. Community Garden Information Systems: Analyzing and Strengthening Community-Based Resource Sharing Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loria, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…

  2. Collective efficacy in Denver, Colorado: Strengthening neighborhoods and health through community gardens.

    PubMed

    Teig, Ellen; Amulya, Joy; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A; Litt, Jill S

    2009-12-01

    Community gardens are viewed as a potentially useful environmental change strategy to promote active and healthy lifestyles but the scientific evidence base for gardens is limited. As a step towards understanding whether gardens are a viable health promotion strategy for local communities, we set out to examine the social processes that might explain the connection between gardens, garden participation and health. We analyzed data from semi-structured interviews with community gardeners in Denver. The analysis examined social processes described by community gardeners and how those social processes were cultivated by or supportive of activities in community gardens. After presenting results describing these social processes and the activities supporting them, we discuss the potential for the place-based social processes found in community gardens to support collective efficacy, a powerful mechanism for enhancing the role of gardens in promoting health.

  3. Community gardening: a parsimonious path to individual, community, and environmental resilience.

    PubMed

    Okvat, Heather A; Zautra, Alex J

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce community gardening as a promising method of furthering well-being and resilience on multiple levels: individual, social group, and natural environment. We examine empirical evidence for the benefits of gardening, and we advocate the development and testing of social ecological models of community resilience through examination of the impact of community gardens, especially in urban areas. The definition of community is extended beyond human social ties to include connections with other species and the earth itself, what Berry (1988) has called an Earth community. We discuss the potential contribution of an extensive network of community gardens to easing the global climate change crisis and address the role of community psychologists in community gardening research and policy-oriented action.

  4. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha

    2002-01-01

    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  5. Risks and benefits of gardening in urban soil; heavy metals and nutrient content in Los Angeles Community Gardens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, L. W.; Jenerette, D.; Bain, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients and heavy metals in urban community gardens can influence health of crops and participants. Interactions between garden history, management, and soils are understudied in cities. In July 2011, we collected soil samples from 45 plots at 6 Los Angeles community gardens. For comparison, 3 samples were collected from uncultivated garden soils and 3 more from outside soils. Samples were then tested for major nutrients- Nitrogen(N), Potassium (K), and Phosphorous (P)- and organic matter (SOM). We also measured concentrations of 29 metals in 3 gardens using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Potassium and phosphorus exceeded optimum levels in all plots, with some over twice the maximum recommended levels. Over-fertilized soils may contribute to local watershed pollution and crop micronutrient deficiencies. Low soil SOM was observed in gardens in impoverished neighborhoods, possibly due to low quality amendments. Our metals analysis showed dangerous levels of lead (Pb)-- up to 1700 ppm in outside soils and 150 ppm in garden soils-- near older gardens, indicating lead deposition legacies. California lead safety standards indicate that children should not play near soils with Pb above 200 ppm, indicating need for long term monitoring of lead contaminated gardens. Arsenic (As) levels exceeded federal risk levels (0.3 ppm) and average CA background levels (2 ppm) in all areas, with some gardens exceeding 10 ppm. Heavy metal legacies in gardens may pose risks to participants with prolonged exposure and remediation of soils may be necessary.

  6. Therapeutic experiences of community gardens: putting flow in its place.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    This paper develops the concept of therapeutic place experiences by considering the role of activity. Research of community gardening finds that particular tasks are therapeutic and exhibit the characteristics of flow, but those who lack influence over their community gardening are less likely to benefit from flow as their sense of control is reduced. The notion of emplaced flow is proposed to locate individual experiences amongst socio-spatial factors which limit self-determinacy and therefore affect wellbeing. Emplacing flow prompts critical reflection on who is excluded from therapeutic place experiences, and whether sites offering momentary escape have an enduring impact on wellbeing.

  7. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  8. Best Practices in Community Garden Management to Address Participation, Water Access, and Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Luke; Lawson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    As community gardens expand across the U.S., Extension professionals can support them not only in horticultural education but also in planning and organization. Knowledge of community garden management is helpful in this regard. Existing research focuses on outcomes and criteria for successful gardens, but is less clear about how community gardens…

  9. Best practices for community gardening in a US-Mexico border community.

    PubMed

    Mangadu, Thenral; Kelly, Michael; Orezzoli, Max C E; Gallegos, Rebecca; Matharasi, Pracheta

    2016-04-22

    Minority communities such as those on the US-Mexico border are placed at disproportionate high risk for child and adult obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A built environment characterized by an arid desert climate, lack of access to healthy foods, barriers to increasing physical activity, cultural and community norms which deter healthy eating and sustainable food production, shape obesity-related health disparities in these communities. Three pilot community gardens (implemented by two local governmental organizations and one community-based organization) were funded through the local Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL) initiative in El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces and Anthony, New Mexico (US-MX border communities with high obesity rates) in order to encourage healthy lifestyles among families in the region. A mixed-methods evaluation (n = 223) examined the implementation process, immediate outcomes and best practices of implementing and sustaining community gardens in these minority binational communities. In addition to nutrition-related outcomes, the potential for psychosocial outcomes from participating in community and school garden projects were observed. The best practices in relation to (i) assessing community norms related to growing food, (ii) increasing access to land and water for community/school gardening and (iii) enhancing social support for gardening are discussed. The implications of these best practices for obesity prevention and implementing community gardens in a minority US-MX border community characterized by cultural, geographical and socioeconomic barriers are examined.

  10. Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Urban Community Gardeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Katherine; Packnett, Elizabeth; Miles, Richard A.; Kruger, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between household participation in a community garden and fruit and vegetable consumption among urban adults. Design: Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional random phone survey conducted in 2003. A quota sampling strategy was used to ensure that all census tracts within the city were represented. Setting:…

  11. Theorising Community Gardens as Pedagogical Sites in the Food Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Community gardens are rich non-school sites of informal adult learning and education in the North American food movement. To date, however, they have seldom been the subject of research in environmental education. This paper argues that theorising on public pedagogy and social movement learning from the field of Adult Education might effectively…

  12. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  13. Building Sustainable Neighborhoods through Community Gardens: Enhancing Residents' Well-Being through University-Community Engagement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewell, Nicholas; Aguirre, Stephanie; Thomas, Madhavappallil

    2015-01-01

    Building communities through creative community garden projects is increasingly common and seems to create beneficial effects for participants. This study recognizes the need to understand the impact of gardens on low socioeconomic neighborhoods. By conducting a needs assessment study and establishing a community garden, we were able to study its…

  14. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners.

    PubMed

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged.

  15. Characterization and Low-Cost Remediation of Soils Contaminated by Timbers in Community Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Heiger-Bernays, W.; Fraser, A.; Burns, V.; Diskin, K.; Pierotti, D.; Merchant-Borna, K.; McClean, M.; Brabander, D.; Hynes, H. P.

    2011-01-01

    Urban community gardens worldwide provide significant health benefits to those gardening and consuming fresh produce from them. Urban gardens are most often placed in locations and on land in which soil contaminants reflect past practices and often contain elevated levels of metals and organic contaminants. Garden plot dividers made from either railroad ties or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure treated lumber contribute to the soil contamination and provide a continuous source of contaminants. Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from railroad ties and arsenic from CCA pressure treated lumber are present in the gardens studied. Using a representative garden, we 1) determined the nature and extent of urban community garden soil contaminated with PAHs and arsenic by garden timbers; 2) designed a remediation plan, based on our sampling results, with our community partner guided by public health criteria, local regulation, affordability, and replicability; 3) determined the safety and advisability of adding city compost to Boston community gardens as a soil amendment; and 4) made recommendations for community gardeners regarding healthful gardening practices. This is the first study of its kind that looks at contaminants other than lead in urban garden soil and that evaluates the effect on select soil contaminants of adding city compost to community garden soil. PMID:21804925

  16. Characterization and Low-Cost Remediation of Soils Contaminated by Timbers in Community Gardens.

    PubMed

    Heiger-Bernays, W; Fraser, A; Burns, V; Diskin, K; Pierotti, D; Merchant-Borna, K; McClean, M; Brabander, D; Hynes, H P

    2009-01-01

    Urban community gardens worldwide provide significant health benefits to those gardening and consuming fresh produce from them. Urban gardens are most often placed in locations and on land in which soil contaminants reflect past practices and often contain elevated levels of metals and organic contaminants. Garden plot dividers made from either railroad ties or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure treated lumber contribute to the soil contamination and provide a continuous source of contaminants. Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from railroad ties and arsenic from CCA pressure treated lumber are present in the gardens studied. Using a representative garden, we 1) determined the nature and extent of urban community garden soil contaminated with PAHs and arsenic by garden timbers; 2) designed a remediation plan, based on our sampling results, with our community partner guided by public health criteria, local regulation, affordability, and replicability; 3) determined the safety and advisability of adding city compost to Boston community gardens as a soil amendment; and 4) made recommendations for community gardeners regarding healthful gardening practices. This is the first study of its kind that looks at contaminants other than lead in urban garden soil and that evaluates the effect on select soil contaminants of adding city compost to community garden soil.

  17. Amplifying Health Through Community Gardens: A Framework for Advancing Multicomponent, Behaviorally Based Neighborhood Interventions.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Katherine; Beavers, Alyssa W; Crawford, Caroline; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; Litt, Jill S

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a framework for understanding the relationship between community garden participation, and the myriad ways gardens and participation lead to emotional, social, and health impacts. Existing empirical research relating community gardens to health behaviors, such as physical activity and diet, and longer-term chronic disease-related outcomes is summarized. The research areas discussed include the effects of community garden participation on individual, social, emotional, and environmental processes; health behaviors including diet and physical activity; and health outcomes such as self-rated health, obesity, and mental health. Other mechanisms through which community gardens may affect population health are described. Applying a multitheoretical lens to explore associations between community garden participation and health enables us to delineate key aspects of gardening that elicit positive health behaviors and multifactorial health assets that could be applied to designing other types of health interventions.

  18. Community Gardens for Refugee and Immigrant Communities as a Means of Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Kari A; Mason, Meghan

    2016-12-01

    Refugees and new immigrants arriving in the United States (U.S.) often encounter a multitude of stressors adjusting to a new country and potentially coping with past traumas. Community gardens have been celebrated for their role in improving physical and emotional health, and in the Twin Cities of Minnesota, have been offered as a resource to immigrants and refugees. The purpose of this study is to present a mixed method evaluation of a refugee gardening project hosted by area churches serving primarily Karen and Bhutanese populations. Quantitative data were obtained from early and late season surveys (44 and 45 % response rates, respectively), and seven focus groups conducted at the end of the season provided qualitative data. Although few gardeners (4 %) identified food insecurity as a problem, 86 % indicated that they received some food subsidy, and 78 % reported vegetable intake increased between the early and late season surveys. Twelve percent of gardeners indicated possible depression using the PHQ-2 scale; in focus groups numerous respondents identified the gardens as a healing space for their depression or anxiety. Refugee gardeners expressed receiving physical and emotional benefits from gardening, including a sense of identity with their former selves. Gardens may serve as a meaningful health promotion intervention for refugees and immigrants adjusting to the complexity of their new lives in the U.S. and coping with past traumas.

  19. A growing opportunity: Community gardens affiliated with US hospitals and academic health centers

    PubMed Central

    George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Hanson, Ryan; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community gardens can reduce public health disparities through promoting physical activity and healthy eating, growing food for underserved populations, and accelerating healing from injury or disease. Despite their potential to contribute to comprehensive patient care, no prior studies have investigated the prevalence of community gardens affiliated with US healthcare institutions, and the demographic characteristics of communities served by these gardens. Methods In 2013, national community garden databases, scientific abstracts, and public search engines (e.g., Google Scholar) were used to identify gardens. Outcomes included the prevalence of hospital-based community gardens by US regions, and demographic characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and obesity rates) of communities served by gardens. Results There were 110 healthcare-based gardens, with 39 in the Midwest, 25 in the South, 24 in the Northeast, and 22 in the West. Compared to US population averages, communities served by healthcare-based gardens had similar demographic characteristics, but significantly lower rates of obesity (27% versus 34%, P < .001). Conclusions Healthcare-based gardens are located in regions that are demographically representative of the US population, and are associated with lower rates of obesity in communities they serve. PMID:25599017

  20. Harvesting More Than Vegetables: The Potential Weight Control Benefits of Community Gardening

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ken R.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Uno, Claire; Merrill, Brittany J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of participation in community gardening with healthy body weight. Methods. We examined body mass index (BMI) data from 198 community gardening participants in Salt Lake City, Utah, in relationship to BMI data for 3 comparison groups: neighbors, siblings, and spouses. In comparisons, we adjusted for gender, age, and the year of the BMI measurement. Results. Both women and men community gardeners had significantly lower BMIs than did their neighbors who were not in the community gardening program. The estimated BMI reductions in the multivariate analyses were −1.84 for women and −2.36 for men. We also observed significantly lower BMIs for women community gardeners compared with their sisters (−1.88) and men community gardeners compared with their brothers (−1.33). Community gardeners also had lower odds of being overweight or obese than did their otherwise similar neighbors. Conclusions. The health benefits of community gardening may go beyond enhancing the gardeners’ intake of fruits and vegetables. Community gardens may be a valuable element of land use diversity that merits consideration by public health officials who want to identify neighborhood features that promote health. PMID:23597347

  1. Vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in San Jose, California.

    PubMed

    Algert, Susan J; Baameur, Aziz; Renvall, Marian J

    2014-07-01

    Urban dwellers across the United States increasingly access a variety of fresh vegetables through participation in neighborhood-level community gardens. Here we document vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in the city of San Jose, CA, to better understand the capacity of community gardens to affect food affordability in an urban setting. A convenience sample of 83 community gardeners in San Jose completed a background survey during spring and summer 2012. On average, gardeners were aged 57 years and had a monthly income of $4,900; 25% had completed college. A representative subset of 10 gardeners was recruited to weigh vegetable output of their plots using portable electronic scales at three separate garden sites. Accuracy of each portable scale was verified by comparing the weight of a sample vegetable to weights obtained using a lab scale precise to 0.2 oz. Garden yields and cost savings were tabulated overall for each plot. Results indicate that community garden practices are more similar to biointensive high-production farming, producing 0.75 lb vegetables/sq ft, rather than conventional agricultural practices, producing 0.60 lb/sq ft. Gardens produced on average 2.55 lb/plant and saved $435 per plot for the season. Results indicate that cost savings are greatest if vertical high value crops such as tomatoes and peppers are grown in community gardens, although yields depend on growing conditions, gardener's skill, availability of water, and other factors. Future research is needed to document cost savings and yields for specific crops grown in community gardens.

  2. Color me healthy: food diversity in school community gardens in two rapidly urbanising Australian cities.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A

    2014-03-01

    Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits.

  3. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated.

  4. Process Evaluation of a Community Garden at an Urban Outpatient Clinic.

    PubMed

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Gamble, Elizabeth; Jones, Robert; Chenault, Margaret C; Tooze, Janet A

    2016-11-29

    In addition to expediting patient recovery, community gardens that are associated with medical facilities can provide fresh produce to patients and their families, serve as a platform for clinic-based nutrition education, and help patients develop new skills and insights that can lead to positive health behavior change. While community gardening is undergoing resurgence, there is a strong need for evaluation studies that employ valid and reliable measures. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of a community garden program at an urban medical clinic to estimate the prevalence of patient awareness and participation, food security, barriers to participation, and personal characteristics; garden volunteer satisfaction; and clinic staff perspectives in using the garden for patient education/treatment. Clinic patients (n = 411) completed a community garden participation screener and a random sample completed a longer evaluation survey (n = 152); garden volunteers and medical staff completed additional surveys. Among patients, 39% had heard of and 18% had received vegetables from the garden; the greatest barrier for participation was lack of awareness. Volunteers reported learning about gardening, feeling more involved in the neighborhood, and environmental concern; and medical staff endorsed the garden for patient education/treatment. Comprehensive process evaluations can be utilized to quantify benefits of community gardens in medical centers as well as to point out areas for further development, such as increasing patient awareness. As garden programming at medical centers is formalized, future research should include systematic evaluations to determine whether this unique component of the healthcare environment helps improve patient outcomes.

  5. School-Community Gardening: Learning, Living, Earning, and Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Bowles, Freddie A.

    2012-01-01

    Elementary teacher Ms. Huff realized that her third grade students were limited in their knowledge and experiences related to gardening. Most of today's young learners in the United States do not live on farms, and few families maintain gardens. Only a few of Ms. Huff's students could say they had a family garden. In schools, students learn about…

  6. An Environmental Education Program Based Upon a Community Organic Garden. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopper, William D.

    Ann Arbor Ecology Center's Community Organic Garden represents a different approach to environmental education. The project helped with the development of programs which achieved a number of goals including: (1) mixing students and citizens in a working/social situation, (2) teaching environmental principles through the experience of gardening,…

  7. Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: factors influencing contaminant distributions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Lopp, Donna M.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Lambert, Veronique T.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Stone, Edie B.; McBride, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures. PMID:24502997

  8. Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: factors influencing contaminant distributions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M; Ribaudo, Lisa N; Lopp, Donna M; Shayler, Hannah A; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Lambert, Veronique T; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Stone, Edie B; McBride, Murray B

    2014-04-01

    Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures.

  9. Garden Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ann Marie; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes Garden Mosaics, a program funded by the National Science Foundation. Garden Mosaics combines science learning with intergenerational mentoring, multicultural understanding, and community service. The program's mission is "connecting youth and elders to explore the mosaics of plants, people, and cultures in gardens, to learn…

  10. The development of a model of community garden benefits to wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Egli, Victoria; Oliver, Melody; Tautolo, El-Shadan

    2016-06-01

    Community gardens contribute to community wellbeing by influencing the nutritional and social environment. The aim of this research was to develop a model that communicates the many benefits of community garden participation as described in the academic literature, to a diverse audience of laypersons. This model is an example of effective knowledge translation because the information is able to be more than simply understood but also practically applied. From April to August 2015, a model depicting the many benefits of community garden participation was prepared based on a global, critical literature review. The wellbeing benefits from community garden participation have been grouped into factors influencing the nutritional health environment and factors influencing the social environment. The graphic chosen to form the basis of the model is a fractal tree of life. In October 2015, to test the models comprehension and to obtain stakeholder feedback this model was presented to a diverse group of community members, leaders and workers from the Tāmaki region of Auckland, New Zealand. The model we present here effectively and clearly translates knowledge obtained from the academic literature on the benefits to wellbeing from community garden participation into a tool that can be used, adapted and developed by community groups, government agencies and health promoters.

  11. Community gardens as sites of solace and end-of-life support: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Pauline; Spinaze, Anna

    2016-05-01

    In a pilot project, members of a community garden explored how they might provide better end-of-life support for their regional community. As part of the project, a literature review was undertaken to investigate the nexus between community gardens and end-of-life experiences (including grief and bereavement) in academic research. This article documents the findings of that review. The authors discovered there is little academic material that focuses specifically on community gardens and end-of-life experiences, but nonetheless the two subjects were seen to intersect. The authors found three points of commonality: both share a need and capacity for a) social/informal support, b) therapeutic space, and c) opportunities for solace.

  12. Floral abundance, richness, and spatial distribution drive urban garden bee communities.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, M; Philpott, S M

    2017-03-01

    In urban landscapes, gardens provide refuges for bee diversity, but conservation potential may depend on local and landscape features. Foraging and population persistence of bee species, as well as overall pollinator community structure, may be supported by the abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources. Floral resources strongly differ in urban gardens. Using hand netting and pan traps to survey bees, we examined whether abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources, as well as ground cover and garden landscape surroundings influence bee abundance, species richness, and diversity on the central coast of California. Differences in floral abundance and spatial distribution, as well as urban cover in the landscape, predicted different bee community variables. Abundance of all bees and of honeybees (Apis mellifera) was lower in sites with more urban land cover surrounding the gardens. Honeybee abundance was higher in sites with patchy floral resources, whereas bee species richness and bee diversity was higher in sites with more clustered floral resources. Surprisingly, bee species richness and bee diversity was lower in sites with very high floral abundance, possibly due to interactions with honeybees. Other studies have documented the importance of floral abundance and landscape surroundings for bees in urban gardens, but this study is the first to document that the spatial arrangement of flowers strongly predicts bee abundance and richness. Based on these findings, it is likely that garden managers may promote bee conservation by managing for floral connectivity and abundance within these ubiquitous urban habitats.

  13. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects and elemental accumulation derived from air pollution in community urban gardens.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Lobo, Debora Jã A; Guimarães, Eliane T; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2017-01-01

    Urban gardening is a growing global phenomenon with a positive impact on society. Despite several associated benefits, growing vegetables in urban gardens that are localized in highly polluted areas poses questions about the safety of the produced food. Therefore, the identification of risk factors that result in possible deleterious effects to human health is important for realizing all of the benefits to society. We evaluated the use of two biomonitoring methods in ten urban gardens of Sao Paulo city and one control site: the micronuclei frequencies for early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. "Purpurea" Boom (hereafter, Trad-MCN) as a short-term indicator of genotoxic response and tree barks to quantify the accumulation of traffic-related chemical elements as a long-term biomarker of air pollution in urban gardens. Mature plants of Tradescantia pallida were exposed in each garden, and their inflorescences were sampled over three months. A random set of 300 early tetrads in 13 to 21 slides per garden were evaluated for micronuclei frequencies. Elemental concentrations in 428 tree barks samples from 107 different trees in the areas surrounding urban gardens were quantified using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The frequency of Trad-MCN has a significant correlation with traffic variables and chemical elements related to road dust and tailpipe emissions deposited in tree barks. Negative associations between Trad-MCN and both the distance through traffic and the presence of vertical obstacles were observed in the community gardens. The Mn/Zn concentrations in tree barks were associated with increased Trad-MCN.

  14. Participatory Approaches to Program Development and Engaging Youth in Research: The Case of an Inter-Generational Urban Community Gardening Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne; Doyle, Rebekah

    2002-01-01

    Community educators in six cities involved youth in documenting ethnic gardening practices with master gardeners. Interviews with 29 educators, 28 participating youth, and 4 gardeners found that youth learned about gardening, developed positive relationships with elders, and enhanced skills. Implementing participatory research required more…

  15. Making Interdisciplinary Connections to Your School Gardening Program. Education in Blossom: The School Garden-Community Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eames-Sheavly, Marcia

    1998-01-01

    Proposes that it is critical for children to understand and appreciate plants, and that gardening can be integrated into the regular school curriculum. Gives examples of "pizza garden" and flower garden projects related to math, science, language arts, creative arts, nutrition and health, physical education, Earth stewardship, music, social…

  16. The Value of a Gardening Service for the Frail Elderly and People With a Disability Living in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Same, Anne; Lee, Elinda Ai Lim; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the significance of gardening services for frail elderly people. This study explored the value of a gardening service for frail older people and people with a disability living in the community. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected from pre-gardening (n = 38) and post-gardening service delivery interviews (n = 35) and the Housing Enabler, the value of a gardening service was examined. Findings suggest that the service had a positive impact on the independence and emotional well-being of frail aged people and younger people with a functional disability, with little impact on physical health. Results indicate that gardening services should be fundamental to planning for these populations to remain or return to living in the community. PMID:27746669

  17. The Value of a Gardening Service for the Frail Elderly and People With a Disability Living in the Community.

    PubMed

    Same, Anne; Lee, Elinda Ai Lim; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the significance of gardening services for frail elderly people. This study explored the value of a gardening service for frail older people and people with a disability living in the community. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected from pre-gardening (n = 38) and post-gardening service delivery interviews (n = 35) and the Housing Enabler, the value of a gardening service was examined. Findings suggest that the service had a positive impact on the independence and emotional well-being of frail aged people and younger people with a functional disability, with little impact on physical health. Results indicate that gardening services should be fundamental to planning for these populations to remain or return to living in the community.

  18. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  19. Examining Feasibility of Mentoring Families at a Farmers' Market and Community Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Daniel R.; Manglani, Monica; Minnehan, Kaitlin; Chacon, Alexander; Gundersen, Alexandra; Dellasega, Cheryl; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable prescription (FVRx) programs provide "prescriptions" for produce, but increased access to nutritional food may be insufficient for long-term behavior change. Purpose: We integrated nutritional education into an FVRx program at a farmers' market and community garden at Penn State Medical Center by pairing…

  20. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  1. [Community vegetable gardens as a health promotion activity: an experience in Primary Healthcare Units].

    PubMed

    Costa, Christiane Gasparini Araújo; Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Ribeiro, Silvana Maria; Salandini, Marcia Fernanda de Sousa; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2015-10-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is being practiced in different settings, contributing to the improvement of health in communities and healthier environments. In order to identify the meanings and implications of the practice of UPA in Primary Healthcare Units (PHU) as an activity of health promotion (HP), and to what extent its therapeutic dimension characterizes it as an activity aligned with complementary and integrative practices (CIP), a qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in Embu das Artes, State of São Paulo. From the analysis, the following main themes arose: health concept, health outcomes, the return to traditional practices and habits and the reorientation of health services. It was possible to identify the close link between the cultivation of vegetable gardens and HP guidelines and fields of action, such as creating healthier environments, boosting community actions, developing personal skills, stimulating autonomy and empowerment and demands for the reorientation of services. The garden activities, set up in PHU areas, proved to be an implementation strategy of CIP. The conclusion reached is that vegetable gardening activities in community gardens are seen to be health promotion practices that integrate key elements of CIP.

  2. Impact of a community gardening project on vegetable intake, food security and family relationships: a community-based participatory research study.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; Hamada, Janet L; Rdesinski, Rebecca; Sprager, Lorena; Nichols, Katelyn R; Liu, Betty Y; Pelayo, Joel; Sanchez, Maria Antonia; Shannon, Jacklien

    2012-08-01

    This community-based participatory research project used popular education techniques to support and educate Hispanic farmworker families in planting and maintaining organic gardens. Measures included a pre- post gardening survey, key informant interviews and observations made at community-based gardening meetings to assess food security, safety and family relationships. Thirty-eight families enrolled in the study during the pre-garden time period, and four more families enrolled in the study during the post-garden period, for a total of 42 families enrolled in the 2009 gardening season. Of the families enrolled during the pre-gardening time period there were 163 household members. The mean age of the interviewee was 44.0, ranging from 21 to 78 years of age. The median number of occupants in a household was 4.0 (range: 2-8), Frequency of adult vegetable intake of "Several time a day" increased from 18.2 to 84.8%, (P < 0.001) and frequency of children's vegetable intake of "Several time a day" increased from 24.0 to 64.0%, (P = 0.003). Before the gardening season, the sum of the frequencies of "Sometimes" and "Frequently" worrying in the past month that food would run out before money was available to buy more was 31.2% and the sum of these frequencies dropped to 3.1% during the post garden period, (P = 0.006). The frequency of skipping meals due to lack of money was not statistically significantly different before and after the gardening season for either adults or children. Analysis of text responses and key informant interviews revealed that physical and mental health benefits were reported as well as economic and family health benefits from the gardening study, primarily because the families often worked in their gardens together. A community gardening program can reduce food insecurity, improve dietary intake and strengthen family relationships.

  3. The Avalon Gardens Men's Association: A Community Health Psychology Case Study.

    PubMed

    Borg, Mark B

    2002-05-01

    This article follows the development and progress of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's 'Healthy and Safe Communities' initiative as it was implemented by a community empowerment organization during a four-year community revitalization project in the aftermath of the Los Angeles riots. The author explores practical aspects of Community Health Psychology through assessing the ways in which its organizing principles were manifest in community-wide processes of individual and community change in one low-income housing project in South Central Los Angeles called Avalon Gardens. Specifically highlighted is how a group of African American and Latino men in the community created a group forum that helped foster, support and sustain an empowerment process that supported health promotion, health consciousness and significant health improvement in the community.

  4. Review of the nutritional implications of farmers' markets and community gardens: a call for evaluation and research efforts.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary

    2010-03-01

    The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influence on dietary intake. This review examines the current scientific literature on the implications of farmers' market programs and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between January 1980 and January 2009 were identified via PubMed and Agricola database searches and by examining reference lists from relevant studies. Studies were included in this review if they took place in the United States and qualitatively or quantitatively examined nutrition-related outcomes, including dietary intake; attitudes and beliefs regarding buying, preparing, or eating fruits and vegetables; and behaviors and perceptions related to obtaining produce from a farmers' market or community garden. Studies focusing on garden-based youth programs were excluded. In total, 16 studies were identified for inclusion in this review. Seven studies focused on the impact of farmers' market nutrition programs for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants, five focused on the influence of farmers' market programs for seniors, and four focused on community gardens. Findings from this review reveal that few well-designed research studies (eg, those incorporating control groups) utilizing valid and reliable dietary assessment methods to evaluate the influence of farmers' markets and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes have been completed. Recommendations for future research on the dietary influences of farmers' markets and community gardens are provided.

  5. Connecting food environments and health through the relational nature of aesthetics: gaining insight through the community gardening experience.

    PubMed

    Hale, James; Knapp, Corrine; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie; Sancar, Fahriye; Litt, Jill S

    2011-06-01

    Current environmental and health challenges require us to identify ways to better align aesthetics, ecology, and health. At the local level, community gardens are increasingly praised for their therapeutic qualities. They also provide a lens through which we can explore relational processes that connect people, ecology and health. Using key-informant interview data, this research explores gardeners' tactile, emotional, and value-driven responses to the gardening experience and how these responses influence health at various ecological levels (n = 67 participants, 28 urban gardens). Our findings demonstrate that gardeners' aesthetic experiences generate meaning that encourages further engagement with activities that may lead to positive health outcomes. Gardeners directly experience nearby nature by 'getting their hands dirty' and growing food. They enjoy the way vegetables taste and form emotional connections with the garden. The physical and social qualities of garden participation awaken the senses and stimulate a range of responses that influence interpersonal processes (learning, affirming, expressive experiences) and social relationships that are supportive of positive health-related behaviors and overall health. This research suggests that the relational nature of aesthetics, defined as the most fundamental connection between people and place, can help guide community designers and health planners when designing environment and policy approaches to improve health behaviors.

  6. Bioaccessibility of metals and human health risk assessment in community urban gardens.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, M; De Miguel, E; Ortega, M F; Mingot, J

    2015-09-01

    Pseudo-total (i.e. aqua regia extractable) and gastric-bioaccessible (i.e. glycine+HCl extractable) concentrations of Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in a total of 48 samples collected from six community urban gardens of different characteristics in the city of Madrid (Spain). Calcium carbonate appears to be the soil property that determines the bioaccessibility of a majority of those elements, and the lack of influence of organic matter, pH and texture can be explained by their low levels in the samples (organic matter) or their narrow range of variation (pH and texture). A conservative risk assessment with bioaccessible concentrations in two scenarios, i.e. adult urban farmers and children playing in urban gardens, revealed acceptable levels of risk, but with large differences between urban gardens depending on their history of land use and their proximity to busy areas in the city center. Only in a worst-case scenario in which children who use urban gardens as recreational areas also eat the produce grown in them would the risk exceed the limits of acceptability.

  7. A community training scheme in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, R; Martin, B; Williams, G; Quinn, E; Robertson, G; Chamberlain, D A

    1984-01-01

    Community instruction in basic life support and resuscitation techniques has been offered in Brighton Health District since 1978. Classes are held frequently for the general public and businesses, schools, and other organisations. First aid care for unconscious patients, the treatment of respiratory obstruction or failure, and the recognition and management of cardiac arrest is taught in a single two hour session. Over 20 000 people have been taught, up to 40 at a time in multiple groups of six to eight, by lay instructors usually supervised by ambulancemen trained to "paramedic" standards. Fifty four incidents have been reported to us in which techniques learnt in the classes have been implemented. Five patients recovered after first aid support but subsequently did not seek medical treatment. Of the 34 patients reviewed in hospital, at least 20 survived to be discharged. We believe that intervention may have been life saving in 16 instances. The benefit of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for victims who may have been asystolic is, however, difficult to quantify because the outcome without intervention cannot be predicted accurately. Community training in basic life support should be considered in association with ambulances equipped for resuscitation and hospital intensive care and cardiac care units as an integrated service for the victims of sudden circulatory or respiratory emergencies. The results achieved so far in Brighton and in other more advanced schemes, particularly in the United States of America, may encourage other health authorities to adopt similar programmes. PMID:6421403

  8. Fungal communities in the garden chamber soils of leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andre; Passarini, Michel R Z; Ferro, Milene; Nagamoto, Nilson S; Forti, Luiz C; Bacci, Maurício; Sette, Lara D; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2014-11-01

    Leaf-cutting ants modify the properties of the soil adjacent to their nests. Here, we examined whether such an ant-altered environment impacts the belowground fungal communities. Fungal diversity and community structure of soil from the fungus garden chambers of Atta sexdens rubropilosa and Atta bisphaerica, two widespread leaf-cutting ants in Brazil, were determined and compared with non-nest soils. Culture-dependent methods revealed similar species richness but different community compositions between both types of soils. Penicillium janthinellum and Trichoderma spirale were the prevalent isolates in fungus chamber soils and non-nest soils, respectively. In contrast to cultivation methods, analyses of clone libraries based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that richness of operational taxonomic units significantly differed between soils of the fungus chamber and non-nest soils. FastUnifrac analyses based on ITS sequences further revealed a clear distinction in the community structure between both types of soils. Plectania milleri and an uncultured Clavariaceae fungus were prevalent in fungus chamber soils and non-nest soils, respectively. FastUnifrac analyses also revealed that fungal community structures of soil from the garden chambers markedly differed among ant species. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants affect fungal communities in the soil from the fungus chamber in comparison to non-nest soils.

