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Sample records for community health development

  1. Developing Community Health Worker Diabetes Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. J.; Lemay, C. A.; Hargraves, J. L.; Gorodetsky, T.; Calista, J.

    2012-01-01

    We designed, implemented and evaluated a 48-hour training program for community health workers (CHWs) deployed to diabetes care teams in community health centers (CHCs). The curriculum included core knowledge/skills with diabetes content to assist CHWs in developing patient self-management goals. Our qualitative evaluation included…

  2. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health.

    PubMed

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is "at risk" is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  3. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is “at risk” is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  4. Community development for health and identity politics.

    PubMed

    Allen, C F

    1997-08-01

    Community development for health (CD4H) is defined as the mobilization of communities actually or potentially suffering from a health problem to eliminate its causes or alleviate its consequences. This paper links this with questions of social identity, focusing on issues of ethnicity and 'race', in health promotion. When combined with notions of ethnicity and 'race'. CD4H is frequently a reaction to inequalities which are communally experienced and believed to increase risk of ill-health for the group. This paper theorizes the link between communal experience and activity to promote health, by drawing on sociological theory linking structure and agency. It examines how discourses of belonging and exclusion are enacted in struggles for health. Via examples from the Caribbean and the UK, instances of 'identity politics' in CD4H are identified, viewed as the use of essentialist, binary notions of self and other in the attempt to gain an advantage over the other. It is argued that such instances should not be considered in isolation, but should be viewed as responses to experience, particularly, in the UK context, the experience of racism in the Health Service.

  5. Developing Interactive Video Resource Materials for Community Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoli, Claire; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the creation of a series of interactive video modules on dental hygiene at Luzerne County Community College. These modules are intended to supplement instruction in a community dentistry and health education course and to guide students in an assignment to develop and implement dental health projects in their community. (MBR)

  6. Development of the Community Health Improvement Navigator Database of Interventions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Brita; Stanojevich, Joel; Stange, Paul; Jiwani, Nafisa; King, Raymond; Koo, Denise

    2016-02-26

    With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the requirements for hospitals to achieve tax-exempt status include performing a triennial community health needs assessment and developing a plan to address identified needs. To address community health needs, multisector collaborative efforts to improve both health care and non-health care determinants of health outcomes have been the most effective and sustainable. In 2015, CDC released the Community Health Improvement Navigator to facilitate the development of these efforts. This report describes the development of the database of interventions included in the Community Health Improvement Navigator. The database of interventions allows the user to easily search for multisector, collaborative, evidence-based interventions to address the underlying causes of the greatest morbidity and mortality in the United States: tobacco use and exposure, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity.

  7. Health promotion community development and the tyranny of individualism.

    PubMed

    Shiell, A; Hawe, P

    1996-01-01

    Economic evaluation of health promotion poses few major difficulties when the theoretical approach of the programme and the evaluation of cost and benefits are confined within the context of the individual. Methodological individualism has a long history in economics and the techniques of microeconomics are well suited to the examination of individually focused behaviour change programmes. However, new developments in community health promotion pose special challenges. These programmes have the community, not the individual, as the focus of programme theory and "community' means something completely different from the sum of individuals. Community empowerment and promotion of the community's capacity to deal with health issues are the goals of such programmes. To reflect these notions, sense of community and community competence should be considered as "functionings', an extra-welfarist constituent of well-being. Their inclusion as outcomes of community health promotion requires a shift from individualist utilitarian economics into a communitarian framework which respects the programme's notion of community. If health economics fails to develop new constructs to deal with these new approaches in health promotion, the application of existing techniques to community programmes will mislead health decision makers about their value and potential. PMID:8817298

  8. Health promotion community development and the tyranny of individualism.

    PubMed

    Shiell, A; Hawe, P

    1996-01-01

    Economic evaluation of health promotion poses few major difficulties when the theoretical approach of the programme and the evaluation of cost and benefits are confined within the context of the individual. Methodological individualism has a long history in economics and the techniques of microeconomics are well suited to the examination of individually focused behaviour change programmes. However, new developments in community health promotion pose special challenges. These programmes have the community, not the individual, as the focus of programme theory and "community' means something completely different from the sum of individuals. Community empowerment and promotion of the community's capacity to deal with health issues are the goals of such programmes. To reflect these notions, sense of community and community competence should be considered as "functionings', an extra-welfarist constituent of well-being. Their inclusion as outcomes of community health promotion requires a shift from individualist utilitarian economics into a communitarian framework which respects the programme's notion of community. If health economics fails to develop new constructs to deal with these new approaches in health promotion, the application of existing techniques to community programmes will mislead health decision makers about their value and potential.

  9. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725

  10. Developing a health promotion program for faith-based communities.

    PubMed

    Kotecki, Catherine Nuss

    2002-04-01

    The article describes the partnership formed between community outreach programs, a school of nursing, and hospitals to implement Healthy People 2010 goals in urban, faith-based communities. To date this program has provided health promotion programs to 125 people from more than 18 congregations in the context of their faith setting. The program has allowed congregants to develop ministry strategies to meet health care needs within the congregation and community. The article provides overall program goals, specific lesson plans, and evaluation strategies. Outcome measures include an increase in health promotion knowledge, participant satisfaction, and improved health in congregations. PMID:11913228

  11. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness.

  12. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness. PMID:27717265

  13. Developing community mental health services for children in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, A L; Lockhat, M R

    1997-11-01

    As a result of South Africa's Apartheid history, mental health care for black people, especially in rural areas, has been grossly inadequate and even non-existent in many areas. Children have been severely neglected in this regard. This paper describes an attempt by clinical psychologists to develop a community intervention programme for children with emotional problems. From their hospital base the authors set out, on a monthly basis, to outlying areas up to 250 km away to (1) train primary care nurses and other personnel in the basic techniques of identifying and dealing with uncomplicated psychological problems of childhood, and (2) render consultations to psychologically disturbed children. The paper argues the need to provide primary care workers with mental health skills and thus integrate childhood mental health care into the primary care structure. Such a move could make mental health care accessible to all inhabitants, thus deviating from the policies of the past.

  14. Strengthening health development at the community level in Thailand: what events should be managed?

    PubMed

    Tanvatanakul, Vasuton; Vicente, Corália; Amado, João; Saowakontha, Sastri

    2007-01-01

    Community action for health development is important for sustaining community health. This study aimed to identify the components and processes for strengthening the community health development process. We used an exploratory, cross-sectional design and focus group discussions in Chonburi, Thailand, between March 2003 and April 2005. We interviewed 422 respondents selected by stratified sampling from various groups involved with community health activities. Interview data was analyzed and then clarified by focus group discussions with representatives of the communities and stakeholders. Results indicated that both study components, namely, community experience in health activities and appearance of health conditions in the community, as well as all of their subcomponents, influence community action for health development. The most influential subcomponent of the community experience in health activities was perception of health information and policy (p < .001; r = .546). The most influential subcomponent of the appearance of health conditions in the community was the impact of health information (p < .001; r = .439). Focus group discussions indicated the communities' potential, ideas and need to activate health development by community mobilization. We recommend that the government encourage and support community action for health development with the subcomponents identified by this study. The process of community empowerment and network of implementation should encourage successful and sustainable health development by the community.