  9. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed.

  10. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in New York City community garden soils: Potential sources and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Briggs, Dean; Shayler, Hannah; McBride, Murray; Lopp, Donna; Stone, Edie; Ferenz, Gretchen; Bogdan, Kenneth G; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 69 soil samples from 20 community gardens in New York City (New York, USA) were collected and analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon. For each garden, samples were collected from nongrowing areas (non-bed) and from vegetable-growing beds, including beds with and without visible sources of PAHs. The sum of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority PAHs ranged up to 150 mg/kg, and the median (5.4 mg/kg) and mean (14.2 mg/kg) were similar to those previously reported for urban areas in the northeast United States. Isomer ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs were petroleum, coal, and wood combustion. The PAH concentrations were significantly and positively associated with black carbon and with modeled air PAH concentrations, suggesting a consistent relationship between historical deposition of atmospheric carbon-adsorbed PAHs and current PAH soil concentrations. Median PAH soil concentration from non-bed areas was higher (7.4 mg/kg) than median concentration from beds in the same garden (4.0 mg/kg), and significantly higher than the median from beds without visible sources of PAHs (3.5 mg/kg). Median PAH concentration in beds from gardens with records of soil amendments was 58% lower compared with beds from gardens without those records. These results suggest that gardening practices in garden beds without visible sources of PAHs contribute to reduce PAH soil concentrations.

  11. Connecting food environments and health through the relational nature of aesthetics: Gaining insight through the community gardening experience

    PubMed Central

    Hale, James; Knapp, Corrine; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie; Sancar, Fahriye; Litt, Jill S

    2011-01-01

    Current environmental and health challenges require us to identify ways to better align aesthetics, ecology, and health. At the local level, community gardens are increasingly praised for their therapeutic qualities. They also provide a lens through which we can explore relational processes that connect people, ecology and health. Using key-informant interview data, this research explores gardeners’ tactile, emotional, and value-driven responses to the gardening experience and how these responses influence health at various ecological levels (n=67 participants, 28 urban gardens). Our findings demonstrate that gardeners’ aesthetic experiences generate meaning that encourages further engagement with activities that may lead to positive health outcomes. Gardeners directly experience nearby nature by ‘getting their hands dirty’ and growing food. They enjoy the way vegetables taste and form emotional connections with the garden. The physical and social qualities of garden participation awaken the senses and stimulate a range of responses that influence interpersonal processes (learning, affirming, expressive experiences) and social relationships that are supportive of positive health-related behaviors and overall health. This research suggests that the relational nature of aesthetics, defined as the most fundamental connection between people and place, can help guide community designers and health planners when designing environment and policy approaches to improve health behaviors. PMID:21596466

  12. Urban legacies and soil management affect the concentration and speciation of trace metals in Los Angeles community garden soils.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Lorraine Weller; Jenerette, G Darrel; Bain, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils can compromise human health, especially in urban gardens, where gardeners may ingest contaminated dust or crops. To identify patterns of urban garden metal contamination, we measured concentrations and bioavailability of Pb, As, and Cd in soils associated with twelve community gardens in Los Angeles County, CA. This included sequential extractions to partition metals among exchangeable, reducible, organic, or residual fractions. Proximity to road increased all metal concentrations, suggesting vehicle emissions sources. Reducible Pb increased with neighborhood age, suggesting leaded paint as a likely pollutant source. Exchangeable Cd and As both increased with road proximity. Only cultivated soils showed an increase in exchangeable As with road proximity, potentially due to reducing humic acid interactions while Cd bioavailability was mitigated by organic matter. Understanding the geochemical phases and metal bioavailability allows incorporation of contamination patterns into urban planning.

  13. A Garden Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keteyian, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a garden project by elementary students in an urban school. Students chose to rehabilitate a courtyard area and have since created three separate gardens including a butterfly garden. The project was a collaborative endeavor involving parents and other community members working with students and their teachers. (DLH)

  14. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Andy; Sanders, Geoffrey; Henson, Van; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  15. Dropping out of Ethiopia's community-based health insurance scheme.

    PubMed

    Mebratie, Anagaw D; Sparrow, Robert; Yilma, Zelalem; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun S

    2015-12-01

    Low contract renewal rates have been identified as one of the challenges facing the development of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes. This article uses longitudinal household survey data gathered in 2012 and 2013 to examine dropout in the case of Ethiopia's pilot CBHI scheme. We treat dropout as a function of scheme affordability, health status, scheme understanding and quality of care. The scheme saw enrolment increase from 41% 1 year after inception to 48% a year later. An impressive 82% of those who enrolled in the first year renewed their subscriptions, while 25% who had not enrolled joined the scheme. The analysis shows that socioeconomic status, a greater understanding of health insurance and experience with and knowledge of the CBHI scheme are associated with lower dropout rates. While there are concerns about the quality of care and the treatment meted out to the insured by providers, the overall picture is that returns from the scheme are overwhelmingly positive. For the bulk of households, premiums do not seem to be onerous, basic understanding of health insurance is high and almost all those who are currently enrolled signalled their desire to renew contracts.

  16. Community health insurance schemes & patient satisfaction - evidence from India

    PubMed Central

    Devadasan, N.; Criel, Bart; Damme, Wim Van; Lefevre, Pierre; Manoharan, S.; der Stuyft, Patrick Van

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Quality of care is an important determinant for utilizing health services. In India, the quality of care in most health services is poor. The government recognizes this and has been working on both supply and demand aspects. In particular, it is promoting community health insurance (CHI) schemes, so that patients can access quality services. This observational study was undertaken to measure the level of satisfaction among insured and uninsured patients in two CHI schemes in India. Methods: Patient satisfaction was measured, which is an outcome of good quality care. Two CHI schemes, Action for Community Organisation, Rehabilitation and Development (ACCORD) and Kadamalai Kalanjiam Vattara Sangam (KKVS), were chosen. Randomly selected, insured and uninsured households were interviewed. The household where a patient was admitted to a hospital was interviewed in depth about the health seeking behaviour, the cost of treatment and the satisfaction levels. Results: It was found that at both ACCORD and KKVS, there was no significant difference in the levels of satisfaction between the insured and uninsured patients. The main reasons for satisfaction were the availability of doctors and medicines and the recovery by the patient. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed that insured hospitalized patients did not have significantly higher levels of satisfaction compared to uninsured hospitalized patients. If CHI schemes want to improve the quality of care for their clients, so that they adhere to the scheme, the scheme managers need to negotiate actively for better quality of care with empanelled providers. PMID:21321418

  17. VegeSafe: A community science program measuring soil-metal contamination, evaluating risk and providing advice for safe gardening.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Marek; Harvey, Paul J; Kristensen, Louise J; George, Steven G; Taylor, Mark P

    2017-03-01

    The extent of metal contamination in Sydney residential garden soils was evaluated using data collected during a three-year Macquarie University community science program called VegeSafe. Despite knowledge of industrial and urban contamination amongst scientists, the general public remains under-informed about the potential risks of exposure from legacy contaminants in their home garden environment. The community was offered free soil metal screening, allowing access to soil samples for research purposes. Participants followed specific soil sampling instructions and posted samples to the University for analysis with a field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer. Over the three-year study period, >5200 soil samples, primarily from vegetable gardens, were collected from >1200 Australian homes. As anticipated, the primary soil metal of concern was lead; mean concentrations were 413 mg/kg (front yard), 707 mg/kg (drip line), 226 mg/kg (back yard) and 301 mg/kg (vegetable garden). The Australian soil lead guideline of 300 mg/kg for residential gardens was exceeded at 40% of Sydney homes, while concentrations >1000 mg/kg were identified at 15% of homes. The incidence of highest soil lead contamination was greatest in the inner city area with concentrations declining towards background values of 20-30 mg/kg at 30-40 km distance from the city. Community engagement with VegeSafe participants has resulted in useful outcomes: dissemination of knowledge related to contamination legacies and health risks; owners building raised beds containing uncontaminated soil and in numerous cases, owners replacing all of their contaminated soil.

  18. [Annual dynamics of cladocera community structure in Backshore Wetland of Expo Garden, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jing; Wu, Yan-Fang; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Yin-Jiang

    2012-10-01

    The Backshore Wetland of Expo Garden, Shanghai was one of the key parts of the World Expo construction project in 2010. From September 2009 to August 2010, a monthly investigation was conducted to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of cladocera community structure (including species composition and standing crop) and related main affecting factors in the Backshore Wetland. A total of 36 cladocera species in 13 genera of 5 families were identified through the year. There were 12 dominant species, mainly Chydorus sphaericus, C. ovalis, Diaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum, and Sida crystalline. The mean annual abundance and biomass of the cladocera were 5.7 ind x L(-1) and 0.3559 mg x L(-1), respectively, and the annual dynamics of the standing crop showed bimodal, with the main peak in April and July, and the second peak in July and May, respectively. The Shannon index, Pielou index, and Margelf index were high in summer and autumn, but low in winter and spring. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and nitrite nitrogen were the main factors affecting the community structure of cladocera in the Backshore Wetland.

  19. A novel dynamical community detection algorithm based on weighting scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ju; Yu, Kai; Hu, Ke

    2015-12-01

    Network dynamics plays an important role in analyzing the correlation between the function properties and the topological structure. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamical iteration (DI) algorithm, which incorporates the iterative process of membership vector with weighting scheme, i.e. weighting W and tightness T. These new elements can be used to adjust the link strength and the node compactness for improving the speed and accuracy of community structure detection. To estimate the optimal stop time of iteration, we utilize a new stability measure which is defined as the Markov random walk auto-covariance. We do not need to specify the number of communities in advance. It naturally supports the overlapping communities by associating each node with a membership vector describing the node's involvement in each community. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the algorithm can uncover communities effectively and efficiently.

  20. [Response of copepod community characteristics to environmental factors in the Backshore Wetland of Expo Garden, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jing; Wu, Yan-Fang; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Yin-Jiang

    2012-11-01

    The Backshore Wetland of Expo Garden was the emphasis of the World Expo construction project in Shanghai in 2010, China programming district. We carried out studies on the community structure and spatial-temporal variation of copepod from September 2009 to August 2010. Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) was used for relevant statistical analysis between physicochemical parameters and copepod standing crop. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was applied to further explore the correlation between copepod species and environmental parameters using CANOCO 4.5. A total of 23 copepod species in 11 genera, 6 families were identified. 5 dominant species of copepod were recorded during the survey period. They were Eucyclops serrulatus, Thermocyclops taihokuensis, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops brevifurcatus and Microcyclops varicans. The annual mean density of copepod was (8.6 +/- 16.6) ind x L(-1) and the biomass was (0.083 6 +/- 0.143 1) mg x L(-1). The standing crop of copepod had its first peak in July, the second in October and the bottom in January. The highest trophic level was measured at Site 1, decreasing along the flowing direction of the water current, and the lowest level was found at Site 10. The Margelf index remained low in winter and spring, but was increased in summer and autumn. The community structure of copepod was analyzed in relation to water quality parameters by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Water temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, TN, TP and dissolved oxygen were strongly correlated with the copepod community structure.

  1. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Reis, Bárbara Monique dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes.

  2. Possible meteorological influence on the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) community outbreak at Amoy Gardens, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yip, Cleo; Chang, Wen L; Yeung, K H; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2007-10-01

    The largest community outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) occurred in the Amoy Gardens residential estate in Hong Kong, in March and April of 2003. It affected more than 300 residents, or 1.7 percent of the total Amoy Gardens population. An airborne pathway has been hypothesized as a possible mode for the spread of the disease. If that hypothesis is correct, meteorological factors may have played a contributory role; the virus-laden aerosols may have been transported between apartment blocks by the ambient wind, low mixing heights may have prevented the efficient dispersion of the aerosols, and a fall in temperature may have fostered the survival of the virus or increased the susceptibility of the exposed population. This information, used in combination with weather forecasts available several days ahead from meteorological services, should be useful for mitigation considerations in the unlikely event of a similar occurrence.

  3. Ecology of microfungal communities in gardens of fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a year-long survey of three species of attine ants in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andre; Mueller, Ulrich G; Ishak, Heather D; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2011-11-01

    We profiled the microfungal communities in gardens of fungus-growing ants to evaluate possible species-specific ant-microfungal associations and to assess the potential dependencies of microfungal diversity on ant foraging behavior. In a 1-year survey, we isolated microfungi from nests of Cyphomyrmex wheeleri, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis and Atta texana in Central Texas. Microfungal prevalence was higher in gardens of C. wheeleri (57%) than in the gardens of T. septentrionalis (46%) and A. texana (35%). Culture-dependent methods coupled with a polyphasic approach of species identification revealed diverse and changing microfungal communities in all the sampling periods. Diversity analyses showed no obvious correlations between the number of observed microfungal species, ant species, or the ants' changing foraging behavior across the seasons. However, both correspondence analysis and 5.8S-rRNA gene unifrac analyses suggested structuring of microfungal communities by ant host. These host-specific differences may reflect in part the three different environments where ants were collected. Most interestingly, the specialized fungal parasite Escovopsis was not isolated from any attine garden in this study near the northernmost limit of the range of attine ants, contrasting with previous studies that indicated a significant incidence of this parasite in ant gardens from Central and South America. The observed differences of microfungal communities in attine gardens suggest that the ants are continuously in contact with a diverse microfungal species assemblage.

  4. Lead in New York City Community Garden Chicken Eggs: Influential Factors and Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A.; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48% of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (p<0.005) with lead concentrations in soil. The association between soil and egg lead has been evaluated only once before, by a study of a rural region in Belgium. In our study, the apparent lead soil-to-egg transfer efficiency was considerably lower than that found in Belgium, suggesting that there may be important geographic differences in this transfer. We developed models that suggested that, for sites like ours, lead concentrations in >50% of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (<7–13 μg/kg; 3% above detection limit) at soil lead concentrations >120 mg/kg, and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were <600 mg/kg, and considerably higher concentrations are not uncommon. Efforts to reduce lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers. PMID:24287691

  5. Lead in New York City community garden chicken eggs: influential factors and health implications.

    PubMed

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Ribaudo, Lisa N; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-08-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48 % of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (p < 0.005) with lead concentrations in soil. The association between soil and egg lead has been evaluated only once before, by a study of a rural region in Belgium. In our study, the apparent lead soil-to-egg transfer efficiency was considerably lower than that found in Belgium, suggesting that there may be important geographic differences in this transfer. We developed models that suggested that, for sites like ours, lead concentrations in >50 % of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (<7-13 μg/kg; 3 % above detection limit) at soil lead concentrations >120 mg/kg and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were <600 mg/kg, and considerably higher concentrations are not uncommon. Efforts to reduce lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers.

  6. Growing community: the impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the social and learning environment in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-08-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed.

  7. Spatial Variation of Soil Lead in an Urban Community Garden: Implications for Risk-Based Sampling.

    PubMed

    Bugdalski, Lauren; Lemke, Lawrence D; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2014-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is a recalcitrant problem in urban areas resulting from a combination of historical residential, industrial, and transportation practices. The emergence of urban gardening movements in postindustrial cities necessitates accurate assessment of soil lead levels to ensure safe gardening. In this study, we examined small-scale spatial variability of soil lead within a 15 × 30 m urban garden plot established on two adjacent residential lots located in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Eighty samples collected using a variably spaced sampling grid were analyzed for total, fine fraction (less than 250 μm), and bioaccessible soil lead. Measured concentrations varied at sampling scales of 1-10 m and a hot spot exceeding 400 ppm total soil lead was identified in the northwest portion of the site. An interpolated map of total lead was treated as an exhaustive data set, and random sampling was simulated to generate Monte Carlo distributions and evaluate alternative sampling strategies intended to estimate the average soil lead concentration or detect hot spots. Increasing the number of individual samples decreases the probability of overlooking the hot spot (type II error). However, the practice of compositing and averaging samples decreased the probability of overestimating the mean concentration (type I error) at the expense of increasing the chance for type II error. The results reported here suggest a need to reconsider U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling objectives and consequent guidelines for reclaimed city lots where soil lead distributions are expected to be nonuniform.

  8. Garden Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As a gardener, you have the potential to contribute to nutrient pollution, but you also have the power to help prevent it. There are several easy things you can do to reduce nutrient pollution from your yards and gardens.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of community vegetable gardens for people living with HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little evidence to date of the potential impact of vegetable gardens on people living with HIV (PLHIV), who often suffer from social and economic losses due to the disease. From 2008 through 2011, Action Contre la Faim France (ACF) implemented a project in Chipinge District, eastern Zimbabwe, providing low-input vegetable gardens (LIGs) to households of PLHIV. Program partners included Médecins du Monde, which provided medical support, and Zimbabwe's Agricultural Extension Service, which supported vegetable cultivation. A survey conducted at the end of the program found LIG participants to have higher Food Consumption Scores (FCS) and Household Dietary Diversity Scores (HDDS) relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. This study assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness of LIGs to improve FCS and HDDS of PLHIV compared to other support programs. Methods This analysis used an activity-based cost model, and combined ACF accounting data with estimates of partner and beneficiary costs derived using an ingredients approach to build an estimate of total program resource use. A societal perspective was adopted to encompass costs to beneficiary households, including their opportunity costs and an estimate of their income earned from vegetable sales. Qualitative methods were used to assess program benefits to beneficiary households. Effectiveness data was taken from a previously-conducted survey. Results Providing LIGs to PLHIV cost an additional 8,299 EUR per household with adequate FCS and 12,456 EUR per household with HDDS in the upper tertile, relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. Beneficiaries cited multiple tangible and intangible benefits from LIGs, and over 80% of gardens observed were still functioning more than one year after the program had finished. Conclusions Cost outcomes were 20–30 times Zimbabwe's per capita GDP, and unlikely to be affordable within government

  10. Butterfly Gardens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Describes designing and planting a garden to attract butterflies specifically as a project for school grounds. Site and soil requirements are covered as well as types of plants. Includes a list of educational opportunities a garden provides in various subject areas. (AIM)

  11. Educational Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovejoy, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    A naturalist and designer of public gardens relates her experiences of introducing children to plants and gardens using equipment such as binoculars, stethoscopes, notebooks, photographs, and magnifying glasses. Article provides information is given about many plants, their uses, and related child-centered activities (such as a namesake pumpkins…

  12. Growing Community: The Impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the Social and Learning Environment in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has…

  13. Public participation in post-Fordist urban green space governance: the case of community gardens in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rosol, Marit

    2010-01-01

    This article examines citizen participation in the governance of contemporary urban green space. Rather than exploring normative questions of ideal forms of participatory democracy, it focuses on changing roles and relationships between local state and non-state actors in order to identify and explain the changing nature of participation. I argue that neoliberal urban restructuring has changed the conditions for participation and thus participation itself in fundamental ways and that we need an account of changes in statehood and governance in order to capture this conceptually. Based on the case of community gardens in Berlin, the article discusses the extent to which this changed relationship is expressed by current citizen participation as well as the potential and problems that result from it. My empirical results show the emergence of a new political acceptance of autonomously organized projects and active citizen participation in urban green space governance. The central argument of this article is that this new acceptance can be conceptualized as an expression of the neoliberalization of cities. Nevertheless, this neoliberal strategy at the same time leads to complex and contradictory outcomes and the resulting benefits are also acknowledged.

  14. A decolonizing approach to health promotion in Canada: the case of the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project.

    PubMed

    Mundel, Erika; Chapman, Gwen E

    2010-06-01

    Aboriginal people in Canada suffer ill-health at much higher rates compared with the rest of the population. A key challenge is the disjuncture between the dominant biomedical approach to health in Canada and the holistic and integrative understandings of and approaches to health in many Aboriginal cultures. More fundamentally, colonization is at the root of the health challenges faced by this population. Thus, effective approaches to health promotion with Aboriginal people will require decolonizing practices. In this paper, we look at one case study of a health promotion project, the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project in Vancouver, Canada, which, guided by the teachings of the Medicine Wheel, aims to provide culturally appropriate health promotion. By drawing on Aboriginal approaches to healing, acknowledging the legacy of colonization and providing a context for cultural celebration, we suggest that the project can be seen as an example of what decolonizing health promotion could look like. Further, we suggest that a decolonizing approach to health promotion has the potential to address immediate needs while simultaneously beginning to address underlying causes of Aboriginal health inequities.

  15. Narratives of Community Garden Education: Bridging Social Capital, Ecoliteracy, and Civic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Carly K. V.

    2013-01-01

    Ample evidence suggests that environmental problems, and their impacts to present and future generations, require our utmost attention. Education within schools "and" communities play critical roles in shaping the perceptions and relationships people have to their natural and social environments. However, few studies have examined the…

  16. Wildlife Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an account of the making of a wildlife garden. Reviews the problems and outlines the plans and methods that succeeded in the project. Includes 21 illustrations of vegetation as well as descriptions of pond, marsh, meadow, and woodland areas. (ML)

  17. Hydroponic Gardening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julinor, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    In addition to being an actual source of foodstuffs in inhospitable climates and a potential source of a large portion of the world's food supply, hydroponic gardening is a useful technique in the classroom for illustrating the role of plant life in the world's food chain. (MB)

  18. WALK Community Grants Scheme: lessons learned in developing and administering a health promotion microgrants program.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, W Kerry; Joyner, Kelly

    2010-09-01

    The Women's Active Living Kits (WALK) Community Grant Scheme was a key component of a federally funded Australian initiative aimed at increasing local capacity to promote and engage priority women's groups in health-related physical activity. Under the program, community groups and organizations were provided with the opportunity to apply and receive small grants to support the development of women's walking groups with the aim of increasing physical activity participation levels in women, supporting innovative community ideas for increasing women's physical activity by improving social structures and environments, or both. This article describes the development and administration of the WALK Community Grant Scheme, outlines challenges and barriers encountered throughout the grant program process, and provides practical insights for replicating this initiative.

  19. Building Personal Relationships as a Catalyst for Community Participation: The Case of Ethnic Market Gardeners in Sydney Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suriyabanadara, Karunasena; Parker, Frances

    An Australian study was conducted to develop a strategy for safe use of farm chemicals by Asian migrant market gardeners in Western Sydney. The researchers chose to use participatory approaches for which policy makers and development practitioners had in other studies shown enthusiasm, although this enthusiasm could not at times be sustained…

  20. Renewing membership in three community-based health insurance schemes in rural India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pradeep; Chakraborty, Arpita; Raza, Wameq; Bedi, Arjun S

    2016-12-01

    Low renewal rate is a key challenge facing the sustainability of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes. While there is a large literature on initial enrolment into such schemes, there is limited evidence on the factors that impede renewal. This article uses longitudinal data to analyse what determines renewal, both 1 year and 2 years after the introduction of three CBHI schemes, which have been operating in rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh since 2011. We find that initial scheme uptake is ∼23-24% and that 2 years after scheme operation, only ∼20% of the initial enrolees maintain their membership. A household's socio-economic status does not seem to play a large role in impeding renewal. In some instances, a greater understanding of the scheme boosts renewal. The link between health status and use of health care in maintaining renewal is mixed. The clearest effect is that individuals living in households that have received benefits from the scheme are substantially more likely to renew their contracts. We conclude that the low retention rates may be attributed to limited benefit packages, slow claims processing times and the gap between the amounts claimed and amounts paid out by insurance.

  1. Reading a Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang-Jensen, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    School gardens--and efforts to connect gardening to K-12 learning--are burgeoning. Children's gardens--green spaces that keep in mind the way children play and explore an outdoor space--have been one of the biggest recent trends in gardening. Progressive educators have long promoted gardening as an opportunity to connect knowledge about plants,…

  2. Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands

    PubMed Central

    Dougill, Andrew J.; Stringer, Lindsay C.; Leventon, Julia; Riddell, Mike; Rueff, Henri; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Butt, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world's poor, have seen little CB-PES research attention, despite benefitting from several decades of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects. Lessons from CBNRM suggest institutional considerations are vital in underpinning the design and implementation of successful community projects. This study uses documentary analysis to explore the institutional characteristics of three African community-based forest projects that seek to deliver carbon-storage and poverty-reduction benefits. Strong existing local institutions, clear land tenure, community control over land management decision-making and up-front, flexible payment schemes are found to be vital. Additionally, we undertake a global review of rangeland CBNRM literature and identify that alongside the lessons learned from forest projects, rangeland CB-PES project design requires specific consideration of project boundaries, benefit distribution, capacity building for community monitoring of carbon storage together with awareness-raising using decision-support tools to display the benefits of carbon-friendly land management. We highlight that institutional analyses must be undertaken alongside improved scientific studies of the carbon cycle to enable links to payment schemes, and for them to contribute to poverty alleviation in rangelands. PMID:23045714

  3. Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands.

    PubMed

    Dougill, Andrew J; Stringer, Lindsay C; Leventon, Julia; Riddell, Mike; Rueff, Henri; Spracklen, Dominick V; Butt, Edward

    2012-11-19

    Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world's poor, have seen little CB-PES research attention, despite benefitting from several decades of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects. Lessons from CBNRM suggest institutional considerations are vital in underpinning the design and implementation of successful community projects. This study uses documentary analysis to explore the institutional characteristics of three African community-based forest projects that seek to deliver carbon-storage and poverty-reduction benefits. Strong existing local institutions, clear land tenure, community control over land management decision-making and up-front, flexible payment schemes are found to be vital. Additionally, we undertake a global review of rangeland CBNRM literature and identify that alongside the lessons learned from forest projects, rangeland CB-PES project design requires specific consideration of project boundaries, benefit distribution, capacity building for community monitoring of carbon storage together with awareness-raising using decision-support tools to display the benefits of carbon-friendly land management. We highlight that institutional analyses must be undertaken alongside improved scientific studies of the carbon cycle to enable links to payment schemes, and for them to contribute to poverty alleviation in rangelands.

  4. Gardens on Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Discusses display gardens and their development by students. Presents guidelines for construction and size consideration and describes details of an outdoor garden, volcanic garden, and shoe box dioramas. (DDR)

  5. What are the emerging features of community health insurance schemes in East Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Basaza, Robert; Pariyo, George; Criel, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Background The three East African countries of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya are characterized by high poverty levels, population growth rates, prevalence of HIV/AIDS, under-funding of the health sector, poor access to quality health care, and small health insurance coverage. Tanzania and Kenya have user-fees whereas Uganda abolished user-fees in public-owned health units. Objective To provide comparative description of community health insurance (CHI) schemes in three East African countries of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya and thereafter provide a basis for future policy research for development of CHI schemes. Methods An analytical grid of 10 distinctive items pertaining to the nature of CHI schemes was developed so as to have a uniform lens of comparing country situations of CHI. Results and conclusions The majority of the schemes have been in existence for a relatively short time of less than 10 years and their number remains small. There is need for further research to identify what is the mix and weight of factors that cause people to refrain from joining schemes. Specific issues that could also be addressed in subsequent studies are whether the current schemes provide financial protection, increase access to quality of care and impact on the equity of health services financing and delivery. On the basis of this knowledge, rational policy decisions can be taken. The governments thereafter could consider an option of playing more roles in advocacy, paying for the poorest, and developing an enabling policy and legal framework. PMID:22312207

  6. Growing in Character: A Garden Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the successes of Project HAWK (Habitat Alliance and Wildlife Keepers) in Northern California. HAWK consists of various at-risk students brought together for a service learning project constructing and maintaining community gardens. Discusses how the garden was related to traditional curriculum instruction and provides information for…

  7. Gardening for All: The Accessible Garden. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Holly; Mefford, Gayle

    1990-01-01

    This pamphlet presents some innovative thoughts and suggestions to make gardening an "accessible" activity for any gardener, able-bodied or disabled. For gardeners with special needs, workability of the garden must take precedence over a conventional garden design. Designs to consider include raised bed gardens, garden containers such as whiskey…

  8. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  9. Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2001-05-15

    With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which

  10. Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks 'Shark' and 'Half Dome' at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  11. Enrolment in community-based health insurance schemes in rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pradeep; Chakraborty, Arpita; Dror, David M; Bedi, Arjun S

    2014-12-01

    This article assesses insurance uptake in three community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes located in rural parts of two of India's poorest states and offered through women's self-help groups (SHGs). We examine what drives uptake, the degree of inclusive practices of the schemes and the influence of health status on enrolment. The most important finding is that a household's socio-economic status does not appear to substantially inhibit uptake. In some cases scheduled caste/scheduled tribe households are more likely to enrol. Second, households with greater financial liabilities find insurance more attractive. Third, access to the national hospital insurance scheme Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana does not dampen CBHI uptake, suggesting that the potential for greater development of insurance markets and products beyond existing ones would respond to a need. Fourth, recent episodes of illness and self-assessed health status do not influence uptake. Fifth, insurance coverage is prioritized within households, with the household head, the spouse of the household head and both male and female children of the household head, more likely to be insured as compared with other relatives. Sixth, offering insurance through women's SHGs appears to mitigate concerns about the inclusiveness and sustainability of CBHI schemes. Given the pan-Indian spread of SHGs, offering insurance through such groups offers the potential to scale-up CBHI.

  12. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  13. Indian community health insurance schemes provide partial protection against catastrophic health expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Devadasan, Narayanan; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Ranson, Kent; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Background More than 72% of health expenditure in India is financed by individual households at the time of illness through out-of-pocket payments. This is a highly regressive way of financing health care and sometimes leads to impoverishment. Health insurance is recommended as a measure to protect households from such catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). We studied two Indian community health insurance (CHI) schemes, ACCORD and SEWA, to determine whether insured households are protected from CHE. Methods ACCORD provides health insurance cover for the indigenous population, living in Gudalur, Tamil Nadu. SEWA provides insurance cover for self employed women in the state of Gujarat. Both cover hospitalisation expenses, but only upto a maximum limit of US$23 and US$45, respectively. We reviewed the insurance claims registers in both schemes and identified patients who were hospitalised during the period 01/04/2003 to 31/03/2004. Details of their diagnoses, places and costs of treatment and self-reported annual incomes were obtained. There is no single definition of CHE and none of these have been validated. For this research, we used the following definition; "annual hospital expenditure greater than 10% of annual income," to identify those who experienced CHE. Results There were a total of 683 and 3152 hospital admissions at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. In the absence of the CHI scheme, all of the patients at ACCORD and SEWA would have had to pay OOP for their hospitalisation. With the CHI scheme, 67% and 34% of patients did not have to make any out-of-pocket (OOP) payment for their hospital expenses at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. Both CHI schemes halved the number of households that would have experienced CHE by covering hospital costs. However, despite this, 4% and 23% of households with admissions still experienced CHE at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. This was related to the following conditions: low annual income, benefit packages with low maximum limits

  14. Impact of stochastic parametrisation schemes on the climate of the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Hannah; Berner, Judith; Coleman, Dani; Palmer, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic parametrisations have been used for more than a decade in atmospheric models. They provide a way to represent model uncertainty through representing the variability of unresolved sub-grid processes, and have been shown to have a beneficial effect on the spread and mean state for medium- and extended-range forecasts (Buizza et al. 1999, Palmer et al. 2009). There is also increasing evidence that stochastic parametrisation of unresolved processes could be beneficial for the climate of an atmospheric model. There is evidence that including stochastic physics can reduce model biases through noise-induced drift (nonlinear rectification) (Berner et al. 2008), and that including stochastic physics enables the climate simulator to explore other flow regimes (Christensen et al. 2014; Dawson and Palmer 2014). It is also possible that, through representing the variability of unresolved sub-grid processes, stochastic parametrisation schemes could improve the internal variability of a model's climate. We present results showing the impact of including the Stochastic Kinetic Energy Backscatter Scheme (SKEBS) and the Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies scheme (SPPT) in coupled runs of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4) with historical forcing. The impact of the schemes in the coupled runs is compared to the impact in a similar set of AMIP runs. Both schemes have a beneficial impact on the model climate. The SKEBS scheme significantly reduces mean biases in several fields whereas SPPT results in a significant improvement in the variability of the modeled climate. In particular, SPPT results in a significant improvement to the representation of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in CAM4, improving the power spectrum, as well as both the inter- and intra-annual variability of tropical pacific sea surface temperatures. References: Berner, J., Doblas-Reyes, F. J., Palmer, T. N., Shutts, G. J

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  16. Gardening: A Growing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    While Americans are as eager as ever to beautify their homes and yards with attractive landscaping, more and more gardeners are looking to the practical aspects of gardening--raising plants for food and choosing easy-care ornamental plants that are friendly to the environment. For some gardeners, raising their own food is a lifestyle choice. With…

  17. Garden Variety Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marturano, Arlene

    2000-01-01

    Suggests gardening to help middle school students improve their problem solving and mental abilities. Focuses on the benefits of having a school nutrition garden, and indicates that students can learn about the importance of a healthy diet and share their peers' cultural heritage by growing ethnic foods. Recommends an animal garden to observe…

  18. Rooftop Garden Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…

  19. Intraspecific variation of a dominant grass and local adaptation in reciprocal garden communities along a US Great Plains' precipitation gradient: implications for grassland restoration with climate change.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Loretta C; Olsen, Jacob T; Tetreault, Hannah; DeLaCruz, Angel; Bryant, Johnny; Morgan, Theodore J; Knapp, Mary; Bello, Nora M; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R

    2015-08-01

    Identifying suitable genetic stock for restoration often employs a 'best guess' approach. Without adaptive variation studies, restoration may be misguided. We test the extent to which climate in central US grasslands exerts selection pressure on a foundation grass big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), widely used in restorations, and resulting in local adaptation. We seeded three regional ecotypes of A. gerardii in reciprocal transplant garden communities across 1150 km precipitation gradient. We measured ecological responses over several timescales (instantaneous gas exchange, medium-term chlorophyll absorbance, and long-term responses of establishment and cover) in response to climate and biotic factors and tested if ecotypes could expand range. The ecotype from the driest region exhibited greatest cover under low rainfall, suggesting local adaptation under abiotic stress. Unexpectedly, no evidence for cover differences between ecotypes exists at mesic sites where establishment and cover of all ecotypes were low, perhaps due to strong biotic pressures. Expression of adaptive differences is strongly environment specific. Given observed adaptive variation, the most conservative restoration strategy would be to plant the local ecotype, especially in drier locations. With superior performance of the most xeric ecotype under dry conditions and predicted drought, this ecotype may migrate eastward, naturally or with assistance in restorations.

  20. Intraspecific variation of a dominant grass and local adaptation in reciprocal garden communities along a US Great Plains’ precipitation gradient: implications for grassland restoration with climate change

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Loretta C; Olsen, Jacob T; Tetreault, Hannah; DeLaCruz, Angel; Bryant, Johnny; Morgan, Theodore J; Knapp, Mary; Bello, Nora M; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Identifying suitable genetic stock for restoration often employs a ‘best guess’ approach. Without adaptive variation studies, restoration may be misguided. We test the extent to which climate in central US grasslands exerts selection pressure on a foundation grass big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), widely used in restorations, and resulting in local adaptation. We seeded three regional ecotypes of A. gerardii in reciprocal transplant garden communities across 1150 km precipitation gradient. We measured ecological responses over several timescales (instantaneous gas exchange, medium-term chlorophyll absorbance, and long-term responses of establishment and cover) in response to climate and biotic factors and tested if ecotypes could expand range. The ecotype from the driest region exhibited greatest cover under low rainfall, suggesting local adaptation under abiotic stress. Unexpectedly, no evidence for cover differences between ecotypes exists at mesic sites where establishment and cover of all ecotypes were low, perhaps due to strong biotic pressures. Expression of adaptive differences is strongly environment specific. Given observed adaptive variation, the most conservative restoration strategy would be to plant the local ecotype, especially in drier locations. With superior performance of the most xeric ecotype under dry conditions and predicted drought, this ecotype may migrate eastward, naturally or with assistance in restorations. PMID:26240607

  1. A new multi-tracer transport scheme for the dynamical core of NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, C.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of a conservative semi-Lagrangian multi-tracer transport scheme (CSLAM) in NCAR's High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) is considered here. HOMME is a highly scalable atmospheric modeling framework, and its current horizontal discretization relies on spectral element (SE) and/or discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods on the cubed-sphere. It is one dynamical core of NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The main advantage of CSLAM is that the upstream cell (trajectories) information and computation of weights of integrals can be reused for each additional tracer. This makes CSLAM particularly interesting for global atmospheric modeling with growing number of tracers, e.g. more than 100 tracers for the chemistry version of CAM. An algorithm specifically designed for multiple processors and on the cubed-sphere grid for CSLAM in HOMME is a challenging task. HOMME is running on an element ansatz on the six cube faces. Inside these elements we create an Eulerian finite volume grid of equiangular gnomonic type, which represents the arrival grid in the scheme. But CSLAM relies on backward trajectories, which entails a departure grid. That means departure and arrival grid don't necessary have to be on the same element and certainly not on the same cube face. Also the reconstruction for higher order modeling needs a patch of tracer values which extend the element. Here we consider a third order reconstruction method. Therefore, we introduce a halo for the tracer values in the cell centers of a cube-element. The size of this halo depends on the Courant number (CFL condition) and the reconstruction type. Note that for a third order scheme and CFL number < 1 we need at least a halo size four (four values in the halo in one direction). But the communication can be limited to one per time step. This data structure allows us to consider an element with its halo as one task where we have to be extra carful for elements which share a cube edge due to

  2. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon—Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout—Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  3. The effects of run-of-river hydroelectric power schemes on invertebrate community composition in temperate streams and rivers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Run-of-river (ROR) hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes are often presumed to be less ecologically damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently limited scientific evidence on their ecological impact. The aim of this article is to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of invertebrates in temperate streams and rivers, using a multi-site Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 22 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 22 systematically-selected paired control sites. Five widely-used family-level invertebrate metrics (richness, evenness, LIFE, E-PSI, WHPT) were analysed using a linear mixed effects model. The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the evenness of the invertebrate community. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the four other metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future invertebrate community impact studies. PMID:28158282

  4. Applying the Methodology of the Community College Classification Scheme to the Public Master's Colleges and Universities Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkead, J. Clint.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    This work brings forward the geographically-based classification scheme for the public Master's Colleges and Universities sector. Using the same methodology developed by Katsinas and Hardy (2005) to classify community colleges, this work classifies Master's Colleges and Universities. This work has four major findings and conclusions. First, a…

  5. Gardening from a Wheelchair

    MedlinePlus

    ... We encourage you to reach out to support groups and organizations that specialize in adaptive gardening techniques, including: American Horticultural Therapy Association : the therapeutic benefits ...

  6. Best practices models for implementing, sustaining, and using instructional school gardens in California.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Eric L; Moreno, Elizabeth; Beall, Deborah L; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    To ascertain best practices for schools implementing or sustaining instructional school gardens by interviewing key members in 10 schools with exemplary instructional school gardens programs in California. Practices of schools with exemplary instructional school gardens programs were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using qualitative data analysis software. Seven of the 10 schools had people from at least 3 of the following 4 groups: administrators, teachers, parent and community volunteers and garden coordinators. Nine of 10 schools had a part- or full-time garden coordinator. Results demonstrated that a committee committed to instructional school gardens is the most important step towards success.

  7. School Gardens: Situating Students within a Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Lapp, Diane

    2014-01-01

    School-based gardens are increasingly common. The benefits to students reflect principles of global education by modeling sustainability through responsible ecological planning and service to the community, the environment, and humanity. The authors propose a pedagogical framework for planning school gardens and related experiences that…

  8. Engaging Urban Students in a Schoolyard Beautification and Gardening Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Community gardening provides many benefits for students like outdoor physical activity, an understanding of plant life cycles, food production and healthy eating (Blair, 2009; Whiren, 1995). Gardening also provides hands-on learning opportunities to draw parallels between what is needed for plants to grow and what students need to be healthy. When…

  9. What's Growing on Here? Garden-Based Pedagogy in a Concrete Jungle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Susan; Sperling, Erin; Inwood, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    This study explores experiences of a learning garden project at an urban faculty of education. The project opens a space for the theoretical and practical consideration of garden-based pedagogies and their influence on university students, educators, and the community as a whole. The learning garden was created by a small group of initial teacher…

  10. Teaching Organic Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reemer, Rita, Ed.

    This teaching guide is designed as a text composed of factual outlines to help teachers interpret the organic method of gardening. Organized as a practical course for elementary through adult education levels, it presents examples and activities on how to plan, start, and maintain an organic garden. The first five chapters cover history and…

  11. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  12. The Garden of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a garden that grows more than vegetables. The grounds of McKinley Elementary School in San Diego, California, was a neglected area for years, until recently when an organic garden was planted to revive and brighten the dreary area behind the school's bungalow classrooms. Each grade now has its own wood-bordered plot where a…

  13. A Garden of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Tasha

    2008-01-01

    In order to beautify the school environment and further student learning, fourth-graders cultivated a Native Plant Learning Garden. They were responsible for designing a layout, researching garden elements, preparing the area, and planting a variety of native plants. By the completion of this inquiry-based project, students were able to clearly…

  14. Art in the Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucciarelli, Teri

    2004-01-01

    Meadow Woods Elementary in Orlando, Florida has a garden ceremony at the end of each year. This is a time when the whole school gathers together to celebrate another successful school year. The classrooms are built around the garden, so it is the centerpiece of the school. Students always do an art project for this ceremony. One year, students…

  15. Can a Community-Based Intervention Improve the Home Food Environment? Parental Perspectives of the Influence of the Delicious and Nutritious Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stephanie; Bauer, Katherine W.; Stang, Jamie; Ireland, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in parental report of the home food environment during the course of a garden-based fruit and vegetable (FV) intervention for grade school children. Methods: Self-administered pre-post surveys were completed by parents/caregivers (n = 83). Main outcome measures included: child asking behavior, FV…

  16. Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme in Andhra Pradesh, India: a comprehensive analytic view of private public partnership model.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sunita; Mary, Immaculate

    2013-01-01

    The Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance (RACHI) in Andhra Pradesh (AP) has been very popular social insurance scheme with a private public partnership model to deal with the problems of catastrophic medical expenditures at tertiary level care for the poor households. A brief analysis of the RACHI scheme based on officially available data and media reports has been undertaken from a public health perspective to understand the nature and financing of partnership and the lessons it provides. The analysis of the annual budget spent on the surgeries in private hospitals compared to tertiary public hospitals shows that the current scheme is not sustainable and pose huge burden on the state exchequers. The private hospital association's in AP, further acts as pressure groups to increase the budget or threaten to withdraw services. Thus, profits are privatized and losses are socialized.

  17. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames

    2007-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  18. Community Gardens Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Inslee, Jay [D-WA-1

    2009-07-15

    06/22/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition and Forestry. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Growing Language Awareness in the Classroom Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paugh, Patricia; Moran, Mary

    2013-01-01

    For four years, Pat Paugh, a university teacher educator, and Mary Moran, a teacher researcher, collaborated on action research by systematically studying literacy development connected to the latter's third-grade community gardening and urban farming curriculum. Their goal was to support an existing classroom culture that valued…

  20. Community-based health insurance programmes and the national health insurance scheme of Nigeria: challenges to uptake and integration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria has included a regulated community-based health insurance (CBHI) model within its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Uptake to date has been disappointing, however. The aim of this study is to review the present status of CBHI in SSA in general to highlight the issues that affect its successful integration within the NHIS of Nigeria and more widely in developing countries. Methods A literature survey using PubMed and EconLit was carried out to identify and review studies that report factors affecting implementation of CBHI in SSA with a focus on Nigeria. Results CBHI schemes with a variety of designs have been introduced across SSA but with generally disappointing results so far. Two exceptions are Ghana and Rwanda, both of which have introduced schemes with effective government control and support coupled with intensive implementation programmes. Poor support for CBHI is repeatedly linked elsewhere with failure to engage and account for the ‘real world’ needs of beneficiaries, lack of clear legislative and regulatory frameworks, inadequate financial support, and unrealistic enrolment requirements. Nigeria’s CBHI-type schemes for the informal sectors of its NHIS have been set up under an appropriate legislative framework, but work is needed to eliminate regressive financing, to involve scheme members in the setting up and management of programmes, to inform and educate more effectively, to eliminate lack of confidence in the schemes, and to address inequity in provision. Targeted subsidies should also be considered. Conclusions Disappointing uptake of CBHI-type NHIS elements in Nigeria can be addressed through closer integration of informal and formal programmes under the NHIS umbrella, with increasing involvement of beneficiaries in scheme design and management, improved communication and education, and targeted financial assistance. PMID:24559409

  1. The Magic Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothren, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    Using the outdoors, the garden project helped children in Brooklyn to: expand their knowledge of the earth's processes, become more aware of how urban people relate to their environment, and develop concern for the environment and its ecological balance. (NQ)

  2. Lawn and Garden

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The most effective strategy for controlling pests in your lawn and garden may be to combine methods in an approach known as Integrated Pest Management. See videos and find tips for implementing IPM at your residence.

  3. Minnesota Zoological Garden Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norell, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Describes the history and functions of the Minnesota Zoological Garden library. Topics covered include the library collections; library services, including online search capabilities; and the various groups of users served by the library. (three references) (CLB)

  4. Gray and Green Revisited: A Multidisciplinary Perspective of Gardens, Gardening, and the Aging Process

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Scott D.; Wadsworth, Amy Maida

    2014-01-01

    Over fourteen years ago, the concept of “gray and green” was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000) to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities) examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion. PMID:24734179

  5. Gray and green revisited: a multidisciplinary perspective of gardens, gardening, and the aging process.

    PubMed

    Wright, Scott D; Wadsworth, Amy Maida

    2014-01-01

    Over fourteen years ago, the concept of "gray and green" was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000) to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities) examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion.

  6. Demonstrating the viability and value of community-based monitoring schemes in catchment science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Parkin, Geoff; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    for the purpose of assessing the quality of citizen science observations. It has been found that citizen science observations are essential for capturing localised convective storms. Citizen scientists want their observations to be used to gain meaningful information and tackle local issues. Data has therefore been utilised to build, calibrate and validate hydrological models and support a range of catchment management applications. This has further demonstrated the value of citizen science, along with the social benefits it has to offer. Other communities are also beginning to source funding and implement their own monitoring schemes, indicating that they are both capable and self-motivated. Citizen science makes use of evolving and more readily available technology, providing catchment stakeholders with vital information. Although these types of observations present various challenges, it is argued that a citizen science approach is not intending to replace traditional techniques, rather they can be used to complement them, fill the gaps and/or provide an indication of catchment behaviour across space and through time.

  7. Implementation of an optimal stomatal conductance scheme in the Australian Community Climate Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESS1.3b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, J.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Lorenz, R.; Medlyn, B. E.; Wang, Y.-P.; Lin, Y.-S.; Abramowitz, G.

    2015-12-01

    We implement a new stomatal conductance scheme, based on the optimality approach, within the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv2.0.1) land surface model. Coupled land-atmosphere simulations are then performed using CABLEv2.0.1 within the Australian Community Climate and Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESSv1.3b) with prescribed sea surface temperatures. As in most land surface models, the default stomatal conductance scheme only accounts for differences in model parameters in relation to the photosynthetic pathway but not in relation to plant functional types. The new scheme allows model parameters to vary by plant functional type, based on a global synthesis of observations of stomatal conductance under different climate regimes over a wide range of species. We show that the new scheme reduces the latent heat flux from the land surface over the boreal forests during the Northern Hemisphere summer by 0.5-1.0 mm day-1. This leads to warmer daily maximum and minimum temperatures by up to 1.0 °C and warmer extreme maximum temperatures by up to 1.5 °C. These changes generally improve the climate model's climatology of warm extremes and improve existing biases by 10-20 %. The bias in minimum temperatures is however degraded but, overall, this is outweighed by the improvement in maximum temperatures as there is a net improvement in the diurnal temperature range in this region. In other regions such as parts of South and North America where ACCESSv1.3b has known large positive biases in both maximum and minimum temperatures (~ 5 to 10 °C), the new scheme degrades this bias by up to 1 °C. We conclude that, although several large biases remain in ACCESSv1.3b for temperature extremes, the improvements in the global climate model over large parts of the boreal forests during the Northern Hemisphere summer which result from the new stomatal scheme, constrained by a global synthesis of experimental data, provide a valuable advance in the long-term development

  8. Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care. PMID:23497484

  9. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  10. "Even If We Never Ate a Single Bite of It; It Would Still Be Worth It:" College Students' Gardening Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Neil A.; Joiner, Lydia R.

    2012-01-01

    School age children and adolescents who participate in school gardening projects tend to eat more fruits and vegetables. Adults who participate in community gardening projects report that they also eat more fruits and vegetables, are more physically active and enjoy other social and emotional benefits as a result of gardening. Using a…

  11. Green Team Hosts Plant Swap to Encourage Gardening | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer What started out as a way for Howard Young, Ph.D., to thin out his garden last fall turned into the NCI at Frederick Green Team’s Plant Swap. The group held its Fall Plant Swap on October 24, encouraging all members of the Fort Detrick community to pick up a free plant or swap a plant of theirs for another. “Those who love to garden introduce others to the joy of gardening,” said Dolores Winterstein, a member of the Green Team and the coordinator of the Fall Plant Swap.

  12. Nursing home quality of life: study of an enabling garden.

    PubMed

    Raske, Martha

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the impact of the construction and use of an enabling garden on resident quality of life in a rural nursing home. This qualitative study used interviews with residents, family members, staff members, and community volunteers who built the garden. Findings suggest the garden had positive effects on resident quality of life, particularly in terms of meaningful daily activities, enjoyment of daily life, resident relationships, and functional competency. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  13. Legionnaires' disease and gardening.

    PubMed

    den Boer, J W; Yzerman, E P F; Jansen, R; Bruin, J P; Verhoef, L P B; Neve, G; van der Zwaluw, K

    2007-01-01

    Legionella longbeachae was cultured from the sputum of a patient suffering from Legionnaires' disease. Source identification efforts included analysis of samples of potting soil from the patient's garden, and a genotypically indistinguishable strain of L. longbeachae was cultured from this material. Following examination of a national collection of Legionella isolates, two more patients with indistinguishable genotypes were identified. One of these patients had visited a garden centre in the same municipality in which the index patient had acquired his potting soil. The study demonstrated the value of systematic collection of identification data and patient isolates over a prolonged period.

  14. Gardening is beneficial for health: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that gardening provides substantial human health benefits. However, no formal statistical assessment has been conducted to test this assertion. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of research examining the effects of gardening, including horticultural therapy, on health. We performed a literature search to collect studies that compared health outcomes in control (before participating in gardening or non-gardeners) and treatment groups (after participating in gardening or gardeners) in January 2016. The mean difference in health outcomes between the two groups was calculated for each study, and then the weighted effect size determined both across all and sets of subgroup studies. Twenty-two case studies (published after 2001) were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised 76 comparisons between control and treatment groups. Most studies came from the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Studies reported a wide range of health outcomes, such as reductions in depression, anxiety, and body mass index, as well as increases in life satisfaction, quality of life, and sense of community. Meta-analytic estimates showed a significant positive effect of gardening on the health outcomes both for all and sets of subgroup studies, whilst effect sizes differed among eight subgroups. Although Egger's test indicated the presence of publication bias, significant positive effects of gardening remained after adjusting for this using trim and fill analysis. This study has provided robust evidence for the positive effects of gardening on health. A regular dose of gardening can improve public health.

  15. Impact of Stochastic Parameterization Schemes on Coupled and Uncoupled Climate Simulations with the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, H. M.; Berner, J.; Coleman, D.; Palmer, T.

    2015-12-01

    Stochastic parameterizations have been used for more than a decade in atmospheric models to represent the variability of unresolved sub-grid processes. They have a beneficial effect on the spread and mean state of medium- and extended-range forecasts (Buizza et al. 1999, Palmer et al. 2009). There is also increasing evidence that stochastic parameterization of unresolved processes could be beneficial for the climate of an atmospheric model through noise enhanced variability, noise-induced drift (Berner et al. 2008), and by enabling the climate simulator to explore other flow regimes (Christensen et al. 2015; Dawson and Palmer 2015). We present results showing the impact of including the Stochastically Perturbed Parameterization Tendencies scheme (SPPT) in coupled runs of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4) with historical forcing. The SPPT scheme accounts for uncertainty in the CAM physical parameterization schemes, including the convection scheme, by perturbing the parametrised temperature, moisture and wind tendencies with a multiplicative noise term. SPPT results in a large improvement in the variability of the CAM4 modeled climate. In particular, SPPT results in a significant improvement to the representation of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in CAM4, improving the power spectrum, as well as both the inter- and intra-annual variability of tropical pacific sea surface temperatures. References: Berner, J., Doblas-Reyes, F. J., Palmer, T. N., Shutts, G. J., & Weisheimer, A., 2008. Phil. Trans. R. Soc A, 366, 2559-2577 Buizza, R., Miller, M. and Palmer, T. N., 1999. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 2887-2908. Christensen, H. M., I. M. Moroz & T. N. Palmer, 2015. Clim. Dynam., doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2239-9 Dawson, A. and T. N. Palmer, 2015. Clim. Dynam., doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2238-x Palmer, T.N., R. Buizza, F. Doblas-Reyes, et al., 2009, ECMWF technical memorandum 598.

  16. Assessment of community contribution to the ICDS scheme in district Agra: a case study.

    PubMed

    Nayar, D; Kapil, U; Nandan, D

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess community contribution to the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, which promotes mother and child health in the Agra district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Three rural ICDS projects in the district were selected, out of which a total of 74 Anganwadi centers (AWCs) were chosen for the study. The Anganwadi workers (AWWs) were interviewed through a semi-structured questionnaire to assess the community¿s contribution during the previous 6 months. Results revealed that about 68% of AWWs had been able to receive assistance in bringing the children to the AWC. 53.3% had received free accommodation for AWC, and 42.6% had obtained assistance in implementation of health activities. Only 4% and 12% of the AWWs reported community assistance in the preparation and distribution of nutritional supplements, respectively. There had been no contribution received in terms of raw food for supplementary nutrition and fuel for cooking. The study concludes that rural area free accommodation for the AWC and community assistance in bringing children to the AWC were the most common forms of community contribution to the ICDS program.

  17. A Haunted Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jana

    2009-01-01

    It's funny to think of the way an idea for an art lesson begins and how it has a way of changing into something completely different. That is what happened with this lesson, which was originally going to be about a springtime garden. In this article, the author describes an art lesson on collograph printmaking inspired by the poem "A Vampire's…

  18. Pythagoras' Garden, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhart, Frank R.; Price, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Mack and Czernezkyj (2010) have given an interesting account of primitive Pythagorean triples (PPTs) from a geometrical perspective. In this article, the authors wish to enlarge on the role of the equicircles (incircle and three excircles), and show there is yet another family tree in Pythagoras' garden. Where Mack and Czernezkyj (2010) begin with…

  19. The Herb Garden Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

  20. Mr. Greenthumb's Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedab, Jennifer R.; Knotts, Lori A.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2004-01-01

    A four-day exploration of mathematics provides a learning opportunity for students to practice number sense, multiplication and division skills. The students designed the gardening theme to explore the topic of multiplication using the array model, and see the application of mathematics to their everyday life.

  1. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  2. Growing Gardens, Growing Minds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Terri; Martin, Deb; Slattery, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a program where students and family members were involved in a taste-testing to select the items to be planted in the school's garden at Stephenson Elementary. A simple rubric of facial recognition is used. Smiles for the favorites; frowns for the disqualifiers. With the help of the school's leadership team consisting…

  3. Horticultural therapy: the garden benefits everyone.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J

    1998-10-01

    Horticulture therapy (HT) is an applied adjuctive therapy, using plants and gardening materials, to help the client with mental illness to improve social skills, self-esteem, and use of leisure time. HT provides a nonthreatening context for the development of a therapeutic alliance between client and nursing student. HT provides a group experience for the student nurse, allowing the promotion of therapeutic community, assessment of patient status, and management of a therapy session from start to finish via the nursing process.

  4. Using Quality Schemes in Adult and Community Learning: A Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, David; Watters, Kate

    This document examines adult and community learning (ACL) and quality programs across England. The difficulties faced by local education agencies' ACL services in delivering quality are noted, along with ways quality improvement has been supported. Quality programs--whether internal or external, based on awards, or used as diagnostic tools--are…

  5. Using home gardens to decipher health and healing in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Finerman, Ruthbeth; Sackett, Ross

    2003-12-01

    Home gardens are a pervasive component of Andean agricultural systems, but have been ignored in anthropological and agronomic research. Recent research in the indigenous community of Saraguro, Ecuador, employed a combination of in-depth interviews, free-listing, videotaped walk-throughs, and mapping to explore the role of home gardens, which are established and controlled by women. Findings reveal that, although gardens offer multiple benefits, they are overwhelmingly devoted to the cultivation of medicinal plants, operating as de facto medicine cabinets that supply women with most of the resources they need to treat family illnesses. Results also suggest that the natural history of home gardens mirrors transformations within the family, and that Saraguro women study the contents of their neighbors' gardens, using this knowledge as a foundation for deciphering the owners' economic and health status. New threats to the sustainability of home gardens threaten the foundation of Saraguro's ethnomedical system and women's authority in the home and community.

  6. Promoting nitrate removal in rain gardens | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rain gardens are vegetated surface depressions, often located at low points in landscapes, designed to receive stormwater runoff from roads, roofs, and parking lots. The gardens’ sandy soils allow stormwater to drain quickly to the native soils below and eventually to groundwater. The rain garden vegetation and soils remove pollutants and nutrients from stormwater runoff through biological and physical processes such as plant uptake and sorption to soil particles. In comparison with stormwater release to receiving waters through conventional storm drain systems, infiltrating stormwater through rain gardens reduces peak flows and loadings of both pollutants and nutrients. This reduction improves the physical and biological integrity of receiving streams by reducing stream bank erosion and negative effects on stream communities. While local governments and individual homeowners are building these systems, relatively few scientific studies have documented the ability of rain gardens to remove pollutants and nutrients. This U.S. EPA long-term research project investigates: 1) the performance of rain gardens in removing pollutants, and 2) whether currently-accepted design standards can be adjusted to improve nitrate removal capabilities. Typical rain garden designs provide large removals of pollutants of concern, including heavy metals, phosphorus, total nitrogen, and ammonium. The gardens have been less successful in removing nitrate, an importan

  7. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mala; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Katyal, Anuradha; Samarth, Amit; Bergkvist, Sofi; Renton, Adrian; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Background Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE), in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education. Methods We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design. Findings Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups. Conclusion During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the

  8. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Morrison, H.; Park, Sungsu; Conley, Andrew; Klein, Stephen A.; Boyle, James; Mitchell, David; Li, J-L F.

    2010-09-28

    A process-based treatment of ice supersaturation and ice-nucleation is implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The new scheme is designed to allow (1) supersaturation with respect to ice, (2) ice nucleation by aerosol particles and (3) ice cloud cover consistent with ice microphysics. The scheme is implemented with a 4-class 2 moment microphysics code and is used to evaluate ice cloud nucleation mechanisms and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloud occurrence better than previous versions of the model. Simulations indicate heterogeneous freezing and contact nucleation on dust are both potentially important over remote areas of the Arctic. Cloud forcing and hence climate is sensitive to different formulations of the ice microphysics. Arctic radiative fluxes are sensitive to the parameterization of ice clouds. These results indicate that ice clouds are potentially an important part of understanding cloud forcing and potential cloud feedbacks, particularly in the Arctic.

  9. Garden City, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Center pivot irrigation systems create red circles of healthy vegetation in this image of croplands near Garden City, Kansas. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 25, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using near infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  10. Drivers of an urban community's acceptance of a large desalination scheme for drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Fiona L.; Tapsuwan, Sorada; Walker, Iain; Randrema, Elodie

    2015-09-01

    Changing climates and growing populations have prompted policy makers to shift to more climate resilient, technology-driven water sources, such as seawater desalination. Desalination is a prominent water resource in the Middle East but countries in other parts of the world with similar scarcity issues and good access to sea water, such as Australia, have been comparatively slow to adopt it. This paper explores attitudes to desalination in Perth, Western Australia, and the factors that influence its acceptance. We compared individuals' acceptance of desalination over two time periods by using identical surveys administered in 2007 and 2012. We then examined the attitudinal factors - attitudes towards desalination and attitudes towards the environment - that influence acceptance. Acceptance of desalination was reasonably high and stable at both times (74% and 73% in 2007 and 2012 respectively). We found that respondents' attitudes to perceived outcomes and benefits, fairness, environmental obligation and risk were important predictors of their acceptance of desalination in both surveys. However the weight given to these aspects varied over time. The findings show that there is still mixed community sentiment towards desalination, which helps to explain why acceptance has not increased since desalination was introduced in 2006.

  11. Habitat Gardening--How Schoolyards Are Being Transformed into Wildlife Sanctuaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Niall

    2000-01-01

    Students from JFK High School and community gardening clubs in the Bronx cleaned up wetlands adjacent to the school and created various small theme gardens supporting diverse wildlife. Nationally, the schoolyard habitat movement aims to create stimulating outdoor environments where students can learn about local ecology, biodiversity, and…

  12. Old Tools for New Problems: Modifying Master Gardener Training to Improve Food Access in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Extension faces ever-changing problems, which can be addressed by modifying successful tools rather than inventing new ones. The Master Gardener program has proven its effectiveness, but the cost and time commitment can make it inaccessible to rural, low-income communities, where training in home gardening may address issues of food access and…

  13. The Pull of the Earth: Participatory Ethnography in the School Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    This book is Laurie Thorp's dirt-under-the-fingernails ethnography of four years in an elementary school garden and the ways in which this garden catalyzed cultural transformation and inspired hope, growth, and community. Filled with photographs, sketches, poetry, and journal entries, Thorp's engaging book describes the educational benefits of…

  14. Golden Gardens: A Wildlife Gardening Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Judy

    This document is a guide for older persons who are beginner gardeners. It provides 16 projects to choose from and explains what is needed for each before getting started. Each chapter contains projects suitable for small, medium, and large garden spaces. Contents include: (1) "Getting Started"; (2) "Beckoning Birds, Bees, and Butterflies"; (3)…

  15. Gardening with Children: My Summers at Beanstalk Children's Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecklin, Vicki L.

    2009-01-01

    There has been increased interest in recent years on gardening with children and a variety of programs have been started to support different types of programmatic goals. Goals of gardening programs include environmental stewardship, personal growth/social skills, an integrated learning environment, nutrition/health, science education, practical…

  16. Exploring ecological, emotional and social levers of self-rated health for urban gardeners and non-gardeners: A path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmiege, S; Hale, JW; Buchenau, M.; Sancar, F.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The social, emotional, and mental health benefits associated with gardening have been well documented. However, the processes underlying the relationship between garden participation and improvements in health status have not been sufficiently studied. Methods Using population-based survey data (n = 469 urban residents), objective street environment data, and area-level measures, this research used a path analytic framework to examine several theoretically based constructs as mediators between gardening history and self-reported health. Results The results showed that garden participation influenced health status indirectly through social involvement with one’s community, perceived aesthetic appeal of the neighborhood, and perceived collective efficacy. Gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported higher ratings of neighborhood aesthetics and more involvement in social activities, whereas aesthetics and involvement were associated with higher ratings of collective efficacy and neighborhood attachment. Collective efficacy, but not neighborhood attachment, predicted self-rated health. Gardening also directly influenced improved fruit and vegetable intake. The physical and social qualities of garden participation may therefore stimulate a range of interpersonal and social responses that are supportive of positive ratings of health. Conclusion This research suggests that community planners and health professionals should aim to strengthen the social and aesthetic relationships while designing environments and policies as a way to ignite intermediate processes that may lead to improved health status. PMID:26372933

  17. Adult Education and Social Change: The European Network. Network of Adult Education and Community Development Schemes. Report of a Seminar (El Escorial, Spain, April 24-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Science, Madrid (Spain).