  15. Developing Learning Communities in Health and Human Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Karen L.; Dawkins, Phyllis W.

    2007-01-01

    Learning communities in health and human performance are creative approaches to traditional academic outcomes. Learning communities are becoming increasingly widespread in a variety of contexts, and there is extensive evidence suggesting that effective learning communities have important benefits for students as well as faculty. In this article,…

  16. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in Europe

    PubMed Central

    SEMRAU, MAYA; BARLEY, ELIZABETH A.; LAW, ANN; THORNICROFT, GRAHAM

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the European Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. The article presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies and legislation, a summary of relevant research in the region, a precis of community mental health services, a discussion of the key lessons learned, and some recommendations for the future. PMID:21991282

  17. Lantern parades in the development of arts in community health.

    PubMed

    White, Mike; Robson, Mary

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the development of two annual lantern parades as case examples of arts in community health, which the authors define as a distinct area of activity operating mainly outside of acute healthcare settings, characterised by the use of participatory arts to promote health. The parades took place in Gateshead 1994-2006 and later in Stockton-on-Tees from 2009 to the present, and the paper reflects on the factors that made for the success of the Gateshead parade and also the problems that led to its demise. It then describes and assesses the Stockton parade, and the benefits and challenges of a workshop ethos of 'positive regard' with reference to interview data gathered from adult volunteers and school staff. It considers the potential of this annual 'tradition' to shape communal memories that identify with place, and it sets out its aspirations for future programme and research.

  18. Development of critically reflective dialogues in communities of health professionals.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike; Jaarsma, Debbie; van Beukelen, Peter; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    Critically reflective dialogues (CRD) are important for knowledge sharing and creating meaning in communities. CRD includes different aspects: being open about mistakes, critical opinion sharing, asking for and giving feedback, experimentation, challenging groupthink and research utilisation. In this article we explore whether CRD aspects change over time, through a study of two dialogues each from six different communities of veterinary health professionals. Change was studied from the perspective of observations, through analysing transcripts of dialogues, and from the perspective of community members' perceptions, through an evaluative discussion with members. The results showed that some communities became more open about mistakes, a finding that is related to an increase in trust. Other observed aspects of CRD seemed to be fairly stable over time. Community members perceived research utilisation and asking for and giving feedback to have been increased. From an analysis of perceptions of the community members it emerged that limited interaction could be associated with the epistemological conceptions of community members. PMID:22976456

  19. Community organizing network for environmental health: using a community health development approach to increase community capacity around reduction of environmental triggers.

    PubMed

    Parker, Edith A; Chung, Lynna K; Israel, Barbara A; Reyes, Angela; Wilkins, Donele

    2010-04-01

    The Community Organizing Network for Environmental Health (CONEH), a project of Community Action Against Asthma, used a community health development approach to improve children's asthma-related health through increasing the community's capacity to reduce physical and social environmental triggers for asthma. Three community organizers were hired to work with community groups and residents in neighborhoods in Detroit on the priority areas of air quality, housing, and citizen involvement in the environmental project and policy decision-making. As part of the evaluation of the CONEH project, 20 one-on-one semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted between August and November 2005 involving steering committee members, staff members, and key community organization staff and/or community members. Using data from the evaluation of the CONEH project, this article identifies the dimensions of community capacity that were enhanced as part of a CBPR community health development approach to reducing physical and social environmental triggers associated with childhood asthma and the factors that facilitated or inhibited the enhancement of community capacity.

  20. Health promotion or community development? Health communication or DevCom? Who's confused?

    PubMed

    James, R W; Howat, P; Binns, C

    1998-01-01

    A high prevalence of xerophthalmia, abnormal dryness of the eyeball, was reduced in a Mumbai (Bombay) squatter area by improving the nutritional status of children under age 5 years and reducing the prevalence of malnutrition among women and children. To achieve these results, the project improved women's status, trained community health workers, motivated and mobilized communities to improve environmental conditions and prevent morbidity, increased women's literacy, taught mothers about nutrition and health care, expanded the sale of vitamin A-enriched vegetables through door-to-door vendors, provided income generation training to enable women to buy vitamin A-rich foods, organized a supplementary feeding program for malnourished children, and maintained horticultural activities such as a demonstration garden to motivate women to grow dark green leaf vegetables. This intervention was supported by locally appropriate IEC activities. The authors consider whether the intervention was community development, health promotion, or both. The core assumptions between community development and health promotion are considered, with discussion of the implications for communication training and practice. 3 priorities for action are suggested. PMID:12295217

  1. Community Wise: Development of a Model to Address Oppression in Order to Promote Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane; Pinto, Rogério M.; Benoit, Ellen; Jessell, Lauren; Jemal, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Communities with histories of oppression have shown great resilience. Yet few health interventions focus on structural oppression as a contributor to health problems in these communities. This paper describes the development and active ingredients of Community Wise, a unique behavioral-health intervention designed to reduce substance use frequency, related health risk behaviors, and recidivism among individuals with a history of incarceration and substance abuse residing in distressed and predominantly African American communities. Community Wise, developed through the collaborative efforts of a board of service providers, researchers, consumers, and government officials, is a 12-week group intervention that aims to address behavioral-health problems by raising critical consciousness in distressed communities. PMID:26190947

  2. Applications of Community Psychology in Fostering the Development of Health Systems Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Douglas R.

    The Health Systems Agencies created to plan and coordinate the development of health care systems in 205 health service areas across the states have a need to be legitimized and operationalized in community contexts in order to achieve their purpose. Community psychologists have both research and consultation roles to play in contributing to…

  3. Community participation in primary health care projects of the Muldersdrift Health and Development Programme.

    PubMed

    Barker, M; Klopper, H

    2007-06-01

    After numerous teething problems (1974-1994), the Department of Nursing Education of WITS University took responsibility for the Muldersdrift Health and Development Programme (MHDP). The nursing science students explored and implemented an empowerment approach to community participation. The students worked with MHDP health workers to improve health through community participation, in combination with primary health care (PHC) activities and the involvement of a variety of community groups. As the PHC projects evolved over time, the need arose to evaluate the level of community participation and how much community ownership was present over decision-making and resources. This led to the question "What was the level of community participation in PHC projects of the MHDP?" Based on the question the following objectives were set, i.e. (i) to evaluate the community participation in PHC initiatives; (ii) to provide the project partners with motivational affirmation on the level of community participation criteria thus far achieved; (iii) to indicate to participants the mechanisms that should still be implemented if they wanted to advance to higher levels of community participation; (iv) to evaluate the MHDP's implementation of a people-centred approach to community participation in PHC; and (v) the evaluation of the level of community participation in PHC projects in the MHDP. An evaluative, descriptive, contextual and quantitative research design was used. Ethical standards were adhered to throughout the study. The MHDP had a study population of twenty-three (N=23) PHC projects. A purposive sample of seven PHC initiatives was chosen according to specific selection criteria and evaluated according to the "Criteria to evaluate community participation in PHC projects" instrument (a quantitative tool). Structured group interviews were done with PHC projects' executive committee members. The Joint Management Committee's data was collected through mailed self

  4. 76 FR 37119 - Development of Best Practices for Community Health Needs Assessment and Implementation Strategy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Development of Best Practices for Community... developing best practices designed to support state and local health departments to meet public health... Federal public health authority, HHS/CDC intends to develop best practices in CHNA and...