    These proceedings report on a seminar to review the Network of Adult Education and Community Development Schemes as it had been operating in Spain since 1986. An opening address (Jose Cartagena) discusses achievements to date, including making the most of available resources and introducing new working methods through the established liaison…

  18. Rock Garden Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image mosaic of part of the 'Rock Garden' was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 71 (September 14). The rock 'Shark' is at left center and 'Half Dome' is at right. Fine-scale textures on the rocks are clearly seen. Broken crust-like material is visible at bottom center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  19. Rain Gardens: Stormwater Infiltrating Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  20. Garden Gnomes: Magical or Tacky?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynt, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Garden gnomes: magical or tacky? Well, art is in the eye of the beholder, and for the author's advanced seventh-grade art class, garden gnomes are magical. Gnomes have a very long history, dating back to medieval times. A fairytale describes them as brownie-like creatures that are nocturnal helpers. In this article, the author describes how her…

  1. Pressure Controlled Chemical Gardens.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Megan R; Batista, Bruno C; Steinbock, Oliver

    2016-06-30

    The dissolution of metal salts in silicate solution can result in the growth of hollow precipitate tubes. These "chemical gardens" are a model of self-organization far from the equilibrium and create permanent macroscopic structures. The reproducibility of the growth process is greatly improved if the solid salt seed is replaced by a salt solution that is steadily injected by a pump; however, this modification of the original experiment eliminates the membrane-based osmotic pump at the base of conventional chemical gardens and does not allow for analyses in terms of the involved pressure. Here we describe a new experimental method that delivers the salt solution according to a controlled hydrostatic pressure. In one form of the experiment, this pressure slowly decreases as zinc sulfate solution flows into the silicate-containing reaction vessel, whereas a second version holds the respective solution heights constant. In addition to three known growth regimes (jetting, popping, budding), we observe single tubes that fill the vessel in a horizontally undulating but vertically layered fashion (crowding). The resulting, dried product has a cylindrical shape, very low density, and one continuous connection from top to bottom. We also present phase diagrams of these growth modes and show that the flow characteristics of our experiments follow a reaction-independent Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

  2. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmospheric Model-2 with the Tiedtke Convective Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P; Wang, B; Sperber, K R; Li, T; Meehl, G A

    2004-07-26

    The boreal winter Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) remains very weak and irregular in structure in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model version 2 (CAM2) as in its direct predecessor, the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3). The standard version of CAM2 uses the deep convective scheme of Zhang and McFarlane (1995), as in CCM3, with the closure dependent on convective available potential energy (CAPE). Here, sensitivity tests using several versions of the Tiedtke (1989) convective scheme are conducted. Typically, the Tiedtke convection scheme gives an improved mean state, intraseasonal variability, space-time power spectra, and eastward propagation compared to the standard version of the model. Coherent eastward propagation of MJO related precipitation is also much improved, particularly over the Indian-western Pacific Oceans. Sensitivity experiments show that enhanced downdrafts in the Tiedtke scheme reduces the amplitude of the MJO but to a lesser extent than when this scheme is closed on CAPE to represent deep convections. A composite life cycle of the model MJO indicates that over the Indian Ocean wind induced surface heat exchange functions, while over the western/central Pacific Ocean aspects of frictional moisture convergence are evident in the maintenance and eastward propagation of the oscillation.

  3. The Child in the Garden: An Evaluative Review of the Benefits of School Gardening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Although educators widely use school gardens for experiential education, researchers have not systematically examined the evaluative literature on school-gardening outcomes. The author reviewed the U.S. literature on children's gardening, taking into account potential effects, school-gardening outcomes, teacher evaluations of gardens as learning…

  4. Gardening for Food and Fun with Senior Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Peffley, Ellen S.

    1978-01-01

    The article describes a vegetable gardening project for the elderly (age 65 or older) sponsored by a community action agency and the New Mexico State University horticulture department. A student director and two instructors provided technical management, and the students (young and old) learned about production agriculture and each other. (MF)

  5. Nursery and Garden Center Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for nursery and garden center occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and…

  6. School Gardens and Farms--Aspects of Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    The document places emphasis upon the need for school farm and garden programs. It is noted that today's youth are denied opportunities for meaningful physical work experiences in the home, community, and school. Reasons for lack of opportunities include overcrowded residential areas, lack of land areas, schools ignoring their charge to provide…

  7. Gardening in Elementary City Schools. Bulletin, 1916, No. 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, C. D.

    1916-01-01

    The widespread interest in gardening directed by the schools, especially in cities, suburban communities, and manufacturing districts, stimulated by the activities of the Bureau of Education, has created a demand for some comprehensive statement of the best means of organizing and directing this work, to the end that the largest possible…

  8. An Ideal Environment for the 1980s? The Proposal for a Third British Garden City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    Describes a proposal currently being debated for a third privately-built garden city in Britain. This "environmentally ideal" community is intended to be small in scale, decentralized, close to nature, energy efficient, and modest in technology. (Author/WB)

  9. Gardens of paradise.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, S

    2001-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty years ago, the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) published his Philosophia botanica. This textbook in botanical science was widely read well into the 19th century. Today it is remembered mainly for two things: the introduction of binomial nomenclature and the formulation of a fixist and creationist species concept. While the former achievement is seen as a practical tool, still applicable for purposes of identification and information retrieval, the latter is usually deemed to have been one of the main obstacles to scientific progress in biology. That both achievements were not independent of each other, but interlocked theoretically and grounded in a specific scientific practice still thriving today--the collection of plant specimens in botanical gardens--is usually overlooked. The following article tries to uncover these connections and to demonstrate the significance that Linnaeus' achievements had for modern biology.

  10. Local and Landscape Drivers of Parasitoid Abundance, Richness, and Composition in Urban Gardens.

    PubMed

    Burks, Julia M; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-03-08

    Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function. We examined the local habitat and landscape drivers of parasitoid abundance, superfamily and family richness, and parasitoid composition in urban gardens in the California central coast. Local factors included garden size, ground cover type, herbaceous plant species, and number of trees and shrubs. Landscape characteristics included land cover and landscape diversity around gardens. We found that garden size, mulch cover, and urban cover within 500 m of gardens predicted increases in parasitoid abundance within gardens. The height of herbaceous vegetation and tree and shrub richness predicted increases in superfamily and family richness whereas increases in urban cover resulted in declines in parasitoid richness. Abundance of individual superfamilies and families responded to a wide array of local and landscape factors, sometimes in opposite ways. Composition of parasitoid communities responded to changes in garden size, herbaceous plant cover, and number of flowers. Thus, both local scale management and landscape planning may impact the abundance, diversity, and community composition of parasitoids in urban gardens, and may result in differences in the effectiveness of parasitoids in biological control.

  11. Gardening Health and Safety Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hot Weather Tips for persons with disabilities and physical activity. Talk to your health care provider if you ... for Everyone (Arthritis Foundation) Enjoy the benefits of physical activity. Gardening is an excellent way to get physical ...

  12. EPA Helps Botanic Garden Blossom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One of the keys to the continued transformation of abandoned mine lands into a world-class botanic garden near Pittsburgh is an innovative rainwater system financed by EPA’s Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  13. Advancing family health through the Garden of Eatin': on-site food gardens in early childhood education.

    PubMed

    Chaufan, Claudia; Yeh, Jarmin; Sigal, Byron

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional practices develop over the life course. Developing healthy habits at an early age can contribute to combating increasing child obesity rates. Through a range of activities that rely on the presence of an on-site food garden, North Bay Children's Center (NBCC), an early childhood education program, has enacted a "culture of health" into all aspects of the curriculum to promote healthy eating practices among children, families, teachers and staff. NBCC's garden program serves as a model in early childhood education and as a community-based intervention to improve family health and prevent child obesity.

  14. Making health insurance work for the poor: learning from the Self-Employed Women's Association's (SEWA) community-based health insurance scheme in India.

    PubMed

    Ranson, M Kent; Sinha, Tara; Chatterjee, Mirai; Acharya, Akash; Bhavsar, Ami; Morris, Saul S; Mills, Anne J

    2006-02-01

    How best to provide effective protection for the poorest against the financial risks of ill health remains an unanswered policy question. Community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes, by pooling risks and resources, can in principal offer protection against the risk of medical expenses, and make accessible health care services that would otherwise be unaffordable. The purpose of this paper is to measure the distributional impact of a large CBHI scheme in Gujarat, India, which reimburses hospitalization costs, and to identify barriers to optimal distributional impact. The study found that the Vimo Self-employed Women's Association (SEWA) scheme is inclusive of the poorest, with 32% of rural members, and 40% of urban members, drawn from households below the 30th percentile of socio-economic status. Submission of claims for inpatient care is equitable in Ahmedabad City, but inequitable in rural areas. The financially better off in rural areas are significantly more likely to submit claims than are the poorest, and men are significantly more likely to submit claims than women. Members living in areas that have better access to health care submit more claims than those living in remote areas. A variety of factors prevent the poorest in rural and remote areas from accessing inpatient care or from submitting a claim. The study concludes that even a well-intentioned scheme may have an undesirable distributional impact, particularly if: (1) the scheme does not address the major barriers to accessing (inpatient) health care; and (2) the process of seeking reimbursement under the scheme is burdensome for the poor. Design and implementation of an equitable scheme must involve: a careful assessment of barriers to health care seeking; interventions to address the main barriers; and reimbursement requiring minimum paperwork and at the time/place of service utilization.

  15. Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

  16. Designing School Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dexter, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Schoolyards can be a blank canvas of opportunity for students, teachers, and the community to create physical and psychological changes in their schools and communities. Through design, art teachers can guide their students, providing them with the tools to work in the world of spatial design. In this article, the author provides strategies for…

  17. Reaping the harvest: nursing student service involvement with a campus gardening project.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Kathleen; Lee, Carolyn; Daker, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the development and incorporation of a multidisciplinary community garden as a service project in a baccalaureate nursing cohort in an urban university. The concepts of professional ethics and service, application of nutritional theory to a community cohort, and competencies in community health nursing are briefly discussed and applied to this service project.

  18. Seismic performance of pendulum and translational roof-garden TMDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Emiliano; De Stefano, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    In a previous paper, the authors already introduced the concept of the roof-garden TMD, an innovative passive vibration absorber for building structures, meant to combine the dynamic response mitigation capabilities of traditional tuned mass dampers (TMDs) with the environmental advantages of traditional roof gardens. In order to limit the mistuning effect and control loss due to the intrinsic variability of its mass, a roof-garden TMD of the rolling-pendulum type, advantageously characterized by a mass-independent natural period although unfortunately inherently non-linear, was then proposed and its performance assessed for increasing values of mass uncertainty and excitation levels. In the present study, the rolling-pendulum type is compared with the well-known translational configuration, the latter expectedly more prone to mistuning and yet insensitive to seismic intensity because of its linear behaviour. The trade-off between the two schemes is first explored for the case of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) structure under a variety of design scenarios and then demonstrated through simulations on a building structure recently completed in a seismic site in Central Italy and designed to host a roof-garden atop for architectural purposes.

  19. Master Gardener Classroom Garden Project: An Evaluation of the Benefits to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jacquelyn; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Master Gardener Classroom Garden Project provides inner-city elementary school children in the San Antonio Independent School District with an experiential way of learning about horticulture, gardening, themselves, and their relationships with their peers. Qualitative interviews indicate that participation in the gardening project had many…

  20. Developing an On-Campus Environmental Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alice R.; Henry, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Described is the construction and use of an environmental garden. The garden serves as a source of both indoor and outdoor laboratory materials, including vascular plants, fungi, algae, mosses, zooplankton, and macroscopic invertebrates. (BB)

  1. Reuse water nourishes Moody Gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Galveston, Texas, a growing city of 65,000 on hot and humid Galveston Island, isn't a likely place for a water-guzzling public garden. Part of the city's source for drinking water is an 800-foot-deep aquifer that has been overpumped so badly land has subsided in some areas. Water use is restricted during drought. With consumption peaking at 26 mgd in summer, Galveston doesn't need further stress on its domestic water supply. So when planning began for Moody Gardens, a $200-million environmental, therapeutic, and educational project, planners decided to reuse treated domestic sewage effluent as irrigation water. In 1986 they hired an Atlanta firm to evaluate the idea, which would ensure that water would always be available for plant watering, even during drought, and that the Gardens would not burden the city's water supply.

  2. Gardening, Kids, and the Library Media Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses gardening as an appropriate theme for problem-based learning activities that are interdisciplinary, and suggests related resources for library media specialists. Highlights include gardening in the research literature; resources from ERIC, including specific program descriptions; books; Web sites; 4-H programs; and butterfly gardens.…

  3. Rain garden guidelines for southwest Ohio

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens are a unique and practical landscape feature that can enhance the beauty of home gardens. When properly installed, they are one method of limiting the negative effects of rainfall runoff in urban areas. Indeed, rain gardens turn a "negative" into a "positive" by capt...

  4. 33 Internet Garden and Agriculture Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitkamp, Margery

    2000-01-01

    Describes Internet sites that are useful for educators planning a school garden. These sites offer information from copy-ready lessons to advice on every topic at all grade levels. Topics range from how-to's for basic gardening, to theme gardening, to discussions of agricultural crops and endangered plants. Many include links to other sites,…

  5. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  6. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  7. Our Friendship Gardens: Healing Our Mother, Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Madhu Suri

    2015-01-01

    Embracing the best ideals of Victory Gardens, this essay celebrates Friendship Gardens. The latter go further: collapsing the dualisms separating victors from losers. Friendships that transcend differences and honor diversity are among the many fruits and organic gifts harvested and shared in the commons created by Friendship Gardens. This essay…

  8. Urban domestic gardens: the effects of human interventions on garden composition.

    PubMed

    Loram, Alison; Warren, Philip; Thompson, Ken; Gaston, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    Private domestic gardens contribute substantially to the biodiversity of urban areas and benefit human health and well-being. We previously reported a study of 267 gardens across five cities in the United Kingdom in which variation in geographical and climatic factors had little bearing on the richness, diversity and composition of plant species. We therefore hypothesise that garden management is an important factor in determining garden characteristics. Here, from the same sample of gardens, we investigate potential associations between the uses to which people put their gardens, the types of management activities they undertake, and the characteristics of those gardens. Householders (n = 265) completed a questionnaire detailing various aspects of garden use and management activities. The majority of respondents used their gardens chiefly for relaxation, recreation, and eating. Fewer than one fifth included "gardening" amongst their garden uses even though all performed some garden management, suggesting that not all management activity resulted from an interest in gardening. Garden-watering and lawn-mowing were the most prevalent activities and were predictors of other types of management including weeding, vegetation-cutting, leaf-collection, and dead-heading flowers. A number of these activities were associated with one another, the richness and composition of plant species, and the number of land uses in gardens. However, relationships between management activities and the amount of tall vegetation were less consistent, and garden management appeared to be independent of garden area. More species of amphibians, birds, and mammals were observed in gardens with ponds and in which efforts were made to attract wildlife, particularly by providing drinking water. This study supports the hypothesis that garden use and management is associated with garden characteristics.

  9. Urban Domestic Gardens: The Effects of Human Interventions on Garden Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loram, Alison; Warren, Philip; Thompson, Ken; Gaston, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    Private domestic gardens contribute substantially to the biodiversity of urban areas and benefit human health and well-being. We previously reported a study of 267 gardens across five cities in the United Kingdom in which variation in geographical and climatic factors had little bearing on the richness, diversity and composition of plant species. We therefore hypothesise that garden management is an important factor in determining garden characteristics. Here, from the same sample of gardens, we investigate potential associations between the uses to which people put their gardens, the types of management activities they undertake, and the characteristics of those gardens. Householders ( n = 265) completed a questionnaire detailing various aspects of garden use and management activities. The majority of respondents used their gardens chiefly for relaxation, recreation, and eating. Fewer than one fifth included "gardening" amongst their garden uses even though all performed some garden management, suggesting that not all management activity resulted from an interest in gardening. Garden-watering and lawn-mowing were the most prevalent activities and were predictors of other types of management including weeding, vegetation-cutting, leaf-collection, and dead-heading flowers. A number of these activities were associated with one another, the richness and composition of plant species, and the number of land uses in gardens. However, relationships between management activities and the amount of tall vegetation were less consistent, and garden management appeared to be independent of garden area. More species of amphibians, birds, and mammals were observed in gardens with ponds and in which efforts were made to attract wildlife, particularly by providing drinking water. This study supports the hypothesis that garden use and management is associated with garden characteristics.

  10. Reduction of catastrophic health care expenditures by a community-based health insurance scheme in Gujarat, India: current experiences and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, Michael Kent

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the Self Employed Women's Association's Medical Insurance Fund in Gujarat in terms of insurance coverage according to income groups, protection of claimants from costs of hospitalization, time between discharge and reimbursement, and frequency of use. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred and thirty claims submitted over six years were analysed. FINDINGS: Two hundred and fifteen (11%) of 1927 claims were rejected. The mean household income of claimants was significantly lower than that of the general population. The percentage of households below the poverty line was similar for claimants and the general population. One thousand seven hundred and twelve (1712) claims were reimbursed: 805 (47%) fully and 907 (53%) at a mean reimbursement rate of 55.6%. Reimbursement more than halved the percentage of catastrophic hospitalizations (>10% of annual household income) and hospitalizations resulting in impoverishment. The average time between discharge and reimbursement was four months. The frequency of submission of claims was low (18.0/1000 members per year: 22-37% of the estimated frequency of hospitalization). CONCLUSIONS: The findings have implications for community-based health insurance schemes in India and elsewhere. Such schemes can protect poor households against the uncertain risk of medical expenses. They can be implemented in areas where institutional capacity is too weak to organize nationwide risk-pooling. Such schemes can cover poor people, including people and households below the poverty line. A trade off exists between maintaining the scheme's financial viability and protecting members against catastrophic expenditures. To facilitate reimbursement, administration, particularly processing of claims, should happen near claimants. Fine-tuning the design of a scheme is an ongoing process - a system of monitoring and evaluation is vital. PMID:12219151

  11. Innovations in health care financing: new evidence on the prospect of community health insurance schemes in the rural areas of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Abay; von Braun, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    It has become clear that due to market failure, state failure, and other reasons, the conventional sources of finance alone could not solve the health problem of the rural population, particularly that of the socially excluded and disadvantaged groups. Community Based Health Insurance Schemes (CBHIS) are one of the most recently mentioned options to narrow the existing inequalities in access to basic health services. This study assesses the prospect of CBHIS in the rural areas of Ethiopia using a double bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method. The results show that even in one of the poorest countries of the world, there is a promising prospect to introduce CBHIS.

  12. Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) version le as coupled to the NCAR community climate model. Technical note. [NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research)

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, R.E.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Kennedy, P.J.

    1993-08-01

    A comprehensive model of land-surface processes has been under development suitable for use with various National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) General Circulation Models (GCMs). Special emphasis has been given to describing properly the role of vegetation in modifying the surface moisture and energy budgets. The result of these efforts has been incorporated into a boundary package, referred to as the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). The current frozen version, BATS1e is a piece of software about four thousand lines of code that runs as an offline version or coupled to the Community Climate Model (CCM).

  13. Landscape and Local Correlates of Bee Abundance and Species Richness in Urban Gardens.

    PubMed

    Quistberg, Robyn D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2016-03-31

    Urban gardens may preserve biodiversity as urban population densities increase, but this strongly depends on the characteristics of the gardens and the landscapes in which they are embedded. We investigated whether local and landscape characteristics are important correlates of bee (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) abundance and species richness in urban community gardens. We worked in 19 gardens in the California central coast and sampled bees with aerial nets and pan traps. We measured local characteristics (i.e., vegetation and ground cover) and used the USGS National Land Cover Database to classify the landscape surrounding our garden study sites at 2 km scales. We classified bees according to nesting type (i.e., cavity, ground) and body size and determined which local and landscape characteristics correlate with bee community characteristics. We found 55 bee species. One landscape and several local factors correlated with differences in bee abundance and richness for all bees, cavity-nesting bees, ground-nesting bees, and different sized bees. Generally, bees were more abundant and species rich in bigger gardens, in gardens with higher floral abundance, less mulch cover, more bare ground, and with more grass. Medium bees were less abundant in sites surrounded by more medium intensity developed land within 2 km. The fact that local factors were generally more important drivers of bee abundance and richness indicates a potential for gardeners to promote bee conservation by altering local management practices. In particular, increasing floral abundance, decreasing use of mulch, and providing bare ground may promote bees in urban gardens.

  14. Science Museums: Enlisting Communities in Science Education Partnerships: Collaborations between Communities and Science Museums, Aquaria, Botanical Gardens, and Zoos. Science Museum Program Directors Meeting (September 26-28, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Chevy Chase, MD. Office of Grants and Special Programs.

    This report of the 1994 meeting of directors of programs funded by the Precollege Science Education Initiative for Science Museums contains proceedings of the meeting along with profiles of grant-supported activities. The community partnerships described share a common theme: the importance of science education not just as a means to an end, but…

  15. Q&A: Cosmic gardener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jascha

    2011-05-01

    Charles Jencks designs landscapes and sculptures to convey concepts in astronomy, biology and mathematics -- notably at CERN, Europe's particle-physics lab near Geneva, Switzerland, and in his Garden of Cosmic Speculation near Dumfries in Scotland, UK. On the launch of his new book, he discusses green architecture and metaphor.

  16. Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack; And Others

    This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

  17. Teaching in the Whole Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jana

    Noting the importance of agriculture in a developing nation, this manual provides primary school teachers with ideas for lessons and activities that can be taught in the school garden setting to improve students' application of skills acquired in class. The guide provides examples of specific lesson plans in science, math, social studies, and…

  18. Edinburgh doctors and their physic gardens.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D

    2008-12-01

    Edinburgh has had eight physic gardens on different sites since its first one was created by the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons in 1656. As the gardens grew in size, they evolved from herb gardens to botanic gardens with small herbaria for the supply of medical herbs. They were intended for the instruction of medical, surgical and apothecary students and, in the case of the physicians, to demonstrate the need for a physicians' college and a pharmacopoeia. Some of the doctors in charge of them were equally famous and influential in botany as in medicine, and while Edinburgh Town Council enjoyed the fame the gardens brought to the city it was parsimonious and slow to support its botanical pioneers. The gardens are celebrated today in the Sibbald Garden within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

  19. Sculpted landscapes: art & place in Cleveland's Cultural Gardens, 1916-2006.

    PubMed

    Tebeau, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps the world's first peace garden, the Cleveland Cultural Gardens embody the history of twentieth-century America and reveal the complex interrelations between art and place. This essay uses the Cleveland Cultural Gardens as a lens through which to explore how art and place have intersected over time. It explores how communities have negotiated questions of national, ethnic, and American identity and embedded those identities into the vernacular landscape. It considers how the particulars of place were embedded into a public garden and asks whether it is possible for public art to transcend its place—both in terms of geography and history. In some sense, the Gardens have transcended their place, but in others respects, their fortunes were bound inextricably to that place, to the economic, demographic, and cultural contours that shaped and reshaped Northern Ohio. As works of art, the Cleveland Cultural Gardens both have reflected the history of Cleveland and American industrial cities during the 20th century and revealed something of the dynamics that underscored the changing character of public art and gardens in American cities.

  20. What Factors Affect Voluntary Uptake of Community-Based Health Insurance Schemes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, S. A. Shahed; Pérez Koehlmoos, Tracey Lynn; John, Denny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This research article reports on factors influencing initial voluntary uptake of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and renewal decisions. Methods Following PRISMA protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of academic and gray literature, including academic databases in social science, economics and medical sciences (e.g., Econlit, Global health, Medline, Proquest) and other electronic resources (e.g., Eldis and Google scholar). Search strategies were developed using the thesaurus or index terms (e.g., MeSH) specific to the databases, combined with free text terms related to CBHI or health insurance. Searches were conducted from May 2013 to November 2013 in English, French, German, and Spanish. From the initial search yield of 15,770 hits, 54 relevant studies were retained for analysis of factors influencing enrolment and renewal decisions. The quantitative synthesis (informed by meta-analysis) and the qualitative analysis (informed by thematic synthesis) were compared to gain insight for an overall synthesis of findings/statements. Results Meta-analysis suggests that enrolments in CBHI were positively associated with household income, education and age of the household head (HHH), household size, female-headed household, married HHH and chronic illness episodes in the household. The thematic synthesis suggests the following factors as enablers for enrolment: (a) knowledge and understanding of insurance and CBHI, (b) quality of healthcare, (c) trust in scheme management. Factors found to be barriers to enrolment include: (a) inappropriate benefits package, (b) cultural beliefs, (c) affordability, (d) distance to healthcare facility, (e) lack of adequate legal and policy frameworks to support CBHI, and (f) stringent rules of some CBHI schemes. HHH education, household size and trust in the scheme management were positively associated with member renewal decisions. Other motivators were: (a

  1. Gardening Activities, Education, and Self-Esteem: Learning outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, August John; Morales Knight, Luis F.; Wallach, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Numerous articles have been written about the impact of community-based work and self-esteem, self-efficacy, and gardening in an educational environment. Empirical data suggest that when students have become involved in a group effort designed to improve a school, community, or society, a sense of interdependency and loyalty to that institution…

  2. Social constraints before sanitation improvement in tea gardens of Sylhet, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Begum, Anwara; Chowdhury, M A I

    2010-05-01

    Sylhet, the northeastern divisional city of Bangladesh, is the major tea-producing region of the country where a large number of low-income workers completely depending on extremely labor-intensive economic activity for their bread and butter, live in and around the tea gardens. The living conditions of these communities are remarkably meager due to the lack of proper utility facilities, especially in water supply and sanitation sectors. A study was conducted at Lakkatura and Ali Bahar Tea Estates to assess the deteriorated sanitation condition of the tea garden workers community and to determine the constraints before the improvement of the condition. It was found that the existing sanitary condition of both of the tea garden slums is very poor because of the same topographical condition and socioeconomic and cultural status of the dwellers. About 50% to 60% tea garden workers still are used to open defecation causing various excreta related diseases and not practiced with washing hand after defecation. Lack of knowledge and awareness about health and hygiene, unwillingness, poverty, superstitions, etc. are responsible for the deteriorated condition of the sanitation system. Based on the analysis, providing latrines free of costs, undertaking extensive motivational and awareness programs and publicity, regular consultation of tea garden workers with the health specialists, and vector control staff of concerned utilities as well as an integrated water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion programs should be considered as the priority in order to improve the deteriorated sanitary conditions in two tea gardens.

  3. Community-Based Early Intervention for Children with Behavioural, Emotional and Social Problems: Evaluation of the Scallywags Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovering, Kathryn; Frampton, Ian; Crowe, Ben; Moseley, Alice; Broadhead, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Scallywags is a community-based, early intervention programme for young children (aged 3-7) with behavioural, emotional and social problems, which integrates work in the home and school with a parenting curriculum and direct work with children. A pre-post intervention study across multi-sites of 340 participants is reported. Using standardised…

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AGGREGATION AND EPISODE SELECTION SCHEME TO SUPPORT THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an episode selection and aggregation approach, designed to support distributional estimation of use with the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, is described. The approach utilized cluster analysis of the 700-hPa east-west and north-south...

  5. Monoculture of Leafcutter Ant Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Ulrich G.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Ishak, Heather D.; Cooper, Michael; Rodrigues, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Background Leafcutter ants depend on the cultivation of symbiotic Attamyces fungi for food, which are thought to be grown by the ants in single-strain, clonal monoculture throughout the hundreds to thousands of gardens within a leafcutter nest. Monoculture eliminates cultivar-cultivar competition that would select for competitive fungal traits that are detrimental to the ants, whereas polyculture of several fungi could increase nutritional diversity and disease resistance of genetically variable gardens. Methodology/Principal Findings Using three experimental approaches, we assessed cultivar diversity within nests of Atta leafcutter ants, which are most likely among all fungus-growing ants to cultivate distinct cultivar genotypes per nest because of the nests' enormous sizes (up to 5000 gardens) and extended lifespans (10–20 years). In Atta texana and in A. cephalotes, we resampled nests over a 5-year period to test for persistence of resident cultivar genotypes within each nest, and we tested for genetic differences between fungi from different nest sectors accessed through excavation. In A. texana, we also determined the number of Attamyces cells carried as a starter inoculum by a dispersing queens (minimally several thousand Attamyces cells), and we tested for genetic differences between Attamyces carried by sister queens dispersing from the same nest. Except for mutational variation arising during clonal Attamyces propagation, DNA fingerprinting revealed no evidence for fungal polyculture and no genotype turnover during the 5-year surveys. Conclusions/Significance Atta leafcutter ants can achieve stable, fungal monoculture over many years. Mutational variation emerging within an Attamyces monoculture could provide genetic diversity for symbiont choice (gardening biases of the ants favoring specific mutational variants), an analog of artificial selection. PMID:20844760

  6. Helping members of a community-based health insurance scheme access quality inpatient care through development of a preferred provider system in rural Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Ranson, M Kent; Sinha, Tara; Gandhi, Fenil; Jayswal, Rupal; Mills, Anne J

    2006-01-01

    We describe and analyse the experience of piloting a preferred provider system (PPS) for rural members of Vimo SEWA, a fixed-indemnity, community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme run by the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA). The objectives of the PPS were (i) to facilitate access to hospitalization by providing financial benefits at the time of service utilization; (ii) to shift the burden of compiling a claim away from members and towards Vimo SEWA staff; and (iii) to direct members to inpatient facilities of acceptable quality. The PPS was launched between August and October 2004, in 8 subdistricts covering 15,000 insured. The impact of the scheme was analysed using data from a household survey of claimants and qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The PPS appears to have been successful in terms of two of the three primary objectives--it has transferred much of the burden of compiling a health Insurance claim onto Vimo SEWA staff, and it has directed members to inpatient facilities with acceptable levels of technical quality (defined in terms of structural Indicators). However, even under the PPS, user fees pose a financial barrier, as the insured have to mobilize funds to cover the costs of medicines, supplies, registration fee, etc. before receipt of cash payment from Vimo SEWA. Other barriers to the success of the PPS were the geographic Inaccessibility of some of the selected hospitals, lack of awareness about the PPS among members and a variety of administrative problems. This pilot project provides useful lessons relating to strategic purchasing by CBHI schemes and, more broadly, managed care in India. In particular, the pragmatic approach taken to assessing hospitals and identifying preferred providers is likely to be useful elsewhere.

  7. The Force of Gardening: Investigating Children's Learning in a Food Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris

    2015-01-01

    School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…

  8. Multicultural School Gardens: Creating Engaging Garden Spaces in Learning about Language, Culture, and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Children's gardening programs have enjoyed increasing popularity in recent years. An Australian environmental education non-profit organization implemented a program, entitled Multicultural Schools Gardens, in disadvantaged (low-income) schools that used food gardening as a focus for implementing a culturally-focused environmental education…

  9. Environmental Education in Botanic Gardens: Exploring Brooklyn Botanic Garden's Project Green Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Susan Conlon; Hamilton, Susan L.; Bentley, Michael L.; Myrie, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn Botanic Garden's Project Green Reach (PGR) is a children's program that has offered garden-based youth education since 1990. PGR focuses on Grade K-8 students and teachers from local Title I schools who work in teams on garden and science projects. In this exploratory study, the authors used field observations, document analysis, and past…

  10. GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, HOUSE, AND OUTBUILDINGS FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, HOUSE, AND OUTBUILDINGS FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE. (DUPLICATE OF HALS NO. PA-1-23). - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE DISTANT HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS, FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, HOUSE, AND OUTBUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, HOUSE, AND OUTBUILDINGS FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that tracks ice saturation ratio in the clear-sky and cloudy portion of a grid box separately has been implemented into NCAR CAM5 to provide a consistent treatment of ice nucleation and cloud formation. Simulated ice supersaturation and ice crystal number concentrations strongly depend on the number concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), subgrid temperature formulas and the number concentration of sulfate particles participating in homogeneous freezing, while simulated ice water content is insensitive to these perturbations. 1% to 10% dust particles serving as heterogeneous IN is 20 found to produce ice supersaturaiton in better agreement with observations. Introducing a subgrid temperature perturbation based on long-term aircraft observations of meso-scale motion produces a better hemispheric contrast in ice supersaturation compared to observations. Heterogeneous IN from dust particles significantly alter the net radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) (-0.24 to -1.59 W m-2) with a significant clear-sky longwave component (0.01 to -0.55 W m-2). Different cirrus treatments significantly perturb the net TOA anthropogenic aerosol forcing from -1.21 W m-2 to -1.54 W m-2, with a standard deviation of 0.10 W m-2. Aerosol effects on cirrus clouds exert an even larger impact on the atmospheric component of the radiative fluxes (two or three times the changes in the TOA radiative fluxes) and therefore on the hydrology cycle through the fast atmosphere response. This points to the urgent need to quantify aerosol effects on cirrus clouds through ice nucleation and how these further affect the hydrological cycle.

  14. Healthy gardens/healthy lives: Navajo perceptions of growing food locally to prevent diabetes and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Kevin A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Ornelas, India J; Topaha, Carmelita; Becenti, Tonia; Thomas, Dustin; Vela, Jaime G

    2014-03-01

    Poor access to nutritious foods, departure from traditional diets, and reduced physical activity are associated with a rise in type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancers among the Navajo. Diabetes in particular is of concern because of its increased prevalence among Navajo youth. Gardening can successfully address issues of poor availability of fruits and vegetables and offer many other social and health benefits. Our assessment aimed to determine Navajo attitudes about gardening and health in San Juan County, New Mexico. We conducted seven focus groups (including 31 people) to assess knowledge and attitudes related to gardening and uncover barriers and facilitators to participation in a garden project. Each group session was moderated by two Navajo students. Transcripts revealed that many Navajo are aware of adverse health issues that occur on the reservation, predominantly obesity and diabetes. Participants expressed a preference for educational approaches that incorporated cultural traditions, respect for elders, use of visual aids, and experiential learning. Several social and agronomic barriers to gardening were also mentioned. Results suggested a broad interest in promoting gardening especially to reduce the risk of diabetes with the added value of enhancing social capital in Navajo communities.

  15. Healthy Gardens/Healthy Lives: Navajo perceptions of growing food locally to prevent diabetes and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Ornelas, India; Topaha, Carmelita; Becenti, Tonia; Thomas, Dustin; Vela, Jaime G.

    2013-01-01

    Poor access to nutritious foods, departure from traditional diets, and reduced physical activity are associated with a rise in type-2 diabetes and certain types of cancers among the Navajo. Diabetes in particular is of concern because of its increased prevalence among Navajo youth. Gardening can successfully address issues of poor availability of fruits and vegetables and offer many other social and health benefits. Our assessment aimed to determine Navajo attitudes about gardening and health in San Juan County, New Mexico. We conducted seven focus groups (including 31 people) to assess knowledge and attitudes related to gardening, and uncover barriers and facilitators to participation in a garden project. Each group session was moderated by two Navajo students. Transcripts revealed that many Navajo are aware of adverse health issues, predominantly obesity and diabetes, which occur on the reservation. Participants expressed a preference for educational approaches that incorporated cultural traditions, respect for elders, use of visual aids and experiential learning. Several social and agronomic barriers to gardening were also mentioned. Results suggested a broad interest in promoting gardening especially to reduce the risk of diabetes with the added value of enhancing social capital in Navajo communities. PMID:23855020

  16. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Moller, Isabel E; De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William G T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-03-10

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  17. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from “formal or geometric” to “informal or naturalistic,” which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration. PMID:26903899

  18. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens.

    PubMed

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  19. Exercise intensities of gardening tasks within older adult allotment gardeners in Wales.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Jemma L; Smith, Alexander; Backx, Karianne; Clayton, Deborah A

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that gardening activity could be an effective form of regular exercise for improving physical and psychological health in later life. However, there is a lack of data regarding the exercise intensities of various gardening tasks across different types of gardening and different populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise intensity of gardening activity for older adult allotment gardeners in Wales, United Kingdom following a similar procedure used in previous studies conducted in the United States and South Korea by Park and colleagues (2008a; 2011). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure for six gardening tasks were measured via indirect calorimetery using the portable Oxycon mobile device. From these measures, estimated metabolic equivalent units (METs) were calculated. Consistent with Park et al. (2008a; 2011) the six gardening tasks were classified as low to moderate-high intensity physical activities based on their metabolic values (1.9-5.7 METs).

  20. Scientific Literacy in Food Education: Gardening and Cooking in School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohl, Carrie A.

    Recent attention to socio-scientific issues such as sustainable agriculture, environmental responsibility and nutritional health has spurred a resurgence of public interest in gardening and cooking. Seen as contexts for fostering scientific literacy---the knowledge domains, methodological approaches, habits of mind and discourse practices that reflect one's understanding of the role of science in society, gardening and cooking are under-examined fields in science education, in part, because they are under-utilized pedagogies in school settings. Although learning gardens were used historically to foster many aspects of scientific literacy (e.g., cognitive knowledge, norms and methods of science, attitudes toward science and discourse of science), analysis of contemporary studies suggests that science learning in gardens focuses mainly on science knowledge alone. Using multiple conceptions of scientific literacy, I analyzed qualitative data to demonstrate how exploration, talk and text fostered scientific literacy in a school garden. Exploration prompted students to engage in scientific practices such as making observations and constructing explanations from evidence. Talk and text provided background knowledge and accurate information about agricultural, environmental and nutritional topics under study. Using a similar qualitative approach, I present a case study of a third grade teacher who explicitly taught food literacy through culinary arts instruction. Drawing on numerous contextual resources, this teacher created a classroom community of food practice through hands-on cooking lessons, guest chef demonstrations, and school-wide tasting events. As a result, she promoted six different types of knowledge (conceptual, procedural, dispositional, sensory, social, and communal) through leveraging contextual resources. This case study highlights how food literacy is largely contingent on often-overlooked mediators of food literacy: the relationships between

  1. Roots and Research in Urban School Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylie, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the urban school garden as a bridge between environmental action and thought. As a small-scale response to global issues around access to food and land, urban school gardens promote practical knowledge of farming as well as help renew cultural ideals of shared space and mutual support for the organic, built environment. Through…

  2. Competency-Based Horticulture: Gardening--Groundskeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program in gardening/groundskeeping. It contains a master resource list, a listing of gardening/groundskeeping resources available from various states, and 87 competency task sheets organized into 10…

  3. A Reference Unit on Home Vegetable Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, James S., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to provide practical, up-to-date, basic information on home gardening for vocational agriculture students with only a limited knowledge of vegetable gardening, this reference unit includes step-by-step procedures for planning, planting, cultivating, harvesting, and processing vegetables in a small plot. Topics covered include plot…

  4. Integrate the Arts. Monet's Garden Pops Up!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    This article outlines the steps in an art activity on the elements of landscapes and touches on the topic of perspective. In the activity students create three-dimensional secret gardens of their own out of construction paper. The activity is based on Claude Monet's painting and his garden in Giverny (Normandy, France). (SM)

  5. The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Cameron R.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

    1999-01-01

    Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites that are only known from attine gardens and that are found in most attine nests. These specialized garden parasites, belonging to the microfungus genus Escovopsis (Ascomycota: anamorphic Hypocreales), are horizontally transmitted between colonies. Consistent with theory of virulence evolution under this mode of pathogen transmission, Escovopsis is highly virulent and has the potential for rapid devastation of ant gardens, leading to colony mortality. The specialized parasite Escovopsis is more prevalent in gardens of the more derived ant lineages than in gardens of the more “primitive” (basal) ant lineages. Because fungal cultivars of derived attine lineages are asexual clones of apparently ancient origin whereas cultivars of primitive ant lineages were domesticated relatively recently from free-living sexual stocks, the increased virulence of pathogens associated with ancient asexual cultivars suggests an evolutionary cost to cultivar clonality, perhaps resulting from slower evolutionary rates of cultivars in the coevolutionary race with their pathogens. PMID:10393936

  6. Kitchen Gardens: Contexts for Developing Proportional Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2013-01-01

    It is great to see how the sharing of ideas sparks new ideas. In 2011 Lyon and Bragg wrote an "Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom" (APMC) article on the mathematics of kitchen gardens. In this article the authors show how the kitchen garden may be used as a starting point for proportional reasoning. The authors highlight different…

  7. "The Secret Garden": A Literary Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…

  8. Teaching through Trade Books: Growing a Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2008-01-01

    Many people look forward to planting their own garden and enjoying its fruitage throughout the summer months. Gardening can be an excellent learning experience in many ways because it offers opportunities to learn about plants and to observe changes over time. This column focuses on a long-term project of understanding plant growth and planting…

  9. School Food Gardens: Fertile Ground for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Moira; Adatia, Rachel; Segantin, Orsola; Skaer, Chantal-Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to respond to food insecurity and environmental sustainability through school food gardens in Johannesburg, South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Permaculture is a method of organic agriculture where the garden design maintains a stable and productive ecosystem, mimicking natural processes and thereby…

  10. Creating a Schoolyard Mini-Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ruiz, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    The creation of schoolyard gardens is a growing movement in the United States and around the world (Ballard, Tong, and Usher 1998; Pope 1998; Lewis 2004). It brings together all of the features of authentic hands-on science: Students can collect data on plant growth, observe the plant and animal interactions in the garden, and acquire a sense of…

  11. Growing Healing One Garden at a Time.

    PubMed

    Ashman, Julann

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists regarding the effect of horticultural therapy on improving human well-being, including promotion of overall health and quality of life, physical strength, and cardiac function. This article shares how a nurse created a healing garden at Lourdes Hospital, where she works. Resource information about therapeutic gardens is included.

  12. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: Rain Gardens

    EPA Science Inventory

    the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) rain garden evaluation is part of a larger collection of long-term research that evaluates a variety of stormwater management practices. The U.S. EPA recognizes the potential of rain gardens as a green infrastructure manag...

  13. Persistence of coral assemblages at East and West Flower Garden Banks, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Michelle A.; Embesi, John A.; Eckert, Ryan J.; Nuttall, Marissa F.; Hickerson, Emma L.; Schmahl, George P.

    2016-09-01

    Since 1989 a federally supported long-term coral reef monitoring program has focused on two study sites atop East and West Flower Garden Banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. We examined 25 yr of benthic cover data to provide a multi-decadal baseline and trend analysis of the community structure for this coral reef system. Despite global coral reef decline in recent decades, mean coral cover at East and West Flower Garden Banks was above 50% for the combined 25 yr of continuous monitoring, and represented a stable coral community. However, mean macroalgal cover increased significantly between 1998 and 1999, rising from approximately 3 to 20%, and reaching a maximum above 30% in 2012. In contrast to many other shallow water reefs in the Caribbean region, increases in mean macroalgal cover have not been concomitant with coral cover decline at the Flower Garden Banks.

  14. A seminar on gardens for the health of the skin.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Terence J; Matts, Paul J; Snyder, Brad; Orr, Vanya

    2014-05-01

    This is a report on a seminar held on January 12, 2013, at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Tanzania, sponsored by the International Society of Dermatology as part of its Taskforce Program for Skin Care for All: Community Dermatology. There were four themes: (i) Gardens attached to health centers increase their attractiveness and result in increased attendance and, thus, increase the utilization of effective skin care interventions. Literature on the positive effect of greenery surrounding health centers on health and the environment is reviewed. (ii) Adding an expert on agriculture to the staff of health centers in Rwanda has provided nutrition and safe medicines. (iii) In southern India, these interventions are channeled through the empowerment of tribal women in an area noted for anxiety due to unemployment in the tea and forestry industry. The gardens are used for teaching about nutrition and herbal medicines, and the women are further attracted by childcare facilities. (iv) Measuring barrier function defects gives early warning of malnutrition of the skin after damage by trauma or by ultraviolet radiation. Higher cost research techniques may help to provide the science required to produce its evidence base. In conclusion, Gardens for health should be adopted as policy by skin care providers.

  15. Evaluations of tropospheric aerosol properties simulated by the community earth system model with a sectional aerosol microphysics scheme.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengfei; Toon, Owen B; Bardeen, Charles G; Mills, Michael J; Fan, Tianyi; English, Jason M; Neely, Ryan R

    2015-06-01

    A sectional aerosol model (CARMA) has been developed and coupled with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Aerosol microphysics, radiative properties, and interactions with clouds are simulated in the size-resolving model. The model described here uses 20 particle size bins for each aerosol component including freshly nucleated sulfate particles, as well as mixed particles containing sulfate, primary organics, black carbon, dust, and sea salt. The model also includes five types of bulk secondary organic aerosols with four volatility bins. The overall cost of CESM1-CARMA is approximately ∼2.6 times as much computer time as the standard three-mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1-MAM3) and twice as much computer time as the seven-mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1-MAM7) using similar gas phase chemistry codes. Aerosol spatial-temporal distributions are simulated and compared with a large set of observations from satellites, ground-based measurements, and airborne field campaigns. Simulated annual average aerosol optical depths are lower than MODIS/MISR satellite observations and AERONET observations by ∼32%. This difference is within the uncertainty of the satellite observations. CESM1/CARMA reproduces sulfate aerosol mass within 8%, organic aerosol mass within 20%, and black carbon aerosol mass within 50% compared with a multiyear average of the IMPROVE/EPA data over United States, but differences vary considerably at individual locations. Other data sets show similar levels of comparison with model simulations. The model suggests that in addition to sulfate, organic aerosols also significantly contribute to aerosol mass in the tropical UTLS, which is consistent with limited data.

  16. Evaluations of tropospheric aerosol properties simulated by the community earth system model with a sectional aerosol microphysics scheme

    PubMed Central

    Toon, Owen B.; Bardeen, Charles G.; Mills, Michael J.; Fan, Tianyi; English, Jason M.; Neely, Ryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A sectional aerosol model (CARMA) has been developed and coupled with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Aerosol microphysics, radiative properties, and interactions with clouds are simulated in the size‐resolving model. The model described here uses 20 particle size bins for each aerosol component including freshly nucleated sulfate particles, as well as mixed particles containing sulfate, primary organics, black carbon, dust, and sea salt. The model also includes five types of bulk secondary organic aerosols with four volatility bins. The overall cost of CESM1‐CARMA is approximately ∼2.6 times as much computer time as the standard three‐mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1‐MAM3) and twice as much computer time as the seven‐mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1‐MAM7) using similar gas phase chemistry codes. Aerosol spatial‐temporal distributions are simulated and compared with a large set of observations from satellites, ground‐based measurements, and airborne field campaigns. Simulated annual average aerosol optical depths are lower than MODIS/MISR satellite observations and AERONET observations by ∼32%. This difference is within the uncertainty of the satellite observations. CESM1/CARMA reproduces sulfate aerosol mass within 8%, organic aerosol mass within 20%, and black carbon aerosol mass within 50% compared with a multiyear average of the IMPROVE/EPA data over United States, but differences vary considerably at individual locations. Other data sets show similar levels of comparison with model simulations. The model suggests that in addition to sulfate, organic aerosols also significantly contribute to aerosol mass in the tropical UTLS, which is consistent with limited data. PMID:27668039

  17. Efficient Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Savannah Gardens

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-15

    The Savannah Housing Department is leading sustainable and affordable housing development in Georgia. It partnered with Southface Energy Institute, a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team, to seek cost-effective solutions for increasing the energy efficiency of the Savannah Housing Department’s standard single-family home plans in the Savannah Gardens Community. Based on engineering, cost, and constructability analyses, the combined research team chose to pilot two technologies to evaluate efficiency and comfort impacts for homeowners: a heat-pump water heater in an encapsulated attic and an insulated exterior wall sheathing.

  18. Grow Science Achievement in Your Library with School Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Bonnie; Stewart, Jeniffer Mackey

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, gardens have been blossoming in schools all across the United States. These gardens are as varied as their schools and are as unique as each child who tends to them. Some are bountiful vegetable gardens, and others are arid natural habitat gardens. Some are acres of land with entire classes devoted to their teachings…

  19. Use of Demonstration Gardens in Extension: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Charlotte D.; Moore, Gary E.; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Bradley, Lucy K.

    2014-01-01

    Extension agents' use of demonstration gardens was studied to determine how gardens are employed in horticultural programming, perceived benefits and challenges of using gardens for Extension programming, and desired competencies. Gardens are primarily used to enhance educational efforts by providing hands-on learning experiences. Greatest…

  20. Reaching for the Arts in Unexpected Places: Public Pedagogy in the Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelosi, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    What constitutes public pedagogy? The term is broad and can be applied in so many situations and settings to the learning that occurs outside of formal schooling. In this article, the author explores how a community event--a painting competition held in a Melbourne suburb's botanic gardens--constitutes public pedagogy. The event centres on…

  1. Promoting health and development in detroit through gardens and urban agriculture.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ashley E

    2012-12-01

    The city's community gardens today supply just 2 percent of the fruit and vegetables consumed locally. Ashley Atkinson aims for "food sovereignty"-the day when most of the fresh fruits and vegetables that city residents eat are also grown there.

  2. "Our Garden Is Colour Blind, Inclusive and Warm": Reflections on Green School Grounds and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Janet E.; Bell, Anne C.

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing children's environments, communities around the world are "greening" school grounds, replacing asphalt and manicured grass with a diversity of design elements such as trees, shrubs, gardens, water features, artwork and gathering areas. Despite a growing body of research from a number of disciplines exploring…

  3. Immigrant Latinos and Resident Mexican Americans in Garden City, Kansas: Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campa, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Mexican-American community in Garden City, Kansas, and its relations with the immigrant Latino employees of a local beef plant. Observes that the former have become mainstream, whereas the immigrants are more apt to associate with Asian American coworkers. (DM)

  4. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  5. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress.

    PubMed

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E; Custers, Mariëtte H G

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-reported mood were repeatedly measured. Gardening and reading each led to decreases in cortisol during the recovery period, but decreases were significantly stronger in the gardening group. Positive mood was fully restored after gardening, but further deteriorated during reading. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that gardening can promote relief from acute stress.

  6. Creating relevant science through urban planning and gardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Dana

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a community-based science project that was coproduced with urban teenagers and to elaborate on my understanding of what it means to create a practicing culture of science learning. This understanding will be positioned in relation to various educationally relevant discourses and research on urban science education, concluding with an exploration of these questions: In what ways did an urban planning and community gardening project help to create a learning environment in which science was relevant? To whom was science relevant and toward what ends? It is argued that in a practicing culture of science learning, science was relevant because (a) it was created from participants' concerns, interests, and experiences inside and outside science, (b) it was an ongoing process of researching and then enacting ideas, and (c) it was situated within the broader community.

  7. Our friendship gardens: healing our mother, ourselves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Madhu Suri

    2015-03-01

    Embracing the best ideals of Victory Gardens, this essay celebrates Friendship Gardens. The latter go further: collapsing the dualisms separating victors from losers. Friendships that transcend differences and honor diversity are among the many fruits and organic gifts harvested and shared in the commons created by Friendship Gardens. This essay shares the hope of transforming enemies into friends and neighbors. It also joins many millions whose dreams are already taking flight while getting grounded: seeking to transform all our toxic lawnscapes into foodscapes; ending the dis-ease of billions going to bed starving amidst the mountains of food wasted for growing Wall Street profits in the twenty first century.

  8. Sojourner Sits Near Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Rover Sojourner is images by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder as it nears the rock 'Wedge.' Part of the Rock Garden is visible in the upper right of the image.

    Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over the next ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  9. Sojourner near the Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Sojourner rover was taken near the end of daytime operations on Sol 42. The rover is between the rocks 'Wedge' (left) and 'Flute Top' (right). Other rocks visible include 'Flat Top' (behind Flute Top) and those in the Rock Garden, at the top of the frame. The cylindrical object extending from the back end of Sojourner is the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  10. Urban domestic gardens (XIV): the characteristics of gardens in five cities.

    PubMed

    Loram, Alison; Warren, Philip H; Gaston, Kevin J

    2008-09-01

    Domestic gardens make substantial contributions to the provision of green space in urban areas. However, the ecological functions provided by such gardens depend critically on their configuration and composition. Here, we present the first detailed analysis of variation in the composition of urban gardens, in relation to housing characteristics and the nature of the surrounding landscape, across different cities in the United Kingdom. In all five cities studied (Belfast, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Leicester, and Oxford), garden size had an overwhelming influence on garden composition. Larger gardens supported more of the land-use types recorded, in greater extents, and were more likely to contain particular features, including tall trees and mature shrubs, areas of unmown grass and uncultivated land, vegetable patches, ponds, and composting sites. The proportional contribution of non-vegetated land-uses decreased as garden area increased. House age was less significant in determining the land-use within gardens, although older houses, which were more likely to be found further from the urban edge of the city, contained fewer hedges and greater areas of vegetation canopy >2 m in height. Current UK government planning recommendations will ultimately reduce the area of individual gardens and are thus predicted to result in fewer tall trees and, in particular, less vegetation canopy >2 m. This might be detrimental from ecological, aesthetic, social, and economic stand points.

  11. Urban gardens: Lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Heather F. Hausladen, Debra M.; Brabander, Daniel J.

    2008-07-15

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 {mu}g/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150{+-}40 {mu}g/g to an average of 336 {mu}g/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 {mu}m) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 {mu}m) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.

  12. Urban gardens: lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heather F; Hausladen, Debra M; Brabander, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 microg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150+/-40 microg/g to an average of 336 microg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 microm) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 microm) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.

  13. Home gardening near a mining site in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona: assessing arsenic exposure dose and risk via ingestion of home garden vegetables, soils, and water.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M

    2013-06-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near a legacy mine and smelter in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their home gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water>garden soils>homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener's daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10(-8) to 10(-4), 10(-6) to 10(-4), and 10(-5) to 10(-2), respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae≫Fabaceae>Amaranthaceae>Liliaceae>Brassicaceae>Solanaceae≫Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10(-6). The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg(-1), 5.39 mg kg(-1), 11.6 mg kg(-1) and 12.4 mg kg(-1) for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities.

  14. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  15. GARDENS OF EDEN OF ELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATA.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Chen, W. Y. C.; Reidys, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    Using de Bruijn graphs, we give a characterization of elementary cellular automata on the linear lattice that do not have any Gardens of Eden. It turns out that one can easily recoginze a CA that does not have any Gardens of Eden by looking at its de Bruijn graph. We also present a sufficient condition for the set of words accepted by a CA not to constitute a finite-complement language.

  16. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  17. Sources, sinks, and exposure pathways of lead in urban garden soil.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heather F; Brabander, Daniel J; Erdil, Rachel M

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry of Pb in urban soil must be understood in order to limit human exposure to Pb in soil and produce and to implement remediation schemes. In inner-city gardens where Pb contamination is prevalent and financial resources are limited, it is critical to identify the variables that control Pb bioavailability. Field-portable X-ray fluorescence was used to measure Pb in 103 urban gardens in Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, and 88% were found to contain Pb above the USEPA reportable limit of 400 mug g(-1). Phosphorus, iron, loss on ignition, and pH data were collected, Pb-bearing phases were identified by X-ray diffraction, and Pb isotopes were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Four test crops were grown both in situ and in Roxbury soil in a greenhouse, and plant tissue was analyzed for Pb uptake by polarized energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Variation at the neighborhood scale in soil mineralogical and chemical characteristics suggests that the bioavailable fraction of Pb in gardens is site specific. Based on Pb isotope analysis, two historical Pb sources appear to dominate the inventory of Pb in Roxbury gardens: leaded gasoline ((207) Pb/(206) Pb = 0.827) and Pb-based paint ((207)Pb/(206) Pb = 0.867). Nearly 70% of the samples analyzed can be isotopically described by mixing these two end members, with Pb-based paint contributing 40 to 80% of the mass balance. A simplified urban human exposure model suggests that the consumption of produce from urban gardens is equivalent to approximately 10 to 25% of children's daily exposure from tap water. Furthermore, analysis of over 60 samples of plant tissue from the four test species suggests that in these urban gardens unamended phytoremediation is an inadequate tool for decreasing soil Pb.

  18. Abundance and dynamics of filamentous fungi in the complex ambrosia gardens of the primitively eusocial beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael; Six, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    Insect fungus gardens consist of a community of interacting microorganisms that can have either beneficial or detrimental effects to the farmers. In contrast to fungus-farming ants and termites, the fungal communities of ambrosia beetles and the effects of particular fungal species on the farmers are largely unknown. Here, we used a laboratory rearing technique for studying the filamentous fungal garden community of the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii, which cultivates fungi in tunnels excavated within dead trees. Raffaelea sulfurea and Fusicolla acetilerea were transmitted in spore-carrying organs by gallery founding females and established first in new gardens. Raffaelea sulfurea had positive effects on egg-laying and larval numbers. Over time, four other fungal species emerged in the gardens. Prevalence of one of them, Paecilomyces variotii, correlated negatively with larval numbers and can be harmful to adults by forming biofilms on their bodies. It also comprised the main portion of garden material removed from galleries by adults. Our data suggest that two mutualistic, several commensalistic and one to two pathogenic filamentous fungi are associated with X. saxesenii. Fungal diversity in gardens of ambrosia beetles appears to be much lower than that in gardens of fungus-culturing ants, which seems to result from essential differences in substrates and behaviours.

  19. An Exploration of Gardens in Maycoba, Mexico: Change in the Environment of a Population Genetically Prone to Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Begay, R. Cruz; Chaudhari, Lisa S.; Esparza-Romero, Julian; Romero, Rene Urquidez; Schulz, Leslie O.

    2013-01-01

    Gardens are an important part of the environment as they play multiple roles and are central to the lifestyle and economy of many communities. The investigators use qualitative methods to explore patterns and perceptions about changes in gardening and cultivation in the community of Maycoba, Mexico. Maycoba is home to a large community of Pima Indians, an Indigenous population genetically prone to diabetes. Pima Indians living in the United States have been shown to have an extremely high prevalence of diabetes, but the genetically comparable Pimas in Maycoba, Mexico, were found to have little diabetes in the early 1990s. The authors examine home gardens and other cultivation in the area as an element of a changing environment and lifestyle during the past 15 years. Methods include interviews and focus groups. Preliminary findings are presented in this paper. PMID:25364623

  20. An Exploration of Gardens in Maycoba, Mexico: Change in the Environment of a Population Genetically Prone to Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Begay, R Cruz; Chaudhari, Lisa S; Esparza-Romero, Julian; Romero, Rene Urquidez; Schulz, Leslie O

    2011-03-01

    Gardens are an important part of the environment as they play multiple roles and are central to the lifestyle and economy of many communities. The investigators use qualitative methods to explore patterns and perceptions about changes in gardening and cultivation in the community of Maycoba, Mexico. Maycoba is home to a large community of Pima Indians, an Indigenous population genetically prone to diabetes. Pima Indians living in the United States have been shown to have an extremely high prevalence of diabetes, but the genetically comparable Pimas in Maycoba, Mexico, were found to have little diabetes in the early 1990s. The authors examine home gardens and other cultivation in the area as an element of a changing environment and lifestyle during the past 15 years. Methods include interviews and focus groups. Preliminary findings are presented in this paper.

  1. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  2. A strategy for the survey of urban garden soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, C.; Chenot, E. D.; Cortet, J.; Douay, F.; Dumat, C.; Pernin, C.; Pourrut, B.

    2012-04-01

    In France and all over the world, there is no systematic data available on the quality (fertility and contamination) of garden soils. Nevertheless, there is a growing need for a typology and for a method dedicated to national and international garden soil survey. This inventory is much needed in the context of environmental risk assessment, to predict the potential impact on human health of the direct contact with garden soils and of the consumption of vegetables from gardens. The state of the art on the international knowledge on garden soils, gardening practices and food production, shows that gardens remain poorly known and very complex ecological, economical and social systems. Their global quality is the result of a wide number of factors including environment, history, specific characteristics of the gardens, gardeners and their practices, plant and/or animal productions and socio-economic context. The aim is then to better know the determinism of the agronomic, environmental and sanitary properties of gardens as a function of gardening practices and their impact on the quality of soils and plants. We propose a definition of "garden" and more generally of all the field "garden". The system "garden" is represented by attributes (soil and plant characteristics) and factors with various impacts (e.g. environment > soil parent material > former land uses > age and sex of gardener > gardening practices > socio-professional group > type and proportion of productions > climate > age of the garden > size of the garden > education, information > cultural origin > functions of the garden > regulations). A typology of gardens including 7 selected factors and associated categories and a method for describing, sampling and characterizing a population of gardens representative (for a country) are proposed. Based on the statistical analysis on regional databases, we have determined and proposed an optimum size for the collected population of garden soils. The discussion of

  3. [Healing gardens: recommendations and criteria for design].

    PubMed

    Rivasseau-Jonveaux, Thérèse; Pop, Alina; Fescharek, Reinhard; Chuzeville, Stanislas Bah; Jacob, Christel; Demarche, Laëtitia; Soulon, Laure; Malerba, Gabriel

    2012-09-01

    The French Alzheimer plan anticipates new specialized structures for cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-behavioural therapy of Alzheimer's patients: the cognitive-behavioural units as follow-care units, the units of reinforced hospitalization inside the long term care units and the adapted activities units. this plan indicates the need to make healing gardens integral parts of these units. The benefits of green space in urban environments has been demonstrated with regards to physical, psychological and sociological effects and similarly studies in hospitals have revealed objective and measurable improvements of patients well being. Although green spaces and gardens are available in many French care units, they are rarely specifically adapted to the needs of Alzheimer's patients. For the garden "art, memory and life" a specific concept guided by a neuropsychological approach was developed, complemented by an artistic vision based on cultural invariants. It is already used in the frame of non-pharmacological therapies to improve symptoms such as deambulation, sleep disorders, apathy and aggressive behaviors. Based on the literature, and our experience and research, recommendations for the design of such gardens dedicated to Alzheimer's patients can be proposed. Beyond taking into account obvious aspects relating to security, allowing for free access, a careful design of walk-ways and a conscious choice of plants is needed. A systematic analysis of the existing green spaces or garden must be conducted in order to pinpoint the weakness of the space and identify the potential for developing it into a real healing garden. Evaluation of adapted questionnaires for users and professionals allow to establish a list of requirements combining both user requests and therapeutic needs as basis for the design of the garden as well as to evaluate during the course of the project, whether the needs of the various stakeholders have been met or if adjustments are necessary.

  4. A New Two-Moment Bulk Stratiform Cloud Microphysics Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 3 (CAM3). Part II: Single-Column and Global Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gettelman, A.; Morrison, H.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2008-08-11

    The global performance of a new 2-moment cloud microphysics scheme for a General Circulation Model (GCM) is presented and evaluated relative to observations. The scheme produces reasonable representations of cloud particle size and number concentration when compared to observations, and represents expected and observed spatial variations in cloud microphysical quantities. The scheme has smaller particles and higher number concentrations over land than the standard bulk microphysics in the GCM, and is able to balance the radiation budget of the planet with 60% the liquid water of the standard scheme, in better agreement with observations. The new scheme treats both the mixing ratio and number concentration of rain and snow, and is therefore able to differentiate the two key regimes, consisting of drizzle in shallow warm clouds and larger rain drops in deeper cloud systems. The modeled rain and snow size distributions are consistent with observations.

  5. Summertime in an American apothecary garden.

    PubMed

    Benischek, Rita

    2009-01-01

    During the mid-15th century and into the 16th and 17th centuries, bound copies or herbals emerged in Europe as part of classical educations. From the records by medieval monks, Greek texts, Islamic records, German herbals, and books of French remedies, a translation into English was printed in 1577. Garden designs and herbals provided guidance about planting artistically and elaborately, which provided Europeans an opportunity to develop awareness about medical and botanical investigation. Members of the healing professions recognized that accurate plant identification from medicinal gardens was essential for the sick to be consistently treated. From medicinals in the New World and specimens imported by explorers, the medicinal garden, with accompanying collection and dispensing notes, emerged in Colonial America. In 2005, a contemporary American demonstration apothecary garden was established in conjunction with the Oklahoma Pharmacy Museum located in Guthrie, Oklahoma. The project was sponsored by the Foundation of the Oklahoma Pharmaceutical Association and citizens of the Historic District of Guthrie, so desginated by the U.S. Department of the Interior. This article reviews the structure, landscaping, and plantings of a newly designed apothecary garden.

  6. Home Gardening Near a Mining Site in an Arsenic-Endemic Region of Arizona: Assessing Arsenic Exposure Dose and Risk via Ingestion of Home Garden Vegetables, Soils, and Water

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund Site in Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common household vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their household gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water > garden soils > homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener’s daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10−8 to 10−4, 10−6 to 10−4, and 10−5 to 10−2, respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae >> Fabaceae > Amaranthaceae > Liliaceae > Brassicaceae > Solanaceae >> Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10−6. The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg−1, 5.39 mg kg−1, 11.6 mg kg−1 and 12.4 mg kg−1 for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities. PMID:23562690

  7. Environment, from east, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environment, from east, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennets Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  8. Environment, from west, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environment, from west, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnermahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  9. Enviroment, from north, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Enviroment, from north, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  10. Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  11. Fostering science literacy, environmental stewardship, and collaboration: Assessing a garden-based approach to teaching life science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher-Maltese, Carley B.

    Recently, schools nationwide have expressed a renewed interest in school gardens (California School Garden Network, 2010), viewing them as innovative educational tools. Most of the scant studies on these settings investigate the health/nutritional impacts, environmental attitudes, or emotional dispositions of students. However, few studies examine the science learning potential of a school garden from an informal learning perspective. Those studies that do examine learning emphasize individual learning of traditional school content (math, science, etc.) (Blaire, 2009; Dirks & Orvis, 2005; Klemmer, Waliczek & Zajicek, 2005a & b; Smith & Mostenbocker, 2005). My study sought to demonstrate the value of school garden learning through a focus on measures of learning typically associated with traditional learning environments, as well as informal learning environments. Grounded in situated, experiential, and contextual model of learning theories, the purpose of this case study was to examine the impacts of a school garden program at a K-3 elementary school. Results from pre/post tests, pre/post surveys, interviews, recorded student conversations, and student work reveal a number of affordances, including science learning, cross-curricular lessons in an authentic setting, a sense of school community, and positive shifts in attitude toward nature and working collaboratively with other students. I also analyzed this garden-based unit as a type curriculum reform in one school in an effort to explore issues of implementing effective practices in schools. Facilitators and barriers to implementing a garden-based science curriculum at a K-3 elementary school are discussed. Participants reported a number of implementation processes necessary for success: leadership, vision, and material, human, and social resources. However, in spite of facilitators, teachers reported barriers to implementing the garden-based curriculum, specifically lack of time and content knowledge.