  5. Implementing a Community Empowerment Center to Build Capacity for Developing, Implementing, and Sustaining Interventions to Promote Community Health.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Stacy W; Freedman, Darcy A; Pitner, Ronald O; Sharpe, Patricia A; Cole, Jennie Ann; Hastie, Shanna; Hunter, Brittney

    2015-12-01

    The Community Empowerment Center used a community-engaged approach to build capacity among residents to develop and implement interventions focused on creating a healthier environment. The Center partnered with residents living in a public housing community and adjacent low-income neighborhood and provided support through a mini-grant program. A six-session training program guided community members in mini grant development; 25 individuals attended at least one session. Six grant proposals were submitted; three were awarded $12,000 each for intervention implementation. Findings offer a model for engaging residents from low-resource settings in intervention development, implementation, and sustainability for community health promotion. PMID:25962954

  6. Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, S B; Paine-Andrews, A; Francisco, V T; Schultz, J A; Richter, K P; Lewis, R K; Williams, E L; Harris, K J; Berkley, J Y; Fisher, J L

    1995-10-01

    Models of community empowerment help us understand the process of gaining influence over conditions that matter to people who share neighborhoods, workplaces, experiences, or concerns. Such frameworks can help improve collaborative partnerships for community health and development. First, we outline an interactive model of community empowerment that describes reciprocal influences between personal or group factors and environmental factors in an empowerment process. Second, we describe an iterative framework for the process of empowerment in community partnerships that includes collaborative planning, community action, community change, capacity building, and outcomes, and adaptation, renewal, and institutionalization. Third, we outline activities that are used by community leadership and support organizations to facilitate the process of community empowerment. Fourth, we present case stories of collaborative partnerships for prevention of substance abuse among adolescents to illustrate selected enabling activities. We conclude with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities of facilitating empowerment with collaborative partnerships for community health and development.

  7. Partnerships among community development, public health, and health care could improve the well-being of low-income people.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David; Andrews, Nancy

    2011-11-01

    Safe, vibrant neighborhoods are vital to health. The community development "industry"-a network of nonprofit service providers, real estate developers, financial institutions, foundations, and government-draws on public subsidies and other financing to transform impoverished neighborhoods into better-functioning communities. Although such activity positively affects the "upstream" causes of poor health, the community development industry rarely collaborates with the health sector or even considers health effects in its work. Examples of initiatives-such as the creation of affordable housing that avoids nursing home placement-suggest a strong potential for cross-sector collaborations to reduce health disparities and slow the growth of health care spending, while at the same time improving economic and social well-being in America's most disadvantaged communities. We propose a four-point plan to help ensure that these collaborations achieve positive outcomes and sustainable progress for residents and investors alike. PMID:22068396

  8. Integrating public health and community development to tackle neighborhood distress and promote well-being.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2014-11-01

    Recently there have been calls for public health to reconnect to urban planning in ways that emphasize the impact of place on health and that address fundamental causes of poor health, such as poverty, social inequality, and discrimination. Community developers have realized that poor health limits individuals' and communities' economic potential and have begun to integrate into their work such neighborhood health issues as access to fresh food and open space. In this article we review recent shifts in the community development field and give examples of programs that operate at the intersection of community development, public health, and civic engagement. For example, in Sacramento, California, the Building Healthy Communities program successfully promoted the creation of community gardens and bike paths and the redevelopment of brownfields. A major housing revitalization initiative in San Francisco, California, known as Sunnydale-Velasco, is transforming the city's largest public housing site into a mixed-income community that provides existing residents with new housing, infrastructure, services, and amenities. These examples and others illustrate the need to identify and make use of interdisciplinary approaches to ensure that all places are strong platforms for economic mobility, full democratic participation, and community health.

  9. Integrating public health and community development to tackle neighborhood distress and promote well-being.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2014-11-01

    Recently there have been calls for public health to reconnect to urban planning in ways that emphasize the impact of place on health and that address fundamental causes of poor health, such as poverty, social inequality, and discrimination. Community developers have realized that poor health limits individuals' and communities' economic potential and have begun to integrate into their work such neighborhood health issues as access to fresh food and open space. In this article we review recent shifts in the community development field and give examples of programs that operate at the intersection of community development, public health, and civic engagement. For example, in Sacramento, California, the Building Healthy Communities program successfully promoted the creation of community gardens and bike paths and the redevelopment of brownfields. A major housing revitalization initiative in San Francisco, California, known as Sunnydale-Velasco, is transforming the city's largest public housing site into a mixed-income community that provides existing residents with new housing, infrastructure, services, and amenities. These examples and others illustrate the need to identify and make use of interdisciplinary approaches to ensure that all places are strong platforms for economic mobility, full democratic participation, and community health. PMID:25367982

  10. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in Latin American and Caribbean countries

    PubMed Central

    RAZZOUK, DENISE; GREGÓRIO, GUILHERME; ANTUNES, RENATO; MARI, JAIR DE JESUS

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the Latin American and Caribbean countries of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. It presents an overview of the provision of mental health services in the region; describes key experiences in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Jamaica and Mexico; and discusses the lessons learned in developing community mental health care. PMID:23024680

  11. Evaluation of Diverse Community Asthma Interventions: Balancing Health Outcomes with Developing Community Capacity for Evidence-Based Program Measurement.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Lynn D; Livingood, William C; Toal, Russ; Keene, DeAnna; Hines, Robert B; Tedders, Stuart; Charles, Simone M; Lawrence, Raymona H; Gunn, Laura H; Williams, Natalie; Kellum, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The challenge of evaluating community asthma management programs is complicated by balancing the emphasis on health outcomes with the need to build community process capacity for conducting and monitoring evidence-based programs. The evaluation of a Georgia Childhood Asthma Management Program, a Healthcare Georgia Foundation-supported initiative for multiple diverse programs and settings, provides an example of an approach and the results that address this challenge. A "developmental evaluation" approach was applied, using mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis, to assess the progress of community asthma prevention programs in building community within the context of: where the community is starting, community-level systems changes, and the community's progress toward becoming more outcome measurement oriented and evidence based. Initial evaluation efforts revealed extensive mobilization of community assets to manage childhood asthma. However, there were minimal planned efforts to assess health outcomes and systems changes, and the lack of a logic model-based program design linking evidence-based practices to outcomes. Following developmental technical assistance within evaluation efforts, all programs developed logic models, linking practices to outcomes with data collection processes to assess progress toward achieving the selected outcomes. This developmental approach across diverse projects and communities, along with a quality improvement benchmarking approach to outcomes, created a focus on health status outcome improvement. Specifically, this approach complemented an emphasis on an improved community process capacity to identify, implement, and monitor evidence-based asthma practices that could be used within each community setting.