  12. Growing or connecting? An urban food garden in Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Wills, Jane; Chinemana, Frances; Rudolph, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Issues of food security are of particular importance in urban areas in Africa and government policy advises on the household growing of vegetables for nutrition. The Siyakhana project is a food garden in the centre of Johannesburg which was established by a University Health Promotion Unit with the support of other stakeholders including the City authorities and a permaculture organization. It was set up with the objective of providing food for children attending early-childhood development centres and for the beneficiaries of non-governmental organizations providing home-based care for people living with HIV/AIDS. One year after start-up, an evaluation was conducted, based on the measures of outcome identified as significant by those involved in the project. Its impact on health is not yet measurable, but as the amounts of fruits and vegetables available and consumed in South Africa are low compared with WHO recommendations, it is a useful addition to food security in an urban area. Mobilizing around the food garden supported bonding among homogenous but separate third-sector organizations, through increased opportunities for networking which built trust, reciprocity and resource exchange. The project also provides a model for a community-university partnership providing opportunities for service learning by students and for social investment by the university.

  13. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  14. 53. View from the southwest lawn toward the terrace gardens, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. View from the southwest lawn toward the terrace gardens, illustrating the grading required to create the terraces. The view includes the flower garden at the fountain terrace, the rock garden, greenhouse and Belvedere. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  15. 9. View from the terrace gardens east to the mansion, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View from the terrace gardens east to the mansion, illustrating the elevation changes created by terracing. View includes the rock garden and flower garden at the fountain terrace. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  16. 52. View from the terrace gardens east to the mansion, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from the terrace gardens east to the mansion, illustrating the elevation changes created by terracing. View includes the rock garden and the flower garden at the fountain terrace. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  17. 11. View from the southwest lawn toward the terrace gardens, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View from the southwest lawn toward the terrace gardens, illustrating the grading required to create the terraces. The view includes the flower garden at the fountain terrace, the rock garden, greenhouse and Belvedere. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  18. School Gardens: Teaching and Learning outside the Front Door

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passy, Rowena

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on two projects: one that investigated the impact of school gardens on primary children's learning and one that is currently exploring the pedagogies involved in teaching children in the garden. The evidence presented suggests that school gardens can be an interesting and effective way of engaging children with learning, but…

  19. Beyond the Bean Seed: Gardening Activities for Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurenka, Nancy Allen; Blass, Rosanne J.

    This book aims at connecting gardening with literacy and children's literature and is designed for adults who work with children including classroom teachers, horticulturists, arboretum and botanical garden educational directors, librarians, garden center teachers, and camp counselors. It provides ideas for using children's books, language arts,…

  20. Meat Processing and Garden City, KS: Boom and Bust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadway, Michael J.; Stull, Donald D.

    2006-01-01

    In December 1980, the world's largest beef processing plant opened 10 miles west of Garden City, KS. Three years later another beef plant opened on Garden City's eastern edge. Full employment in the surrounding region meant that most of the 4000 workers needed to run these plants had to come from elsewhere--and they did. Garden City grew by…

  1. Elementary School Garden Programs Enhance Science Education for All Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.; Selmer, Sarah J.; Pennington, Sara; Vanhorn, Laura; Fox, Sarah; Kane, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A national movement is underway to establish elementary school gardens, which can serve both academic and social purposes. These gardens can positively impact students' science achievement and provide the thematic and hands-on approach especially conducive to learning for students with disabilities. Garden-based learning (GBL) broadens the scope…

  2. Discovery Garden--Physics and Architecture Meet Outside to Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor-Morris, Anne; Briles, Timothy; Froriep, Kathleen; McGuire, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Georgian Court University's "Discovery Garden" is to create an experience of the physical sciences for students, both science and non-science majors, in a place of serenity: an outdoor garden. Why a garden? Consider that the traditional laboratory experience for students is one of stark rooms ventilated with noisy hoods…

  3. Weed Garden: An Effective Tool for Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Leslie; Patton, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A weed garden was constructed to quantify and improve identification skills among clientele. The garden was planted with over 100 weed species based on surveys on problematic weeds. The weed garden proved useful for introducing additional hands-on learning activities into traditional lecture-based seminars. Through seminar and field day attendee…

  4. Hollyhocks and Honeybees: Garden Projects for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Marla; Midden, Karen

    Children are drawn to nature and the outdoors. This guide details the inclusion of gardening in the preschool curriculum at a university child development program in Illinois. Chapter 1 of the book, "Why Garden?" details the benefits of gardening for young children, describes the project approach used, discusses the role of the teacher,…

  5. The Effects of Rain Garden Size on Performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discusses the effect of rain garden size on the hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of rain garden systems. The slides will summarize data from both the full-scale rain garden project associated with the permeable pavement parking lot as well as the pilo...

  6. Master Gardener-Led Lessons Increase Knowledge in Gardening and Environmental Science for Iowa Summer Camp Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Bruce J.; Haynes, Cynthia; Schrock, Denny; Duerfeldt, Kevin; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Gardening and nutrition lessons for children can affect knowledge, actions, and behaviors that support more healthful lifestyles. The objective of the study described in this article was to determine the effectiveness of a master gardener--led education program for youth at a week-long summer camp in Iowa. Garden knowledge was assessed via a…

  7. [Genetic diversity of ancient tea gardens and tableland tea gardens from Yunnan Province as revealed by AFLP marker].

    PubMed

    Ji, Peng-Zhang; Jiang, Hui-Bing; Huang, Xing-Qi; Zhang, Jun; Liang, Min-Zhi; Wang, Ping-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity within and among the plants of four ancient tea gardens and two tableland tea gardens form Yunnan Province, China by AFLP technique. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the plants from six tea gardens was 92.31%. The genetic diversity within the six gardens demonstrated by Nei cents genetic diversity (He) was estimated to be 0.1366, while Shannon indices (Ho) were 0.2323. The percentage of polymorphic loci of the four ancient tea populations was 45.55% on average, with a range of 36.44% (Mengsong) to 59.11% (Mengla). But the percentages of polymorphic loci of the plants from two tableland gardens were 13.77% (Yunkang 10) and 24.2% (Menghai Daye), respectively. There was a great genetic difference between ancient tea gardens and tableland tea gardens. The genetic diversity among the plants of the ancient tea garden was higher than those of the sexual tableland tea garden and the clone tableland tea garden based on P valve. The four ancient tea gardens and two tableland gardens could be differentiated with AFLP markers. The results show that AFLP marker is an effective tool in the discrimination of tea germplasm, as well as sundried green tea.

  8. Every Nursery Needs a Garden: A Step-by-Step Guide to Creating and Using a Garden with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ann

    2011-01-01

    A garden can be a magical place for young children and offers them rich and engaging learning experiences as they interact with a variety of plants and wildlife throughout the year. This book guides you through the process of creating a garden, however small, for young children. It looks at the impact a garden area can have on children's overall…

  9. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  10. Creating a Garden for the Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Almost everyone enjoys a walk through a garden, bending to sniff a flower, enjoying a fresh air breeze, listening to water bubbling from a fountain, and watching sunlight dapple through trees and plants. At Allegheny Valley School (AVS), the emphasis on multisensory environments (MSE) for individuals with intellectual and developmental…

  11. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  12. Life on Guam: Farm & Garden. 1977 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Philip H.

    As part of an updated series of activity oriented educational materials dealing with aspects of the Guam environment, this publication focuses on backyard gardening and nursery methods. Included in this "How to Do It" learning resource are such agricultural techniques as hydroponics, grafting and budding, and fertilizing. This…

  13. Competency-Based Horticulture. Gardening/Groundskeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    One of two competency-based horticulture curriculum guides developed by an Illinois project, this Gardening/Groundskeeping guide provides the classroom teacher with specific tasks determined by state industry personnel to be necessary for entry-level job placement. It is intended for horticulture education at the senior high school and two-year…

  14. Students Dig for Real School Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Lacey; Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2010-01-01

    There's a lot of talk about saving the environment and going green these days. But the challenge is to turn the words into action, and that includes getting young students to become part of the discussion about sustainability. The Texas-based Rainwater Environmental Alliance for Learning (REAL) School Gardens is cultivating success by providing…

  15. How Does Your Organic Garden Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reemer, Rita, Ed.

    A complete organic gardening cycle--from soil composition to harvesting--can be conducted using the 14 activities suggested in this teacher's guide. Background information, questions for discussion, and related activities are presented for each step in the process. The activities, useful for elementary grade students, are titled: Starting the…

  16. Extension Gets Help from "Master Gardeners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Earl J.

    1973-01-01

    More than 150 citizens, after studying under Washington State University Extension personnel and passing an examination administered by the State Department of Agriculture, find satisfaction in spending a few hours a week during the growing season in areas of heavy public traffic to answer questions from backyard gardeners and urban homeowners.…

  17. The Early Years: An Invertebrate Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    For farmers and gardeners, slugs and snails may be serious pests that will limit the amount of harvest, but for a child, they represent a world to be explored. To teachers, however, invertebrates are tools for broadening students' understanding about animals, the connections between animals and habitats or plants, and an engaging subject to write…

  18. Promoting nitrate removal in rain gardens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens are vegetated surface depressions, often located at low points in landscapes, designed to receive stormwater runoff from roads, roofs, and parking lots. The gardens’ sandy soils allow stormwater to drain quickly to the native soils below and eventually to groundwate...

  19. Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Joyce M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the range of services offered by the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens reference library, and discusses the concept of zoos as societal entities and future trends in their information requirements. A bibliography of 20 articles on library and information services in zoos and aquariums is included. (17 references) (Author/CLB)

  20. Garden walking for depression: a research report.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Hanson, Claire; McCaffrey, William

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of garden walking and reflective journaling on adults who are 65 years old and older with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depression. Four themes emerged from the interview data collected from each participant.

  1. Garden Grove's Newsy Web Site Wins Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article details the construction and content of the Garden Grove (CA) High School Web site. The site wins the January 2009 "Tech Directions" Web Site of the Month. It provides information on the school's academic programs, administrative and teaching staff, guidance department, and athletics and other extracurricular activities, in addition…

  2. [An integrative model of the psychological benefits of gardening in older adults].

    PubMed

    Tournier, Isabelle; Postal, Virginie

    2014-12-01

    This review of the literature tackles the question of the psychological benefits linked to gardening in older adults. First, the current data on these benefits are reviewed, and the findings reveal that gardening is linked to feelings of accomplishment, well-being and peace, a decrease of depressive symptoms, a protective effect on cognitive functions as well as to the development of social links for community living older adults. In institutionalized older adults, gardening promotes internal locus of control and well-being, and is related to a decrease of sadness and anxiety. Second, several explanatory theories are discussed. All of them postulate an action on the cognitive and/or emotional spheres, which were included into a integrated model that must be tested in future research. In conclusion, gardening appears to be a beneficial activity for promoting older adults' functioning but the current knowledge still has to be extended to understand the specific mechanisms of action. This deeper understanding is necessary in order to improve the future actions depending on this activity.

  3. Reflections on a Research Career: Perspective on 35 Years of Research at the Juniper Gardens Children's Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on the motivating conditions, goals, works, and aspirations of the Juniper Gardens Children's Project (JGCP). The JGCP was established in 1964 to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty of a 10-square-mile urban area in Kansas City, Kansas, by improving developmental and educational experiences within the community. (CR)

  4. Evaluating the Feasibility of a Gardening and Nutrition Intervention with a Matched Contact-Control Physical Activity Intervention Targeting Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Ramine; Hill, Jennie; Grier, Karissa; MacAuley, Lorien; McKenzie, Alisa; Totten, Tadashi; Porter, Kathleen; Zoellner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The study reported here involved Cooperative Extension as a key research partner and was guided by a community-based participatory research approach and a feasibility study framework. The research objective was to assess four indicators of feasibility (i.e., acceptability, demand, implementation, and limited-effectiveness) of a gardening and…

  5. Nutrition Improvement through Mixed Gardening in the Humid Tropics. A Trainer's Manual. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Paul

    This manual is designed to provide Peace Corps trainers with suggested guidelines on the presentation of a nutrition-oriented household food production training program to community-level field workers. The manual describes and discusses simple, low-cost, local resources that may be available to the community. When applied through a home garden,…

  6. When Vacant Lots Become Urban Gardens: Characterizing the Perceived and Actual Food Safety Concerns of Urban Agriculture in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Michelle L; Williams, Michele L; Basta, Nicholas; Hand, Michelle; Huber, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This study was intended to characterize the perceived risks of urban agriculture by residents of four low-income neighborhoods in which the potential exists for further urban agriculture development and to provide data to support whether any chemical hazards and foodborne pathogens as potential food safety hazards were present. Sixty-seven residents participated in focus groups related to environmental health, food security, and urban gardening. In addition, soils from six locations were tested. Residents expressed interest in the development of urban gardens to improve access to healthy, fresh produce, but they had concerns about soil quality. Soils were contaminated with lead (Pb), zinc, cadmium (Cd), and copper, but not arsenic or chromium. Results from our study suggest paint was the main source of soil contamination. Detectable polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in urban soils were well below levels of concern. These urban soils will require further management to reduce Pb and possibly Cd bioavailability to decrease the potential for uptake into food crops. Although the number of locations in this study is limited, results suggest lower levels of soil contaminants at well-established gardens. Soil tillage associated with long-term gardening could have diluted the soil metal contaminants by mixing the contaminants with clean soil. Also, lower PAH levels in long-term gardening could be due to enhanced microbial activity and PAH degradation, dilution, or both due to mixing, similar to metals. No foodborne pathogen targets were detected by PCR from any of the soils. Residents expressed the need for clearness regarding soil quality and gardening practices in their neighborhoods to consume food grown in these urban areas. Results from this study suggest long-term gardening has the potential to reduce soil contaminants and their potential threat to food quality and human health and to improve access to fresh produce in low-income urban communities.

  7. Strengthening the scientific contribution of botanic gardens to the second phase of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Stephen; Gibby, Mary; Rae, David

    2011-01-01

    The need for action on the global environment is now well understood and governments, agencies, non-governmental organizations and botanic gardens have all been working in their various ways to promote environmental sustainability and reduce species and habitat loss for at least 10–20 years. The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) has been widely adopted, particularly by the botanic garden community, and has resulted in many successes despite failing to achieve its ultimate goal of halting the loss of plant biodiversity. The objectives and targets for Phase 2 of the GSPC, running from 2010 to 2020, mirror those of Phase 1 and had been largely agreed prior to their formal adoption at the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nagoya in October 2010. However, to be successful, the scientific contribution of botanic gardens needs to be strengthened, as does government policy and commitment. Botanic garden research to underpin conservation action, including the role of botanic garden horticulture, training and international capacity building, has a major part to play and needs to be better understood and better coordinated. We provide examples based on the experience of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in the UK and overseas. Government policy, at national and international levels, needs to reflect the fundamental importance of plant diversity in maintaining the biosphere and supporting humanity. The commitment of significant new resources is an essential prerequisite for success, but this needs to be well coordinated, inclusive of all stakeholders and carefully targeted. A further challenge is the need to integrate better the plant diversity-related activities of what are currently diverse and disconnected sectors, including agriculture, forestry, protected area management and botanic gardens.

  8. Comparative analysis of plant use in peri-urban domestic gardens of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little has been researched or published on the importance of peri-urban domestic gardens as part of a household livelihood strategy in South Africa. Due to lack of comprehensive data on peri-urban domestic gardens, their potential value as luxury green space, provision of food, income and ecosystem services to the fast growing urban population in South Africa is not clearly known. The aim of this study was to document differences and similarities in plant use and diversity in domestic gardens of two peri-urban communities in the Limpopo Province that differ in proximity to an urban area. Methods Data on plant use categories of 62 domestic gardens in the peri-urban areas of the Limpopo Province were collected in Seshego and Lebowakgomo. Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 62 participants were employed between May and October 2012. Results A total of 126 plant species were recorded for both Seshego and Lebowakgomo. Domestic gardens in the more remote areas of Lebowakgomo were characterized by higher percentage of food plants (47 species, 83.8% of the total food plants recorded) and medicinal plants (31 species, 83.7%). Lebowakgomo domestic gardens were also characterized by higher numbers of indigenous plants (76.7%) showing similarities to the natural surrounding vegetation in terms of plant species. On the contrary, domestic gardens of Seshego on the periphery of the city centre were characterized by higher percentage of exotic species (81.8%) and ornamental plants (73%), with food plants playing a supplementary role. Comparison of the two areas demonstrated a remarkable difference in plant use and composition. Conclusions This study revealed that there are differences in utilization of plant resources between households on the edge of an urban centre and those in the more remote areas. Food and medicinal plants play an important role in remote areas; while ornamental plants play an important role in urban

  9. Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

    PubMed

    Lombard, Kevin A; Forster-Cox, Susan; Smeal, Dan; O'Neill, Mick K

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the

  10. Impact of Residential Prairie Gardens on the Physical Properties of Urban Soil in Madison, Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Marie R; Balster, Nick J; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prairie gardens have become a common addition to residential communities in the midwestern United States because prairie vegetation is native to the region, requires fewer resources to maintain than turfgrass, and has been promoted to help remediate urban soil. Although prairie systems typically have deeper and more diverse root systems than traditional turfgrass, no one has tested the effect of this vegetation type on the physical properties of urban soil. We hypothesized that residential prairie gardens would yield lower soil bulk density (BD), lower penetration resistance (PR), greater soil organic matter (SOM), and greater saturated hydraulic conductivity () compared with turfgrass lawns. To test this hypothesis, we examined 12 residential properties in Madison, WI, where homeowners had established a prairie garden within their turfgrass lawn. Despite a consistent trend in the difference between vegetation types, no significant main effects were found (i.e., a difference between vegetation types when averaged over depth) for any of the four soil properties measured in this study. Differences were found with depth and depended on a significant interaction with vegetation type. At the surface depth (0-0.15 m), soil beneath prairie gardens had 10% lower mean BD, 15% lower mean PR, 25% greater level of SOM, and 33% greater compared with soil beneath the adjacent lawns. These differences were not detected at deeper sampling intervals of 0.15 to 0.30 m and 0.30 to 0.45 m. Although not statistically significant, the consistent trend and direction among soil variables suggest that residential prairie gardens had changed the surface soil at a rate that marginally outpaced turfgrass and calls for controlled experiments to identify the mechanisms that might enhance these trends.

  11. Ripe for Change: Garden-Based Learning in Schools. Harvard Education Letter Impact Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Jane S.

    2015-01-01

    "Ripe for Change: Garden-Based Learning in Schools" takes a big-picture view of the school garden movement and the state of garden-based learning in public K--8 education. The book frames the garden movement for educators and shows how school gardens have the potential to be a significant resource for teaching and learning. In this…

  12. Spiral precipitation patterns in confined chemical gardens.

    PubMed

    Haudin, Florence; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Brau, Fabian; De Wit, A

    2014-12-09

    Chemical gardens are mineral aggregates that grow in three dimensions with plant-like forms and share properties with self-assembled structures like nanoscale tubes, brinicles, or chimneys at hydrothermal vents. The analysis of their shapes remains a challenge, as their growth is influenced by osmosis, buoyancy, and reaction-diffusion processes. Here we show that chemical gardens grown by injection of one reactant into the other in confined conditions feature a wealth of new patterns including spirals, flowers, and filaments. The confinement decreases the influence of buoyancy, reduces the spatial degrees of freedom, and allows analysis of the patterns by tools classically used to analyze 2D patterns. Injection moreover allows the study in controlled conditions of the effects of variable concentrations on the selected morphology. We illustrate these innovative aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple geometrical model, a new class of self-similar logarithmic spirals observed in a large zone of the parameter space.

  13. Spiral precipitation patterns in confined chemical gardens

    PubMed Central

    Haudin, Florence; Brau, Fabian; De Wit, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical gardens are mineral aggregates that grow in three dimensions with plant-like forms and share properties with self-assembled structures like nanoscale tubes, brinicles, or chimneys at hydrothermal vents. The analysis of their shapes remains a challenge, as their growth is influenced by osmosis, buoyancy, and reaction–diffusion processes. Here we show that chemical gardens grown by injection of one reactant into the other in confined conditions feature a wealth of new patterns including spirals, flowers, and filaments. The confinement decreases the influence of buoyancy, reduces the spatial degrees of freedom, and allows analysis of the patterns by tools classically used to analyze 2D patterns. Injection moreover allows the study in controlled conditions of the effects of variable concentrations on the selected morphology. We illustrate these innovative aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple geometrical model, a new class of self-similar logarithmic spirals observed in a large zone of the parameter space. PMID:25385581

  14. Pattern formation in confined chemical gardens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wit, Anne; Haudin, Florence; Brau, Fabian; Cartwright, Julyan

    2014-05-01

    Chemical gardens are plant-like mineral structures first described in the seventeenth century and popularly known from chemistry sets for children. They are classically grown in three-dimensional containers by placing a solid metal-salt seed into a silicate solution. When the metal salt starts dissolving in the silicate solution, a semi-permeable membrane forms by precipitation across which water is pumped by osmosis from the silicate solution into the metal salt solution, further dissolving the salt. Above a given pressure, the membrane breaks. The dissolved metal salt solution being generally less dense than the reservoir silicate solution, it rises as a buoyant jet through the broken membrane and further precipitates in contact with the silicate solution, producing a collection of mineral forms that resemble a garden. Such gardens are the subject of increased interest as a model system to understand pattern formation in sea-ice brinicles and hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, among others. All these self-organized precipitation structures at the interface between chemistry, fluid dynamics and mechanics share indeed common chemical, mechanical and electrical properties. In this framework, we study experimentally spatial patterns resulting from the growth of chemical gardens in confined quasi-two-dimensional (2D) geometries upon radial injection of a metallic salt solution into a silicate solution in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. We find a large variety of patterns including spirals, fingers, worms, filiform tubes, and flower-like patterns. By exploring the phase space of reactant concentrations and injection flow rates, we observe transitions between these spatio-temporal structures resulting from a coupling between the precipitation reaction, mechanical effects and hydrodynamic instabilities.

  15. Precipitation and Crystallization Kinetics in Silica Gardens.

    PubMed

    Glaab, Fabian; Rieder, Julian; Klein, Regina; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Melero-Garcia, Emilio; García-Ruiz, Juan-Manuel; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

    2017-02-17

    Silica gardens are extraordinary plant-like structures resulting from the complex interplay of relatively simple inorganic components. Recent work has highlighted that macroscopic self-assembly is accompanied by the spontaneous formation of considerable chemical gradients, which induce a cascade of coupled dissolution, diffusion, and precipitation processes occurring over timescales as long as several days. In the present study, this dynamic behavior was investigated for silica gardens based on iron and cobalt chloride by means of two synchrotron-based techniques, which allow the determination of concentration profiles and time-resolved monitoring of diffraction patterns, thus giving direct insight into the progress of dissolution and crystallization phenomena in the system. On the basis of the collected data, a kinetic model is proposed to describe the relevant reactions on a fundamental physicochemical level. The results show that the choice of the metal cations (as well as their counterions) is crucial for the development of silica gardens in both the short and long term (i.e. during tube formation and upon subsequent slow equilibration), and provide important clues for understanding the properties of related structures in geochemical and industrial environments.

  16. Precipitation and Crystallization Kinetics in Silica Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Glaab, Fabian; Rieder, Julian; Klein, Regina; Choquesillo‐Lazarte, Duane; Melero‐Garcia, Emilio; García‐Ruiz, Juan‐Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Silica gardens are extraordinary plant‐like structures resulting from the complex interplay of relatively simple inorganic components. Recent work has highlighted that macroscopic self‐assembly is accompanied by the spontaneous formation of considerable chemical gradients, which induce a cascade of coupled dissolution, diffusion, and precipitation processes occurring over timescales as long as several days. In the present study, this dynamic behavior was investigated for silica gardens based on iron and cobalt chloride by means of two synchrotron‐based techniques, which allow the determination of concentration profiles and time‐resolved monitoring of diffraction patterns, thus giving direct insight into the progress of dissolution and crystallization phenomena in the system. On the basis of the collected data, a kinetic model is proposed to describe the relevant reactions on a fundamental physicochemical level. The results show that the choice of the metal cations (as well as their counterions) is crucial for the development of silica gardens in both the short and long term (i.e. during tube formation and upon subsequent slow equilibration), and provide important clues for understanding the properties of related structures in geochemical and industrial environments. PMID:28001337

  17. Botanic gardens science for conservation and global change.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, John S

    2009-11-01

    The contributions of botanic gardens to conservation biology and global-change research need to be understood within the context of the traditional strengths of such gardens in herbarium collections, living collections and interactions with the public. Here, I propose that research in conservation planning, modelling species responses to climate change, conservation of threatened species and experimental tests of global change build on the core strengths of botanic gardens. However, there are limits to what can be achieved through traditional gardens-based programs, and some botanic gardens have adapted their research to include studies of threatening processes and to monitor and verify global-change impacts. There is an opportunity for botanic gardens to use their living collections more effectively in global-change research and for them to have a role in linking biodiversity conservation with benefits derived from ecosystem services.

  18. Scaling up from gardens: biodiversity conservation in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Mark A; Dougill, Andrew J; Benton, Tim G

    2010-02-01

    As urbanisation increases globally and the natural environment becomes increasingly fragmented, the importance of urban green spaces for biodiversity conservation grows. In many countries, private gardens are a major component of urban green space and can provide considerable biodiversity benefits. Gardens and adjacent habitats form interconnected networks and a landscape ecology framework is necessary to understand the relationship between the spatial configuration of garden patches and their constituent biodiversity. A scale-dependent tension is apparent in garden management, whereby the individual garden is much smaller than the unit of management needed to retain viable populations. To overcome this, here we suggest mechanisms for encouraging 'wildlife-friendly' management of collections of gardens across scales from the neighbourhood to the city.

  19. Discovery Garden -- Physics and Architecture Meet Outside to Talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor-Morris, Anne; Briles, Timothy; Froriep, Kathleen; McGuire, Catherine

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of Georgian Court University's "Discovery Garden" is to create an experience of the physical sciences for students, both science and non-science majors, in a place of serenity: an outdoor garden. Why a garden? Consider that the traditional laboratory experience for students is one of stark rooms ventilated with noisy hoods and endemic with lab coats and safety glasses, an alien environment that can be a source of anxiety for some students studying science, while the idea of a garden excites the imagination and conjures peace. The garden also serves as a reminder that ideas learned in the classroom apply to the everyday world. In addition, the garden is a model of informal learning, which can be especially interesting for pre-service teachers. Outlined here are some general suggestions for the design of a science garden, applicability of educational philosophy to full-body experiences, and activities suggested for students and future teachers in such a garden, as well as a mini-tour of our garden.

  20. GARDEN (FOREGROUND), GARAGE (CENTER), AND PUMPHOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARDEN (FOREGROUND), GARAGE (CENTER), AND PUMPHOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  1. Local and landscape drivers of predation services in urban gardens.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2017-01-13

    In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness, are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e., herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i.e., landscape diversity and surrounding land use types) characteristics on predation services provided by naturally occurring predators in 19 urban gardens in the California central coast. We introduced sentinel pests (moth eggs and larvae and pea aphids) onto greenhouse-raised plants taken to gardens and assigned to open or bagged (predator exclosure) treatments. We found high predation rates with between 40% and 90% of prey items removed in open treatments. Predation services varied with local and landscape factors, but significant predictors differed by prey species. Predation of eggs and aphids increased with vegetation complexity in gardens, but larvae predation declined with vegetation complexity. Smaller gardens experienced higher predation services, likely due to increases in predator abundance in smaller gardens. Several ground cover features influenced predation services. In contrast to patterns in rural agricultural landscapes, predation on aphids declined with increases in landscape diversity. In sum, we report the relationships between several local management factors, as well as landscape surroundings, and implications for garden management.

  2. Seasonal generation and composition of garden waste in Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Garden waste generation and composition were studied in Aarhus, Denmark. The amount of garden waste generated varied seasonally, from 2.5kgperson(-1)month(-1) in winter to 19.4kgperson(-1)month(-1) in summer. Seasonal fractional composition and chemical characterization of garden waste were determined by sorting and sampling garden waste eight times during 1year. On a yearly basis, the major fraction of garden waste was "small stuff" (flowers, grass clippings, hedge cuttings and soil) making up more than 90% (wet waste distribution) during the summer. The woody fractions (branches, wood) are more significant during the winter. Seasonal trends in waste chemical composition were recorded and an average annual composition of garden waste was calculated, considering the varying monthly generation and material fraction composition: the wet garden waste contained 40% water, 30% organic matter (VS) and 30% ash. The ash content suggests that the garden waste contains a significant amount of soil. This is in particular the case during summer. Of nutrients, the garden waste contained in average on a dry matter basis 0.6% N, 0.1% P, and 1.0% K. However, the contents varied significantly among the fractions and during the year. The content of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was low.

  3. 76 FR 62756 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-People's Garden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--People's Garden Initiative Evaluation of Healthy Gardens Healthy Youth Project AGENCY: Food and... how school gardens affect children's fruit and vegetable consumption and other outcomes....

  4. A community response to the food environment.

    PubMed

    Cyzman, Denise; Wierenga, Janet; Sielawa, Julie

    2009-04-01

    In 2005, the Pioneering Healthier Communities initiative prompted the creation of the Activate West Michigan coalition. One of its earliest objectives was to increase fruit and vegetable consumption for people who lived in low-income, African American, and Latino communities in urban Grand Rapids. Because the existing food environment created barriers to this objective, the coalition created community and schoolyard gardens and farmers' markets. By 2008, the Activate West Michigan coalition had begun to improve the food environment by establishing nine community and schoolyard gardens and five farmers' markets.

  5. A Garden of Stories: An English Lesson in a Botanical Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazor, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Five middle school teachers are among the few people wandering around the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, squinting at labels describing the plants that will bloom soon. The author and her colleagues are on a reconnaissance mission, trying to plan an interdisciplinary field trip for the seventh grade. They represent different departments--science, math,…

  6. Domestic Resistance: Gardening, Mothering, and Storytelling in Leslie Marmon Silko's "Gardens in the Dunes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Leslie Marmon Silko began her most recent work, "Gardens in the Dunes" (1999), intending to write a novel that would not be political. Following the publication of "Almanac of the Dead" (1992), which was simultaneously hailed as one of the most important books of the twentieth century and condemned for its angry self-righteousness, Silko…

  7. The Garden Wonder Wall: Fostering Wonder and Curiosity on Multi-Day Garden Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Elizabeth A.; Lownds, Norman K.

    2007-01-01

    Field trips to the Michigan 4-H Children's Garden must provide rich science learning experiences for students and teachers. A key to this is getting students to ask questions. To facilitate student question asking we developed the Wonder Wall, a "wall" where students could write their questions. Student questions were answered as part of…

  8. LA Sprouts: a garden-based nutrition intervention pilot program influences motivation and preferences for fruits and vegetables in Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicole M; Ventura, Emily E; Cook, Lauren T; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-06-01

    Garden-based approaches to nutrition education may be effective for improving nutrition habits in adolescents. A quasi-experimental, garden-based intervention for Latino youth (LA Sprouts) was piloted and assessed for its influence on behavior associated with dietary intake and psychosocial factors. Study participants were 104 predominately Latino fourth and fifth grade students in Los Angeles (mean age, 9.8±0.7 years; n=70 control subjects, n=34 LA Sprouts participants); more than half (n=61, 59.8%) were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥85th percentile). LA Sprouts participants received an intervention of weekly 90-minute culturally tailored, interactive classes for 12 consecutive weeks at a community garden during the spring of 2010; control participants received an abbreviated delayed intervention. Questionnaire data were obtained before and after the intervention. Compared with control subjects, LA Sprouts participants had an increased preference for vegetables overall, increased preferences for three target fruits and vegetables, as well as improved perceptions that "vegetables from the garden taste better than vegetables from the store." In the overweight/obese subgroup (n=61), LA Sprouts participants had a 16% greater increase in their preference for vegetables compared with control subjects (P=0.009). Results from this pilot study suggest that a cooking, nutrition, and gardening after-school program in a garden-based setting can improve attitudes and preferences for fruits and vegetables in Latino youth, which may lead to improved nutritional habits and dietary intake and reduced health disparities.

  9. Community Gardening Project: Meredith College Students Explore Sustainability, Organics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roubanis, Jody L.; Landis, William

    2007-01-01

    Consuming locally grown foods promotes sustainable development and individual wellness (Waters, 2006). In the United States, the average food product travels 2,000 miles before reaching the consumer (Schlosser, 2001). This distance between producer and consumer is one reason that today's youth lack an understanding of the origin of the food they…

  10. Mass spectrometry in the home and garden.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, Christopher J; Bain, Ryan M; Wiley, Joshua S; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2015-02-01

    Identification of active components in a variety of chemical products used directly by consumers is described at both trace and bulk levels using mass spectrometry. The combination of external ambient ionization with a portable mass spectrometer capable of tandem mass spectrometry provides high chemical specificity and sensitivity as well as allowing on-site monitoring. These experiments were done using a custom-built portable ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with the ambient ionization methods of paper spray, leaf spray, and low temperature plasma ionization. Bactericides, garden chemicals, air fresheners, and other products were examined. Herbicide applied to suburban lawns was detected in situ on single leaves 5 d after application.

  11. Mass Spectrometry in the Home and Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, Christopher J.; Bain, Ryan M.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-02-01

    Identification of active components in a variety of chemical products used directly by consumers is described at both trace and bulk levels using mass spectrometry. The combination of external ambient ionization with a portable mass spectrometer capable of tandem mass spectrometry provides high chemical specificity and sensitivity as well as allowing on-site monitoring. These experiments were done using a custom-built portable ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with the ambient ionization methods of paper spray, leaf spray, and low temperature plasma ionization. Bactericides, garden chemicals, air fresheners, and other products were examined. Herbicide applied to suburban lawns was detected in situ on single leaves 5 d after application.

  12. Front gardens to car parks: changes in garden permeability and effects on flood regulation.

    PubMed

    Warhurst, Jennifer R; Parks, Katherine E; McCulloch, Lindsay; Hudson, Malcolm D

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses the consequences of widespread conversion of permeable front gardens to hard standing car parking surfaces, and the potential consequences in high-risk urban flooding hotspots, in the city of Southampton. The last two decades has seen a trend for domestic front gardens in urban areas to be converted for parking, driven by the lack of space and increased car ownership. Despite media and political attention, the effects of this change are unknown, but increased and more intense rainfall, potentially linked to climate change, could generate negative consequences as runoff from impermeable surfaces increases. Information is limited on garden permeability change, despite the consequences for ecosystem services, especially flood regulation. We focused on eight flooding hotspots identified by the local council as part of a wider urban flooding policy response. Aerial photographs from 1991, 2004 and 2011 were used to estimate changes in surface cover and to analyse permeability change within a digital surface model in a GIS environment. The 1, 30 and 100 year required attenuation storage volumes were estimated, which are the temporary storage required to reduce the peak flow rate given surface permeability. Within our study areas, impermeable cover in domestic front gardens increased by 22.47% over the 20-year study period (1991-2011) and required attenuation storage volumes increased by 26.23% on average. These increases suggest that a consequence of the conversion of gardens to parking areas will be a potential increase in flooding frequency and severity - a situation which is likely to occur in urban locations worldwide.

  13. Geoscience Garden: an outdoor teaching installation at the University of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, J. W.; Locock, A.

    2009-05-01

    Spatial awareness, and the abilities to position observations and inferences on a two-dimensional map and within the three-dimensional environment of the Earth's crust, are some of the the larger challenges facing beginning Earth Science students. Studies have shown that outdoor observations of outcrops are vital in the development of these spatial skills. However, teaching the techniques of field geology to Earth Science students is challenging in many parts of the continental interior, where nearly flat-lying, weakly consolidated, poorly exposed sedimentary rocks may be concealed beneath recent soils and Quaternary sediments. At the University of Alberta, these problems are offset by field courses at distant locations in more varied terrains during the spring and summer, but the distances (~300 km) and climate make fieldwork difficult during a busy teaching year that extends from September to April. The Geoscience Garden will be a unique landscaped area within the University of Alberta campus in which large (1 - 5 m), boulders and rock slabs will be built into oriented, simulated outcrops. These will be arranged in a layout that represents the geology of western and northern Canada in condensed form. The Garden, currently in the process of installation, will provide an artificial field environment in which Earth Science students can develop observational skills, and construct a simple geological map. They will be able to interpret the mapped area in terms of a three-dimensional structure, and make stratigraphic inferences about the order of deposition of the units and the environmental changes that occurred during the geologic history of the simulated area. In addition to more common rock types, the Garden will also display specimens of mineral deposits in geological context, and illustrate their importance to rural and northern communities. A buried boulder that has high magnetic susceptibility will provide a target for introductory geophysical field surveys

  14. A Healthy Harvest: Adolescents Grow Food and Well-Being with Policy Implications for Education, Health and Community Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevec, Illene Susan

    2011-01-01

    The severe youth health crisis involving overweight and obesity requires a complex policy response involving multiple domains: education, agriculture, health services, and community planning. This research examines gardening's affective benefits for adolescents and the potential school and youth gardens have to support healthy communities.…

  15. Society News: Astronomy in the garden wins RHS prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    The Spaced Out garden, sponsored by the RAS, won a Gold Medal from the Royal Horticultural Society at the Tatton Park Garden Show in August. It also provided a showcase for a model of the Philae Lander, part of ESA's Rosetta mission to comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and an unusual occasion for astronomy outreach.

  16. Reconceptualising Gardening to Promote Inclusive Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The ways in which gardening has been interpreted by schools in western societies have changed over the past 150 years. The intended purpose of school gardening with children (aged 5-14) and the pedagogies which teachers have adopted has varied depending on social, cultural and political expectations. This paper argues that a reconceptualised…

  17. Food for Thought: The Mathematics of the Kitchen Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Anthony; Bragg, Leicha A.

    2011-01-01

    A kitchen garden is not just a place to grow food for cooking; it is a place of sensory stimulation through extraordinary explorations and investigations into the natural world. A kitchen garden contains vegetables, fruits, herbs, edible flowers, and/or ornamental plants; and animals such as chickens for supplying eggs, as well as manure for…

  18. Gardener and Landscape Worker. Student Material. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Diana

    This secondary-level, competency-based curriculum contains modules for Gardener and Landscape Worker. A companion teacher's guide is available separately--see note. Each module contains a number of West Virginia-validated Gardener and Landscape Worker tasks/competencies with a performance guide listing the steps needed to perform each task,…

  19. Collection Development "Southwest Gardening": The Desert Shall Bloom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Mosley, Shelley; Van Winkle, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Gardening in the American Southwest (SW) is an extreme sport. Not only are gardeners challenged by geographic extremes from tropical deserts to subalpine locales, they must also deal with a wide range of climates. Winter in the mountains and higher regions means heavy snows, frozen soils, and temperatures that can dip below zero. In contrast,…

  20. The Effects of Rain Garden Size on Hydrologic Performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens are vegetated depressions designed to accept stormwater runoff. Manuals and guidance documents recommend sizing rain garden cells from 3% to 43% of the associated drainage area, based on factors including soil type, slope, amount of impervious cover in the drainage ...

  1. Predicting Teacher Likelihood to Use School Gardens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincy, Natalie; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Navarro, Maria; Knauft, David

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative survey, built around the theory of planned behavior, was used to investigate elementary teachers' attitudes, school norms, perceived behavioral control, and intent in both current and ideal teaching situations toward using gardens in their curriculum. With positive school norms and teachers who garden in their personal time, 77% of…

  2. School Yard Gardening Reaps Harvest of Learning and Lettuce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasgalla, June

    1989-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a kindergarten class that conducted an extensive outdoor vegetable gardening project with the help of parent volunteers. The article presents seven steps to assist PTAs in establishing such a project and notes the value of school gardens in developing student skills. (SM)

  3. Flow Dynamics and Nutrient Reduction in Rain Gardens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  4. Development and pilot study findings of the Delta Garden Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to explore how school–based gardening programs can affect health and related behaviors and to assess how such programs can be sustainable over time and replicated to more settings. Across the world, there has been a recent revitalization and reinvention of gardening eff...

  5. Economic Gardening through Entrepreneurship Education: A Service-Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desplaces, David E.; Wergeles, Fred; McGuigan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the implementation of a service-learning approach in an entrepreneurship programme using an "economic gardening" strategy. Economic Gardening through Service-Learning (EGS-L) is an approach to economic development that helps local businesses and students grow through a facilitated learning process. Learning is made possible…

  6. From Garden to Recipient: A Direct Approach to Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Maine Harvest for Hunger (MHH) involves Master Gardeners in food security through participation in gleaning and gardening projects that benefit food pantries. A statewide survey (Murphy, 2011a) indicates many food pantries face increased demand but are unable to distribute all of the donated produce. The MHH program in Oxford County is designed to…

  7. Children Gardening: First Steps Towards a Sustainable Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robin C.

    1995-01-01

    Children's gardening is introduced within the broader frame of reference of sustainable development, regenerative design, and biodesign. Gardening in the primary grades is proposed as one of the most feasible pedagogical approaches for ensuring a daily learning experience that provides contact with nature. Presents a case study of children's…

  8. A Rain Garden for Our School: Becoming Environmental Stewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadyen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a rain garden project at Hampton Elementary School in Bay City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to slow and filter silt-laden runoff (from parking lots, sidewalks, and playground) on its path to Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. In addition, doing so, the rain gardens would demonstrate to the township, city,…

  9. Gardening as a therapeutic intervention in mental health.

    PubMed

    Page, Mathew

    This article describes why one low-secure unit chose to initiate a horticultural therapy project and organise it as a 'workers' cooperative'. The therapeutic benefits of gardening are explored, particularly focusing on the social benefits. The article also discusses the issue of hope, which is an intrinsic requirement in gardening.

  10. Rain Garden Research at EPA's Urban Watershed Research Facility

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been invited to give a presentation at the 2009 National Erosion Conference in Hartford, CT, on October 27-28, 2009. My presentation discusses the research on sizing of rain gardens that is being conducted using the large, parking lot rain gardens on-site. I discuss the ...

  11. Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

    PubMed

    Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.

  12. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    PubMed

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  13. Community-applied research of a traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation scheme on Broca’s aphasia after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aphasia is a common and severely disabling complication in stroke patients. It usually brings about lower rates of functional recovery, longer rehabilitation length of stay (LOS), and significantly poorer LOS efficiency (LOS-Eff), resulting in higher rehabilitation costs compared to patients without aphasia. It also decreases the quality of life and increases the mortality of stroke patients. The evidence currently available suggests that the effect of acupuncture combined with language training for apoplectic aphasia is statistically better than speech and language therapy (SLT) alone, but there remains a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Acupuncture combined with language training is relatively low-cost and especially suitable for community-based rehabilitation for aphasia patients after stroke, taking its medical and health facilities which are always deficient in manpower and material resources into account. The aim of the present study is to develop an effective standard therapeutic program for apoplectic aphasia in communities. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled clinical trial with blinded assessment, 290 eligible patients with aphasia due to stroke will be randomly allocated into a control group or an experimental group. The course of this trial will comprise a 4-week intervention and a 12-week follow-up period. Five assessment points, including baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, 6 and 12 weeks after follow-up, are set to dynamically observe the changes of curative effects. Primary outcome measures are the differences in the score on both the China rehabilitation research center aphasia examination (CRRCAE) and Boston diagnostic aphasia examination - Chinese version (BDAE-C) after intervention and follow-up. The Modified Barthel Index (MBI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and results of blood oxygen level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) examination are considered as the

  14. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  15. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    PubMed

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  16. Metal contamination of home gardens soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R.; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    Background For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods Home gardens (n=63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity duration in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1+F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references. We

  17. Power Product Equipment Technician: Lawn and Garden Equipment. Teacher Edition. Student Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions for lawn and garden equipment repair and maintenance, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains four units: (1) introduction to lawn and garden equipment; (2) light-duty lawn and garden equipment; (3) heavy-duty lawn and garden equipment; and (4)…

  18. Discovering Learning, Discovering Self: The Effects of an Interdisciplinary, Standards-Based School Garden Curriculum on Elementary Students in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Ming Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of an interdisciplinary standards-based school garden-based education program on student learning. The objective of the program is to help students learn to be self-directed learners, community contributors, complex thinkers, quality producers, effective communicators, and effective/ethical users of technology. For…

  19. Chemical-garden formation, morphology, and composition. II. Chemical gardens in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Stodieck, Louis S

    2011-04-05

    We studied the growth of metal-ion silicate chemical gardens under Earth gravity (1 g) and microgravity (μg) conditions. Identical sets of reaction chambers from an automated system (the Silicate Garden Habitat or SGHab) were used in both cases. The μg experiment was performed on board the International Space Station (ISS) within a temperature-controlled setup that provided still and video images of the experiment downlinked to the ground. Calcium chloride, manganese chloride, cobalt chloride, and nickel sulfate were used as seed salts in sodium silicate solutions of several concentrations. The formation and growth of osmotic envelopes and microtubes was much slower under μg conditions. In 1 g, buoyancy forces caused tubes to grow upward, whereas a random orientation for tube growth was found under μg conditions.

  20. Paving the way for space gardens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    The Ecological Life Support System, a plant growth experiment now in its third year of closed chamber production at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, is discussed. Possible spin-off applications of hydrophonics experiments are noted. It is projected that long-term goals will include the integration of this garden system into the process of waste recycling for fertilization, air refreshment, and potable water recovery in a closed environment. The Biomass Production Chamber, a two-story bubble-shape steel biosphere modified from a Mercury/Gemini program attitude chamber provides a usable volume of 7.3 m x 3.6 m in diameter containing growing racks, piping for nutrient solutions, specialized lighting and sensors that provide information to the computers controlling the chamber and its functions. Computer programs provide highly sensitive monitoring and regulation of the system. Crops successfully harvested to date include dwarf wheat, lettuce, and soybeans.

  1. Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Eva; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Ant-garden (AG) associations are systems of epiphytic plants and arboricolous (i.e., tree-living) ants, in which the ants build fragile carton nests containing organic material. They collect and incorporate seeds or fruits of epiphytes that then germinate and grow on the nest [sensu Corbara et al. (1999) 38:73-89]. The plant roots stabilize the nest carton. AGs have been well-known in the neotropics for more than 100 years. In contrast, reports on similar associations in the paleotropics are scarce so far. After discovering a first common AG system on giant bamboo [Kaufmann et al. (2001) 48:125-133], we started a large-scale survey for AGs in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, and southern Thailand. A great variety of AG systems (altogether including 18 ant species and 51 plant species) was discovered and is described in the present paper. The high number of species participating in AG associations was reflected by a great variability in the specific appearances of the nest gardens. Frequently, further groups of organisms (e.g., hemipteran trophobionts, fungi) were also involved. Preference patterns of particular ant and epiphyte species for each other and for particular phorophytes (carrier trees) were detected. We integrate domatia-producing, so-called ant-house epiphytes in our study and compare their phases of establishment, as well as other characteristics, to "classical" AGs, coming to the conclusion that they should be regarded only as a special type of AG epiphyte and not as a separate ecological category.

  2. Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Eva; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Ant-garden (AG) associations are systems of epiphytic plants and arboricolous (i.e., tree-living) ants, in which the ants build fragile carton nests containing organic material. They collect and incorporate seeds or fruits of epiphytes that then germinate and grow on the nest [sensu Corbara et al. (1999) 38:73-89]. The plant roots stabilize the nest carton. AGs have been well-known in the neotropics for more than 100 years. In contrast, reports on similar associations in the paleotropics are scarce so far. After discovering a first common AG system on giant bamboo [Kaufmann et al. (2001) 48:125-133], we started a large-scale survey for AGs in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, and southern Thailand. A great variety of AG systems (altogether including 18 ant species and 51 plant species) was discovered and is described in the present paper. The high number of species participating in AG associations was reflected by a great variability in the specific appearances of the nest gardens. Frequently, further groups of organisms (e.g., hemipteran trophobionts, fungi) were also involved. Preference patterns of particular ant and epiphyte species for each other and for particular phorophytes (carrier trees) were detected. We integrate domatia-producing, so-called ant-house epiphytes in our study and compare their phases of establishment, as well as other characteristics, to “classical” AGs, coming to the conclusion that they should be regarded only as a special type of AG epiphyte and not as a separate ecological category.

  3. The importance of urban gardens in supporting children's biophilia.

    PubMed

    Hand, Kathryn L; Freeman, Claire; Seddon, Philip J; Recio, Mariano R; Stein, Aviva; van Heezik, Yolanda

    2017-01-10

    Exposure to and connection with nature is increasingly recognized as providing significant well-being benefits for adults and children. Increasing numbers of children growing up in urban areas need access to nature to experience these benefits and develop a nature connection. Under the biophilia hypothesis, children should innately affiliate to nature. We investigated children's independent selection of spaces in their neighborhoods in relation to the biodiversity values of those spaces, in three New Zealand cities, using resource-selection analysis. Children did not preferentially use the more biodiverse areas in their neighborhoods. Private gardens and yards were the most preferred space, with the quality of these spaces the most important factor defining children's exposure to nature. Children's reliance on gardens and yards for nature experiences raises concerns for their development of a nature connection, given disparities in biodiversity values of private gardens in relation to socioeconomic status, and the decline in sizes of private gardens in newer urban developments.

  4. Addressing the threat to biodiversity from botanic gardens.

    PubMed

    Hulme, Philip E

    2011-04-01

    Increasing evidence highlights the role that botanic gardens might have in plant invasions across the globe. Botanic gardens, often in global biodiversity hotspots, have been implicated in the early cultivation and/or introduction of most environmental weeds listed by IUCN as among the worst invasive species worldwide. Furthermore, most of the popular ornamental species in living collections around the globe have records as alien weeds. Voluntary codes of conduct to prevent the dissemination of invasive plants from botanic gardens have had limited uptake, with few risk assessments undertaken of individual living collections. A stronger global networking of botanic gardens to tackle biological invasions involving public outreach, information sharing and capacity building is a priority to prevent the problems of the past occurring in the future.

  5. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  6. Rain Garden Research at EPA's Urban Watershed Research Facility

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens are vegetated depressions designed to capture and infiltrate stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots, and roads. The potential benefits compared to traditional curb and gutter drainage systems include peak flow attenuation in receiving...

  7. Rain Garden Research of EPA's Urban Watershed Research Facility (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens are vegetated depressions designed to capture and infiltrate stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots, and roads. The potential benefits compared to traditional curb and gutter drainage systems include peak flow attenuation in receiving ...

  8. Actinomycetes in garden soils of the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2013-05-01

    The population density, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetic complexes were studied in garden soils of the city of Kirov. The relationships between the structure of the complexes and the acidity, the concentrations of the mobile forms of heavy metals, and the soil humus content were analyzed. The specific features of the actinomycetic population in the garden soils of the city in comparison with the transport ecotopes and suburban territories were revealed. It was demonstrated that the actinomycetic complexes in the garden soils preserve their structural similarity with the actinomycetic complexes of the suburban forest parks despite certain changes in the composition of the dominant species and the relative abundance of the separate taxa. The obtained data indicate that the garden plots in the city contribute to the preservation of ecologically balanced ecosystems.

  9. Exploration Day at Busch Gardens, Williamsburg, Va. - Aug. 5, 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    Friday, August 8, was NASA Days at Busch Gardens Williamsburg, Va. NASA exhibits and educational specialists worked to inspire young and old, and NASA astronaut Susan Kilrain -- a veteran of two Sp...

  10. 7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  11. Temporal Observations of Regolith Gardening Caused by Secondary Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Povilaitis, R. Z.; Robinson, M. S.; Thomas, P. C.; Wagner, R. V.

    2016-11-01

    LROC temporal observations reveal numerous, small (<30m) albedo changes across the Moon, including dense clusters near new impact craters. From this data, we modeled a regolith gardening rate and compared it to previous models and Apollo drive cores.

  12. View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron gate to the northwest of the house (duplicate of HABS No. SC-115-14) - William Washington House, 8 South Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  13. A Botanical Garden Data Base Implemented in SAS Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Edward A.; Lewis, Bruce R.

    1985-01-01

    A database had been developed for the Phoenix Desert Botanical Garden's Living Plant Collection using Statistical Analysis System software. Implementation procedures, data dictionary maintenance, data entry, updating, and reporting are described. (JN)

  14. 15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE STREET AND SETH FOLGER HOUSE, 26 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. Enhancing Rain Garden Design to Promote Nitrate Removal via Denitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommendations for rain garden media design typically specify high sand content and low organic matter content to promote infiltration and avoid excessive ponding. This design is effective at infiltrating stormwater and removing solids, heavy metals, phosphorus, and some specie...

  16. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  17. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Children and Youth through Gardening-Based Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Savoie-Roskos, Mateja R; Wengreen, Heidi; Durward, Carrie

    2017-02-01

    Although there are numerous health benefits associated with eating fruit and vegetables (F/V), few children are consuming recommended amounts. Gardening interventions have been implemented in various settings in an effort to increase children's F/V consumption by expanding knowledge, exposure, and preferences for a variety of F/V. The purpose of this review was to identify the effectiveness of gardening interventions that have been implemented to increase F/V consumption among children. A systematic review was conducted using four electronic databases: Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. English language studies conducted in developed countries between January 2005 and October 2015 were included in this review. Included studies measured F/V consumption among children aged 2 to 15 years before and after implementation of a gardening intervention in a school, community, or afterschool setting. All study designs were included in this review. A total of 891 articles were identified through database searching and cross-referencing. After removing duplicates, 650 articles remained and were screened using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-seven full-text articles were analyzed and 14 articles were included in this review. Of the 14 articles reviewed, 10 articles found statistically significant increases in fruit or vegetable consumption among participants after implementation of a gardening intervention. However, many studies were limited by the use of convenience samples, small sample sizes, and self-reported measurements of F/V consumption. Although the evidence is mixed and fraught with limitations, most studies suggest a small but positive influence of gardening interventions on children's F/V intake. Future studies that include control groups, randomized designs, and assessments of F/V consumption over at least 1 year are needed to advance the literature on this topic.

  18. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  19. Bridging the Gap: Connecting School and Community with Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sarah K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the author's eighth-grade language arts inquiry-based instruction blossomed into student-based community learning, with students defining and seeking their own relevant goals, bringing the community to school with an art exhibit of tolerance, volunteering at a nearby elementary school, creating community gardens to fulfill a…

  20. Household response to environmental incentives for rain garden adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburn, David A.; Alberini, Anna

    2016-02-01

    A decentralized approach to encourage the voluntary adoption of household stormwater management practices is increasingly needed to mitigate urban runoff and to comply with more stringent water quality regulations. We analyze the household response to a hypothetical rebate program to incentivize rain garden adoption using household survey data from the Baltimore-Washington corridor. We asked respondents whether the household would adopt a rain garden without a rebate or when offered a randomly assigned rebate. An interval-data model is used to estimate household demand on the willingness to pay (WTP) for a rain garden as a function of demographic factors, gardening activities, environmental attitudes, and other household characteristics. Estimation results indicate that mean WTP for a rain garden in our sample population is approximately $6.72 per square foot, corresponding to almost three-fourths of the installation cost. The expected adoption rate more than tripled when comparing no rebate versus a government rebate set at one-third of the installation cost, indicating that economic incentives matter. There is substantial heterogeneity in the WTP among households. Higher levels of WTP are estimated for households with higher environmental concern for the Chesapeake Bay and local streams, garden experience, higher income, and non-senior citizen adults. We conclude that a cost-share rebate approach is likely to significantly affect household adoption decisions, and the partial contributions paid by households can assist with lowering the substantial compliance costs for local governments to meet water quality requirements.

  1. Improved Gradation for Rain Garden of Low Impact Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sandra; Chang, Fu-Ming

    2016-04-01

    With rapid urban and economic development, living standard improves in urban areas but urban ecological environments deteriorate rapidly. Urban waterlogging and flooding have become a serious problem for urban water security. As urbanization continues, sustainability is the key to balance between urban development and healthy environment. Rain garden is recommended to be one of the best ways to reduce urban pollutants. It not only diminishes runoff flooding but also purify water in the urban area. The studies on rain gardens are mainly about how to incorporate rain garden to purify water quality, but lack of researches on runoff control. This project focuses on rain garden under Low Impact Development using indoor laboratory to test and quantify the water holding capacities of two different Taiwan indigenous rain garden plants, Taiwan Cyclosorus and Sour Grass. The results show that the water holding capacity of Sour Grass (10%-37%) is better than that of Taiwan Cyclosorus (6.8%-17.3%). The results could be a helpful reference for Low Impact Development in urban flood prevention and urban planning. Keywords: Low Impact Development; rain garden; indoor laboratory experiments; water holding capacity; porosity

  2. Rain Garden Research at EPA’s Urban Watershed Research Facility: Promoting Nitrate Removal through Rain Garden Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens are designed to infiltrate stormwater, capture suspended solids, sorb heavy metals and phosphorus, and transform nutrients through biological processes. Most studies have found a low capacity for stormwater nitrate removal. Research at the Urban Watershed Managemen...

  3. Methods to test the interactive effects of drought and plant invasion on ecosystem structure and function using complementary common garden and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Alba, Christina; NeSmith, Julienne E; Fahey, Catherine; Angelini, Christine; Flory, Stephen Luke

    2017-03-01

    Abiotic global change drivers affect ecosystem structure and function, but how they interact with biotic factors such as invasive plants is understudied. Such interactions may be additive, synergistic, or offsetting, and difficult to predict. We present methods to test the individual and interactive effects of drought and plant invasion on native ecosystems. We coupled a factorial common garden experiment containing resident communities exposed to drought (imposed with rainout shelters) and invasion with a field experiment where the invader was removed from sites spanning a natural soil moisture gradient. We detail treatments and their effects on abiotic conditions, including soil moisture, light, temperature, and humidity, which shape community and ecosystem responses. Ambient precipitation during the garden experiment exceeded historic norms despite severe drought in prior years. Soil moisture was 48% lower in drought than ambient plots, but the invader largely offset drought effects. Additionally, temperature and light were lower and humidity higher in invaded plots. Field sites spanned up to a 10-fold range in soil moisture and up to a 2.5-fold range in light availability. Invaded and resident vegetation did not differentially mediate soil moisture, unlike in the garden experiment. Herbicide effectively removed invaded and resident vegetation, with removal having site-specific effects on soil moisture and light availability. However, light was generally higher in invader-removal than control plots, whereas resident removal had less effect on light, similar to the garden experiment. Invasion mitigated a constellation of abiotic conditions associated with drought stress in the garden experiment. In the field, where other factors co-varied, these patterns did not emerge. Still, neither experiment suggested that drought and invasion will have synergistic negative effects on ecosystems, although invasion can limit light availability. Coupling factorial garden

  4. NASA's Growing Commitment: The Space Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Astronauts cannot live on dehydrated ice cream alone. Like everyone else, they need their vegetables. Enter VEGGIE, the Deployable Vegetable System, currently under development by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC). VEGGIE is the latest in a long line of vegetable production units ORBITEC is currently working on, with NASA assistance, to grow salad crops to supplement prepackaged foods during long stays in space. The primary goal of the VEGGIE project is to provide flight crews with palatable, nutritious, and safe sources of fresh food with minimal volume and operational resources. In addition, ORBITEC recognizes the age-old adage that gardening is good for the soul, and it acknowledges that gardens are beneficial for relaxation and recreation. As evidence, astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), who often stay for periods of 6 months, have been enjoying plant experiments, which provide them with much missed greenery and can occupy valuable free time with an enjoyable task. VEGGIE is a project that grew out of technology developed by ORBITEC for the Biomass Production System (BPS). The BPS is equivalent in size to a Space Shuttle middeck locker, and provides four plant growth chambers. Each chamber has independent control of temperature, humidity, nutrient and water delivery, lighting, and atmospheric composition. The BPS flew to the ISS in 2002, and astronaut Dan Bursch had positive comments about his interaction with the plants while in orbit. Astronaut Peggy Whitson had similarly positive remarks during the following expedition while she was growing soybeans for another experiment. Whitson reflects on her time in space with the plantings on Expedition 5, "Although it doesn t sound like much, it was really exciting to see something green. I assumed that this was just because I really enjoy plants, but it surprised me that both of my crewmates were just as excited. They wanted photos of themselves with the plants and asked if they could eat

  5. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  6. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Clare

    2014-06-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper - the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter's Earl's Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner's house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces.

  7. The experience of SARS-related stigma at Amoy Gardens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sing; Chan, Lydia Y Y; Chau, Annie M Y; Kwok, Kathleen P S; Kleinman, Arthur

    2005-11-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) possesses characteristics that render it particularly prone to stigmatization. SARS-related stigma, despite its salience for public health and stigma research, has had little examination. This study combines survey and case study methods to examine subjective stigma among residents of Amoy Gardens (AG), the first officially recognized site of community outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong. A total of 903 residents of AG completed a self-report questionnaire derived from two focus groups conducted toward the end of the 3-month outbreak. Case studies of two residents who lived in Block E, the heart of the SARS epidemic at AG, complement the survey data. Findings show that stigma affected most residents and took various forms of being shunned, insulted, marginalized, and rejected in the domains of work, interpersonal relationships, use of services and schooling. Stigma was also associated with psychosomatic distress. Residents' strategies for diminishing stigma varied with gender, age, education, occupation, and proximity to perceived risk factors for SARS such as residential location, previous SARS infection and the presence of ex-SARS household members. Residents attributed stigma to government mismanagement, contagiousness of the mysterious SARS virus, and alarmist media reporting. Stigma clearly decreased, but never completely disappeared, after the outbreak. The findings confirm and add to existing knowledge on the varied origins, correlates, and impacts of stigma. They also highlight the synergistic roles of inconsistent health policy responses and risk miscommunication by the media in rapidly amplifying stigma toward an unfamiliar illness. While recognizing the intrinsically stigmatizing nature of public health measures to control SARS, we recommend that a consistent inter-sectoral approach is needed to minimize stigma and to make an effective health response to future outbreaks.

  8. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  9. Gardening as a potential activity to reduce falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tuo-Yu; Janke, Megan C

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether participation in gardening predicts reduced fall risk and performance on balance and gait-speed measures in older adults. Data on adults age 65 and older (N = 3,237) from the Health and Retirement Study and Consumption and Activities Mail Survey were analyzed. Participants who spent 1 hr or more gardening in the past week were defined as gardeners, resulting in a total of 1,585 gardeners and 1,652 nongardeners. Independent t tests, chi square, and regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between gardening and health outcomes. Findings indicate that gardeners reported significantly better balance and gait speed and had fewer chronic conditions and functional limitations than nongardeners. Significantly fewer gardeners than nongardeners reported a fall in the past 2 yr. The findings suggest that gardening may be a potential activity to incorporate into future fall-prevention programs.

  10. California teachers perceive school gardens as an effective nutritional tool to promote healthful eating habits.

    PubMed

    Graham, Heather; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-11-01

    This study assessed elementary school teachers' perceived attitudes and barriers associated with school gardens, as well as the purpose and use of gardens in schools, specifically in relation to the link between gardens and nutrition. The questionnaire was mailed to California fourth-grade teachers at schools with gardens (N = 1,665). The response rate was 36% (n = 592). Teachers perceived the garden to be somewhat to very effective at enhancing academic performance, physical activity, language arts, and healthful eating habits. Nutrition was taught with the use of the garden by 47% of responding teachers. This research provides evidence for needed standards-based curricula materials and teacher training in relation to gardening and nutrition. The results from this study will contribute to development of needed resources and methods by which to encourage the use of gardens and nutrition education in schools.

  11. [Dutch Zoological Gardens (until 1940) in historical context].

    PubMed

    Zwart, P

    2009-01-01

    The history of the zoological gardens is an example of transformation through the ages; it is one of the ways men are dealing with their enviroment. Through the ages there were six reasons to keep wild animals: (1) Religion; 2. Power and Richness; (3) To get acquainted with animals (from tropical regions); (4) Study and Education; (5) Amusement and (6) Preservation of the species. The first Dutch "zoos", of the Dukes of Guelders in the 14th and of the stadholders in the 19th century, can serve as examples of the will to demonstrate power and richness. The Amsterdam Zoological Garden, "Artis", the zoological gardens of Rotterdam and of The Hague were founded for reasons of study and/ or education. Burgers' Dierenpark (Arnhem), Ouwehand's Dierenpark (Rhenen), Dierenpark Emmen en Dierenpark Wassenaar originated as leisure activities of their owners.

  12. Gardening and urban landscaping: significant players in global change.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Global warming leads to shifts in vegetation types in given temperate environments. The fastest species movement is due to the globalized supply and use of exotic plants in gardening and urban landscaping. These standard practices circumvent dispersal limitations and biological and environmental stresses; they have three major global impacts: (i) the enhancement of biological invasions, (ii) the elevation of volatile organic compound emissions and the resulting increase in photochemical smog formation, and (iii) the enhancement of CO(2) fixation and water use by gardened plants. These global effects, none of which are currently considered in global-change scenarios, are increasingly amplified with further warming and urbanization. We urge for quantitative assessment of the global effects of gardening and urban landscaping.