  12. Facilitating the development of a county health coverage plan with data from a community-based health survey.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Hamacher, Linda; Strugar-Fritsch, Donna; Shirey, Lauren; Renda, Emily; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2010-07-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) has the twin goals of generating data and shaping policy decisions, yet examples that combine these goals are scarce in the literature. We describe how a community-based survey was created and used to help develop a county health plan. The Genesee Health Plan (GHP), a community-initiated non-profit organization, provides primary care, prescription drugs, and specialty care to uninsured, low-income adults through a network of independent physicians, clinics, and hospital systems. As part of an advocacy effort, GHP supporters used results from the Speak to Your Health! Community Survey to gain financial and political support for GHP. Our study, which used CBPR principles, was created by the community, local health department, and university partners. As a result, Genesee County became one of the first counties in the United States to make basic health care available to nearly all of its uninsured, low-income adults.

  13. An outline of the need for psychology knowledge in health professionals: implications for community development and breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.

  14. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop a Bilingual Mental Health Survey for Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carolyn M.; Gilchrist, Lauren; Campesino, Centro; Raymond, Nancy; Naughton, Sandy; de Patino, Janeth Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite rapid growth, Latino communities’ mental health needs are unmet by existing services and research. Barriers may vary by geographic locations but often include language, insurance coverage, immigration status, cultural beliefs, and lack of services. Objectives The aim of this research was development of a cross-sectional instrument to assess the mental health status, beliefs, and knowledge of resources among rural and urban Latinos residing in a mid-western state. Methods The purpose of this article is to describe the Community Based Participatory Research process of instrument development and lessons learned. Results A culturally relevant, 100-item bilingual survey instrument was developed by community and academic partners. Conclusions Community-based participatory research methods are salient for sensitive health topics and varied research objectives, including instrument development. In order to ensure cultural and social relevance of research, community participation is crucial at all stages of research including developing the research question and instrument. PMID:20208244

  15. Developing Research and Community Literacies to Recruit Latino Researchers and Practitioners to Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Granberry, Phillip J; Torres, María Idalí; Allison, Jeroan J; Rosal, Milagros C; Rustan, Sarah; Colón, Melissa; Fontes, Mayara; Cruz, Ivettte

    2016-03-01

    Engaging community residents and undergraduate Latino students in developing research and community literacies can expose both groups to resources needed to address health disparities. The bidirectional learning process described in this article developed these literacies through an ethnographic mapping fieldwork activity that used a learning-by-doing method in combination with reflection on the research experience. The active efforts of research team members to promote reflection on the research activities were integral for developing research and community literacies. Our findings suggest that, through participating in this field research activity, undergraduate students and community residents developed a better understanding of resources for addressing health disparities. Our research approach assisted community residents and undergraduate students by demystifying research, translating scientific and community knowledge, providing exposure to multiple literacies, and generating increased awareness of research as a tool for change among community residents and their organizations. The commitment of the community and university leadership to this pedagogical method can bring out the full potential of mentoring, both to contribute to the development of the next generation of Latino researchers and to assist community members in their efforts to address health disparities. PMID:26896113

  16. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  17. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  18. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health.

  19. Evaluating community development programs for health promotion: problems illustrated by a New Zealand example.

    PubMed

    Duignan, P; Casswell, S

    1989-01-01

    This paper illustrates problems in the evaluation of community development programs for health promotion. It is based on the authors' retrospective process evaluation of the Wanganui Community Alcohol Action Program (WCAAP), a recent example of a health promotion program directed at reducing alcohol-related problems in a small New Zealand town. Described by its designers as a community-based program, it included coordination of community organizations, education, publicity and increased enforcement of drinking laws. Discussion of the problems in the evaluation of such programs puts them within the context of the substantial body of previous social science research in both evaluation and community development. This, it is argued, is a body of knowledge with which health promotion researchers need to be conversant. Community development programs usually stem from a process of negotiation between interest groups with differing objectives. This results in a changing definition of both the problem to be solved and the nature of the solution, making evaluation difficult. Community development is also likely to be seen as a new solution providing a panacea for old problems. This can lead to such programs being too ambitious. From the point of view of experimental design these programs are likely to have a number of technical problems. This paper argues that these problems are so significant that it often unwise to attempt large scale evaluations of community development programs. Rather, attention should be concentrated on critically assessing the policy-making process and disseminating previous knowledge about such programs.

  20. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

  1. Developing Community Mental Health Programs: A Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Community Planning Corp., Boston, MA.

    Comprehensive mental health programs should be designed on the basis of identified mental health needs and locally established priorities so that the resulting combination of services is geared to the specific and unique requirements of the catchment area. In addition to being comprehensive, local programs should be physically accessible, ensure…

  2. Development of Critically Reflective Dialogues in Communities of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike; Jaarsma, Debbie; van Beukelen, Peter; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Critically reflective dialogues (CRD) are important for knowledge sharing and creating meaning in communities. CRD includes different aspects: being open about mistakes, critical opinion sharing, asking for and giving feedback, experimentation, challenging groupthink and research utilisation. In this article we explore whether CRD aspects change…

  3. The Role of Community Resource Assessments in the Development of 15 Adolescent Health Community-Researcher Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Straub, Diane M.; Willard, Nancy; Castor, Judith; Ellen, Jonathan; Peralta, Ligia

    2009-01-01

    Background Connect to Protect (C2P): Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions is an initiative that alters the community’s structural elements to reduce youth HIV rates. Objectives This study details a community resource assessment and describes how resources were evaluated in the context of local needs. Methods Fifteen sites developed a community resource list, conducted a brief survey, created a youth service directory, and mapped where disease prevalence and community resources intersected. Sites also completed a survey to review and verify local site findings. Results On average, sites identified 267 potential community resources. Sites narrowed their resource list to conduct a brief survey with 1,162 agencies; the site average was 78. Final products of this process included maps comparing resources with risk data. Conclusions The evaluation of local resources is an important initial step in partnership development and is essential for the success of health promotion and disease prevention interventions that target adolescents. PMID:20208189

  4. Health inequalities: promoting policy changes in utilizing transformation development by empowering African American communities in reducing health disparities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Social inequalities in the United States resulted in negative health outcomes for the African Americans. Their stressful living conditions of poverty, discrimination, racism, abuse and rejection from American society contribute to their negative health outcomes. The lifestyles of African Americans have been influenced by poverty and prior injustices, which have molded their worldview of health and illness. Dr. Martin Luther King, national civil rights leader, brought about social change with much prayer; however, he went a step further with collective gatherings to include the power of non-violence massive public demonstrations. This paper is an analytical review of the literature addressing social inequalities impacting on health inequalities of African Americans resulting in health disparities. Policy changes are propose by implementing transformation development and community empowerment models as frameworks for community/public health nurses in guiding African American communities with addressing health disparities. These models empower members of the community to participate in a collaborative effort in making political and social changes to improve their overall health outcomes.

  5. Health inequalities: promoting policy changes in utilizing transformation development by empowering African American communities in reducing health disparities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Social inequalities in the United States resulted in negative health outcomes for the African Americans. Their stressful living conditions of poverty, discrimination, racism, abuse and rejection from American society contribute to their negative health outcomes. The lifestyles of African Americans have been influenced by poverty and prior injustices, which have molded their worldview of health and illness. Dr. Martin Luther King, national civil rights leader, brought about social change with much prayer; however, he went a step further with collective gatherings to include the power of non-violence massive public demonstrations. This paper is an analytical review of the literature addressing social inequalities impacting on health inequalities of African Americans resulting in health disparities. Policy changes are propose by implementing transformation development and community empowerment models as frameworks for community/public health nurses in guiding African American communities with addressing health disparities. These models empower members of the community to participate in a collaborative effort in making political and social changes to improve their overall health outcomes. PMID:24575590

  6. The Development of Community-Based Health Information Exchanges: A Comparative Assessment of Organizational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research was to critically examine the development of community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and to comparatively analyze the various models of exchanges in operation today nationally. Specifically this research sought to better understand several aspects of HIE: policy influences, organizational…

  7. Developing and Sustaining a Healthy School Community: Essential Elements Identified by School Health Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolp, Sean; Wilkins, Emma; Raine, Kim D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive School Health (CSH) approaches to developing a healthy school community can be effective in supporting chronic disease prevention while positively impacting on student behaviour and academic performance. Although a CSH framework provides principles for action, there is a lack of evidence regarding the processes that best…

  8. Beyond the clinic: improving child health through evidence-based community development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Promoting child wellbeing necessarily goes beyond the clinic as risks to child health and development are embedded in the social and physical environmental conditions in which children live. Pediatricians play a vital role in promoting the health of children in the communities they serve and can maximize their impact by advocating for and supporting efficacious, evidence-based strategies in their communities. Methods To provide a succinct guide for community pediatric efforts to advance the wellbeing of all children and particularly disadvantaged children in a community, we conducted a theory-driven and structured narrative review to synthesize published systematic and meta-analytic reviews of policy-relevant, local-level strategies addressing potent and malleable influences on child health and development. An exhaustive list of policy-relevant, local-level strategies for improving child health was used to conduct a comprehensive search of recent (1990–2012), English language peer-reviewed published meta-analyses and systematic reviews in the 10 core databases of scientific literature. Our review of the literature encompassed six key conceptual domains of intervention foci, including distal influences of child health (i.e., income and resources, social cohesion, and physical environment) and proximal influences (i.e., family, school and peer). We examined intervention effects on four key domains of child health and development: cognitive development, social and emotional competence, psychological and behavioral wellbeing, and physical health. Results Published reviews were identified for 98 distinct policy-relevant community interventions, evaluated across 288 outcomes. We classified 46 strategies as meeting scientific criteria for efficacy by having consistent, positive outcomes from high-quality trials (e.g., tenant-based rental assistance, neighborhood watch programs, urban design and land use policies, access to quality childcare services, class

  9. Health Care in the Community: Developing Academic/Practice Partnerships for Care Coordination and Managing Transitions.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Mary E; Perron, Tracy; Fountain, Donna M; Hinic, Katherine; Vargas, Maryelena; Swan, Beth Ann; Heelan-Fancher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of health care is quickly changing from an acute care to a community-based setting. Faculty development and mastery in the use of new technologies, such as high-definition simulation and virtual communities are crucial for effective student learning outcomes. Students' benefits include opportunities for hands-on experience in various patient care scenarios, realtime faculty feedback regarding their critical reasoning and clinical performance, interdisciplinary collaboration, and access to a nonthreatening learning environment. The results of this study provide some evidence of the benefits of developing faculty and nursing curricula that addresses the shift from an ilness-based, acute hospital model, to a community and population health-based preventive model. PMID:26259341

  10. The Use of Health Impact Assessment for a Community Undergoing Natural Gas Development

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Lisa; Stinson, Kaylan E.; Scott, Kenneth; Newman, Lee S.; Adgate, John

    2013-01-01

    The development of natural gas wells is rapidly increasing, yet little is known about associated exposures and potential public health consequences. We used health impact assessment (HIA) to provide decision-makers with information to promote public health at a time of rapid decision making for natural gas development. We have reported that natural gas development may expose local residents to air and water contamination, industrial noise and traffic, and community changes. We have provided more than 90 recommendations for preventing or decreasing health impacts associated with these exposures. We also have reflected on the lessons learned from conducting an HIA in a politically charged environment. Finally, we have demonstrated that despite the challenges, HIA can successfully enhance public health policymaking. PMID:23597363

  11. Connecting Communities to Health Research: Development of the Project CONNECT Minority Research Registry

    PubMed Central

    Green, Melissa A.; Kim, Mimi M.; Barber, Sharrelle; Odulana, Abedowale A.; Godley, Paul A.; Howard, Daniel L.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prevention and treatment standards are based on evidence obtained in behavioral and clinical research. However, racial and ethnic minorities remain relatively absent from the science that develops these standards. While investigators have successfully recruited participants for individual studies using tailored recruitment methods, these strategies require considerable time and resources. Research registries, typically developed around a disease or condition, serve as a promising model for a targeted recruitment method to increase minority participation in health research. This study assessed the tailored recruitment methods used to populate a health research registry targeting African-American community members. Methods We describe six recruitment methods applied between September 2004 and October 2008 to recruit members into a health research registry. Recruitment included direct (existing studies, public databases, community outreach) and indirect methods (radio, internet, and email) targeting the general population, local universities, and African American communities. We conducted retrospective analysis of the recruitment by method using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and chi-square statistics. Results During the recruitment period, 608 individuals enrolled in the research registry. The majority of enrollees were African American, female, and in good health. Direct and indirect methods were identified as successful strategies for subgroups. Findings suggest significant associations between recruitment methods and age, presence of existing health condition, prior research participation, and motivation to join the registry. Conclusions A health research registry can be a successful tool to increase minority awareness of research opportunities. Multi-pronged recruitment approaches are needed to reach diverse subpopulations. PMID:23340183