  13. A tale of two rain gardens: Barriers and bridges to adaptive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green infrastructure installations such as rain gardens and bioswales are increasingly regarded as viable tools to mitigate stormwater runoff at the parcel level. The use of adaptive management to implement and monitor green infrastructure projects as experimental attempts to manage stormwater has not been adequately explored as a way to optimize green infrastructure performance or increase social and political acceptance. Efforts to improve stormwater management through green infrastructure suffer from the complexity of overlapping jurisdictional boundaries, as well as interacting social and political forces that dictate the flow, consumption, conservation and disposal of urban wastewater flows. Within this urban milieu, adaptive management—rigorous experimentation applied as policy—can inform new wastewater management techniques such as the implementation of green infrastructure projects. In this article, we present a narrative of scientists and practitioners working together to apply an adaptive management approach to green infrastructure implementation for stormwater management in Cleveland, Ohio. In Cleveland, contextual legal requirements and environmental factors created an opportunity for government researchers, stormwater managers and community organizers to engage in the development of two distinct sets of rain gardens, each borne of unique social, economic and environmental processes. In this article we analyze social and political barriers to app

  14. Going native? Flower use by bumblebees in English urban gardens

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Mick E.; Awbi, Amanda J.; Franco, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Although urban gardens provide opportunities for pollinators in an otherwise inhospitable environment, most garden plants are not native to the recipient biogeographical region and their value to local pollinators is disputed. This study tested the hypothesis that bumblebees foraging in English urban gardens preferentially visited sympatric Palaearctic-range plants over species originating outside their native range. Methods Twenty-seven surveys of flower availability and bumblebee visitation (Bombus spp.) were conducted over a 3-month summer period. Plants were categorized according to whether they were native British, Palaearctic or non-Palaearctic in origin. A phylogeny of the 119 plant species recorded was constructed and the relationship between floral abundance and the frequency of pollinator visits investigated by means of phylogenetically independent contrasts. Differentiation in utilization of plant species by the five bumblebee species encountered was investigated using niche overlap analyses. Key Results There was conflicting evidence for preferential use of native-range Palaearctic plant species by bumblebees depending on which plants were included in the analysis. Evidence was also found for niche partitioning between species based on respective preferences for native and non-native biogeographical range plants. Two bumblebees (Bombus terrestris and B. pratorum) concentrated their foraging activity on non-Palaearctic plants, while two others (B. hortorum and B. pascourum) preferred Palaearctic species. Conclusions The long-running debate about the value of native and non-native garden plants to pollinators probably stems from a failure to properly consider biogeographical overlap between plant and pollinator ranges. Gardeners can encourage pollinators without consideration of plant origin or bias towards ‘local’ biogeographical species. However, dietary specialist bumblebees seem to prefer plants sympatric with their own

  15. Best Practices Models for Implementing, Sustaining, and Using Instructional School Gardens in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzard, Eric L.; Moreno, Elizabeth; Beall, Deborah L.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    To ascertain best practices for schools implementing or sustaining instructional school gardens by interviewing key members in 10 schools with exemplary instructional school gardens programs in California. Practices of schools with exemplary instructional school gardens programs were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using qualitative data…

  16. 33 CFR 110.190 - Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. All of Bird Key Harbor, southwest of Garden Key, bounded by the surrounding reefs and shoals and, on the northeast, by a...

  17. 33 CFR 110.190 - Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. All of Bird Key Harbor, southwest of Garden Key, bounded by the surrounding reefs and shoals and, on the northeast, by a...

  18. Learning Spaces in School: Comparing Math Instruction and Learning in School Gardens and Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boynton, Christine Mary

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the California legislature released $14 million to the schools of California to create school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Bill (CA Assembly Bill 1535, 2006). This study examined the differences and similarities of school gardens as learning spaces by exploring a fifth grade school standards-based mathematics…

  19. 33 CFR 110.190 - Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. All of Bird Key Harbor, southwest of Garden Key, bounded by the surrounding reefs and shoals and, on the northeast, by a...

  20. The Linear Garden - A unique, inexpensive way to facilitate plant identification and roadside beautification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term maintenance costs and availability of space are two common issues encountered at university gardens. Our linear garden concept originated when existing university gardens were at maximum capacity and could not be expanded. In addition, the need to teach a large diversity of plant materia...

  1. The Green Pages Environmental Education Activities K-12: Gardens for Young Growing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Describes several gardening activities that can be kept simple or used as a foundation for more in-depth projects. Activities include setting up an indoor garden spot, making compost which helps students understand the terms "decompose" and "compost", watching plants drink in which students measure water movement in plants, making herb gardens,…

  2. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  8. Direct Marketing Alternatives in an Urban Setting: A Case Study of Seattle Youth Garden Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mykel; Young, Doug; Miles, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is direct marketing of produce from an urban market garden. Rather than discussing broad issues of direct marketing, we use a case study to frame the decisions a market gardener is likely to face in developing both production and marketing plans. The garden featured in this study is located in Seattle, Washington, a city…

  9. 33 CFR 110.190 - Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. All of Bird Key Harbor, southwest of Garden Key, bounded by the surrounding reefs and shoals and, on the northeast, by a...

  10. 33 CFR 110.190 - Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. All of Bird Key Harbor, southwest of Garden Key, bounded by the surrounding reefs and shoals and, on the northeast, by a...

  11. Learning in and beyond School Gardens with Cyber-Physical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.; Wright, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This design-based research study considers the learner-generated design and refinement of a school garden. We report one enactment of the Connected Gardening project in order to illuminate and understand how a fourth-grade class organizes and refines its garden plot using observations of the physical environment and evaluations of data from a…

  12. Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens: A Descriptive View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cater, Melissa; Fox, Janet; Fletcher, Bobby Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens, a K-12 Learn and Serve Grant program, provides a descriptive view of how school gardens along with classroom instruction link curriculum to outdoor classrooms. The purpose of the process evaluation was to describe curriculum implementation fidelity, reach of the gardening program to participants, use…

  13. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  14. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  15. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  16. 78 FR 2957 - Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: recreational fishing.... ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National...

  17. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden... the following vacant seat on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOA- Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700...

  18. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  19. Cold Climate Gardening and Root Cellaring in Alaska: An Instructional Guide. Agricultural Education Publication No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Shann C.; Kirts, Carla A.

    This instructor's guide contains three units for teaching gardening and root cellaring in Alaska. The units are intended to be used in long-term gardening projects so students can learn fundamental principles and techniques and apply them to a gardening situation. Each unit contains an overview that provides a basic framework for understanding the…

  20. The Status of Education Libraries in Botanical Gardens throughout the World: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirio, Pamela

    1992-01-01

    Stupp Teacher Resource Center at the Missouri Botanical Gardens serves as a resource to botanical gardens staff and to educators. A survey conducted in 1991 to determine whether the educational programs of the Stupp model were unique found that education programs in botanical gardens libraries are becoming more widespread and that their…

  1. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  2. Improving Interpersonal Communication through Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, August John; Wallach, Julie; Sanchez, Eduardo; Afkhami, Hasti

    2009-01-01

    The current study sought to determine if community based gardening projects would reduce perceptions of the need to use communication devices--cell phones or text messaging--and increase the likelihood of participating in future volunteer projects. Results strongly support the predictions in that the experimental group post-test mean score of the…

  3. Preserving Open Space via Community Stewardship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Stephen

    1983-01-01

    When community groups assume stewardship of underused properties and turn them into recreational spaces, park agencies can save money on overhead and construction. Three stewardship projects in New York State, involving a playing field, gardening areas, and a historical restoration, are described. Criteria for successful projects are included. (PP)

  4. Twin Signature Schemes, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäge, Sven

    In this paper, we revisit the twin signature scheme by Naccache, Pointcheval and Stern from CCS 2001 that is secure under the Strong RSA (SRSA) assumption and improve its efficiency in several ways. First, we present a new twin signature scheme that is based on the Strong Diffie-Hellman (SDH) assumption in bilinear groups and allows for very short signatures and key material. A big advantage of this scheme is that, in contrast to the original scheme, it does not require a computationally expensive function for mapping messages to primes. We prove this new scheme secure under adaptive chosen message attacks. Second, we present a modification that allows to significantly increase efficiency when signing long messages. This construction uses collision-resistant hash functions as its basis. As a result, our improvements make the signature length independent of the message size. Our construction deviates from the standard hash-and-sign approach in which the hash value of the message is signed in place of the message itself. We show that in the case of twin signatures, one can exploit the properties of the hash function as an integral part of the signature scheme. This improvement can be applied to both the SRSA based and SDH based twin signature scheme.

  5. We Never Promised You a Rose Garden!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gloria S.

    1975-01-01

    Using community resources, Bridgeport, Connecticut develops and implements an environmental education program. Workshops focused on the concepts of ecology, biology, botany, and geology. Trained volunteers, scheduled into schools, offer in class presentations and conduct environmental explorations. In service workshops are provided for teachers to…

  6. 3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE POWERHOUSE AT NEWHALEM. J.D. ROSS HAD THE GROUNDS LANDSCAPED AND PLANTED WITH EXOTIC FLOWERS AND VEGETATION DURING THE 1930S AS AN ADDITIONAL TOURIST ATTRACTION, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. Garden Variety Experiential Education: The "Material Turn" and Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Allison B. Wallace describes a seminar in organic horticulture she created and teaches as part of an honors curriculum. She answers the question of how gardening is appropriate for high-ability college students by saying that she believes efforts to raise plants by relatively non violent means teaches and disciplines students in an ethical way to…

  8. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders.

    PubMed

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W; Morrell, Lesley J

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.

  9. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  10. Healing and Empowering Veterans in a Botanic Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreski, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the common understanding that spending enjoyable time in nature is one of the most reliable ways of reducing stress indicators such as heart rate and blood pressure. This article describes a pilot program in which the Chicago Botanic Garden leveraged nature's stress-reducing qualities to complement a program for veterans in…

  11. Hamilton's Magic Sunflower Garden: An Approach to Urban Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Mary D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an urban environmental education program in which an overgrown vacant lot has been used for environmental study and for the development of a productive garden. The program has been successful in providing elementary school children with positive experiences in their own urban environment. (JR)

  12. Teaching with Documents: Victory Gardens in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baars, Patricia, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)

  13. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT KSC-375C-0604.12 116-KSC-375C-604.12, P-20220, ARCHIVE-04465 Aerial view of Kennedy Space Center Visitors Information Center looking east-northeastward. New food services building under construction is visible at upper left.

  14. JMG[SM] Junior Master Gardener Handbook. Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This student handbook targets children in grades 3-5 and features both group and individual activities. By completing one group and one individual activity in each section of the eighth chapter, a student can become a certified Junior Master Gardener. Contents include: (1) "Plant Growth and Development"; (2) "Soils and Water"; (3) "Ecology and…

  15. At-Home Gardens for Home-Alone Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Betty C.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests many benefits that latchkey children can attain from starting their own gardens. Whether children grow vegetables and herbs in their backyard or in containers, they will learn practical skills and may be able to sell their produce for cash. (MDM)

  16. 104. View of TR antenna, workers on "hanging garden," official ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. View of TR antenna, workers on "hanging garden," official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen, 11 February 1981, clear as negative no. A-17701. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  17. Extension Master Gardener Social Media Needs: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vines, Karen A.; Jeannette, Karen; Eubanks, Emily; Lawrence, Maggie; Radhakrishna, Rama

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to assess the feasibility of providing training on the use of social media for the Extension Master Gardener (EMG) program. Volunteers (n = 1,275) and coordinators (n = 111) responded. Findings indicate the existence of sufficient interest in a nationally coordinated social media training. Inclusion of social media…

  18. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  19. The role of botanical gardens in climate change research.

    PubMed

    Primack, Richard B; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J

    2009-01-01

    Botanical gardens have a unique set of resources that allows them to host important climate change research projects not easily undertaken elsewhere. These resources include controlled growing conditions, living collections with broad taxonomic representation, meticulous record-keeping, networks spanning wide geographic areas, and knowledgeable staff. Indeed, botanical gardens have already contributed significantly to our understanding of biological responses to climate change, particularly the effects of temperature on the timing of flowering and leaf-out. They have also made significant contributions to the understanding of the relationships among climate, physiology, and anatomy. Gardens are finding new uses for traditional research tools such as herbarium specimens and historical photographs, which are increasingly being used to obtain information on past plant behavior. Additional work on invasive species and comparative studies of responses to climatic variation are providing insights on important ecological, evolutionary, and management questions. With their large collections of plant species from throughout the world and excellent herbaria, botanical gardens are well positioned to expand their current activities to continue to provide leadership in climate change research and education.

  20. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  1. Building an Outdoor Classroom for Field Geology: The Geoscience Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, John W. F.; Locock, Andrew J.; Pujadas-Botey, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Many geoscience educators have noted the difficulty that students experience in transferring their classroom knowledge to the field environment. The Geoscience Garden, on the University of Alberta North Campus, provides a simulated field environment in which Earth Science students can develop field observation skills, interpret features of Earth's…

  2. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Garden of Eden Story: "Rappaccini's Daughter."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meixner, Linda L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a four-day lesson plan for secondary U.S. literature or Bible-and-literature classes, using the Garden of Eden story and Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Rappaccini's Daughter." Identifies objectives, materials, procedure, and evaluation measures. Develops students' ability to discover analogies and irony in literary texts. Lists teacher…

  3. An Online Resource Site for Extension Master Gardener Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langellotto, Gail Ann; Dorn, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    Developing an online resource site for Extension master gardener (EMG) coordinators is an ongoing project for Extension collaborators. Begun in 2014, the website includes peer-reviewed resources focused on best practices in volunteer management and program administration. The website is organized according to nine resource categories (e.g.,…

  4. An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curds, Tracy

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

  5. The Garden Path Technique: Is It Really Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Mikio

    1995-01-01

    This study replicating two earlier studies investigated the relative effectiveness of two techniques for teaching English grammar. In the "garden path" method, learners are induced to produce errors, which are then corrected. The error avoidance method prevents error production by means of grammatical explanations. Subjects were 56…

  6. Teaching Borges's "Garden": A Three-Tiered Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Maggie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how "The Garden of Forking Paths" presents teaching challenges that ultimately yield benefits worth the effort for students and instructors. Discusses a three-tiered approach: spy story, family history and character, and ideas of time and timelessness. Concludes that the three layers provide a structure to get the discussion started and…

  7. Conceptualising Childhood: Robert Louis Stevenson's "A Child's Garden of Verses."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the construct of childhood in Robert Louis Stevenson's collection of poems, "A Child's Garden of Verses," by employing notions of child development drawn from Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Finds, from a literary perspective, Stevenson's collection located on the boundaries of romanticism and modernism. (BT)

  8. Sensitivity to Syntactic Changes in Garden Path Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Kiel

    2008-01-01

    The results of two text-change experiments are reported. The experiments were designed to investigate the syntactic representation of garden path sentences such as "While the man hunted the deer that was brown and graceful ran into the woods", specifically the claim that a significant number of misinterpretations of such sentences are due to…

  9. 13. September, 1968 GATE TO THE GARDEN OF THE SALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. September, 1968 GATE TO THE GARDEN OF THE SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE 18 ORANGE STREET, BETWEEN 16 AND 18 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. The United States School Garden Army. Bulletin, 1919, No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, J. H.

    1919-01-01

    The name of the United States School Garden Army was adopted in March, 1918. The work of the organization is an expansion of work undertaken by the Bureau of Education in 1914. The scale upon which it was done was limited by the finances that could be secured for it. The acute demand for food production growing out of the war conditions made…

  11. Final Environmental Assessment. Sale of Cove Gardens Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Assessment Purpose of and Need for Action Sale of Cove Gardens Military Family Housing Area ( NJ NN N u • ~ .6- ~41 4 C4 Figure 1-1 Site Location Map June...outfall lines run under Watson Bayou to the Millville Wastewater Treatment Plant. Wastewater flows within Panama City are treated by the Millville

  12. A Garden of Poets: Poetry Writing in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Mary Kenner

    Written for elementary school teachers who want to help their students delve into poetry, this book grows out of a comparison between gardening and writing poetry. Students at the alternative school founded by the book's author work and play on a plot of land near the school; inside, they work and play with words and imagery. Many examples of…

  13. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders

    PubMed Central

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W.

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds. PMID:28212435

  14. Enhancing Rain Garden Design to Promote Nitrate Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens effectively remove some stressors from stormwater, but in most cases they show much smaller removal rates of nitrate, likely due to the media’s high sand and low organic matter content that inhibit trate removal by denitrification. EPA’s pilot-scale research explores...

  15. Amsterdam in Bloom: An Inner City School Garden Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadyen, Elen

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the educational potential of a garden project. When the opportunity to visit a school in Amsterdam arose as part of her primary science PGCE course, the author jumped at the chance to experience science learning in another country. The majority of teaching that took place was topic-based, and science was…

  16. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Heijnsbergen, E.; van Deursen, A.; Bouwknegt, M.; Bruin, J. P.; Schalk, J. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila. Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. IMPORTANCE Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. PMID:27316958

  17. Is gardening a stimulating activity for people with advanced Huntington's disease?

    PubMed

    Spring, Josephine A; Viera, Marc; Bowen, Ceri; Marsh, Nicola

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated adapted gardening as an activity for people with advanced Huntington's disease (HD) and explored its therapeutic aspects. Visitors and staff completed a questionnaire and participated in structured interviews to capture further information, whereas a pictorial questionnaire was designed for residents with communication difficulties. Staff reported that gardening was a constructive, outdoor activity that promoted social interaction, physical activity including functional movement and posed cognitive challenges. Half the staff thought the activity was problem free and a third used the garden for therapy. Visitors used the garden to meet with residents socially. Despite their disabilities, HD clients enjoyed growing flourishing flowers and vegetables, labelling plants, being outside in the sun and the quiet of the garden. The garden is valued by all three groups. The study demonstrates the adapted method of gardening is a stimulating and enjoyable activity for people with advanced HD.

  18. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    PubMed

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  19. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T. C.; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J.; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare. PMID:28085098

  20. Gardening as a Learning Environment: A Study of Children's Perceptions and Understanding of School Gardens as Part of an International Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Rob; Tearle, Penni

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the early stages of an international project, Gardens for Life (GfL), on children's perceptions of school gardening and on their learning. The project involved 67 schools in England, Kenya and India and focused on the growing of crops, recognising the importance of both the process and product of this activity…

  1. Compact Spreader Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  2. Compact spreader schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J.-Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  3. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  4. Tropical botanical gardens: at the in situ ecosystem management frontier.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Cannon, Charles H; Hu, Huabin

    2009-11-01

    Tropical botanical gardens (TBGs) should have a leading role in in situ conservation by directly promoting several initiatives, including the reintroduction of important or valuable native species, focused habitat restoration, 'assisted migration' of species that are vulnerable to climate change, and creative local collaboration with governments, NGOs and indigenous peoples. Compared with temperate gardens, TBGs face heightened challenges for ex situ conservation, including greater absolute amounts of biodiversity, need for resource mobilization, risk of introducing invasive species and potential genetic introgression within living collections. Meanwhile, the ecosystems surrounding TBGs have undergone widespread and rapid conversion. Here, we provide several illustrations of the effectiveness of TBGs in achieving their mission of preserving tropical biodiversity at the frontier of in situ ecosystem management.

  5. Characterization of iron-phosphate-silicate chemical garden structures.

    PubMed

    Barge, Laura M; Doloboff, Ivria J; White, Lauren M; Stucky, Galen D; Russell, Michael J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-02-28

    Chemical gardens form when ferrous chloride hydrate seed crystals are added or concentrated solutions are injected into solutions of sodium silicate and potassium phosphate. Various precipitation morphologies are observed depending on silicate and phosphate concentrations, including hollow plumes, bulbs, and tubes. The growth of precipitates is controlled by the internal osmotic pressure, fluid buoyancy, and membrane strength. Additionally, rapid bubble-led growth is observed when silicate concentrations are high. ESEM/EDX analysis confirms compositional gradients within the membranes, and voltage measurements across the membranes during growth show a final potential of around 150-200 mV, indicating that electrochemical gradients are maintained across the membranes as growth proceeds. The characterization of chemical gardens formed with iron, silicate, and phosphate, three important components of an early earth prebiotic hydrothermal system, can help us understand the properties of analogous structures that likely formed at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents in the Hadean-structures offering themselves as the hatchery of life.

  6. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and granulomatous lung disease in a mulch gardener.

    PubMed

    Lanspa, Michael J; Hatton, Nathan D

    2014-03-01

    A 50-year-old woman who gardens regularly with rotting bark mulch presented with exertional dyspnea, diffusion impairment, and radiographic abnormalities (centrilobular nodules, tree-in-bud and ground glass opacities, calcified mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes) on a computed tomogram. Moderate lymphocytosis was noted on bronchoalveolar lavage. Surgical biopsy of her lung revealed granulomatous changes, and biopsies grew Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a fungus that causes white rot in tree bark. She was treated with voriconazole and instructed to avoid gardening, which led to radiographic and symptomatic improvement. She had recurrence of symptoms when she started doing yard work again. P. chrysosporium has been demonstrated to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis in animal models. This case is the first documented report of P. chrysosporium associated with granulomatous lung disease in a human.

  7. Effect of airflow on biodrying of gardening wastes in reactors.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Mendoza, F J; Herrera-Prats, L; Robles-Martínez, F; Gallardo-Izquierdo, A; Piña-Guzmán, A B

    2013-05-01

    Biodrying consists of reducing moisture by using the heat from aerobic bio-degradation. The parameters that control the process are: aeration, temperature during the process, initial moisture of biowaste, and temperature and relative humidity of the input air. Lawn mowing and garden waste from the gardens of the University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain) were used as a substrate. Biodrying was performed in 10 reactors with known air volumes from 0.88 to 6.42 L/(min x kg dry weight). To promote aeration, 5 of the reactors had 15% of a bulking agent added. The experiment lasted 20 days. After the experiments it was found that the bulking agent led to greater weight loss. However, the increased airflow rate was not linearly proportional to the weight loss.

  8. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.

  9. Garden-like perovskite superstructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Ye, Meidan; Wang, Mengye; Zheng, Dajiang; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-04-07

    By subjecting amorphous flower-like TiO2 to a facile hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of Sr(2+), garden-like perovskite SrTiO3 superstructures were achieved. The amorphous TiO2 was preformed using ZnO flowers as templates. Different three-dimensional SrTiO3 architectures were coexisted in the garden, including SrTiO3 flowers composed of several hollow sword-shaped petals, many sheet-shaped petals or numerous flake-shaped petals, and SrTiO3 grass consisting of a number of long blades. These SrTiO3 superstructures were simultaneously grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. On the basis of a comprehensive study on the effects of growth time, temperature, initial concentrations of precursor, and pH, the formation of these various hierarchical architectures was attributed primarily to the dissolution of amorphous TiO2 and precipitation of perovskite crystals, followed by the Ostwald ripening process of perovskite nanocrystals and self-organization of perovskite building blocks. Interestingly, this approach can be readily extended to create other perovskite structures, including dendritic BaTiO3 and nest-like CaTiO3, as well as PbTiO3 transformed from plate-like pyrochlore Pb2Ti2O6 after post-thermal treatment. Garden-like SrTiO3 superstructures showed a superior photocatalytic performance when compared to other as-prepared semiconductors and perovskite materials (i.e., ZnO, TiO2, BaTiO3, CaTiO3 and PbTiO3), probably due to their intrinsic photocatalytic activity and special garden-like features with a coexistence of various structures that significantly facilitated the adsorption and diffusion of methyl blue (MB) molecules and oxygen species in the photochemical reaction of MB degradation.

  10. Brinicles as a case of inverse chemical gardens.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Escribano, Bruno; González, Diego L; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Tuval, Idan

    2013-06-25

    Brinicles are hollow tubes of ice from centimeters to meters in length that form under floating sea ice in the polar oceans when dense, cold brine drains downward from sea ice to seawater close to its freezing point. When this extremely cold brine leaves the ice, it freezes the water it comes into contact with: a hollow tube of ice-a brinicle-growing downward around the plume of descending brine. We show that brinicles can be understood as a form of the self-assembled tubular precipitation structures termed chemical gardens, which are plantlike structures formed on placing together a soluble metal salt, often in the form of a seed crystal, and an aqueous solution of one of many anions, often silicate. On one hand, in the case of classical chemical gardens, an osmotic pressure difference across a semipermeable precipitation membrane that filters solutions by rejecting the solute leads to an inflow of water and to its rupture. The internal solution, generally being lighter than the external solution, flows up through the break, and as it does so, a tube grows upward by precipitation around the jet of internal solution. Such chemical-garden tubes can grow to many centimeters in length. In the case of brinicles, on the other hand, in floating sea ice we have porous ice in a mushy layer that filters out water, by freezing it, and allows concentrated brine through. Again there is an osmotic pressure difference leading to a continuing ingress of seawater in a siphon pump mechanism that is sustained as long as the ice continues to freeze. Because the brine that is pumped out is denser than the seawater and descends rather than rises, a brinicle is a downward-growing tube of ice, an inverse chemical garden.

  11. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines.

  12. Visualization of soil-moisture change in response to precipitation within two rain gardens in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.; Darner, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban areas is increasingly being managed by means of a variety of treaments that reduce or delay runoff and promote more natural infiltration. One such treatment is a rain garden, which is built to detain runoff and allow for water infiltration and uptake by plants.Water flow into or out of a rain garden can be readily monitored with a variety of tools; however, observing the movement of water within the rain garden is less straightforward. Soil-moisture probes in combination with an automated interpolation procedure were used to document the infiltration of water into two rain gardens in Ohio. Animations show changes in soil moisture in the rain gardens during two precipitation events. At both sites, the animations demonstrate underutilization of the rain gardens.

  13. Field evaluations on soil plant transfer of lead from an urban garden soil.

    PubMed

    Attanayake, Chammi P; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Harms, Ashley; Presley, DeAnn; Martin, Sabine; Pierzynski, Gary M

    2014-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most common contaminants in urban soils. Gardening in contaminated soils can result in Pb transfer from soil to humans through vegetable consumption and unintentional direct soil ingestion. A field experiment was conducted in 2009 and 2010 in a community urban garden with a soil total Pb concentration of 60 to 300 mg kg. The objectives of this study were to evaluate soil-plant transfer of Pb, the effects of incorporation of a leaf compost as a means of reducing Pb concentrations in vegetables and the bioaccessibility of soil Pb, and the effects of vegetable cleaning techniques on the Pb concentrations in the edible portions of vegetables. The amount of compost added was 28 kg m. The tested plants were Swiss chard, tomato, sweet potato, and carrots. The vegetable cleaning techniques were kitchen cleaning, laboratory cleaning, and peeling. Compost addition diluted soil total Pb concentration by 29 to 52%. Lead concentrations of the edible portions of vegetables, except carrot, were below the maximum allowable limits of Pb established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization. Swiss chard and tomatoes subjected to kitchen cleaning had higher Pb concentrations than laboratory-cleaned plants. Cleaning methods did not affect Pb concentrations in carrots. Bioaccessible Pb in the compost-added soils was 20 to 30% less than that of the no-compost soils; compost addition reduced the potential of transferring soil Pb to humans via vegetable consumption and direct soil ingestion. Thorough cleaning of vegetables further reduced the potential of transferring soil Pb to humans.

  14. Check-Digit Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the study of identification codes and check-digit schemes as a way to show students a practical application of mathematics and introduce them to coding theory. Examples include postal service money orders, parcel tracking numbers, ISBN codes, bank identification numbers, and UPC codes. (MKR)

  15. Spirituality and Aging in Place: The Impact of Extreme Climatic Conditions on Domestic Gardening Practice.

    PubMed

    Adams, Joanne; Pascal, Jan; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    There is limited research exploring how domestic water restrictions imposed as a result of drought conditions impact upon the lives of independently living older people. Within this age group (60 years plus), the domestic garden frequently forms an intrinsic component of ongoing health and well-being. Gardening practice offers components of both mental and physical activity and, for many older people, leads to emotional and spiritual connection on a number of levels. The capacity of older people to maintain a garden during a period of water restrictions is greatly reduced, and the resulting impact on health and well-being is considerable. A recent study, conducted in south-eastern Australia, aimed to determine the benefits to health and well-being of maintaining a domestic garden for older people and the impact of water restrictions on garden practice. This occurred at a time following a prolonged period of drought and, in central Victoria, a complete ban on outside watering. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 gardeners aged between 60 and 83 who had tended their garden over an extended period. The lived experience of gardening was explored through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Clear benefits to health and well-being were established, and yet, the essence of this experience lay in the capacity of gardeners to remain connected to their garden despite change. The crisis imposed by ongoing drought and restricted use of water generated a strong impetus for adaptation, resilience and acceptance of change. The spiritual nature of gardening practice clearly emerged and appeared to intensify the experience of gardening and consolidate adaption to change on a number of levels.

  16. Community Social Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Peter H.

    This paper develops a conceptual scheme which takes the global conception of community and breaks it down into important components. Existing definitions of community tend to confuse two very different classes of social relations, symbiotic and commensalistic, a very clear differentiation being made between the two in the paper. The paper proposes…

  17. Historical Allotment Gardens in Wrocław - The Need to Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononowicz, Wanda; Gryniewicz-Balińska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Since about the mid-nineteenth century, together with the changing socio-economic situation, different types of allotments appeared in Wrocław. Initially, they were rented gardens, gardens for the poor or for factory workers. At the beginning of the twentieth century, school gardens and the so called Schreber gardens with a large common square were set up as part of Dr. Schreber's educational health program. In 1914-1918, "war" vegetable gardens were commonly cultivated. In the 1920s allotment gardens began to be systematically introduced to the city plan as permanent, purposefully designed elements of urban greenery. They were often designed together with urban parks, or so called "Folk Parks" of a recreational and sport character. In the 1930s, during the economic crisis, allotments with garden houses were adapted for the unemployed and the homeless to live in. Wrocław allotment gardens have undeniable historical, social, recreational, economic and compositional value. These gardens are a cultural heritage that should be protected. In Western Europe we are witnessing a renaissance of the idea of allotments, while in Poland - a tendency to eliminate them from urban landscapes.

  18. A multi-case study of school gardens in Southwest Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Kimberly Ann

    Many children today spend little time outdoors exploring the natural world and a great deal of time inside viewing the television or playing video games. This new condition of childhood has many negative ramifications, such as poor social development, childhood obesity, and a lack of feeling connected to the environment. One instructional tool being used by some schools to address these rising concerns is a school garden. School gardens can provide an opportunity for students to experience learning in a real-world application, outside of the classroom walls. This qualitative multi-case study explores three school gardens in Southwest Montana and tells each of their unique stories. Through the process of participant observation, interviews, and the collection of multiple data sources, a thorough description is given of the history behind the gardens, how they have impacted the teachers and students, what challenges they have faced, and the common characteristics found in a successful school garden program. During the data analysis process, themes for each case study site were revealed. The results of this study found that each school garden was unique in character and purpose and that a number of dedicated garden supporters are essential to the success of a garden program. In conclusion, suggestions and resources were provided for practitioners interested in pursuing a garden program.

  19. Impacts of Rotation Schemes on Ground-Dwelling Beneficial Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2016-10-01

    Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois. Rotation schemes sampled included continuous corn, a 2-yr annual rotation of corn and soybean, and a 3-yr annual rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat. Insects captured were identified to family, and non-insect arthropods were identified to class, order, or family, depending upon the taxa. Beneficial arthropods captured included natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. The beneficial community from continuous corn plots was significantly more diverse compared with the community in the 2-yr rotation, whereas the community in the 3-yr rotation did not differ from either rotation scheme. The activity-density of the total community and any individual taxa did not differ among rotation schemes in either corn or soybean. Crop species within all three rotation schemes were annual crops, and are associated with agricultural practices that make infield habitat subject to anthropogenic disturbances and temporally unstable. Habitat instability and disturbance can limit the effectiveness and retention of beneficial arthropods, including natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. Increasing non-crop and perennial species within landscapes in conjunction with more diverse rotation schemes may increase the effect of biological control of pests by natural enemies.

  20. Pinning controllability of complex networks with community structure.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingying; Tang, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen; Fang, Jian-an; Wong, W K

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the controllability of networks with different numbers of communities and various strengths of community structure. By means of simulations, we show that the degree descending pinning scheme performs best among several considered pinning schemes under a small number of pinned nodes, while the degree ascending pinning scheme is becoming more powerful by increasing the number of pinned nodes. It is found that increasing the number of communities or reducing the strength of community structure is beneficial for the enhancement of the controllability. Moreover, it is revealed that the pinning scheme with evenly distributed pinned nodes among communities outperforms other kinds of considered pinning schemes.