  12. Organizational capacity for community development in regional health authorities: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Germann, Kathy; Wilson, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The value of community development (CD) practices is well documented in the health promotion literature; it is a foundational strategy outlined in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Despite the importance of collaborative action with communities to enhance individual and community health and well-being, there exists a major gap between the evidence for CD and the actual extent to which CD is carried out by health organizations. In this paper it is argued that the gap exists because we have failed to turn the evaluative gaze inward-to examine the capacity of health organizations themselves to facilitate CD processes. This study was designed to explicate key elements that contribute to organizational capacity for community development (OC-CD). Twenty-two front-line CD workers and managers responsible for CD initiatives from five regional health authorities in Alberta, Canada, were interviewed. Based on the study findings, a multidimensional model for conceptualizing OC-CD is presented. Central to the model are four inter-related dimensions: (i) organizational commitment to CD, rooted in particular values and beliefs, leadership and shared understanding of CD; (ii) supportive structures and systems, such as job design, flexible planning processes, evaluation mechanisms and collaborative processes; (iii) allocation of resources for CD; and (iv) working relationships and processes that model CD within the health organization. These four dimensions contribute to successful CD practice in numerous ways, but perhaps most importantly by supporting the empowerment and autonomy of the pivotal organizational player in health promotion practice: the front-line worker.

  13. Using strategic planning and organizational development principles for health promotion in an Alaska Native community

    PubMed Central

    Lardon, Cécile; Soule, Susan; Kernak, Douglas; Lupie, Henry

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Health promotion aims to support people in their efforts to increase control over factors that impact health and well-being. This emphasis on empowerment and contextual influences allows for a more holistic conceptualization of health and approaches to promoting health that are anchored in principles of community development and systems change. Piciryaratgun Calritllerkaq (Healthy Living Through A Healthy Lifestyle) is a collaboration between a Yup’ik village in rural Alaska and researchers from the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The goal was to improve nutrition, increase exercise and decrease stress. The project utilized elements of organization development and strategic planning to develop a local infrastructure and process and to promote local expertise. The project team developed goals, objectives, action and evaluation plans that integrated local traditions, Yup’ik culture, and research. PMID:21271433

  14. Digital partnerships for health: steps to develop a community-specific health portal aimed at promoting health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Kukafka, Rita; Khan, Sharib A; Hutchinson, Carly; McFarlane, Delano J; Li, Jianhua; Ancker, Jessica S; Cohall, Alwyn

    2007-01-01

    We describe the steps taken by the Harlem Health Promotion Center to develop a community-specific health web portal aimed at promoting health and well-being in Harlem. Methods and results that begin with data collection and move onto elucidating requirements for the web portal are discussed. Sentiments of distrust in medical institutions, and the desire for community specific content and resources were among the needs emanating from our data analysis. These findings guided our decision to customize social software designed to foster connections, collaborations, flexibility, and interactivity; an "architecture of participation". While, we maintain that the leveraging of social software may indeed be the way to build healthy communities and support learning and engagement in underserved communities, our conclusion calls for careful thinking, testing and evaluation research to establish best practice models for leveraging these emerging technologies to support health improvements in the community.

  15. Developing an inter-organizational community-based health network: an Australian investigation.

    PubMed

    Short, Alison; Phillips, Rebecca; Nugus, Peter; Dugdale, Paul; Greenfield, David

    2015-12-01

    Networks in health care typically involve services delivered by a defined set of organizations. However, networked associations between the healthcare system and consumers or consumer organizations tend to be open, fragmented and are fraught with difficulties. Understanding the role and activities of consumers and consumer groups in a formally initiated inter-organizational health network, and the impacts of the network, is a timely endeavour. This study addresses this aim in three ways. First, the Unbounded Network Inter-organizational Collaborative Impact Model, a purpose-designed framework developed from existing literature, is used to investigate the process and products of inter-organizational network development. Second, the impact of a network artefact is explored. Third, the lessons learned in inter-organizational network development are considered. Data collection methods were: 16 h of ethnographic observation; 10 h of document analysis; six interviews with key informants and a survey (n = 60). Findings suggested that in developing the network, members used common aims, inter-professional collaboration, the power and trust engendered by their participation, and their leadership and management structures in a positive manner. These elements and activities underpinned the inter-organizational network to collaboratively produce the Health Expo network artefact. This event brought together healthcare providers, community groups and consumers to share information. The Health Expo demonstrated and reinforced inter-organizational working and community outreach, providing consumers with community-based information and linkages. Support and resources need to be offered for developing community inter-organizational networks, thereby building consumer capacity for self-management in the community.

  16. Developing the national community health assistant strategy in Zambia: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, the Ministry of Health in Zambia developed the National Community Health Assistant strategy, aiming to integrate community health workers (CHWs) into national health plans by creating a new group of workers, called community health assistants (CHAs). The aim of the paper is to analyse the CHA policy development process and the factors that influenced its evolution and content. A policy analysis approach was used to analyse the policy reform process. Methodology Data were gathered through review of documents, participant observation and key informant interviews with CHA strategic team members in Lusaka district, and senior officials at the district level in Kapiri Mposhi district where some CHAs have been deployed. Results The strategy was developed in order to address the human resources for health shortage and the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia. However, some actors within the strategic team were more influential than others in informing the policy agenda, determining the process, and shaping the content. These actors negotiated with professional/statutory bodies and health unions on the need to develop the new cadre which resulted in compromises that enabled the policy process to move forward. International agencies also indirectly influenced the course as well as the content of the strategy. Some actors classified the process as both insufficiently consultative and rushed. Due to limited consultation, it was suggested that the policy content did not adequately address key policy content issues such as management of staff attrition, general professional development, and progression matters. Analysis of the process also showed that the strategy might create a new group of workers whose mandate is unclear to the existing group of health workers. Conclusions This paper highlights the complex nature of policy-making processes for integrating CHWs into the health system. It reiterates the need for recognising the

  17. Participatory health development in rural Nepal: clarifying the process of community empowerment.

    PubMed

    Purdey, A F; Adhikari, G B; Robinson, S A; Cox, P W

    1994-01-01

    Community-based participatory development empowers villagers to develop community cohesion and confidence, increase their ability to identify, analyze, and priorize their own needs, and organize the resources to meet these needs. An important first step in the process involves establishing a cohesive and functional community group. The authors believe that this is best accomplished through villagers' critical examination of their experiences with development including their understanding of reasons for success or failure, and the gradual emergence of a model of working together that acknowledges and builds on participation and collective expertise. This approach to development is demonstrating encouraging results in a rural area of western Nepal in a university affiliated Canadian/Nepali Health Development Project. This paper describes two mini-projects to illustrate the evolution of group formation through reflection, analysis, and action, and identifies outcomes that could serve as indicators of community empowerment. The paper also presents a generic model of empowerment, and offers lessons learned by the project through the application of the empowerment process to sustainable health development. PMID:8002357

  18. Participatory health development in rural Nepal: clarifying the process of community empowerment.

    PubMed

    Purdey, A F; Adhikari, G B; Robinson, S A; Cox, P W

    1994-01-01

    Community-based participatory development empowers villagers to develop community cohesion and confidence, increase their ability to identify, analyze, and priorize their own needs, and organize the resources to meet these needs. An important first step in the process involves establishing a cohesive and functional community group. The authors believe that this is best accomplished through villagers' critical examination of their experiences with development including their understanding of reasons for success or failure, and the gradual emergence of a model of working together that acknowledges and builds on participation and collective expertise. This approach to development is demonstrating encouraging results in a rural area of western Nepal in a university affiliated Canadian/Nepali Health Development Project. This paper describes two mini-projects to illustrate the evolution of group formation through reflection, analysis, and action, and identifies outcomes that could serve as indicators of community empowerment. The paper also presents a generic model of empowerment, and offers lessons learned by the project through the application of the empowerment process to sustainable health development.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A RURAL COMMUNITY HEALTH CARE MODEL BASED ON INDIAN INDIGENOUS SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Hyma, B.; Ramesh, A.; Subhadra, N.L.

    1988-01-01

    Based on the principles of primary health care as outlined by WHO at the Alma Ata Conference in 1978, many voluntary organizations in India have been formulating, organizing and experimenting with the comprehensive rural community health Schemes. The goal is to indentify the felt needs at both individual and community levels and facilitate direct participation in decision making, develop suitable alternative, ecologically Sound indigenous models for socioeconomic well-being. In this context the Indian system of medicine has a useful and complementary role to play in the preventive and curative aspects of primary health care programmes. With the above objectives in mind the investigators undertook a brief survey of a “comprehensive rural health” project. The primary aim of this project is to develop a community health care model using innovative alternative methods using Indian indigenous system of medicine and participatory research techniques to improve rural health services of the surrounding under privileged villages. Many gaps exist in the assessment, however, a birds eye-view is presented here. PMID:22557645

  20. Engaging Student Health Organizations in Reducing Health Disparities in Underserved Communities through Volunteerism: Developing a Student Health Corps

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Ly, Lichin; Allen, Erica; Young, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    One underutilized method for reducing health disparities and training culturally competent health care workers is the engagement of undergraduate student health organizations in conducting health screenings, promotion, and health education outreach activities in in underserved racial/ethnic communities. We conducted a needs assessment of 14 predominantly racial/ethnic minority undergraduate student-run health organizations. The 14 organizations annually served approximately 12,425 people (67% Hispanic, 25% African American, 6.33% Asian Pacific Islander), predominantly at health fairs within Los Angeles County (averaging 138 attendees). Student organizations provided screenings on general health conditions and diseases, with less emphasis on behavioral risk factors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Organizations indicated a need for increased and affordable trainings in preventive health screenings and help in understanding target populations’ needs. Universities are in an excellent position to train, supervise, and organize volunteer health corps in order to engage students in reducing health disparities and to train culturally competent health care providers. PMID:19648716

  1. Developing quality indicators for family support services in community team-based mental health care.

    PubMed

    Serene Olin, S; Kutash, Krista; Pollock, Michele; Burns, Barbara J; Kuppinger, Anne; Craig, Nancy; Purdy, Frances; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Wisdom, Jennifer; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality indicators for programs integrating parent-delivered family support services for children's mental health have not been systematically developed. Increasing emphasis on accountability under the Affordable Care Act highlights the importance of quality-benchmarking efforts. Using a modified Delphi approach, quality indicators were developed for both program level and family support specialist level practices. These indicators were pilot tested with 21 community-based mental health programs. Psychometric properties of these indicators are reported; variations in program and family support specialist performance suggest the utility of these indicators as tools to guide policies and practices in organizations that integrate parent-delivered family support service components. PMID:23709287

  2. Developing quality indicators for family support services in community team-based mental health care.

    PubMed

    Serene Olin, S; Kutash, Krista; Pollock, Michele; Burns, Barbara J; Kuppinger, Anne; Craig, Nancy; Purdy, Frances; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Wisdom, Jennifer; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality indicators for programs integrating parent-delivered family support services for children's mental health have not been systematically developed. Increasing emphasis on accountability under the Affordable Care Act highlights the importance of quality-benchmarking efforts. Using a modified Delphi approach, quality indicators were developed for both program level and family support specialist level practices. These indicators were pilot tested with 21 community-based mental health programs. Psychometric properties of these indicators are reported; variations in program and family support specialist performance suggest the utility of these indicators as tools to guide policies and practices in organizations that integrate parent-delivered family support service components.

  3. How the health and community development sectors are combining forces to improve health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Sandra; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2011-11-01

    The root causes of poor health experienced by many who live in low-income neighborhoods-such as the lack of access to health care, limited food choices, and exposure to environmental hazards-are well documented, but often go beyond the scope of the health care delivery system. But that is beginning to change. The health sector has begun to collaborate with the community development sector, which for decades has been working in low-income neighborhoods. Encouraging local and national examples of these new partnerships abound. They include an effort in Seattle, Washington, to reduce exposure to allergens and irritants among low-income asthmatic children, and a $500 million federal program to finance the operation of grocery stores in what have previously been urban "food deserts." To nurture such efforts, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Federal Reserve System, and others have sponsored a series of "healthy community" forums in US cities. In this article we explore the growing partnerships between the health and community development sectors as well as the challenges they face, and we offer policy recommendations that might help them succeed. PMID:22068394

  4. The Ramathibodi Community Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, Prem; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The Ramathibodi Faculty of Medicine in Bangkok, Thailand, has developed a teaching and research program in community health aimed at brining the institution into close association with the health needs of the country. (Editor)

  5. Method for the Development of Data Visualizations for Community Members with Varying Levels of Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Arcia, Adriana; Bales, Michael E.; Brown, William; Co, Manuel C.; Gilmore, Melinda; Lee, Young Ji; Park, Chin S.; Prey, Jennifer; Velez, Mark; Woollen, Janet; Yoon, Sunmoo; Kukafka, Rita; Merrill, Jacqueline A.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Many Americans are challenged by the tasks of understanding and acting upon their own health data. Low levels of health literacy contribute to poor comprehension and undermine the confidence necessary for health self-management. Visualizations are useful for minimizing comprehension gaps when communicating complex quantitative information. The process of developing visualizations that accommodate the needs of individuals with varying levels of health literacy remains undefined. In this paper we provide detailed descriptions of a) an iterative methodological approach to the development of visualizations, b) the resulting types of visualizations and examples thereof, and c) the types of data the visualizations will be used to convey. We briefly describe subsequent phases in which the visualizations will be tested and refined. Web deployment of the final visualizations will support the ethical obligation to return the data to the research participants and community that contributed it. PMID:24551322

  6. The effect of an interdisciplinary community health project on student attitudes toward community health, people who are indigent and homeless, and team leadership skill development.

    PubMed

    Rose, Molly A; Lyons, Kevin J; Swenson Miller, Kathleen; Cornman-Levy, Diane

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether students' attitudes about community health practice, attitudes toward people who are indigent and homeless, and perceived leadership skills changed after participation in a planned interdisciplinary community health experience with an urban homeless or formerly homeless population. Data were collected from medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and social work students who participated in the community health experiences and from students in these disciplines who did not participate in this curriculum. The interdisciplinary community health curriculum and practicum experiences, based on the Community Health Empowerment Model (CHEM), were designed and implemented by a coalition of community and academic partners. Students in the CHEM project self-selected into the curriculum and initially showed more positive attitudes about community health and indigent and homeless people than their peers not participating. Despite the CHEM students' positive initial attitudes, data from pretests and posttests revealed a significant positive change in their attitudes toward community health practice at the completion of the curriculum.

  7. A model for common ground development to support collaborative health communities.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig E; O'Sullivan, Tracey L

    2015-03-01

    Common ground is necessary for developing collaboration as part of building resilience for public health preparedness. While the importance of common ground as an essential component of collaboration has been well described, there is a need for studies to identify how common ground develops over time, across individual and group dimensions, and the contexts that influence its development. This paper studied common ground development in three Canadian communities between October 2010 and March 2011 through a project on capacity building for disaster management. Disaster management requires the integration of paid and volunteer participants across public and private sectors and is therefore a good domain to study common ground development. We used directed qualitative content analysis to develop a model of common ground development over time that describes its progression through coordinative, cooperative and collaborative common ground. We also identified how common ground develops at micro (individual) and macro (group) levels, as well as how agency, technology and geographical contexts influence its development. We then use the four phases of disaster management to illustrate how our model can support longitudinal common ground development. Our findings provide useful insight to enable proactive development of common ground in collaborative health communities. PMID:25621403

  8. Developing a logic model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in Beirut

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Rema A; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T

    2011-01-01

    Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon. First, a needs assessment, including quantitative and qualitative data collection was carried out with children, parents and teachers. The second phase was identification of a priority health issue and analysis of determinants. The final phase in the construction of the logic model involved development of an intervention. The process was iterative and resulted in a more grounded depiction of the pathways of influence informed by evidence. Constructing a logic model with community input ensured that the intervention was more relevant to community needs, feasible for implementation and more likely to be sustainable. PMID:21278370

  9. Developing a logic model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in Beirut.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Rema A; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T

    2011-11-01

    Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon. First, a needs assessment, including quantitative and qualitative data collection was carried out with children, parents and teachers. The second phase was identification of a priority health issue and analysis of determinants. The final phase in the construction of the logic model involved development of an intervention. The process was iterative and resulted in a more grounded depiction of the pathways of influence informed by evidence. Constructing a logic model with community input ensured that the intervention was more relevant to community needs, feasible for implementation and more likely to be sustainable. PMID:21278370

  10. Air Pollution, Economic Development of Communities, and Health Status Among the Elderly in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Danan

    2008-01-01

    In Western societies, the impact of air pollution on residents' health is higher in less wealthy communities. However, it is not clear whether such an interaction effect applies to developing countries. The authors examine how the level of community development modifies the impact of air pollution on health outcomes of the Chinese elderly using data from the third wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey in 2002, which includes 7,358 elderly residents aged 65 or more years from 735 districts in 171 cities. The results show that, compared with a 1-point increase in the air pollution index in urban areas with a low gross domestic product, a similar increase in the air pollution index in areas with a high gross domestic product is associated with more difficulties in activities of daily living (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.83), instrumental activities of daily living (linear coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.37), and cognitive function (linear coefficient = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.97, 3.36), as well as a higher level of self-rated poor health (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.86). Contrary to what has been found in the West, Chinese elderly who live in more developed urban areas are more susceptible to the effect of air pollution than are their counterparts living in less developed areas. PMID:18936437

  11. Air pollution, economic development of communities, and health status among the elderly in urban China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongjun; Gu, Danan

    2008-12-01

    In Western societies, the impact of air pollution on residents' health is higher in less wealthy communities. However, it is not clear whether such an interaction effect applies to developing countries. The authors examine how the level of community development modifies the impact of air pollution on health outcomes of the Chinese elderly using data from the third wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey in 2002, which includes 7,358 elderly residents aged 65 or more years from 735 districts in 171 cities. The results show that, compared with a 1-point increase in the air pollution index in urban areas with a low gross domestic product, a similar increase in the air pollution index in areas with a high gross domestic product is associated with more difficulties in activities of daily living (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.83), instrumental activities of daily living (linear coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.37), and cognitive function (linear coefficient = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.97, 3.36), as well as a higher level of self-rated poor health (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.86). Contrary to what has been found in the West, Chinese elderly who live in more developed urban areas are more susceptible to the effect of air pollution than are their counterparts living in less developed areas.

  12. Air pollution, economic development of communities, and health status among the elderly in urban China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongjun; Gu, Danan

    2008-12-01

    In Western societies, the impact of air pollution on residents' health is higher in less wealthy communities. However, it is not clear whether such an interaction effect applies to developing countries. The authors examine how the level of community development modifies the impact of air pollution on health outcomes of the Chinese elderly using data from the third wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey in 2002, which includes 7,358 elderly residents aged 65 or more years from 735 districts in 171 cities. The results show that, compared with a 1-point increase in the air pollution index in urban areas with a low gross domestic product, a similar increase in the air pollution index in areas with a high gross domestic product is associated with more difficulties in activities of daily living (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.83), instrumental activities of daily living (linear coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.37), and cognitive function (linear coefficient = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.97, 3.36), as well as a higher level of self-rated poor health (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.86). Contrary to what has been found in the West, Chinese elderly who live in more developed urban areas are more susceptible to the effect of air pollution than are their counterparts living in less developed areas. PMID:18936437

  13. Development of radio dramas for health communication pilot intervention in Canadian Inuit communities.

    PubMed

    Racicot-Matta, Cassandra; Wilcke, Markus; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-03-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education-communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming. PMID:24957329

  14. Human resource development for a community-based health extension program: a case study from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. Case description The health system was reformed to create a platform for integration and institutionalization of the HEP with appropriate human capacity, infrastructure, and management structures. Human resources were developed through training of female health workers recruited from their prospective villages, designed to limit the high staff turnover and address gender, social and cultural factors in order to provide services acceptable to each community. The service delivery modalities include household, community and health facility care. Thus, the most basic health post infrastructure, designed to rapidly and cost-effectively scale up HEP, was built in each village. In line with the country’s decentralized management system, the HEP service delivery is under the jurisdiction of the district authorities. Discussion and evaluation The nationwide implementation of HEP progressed in line with its target goals. In all, 40 training institutions were established, and over 30,000 Health Extension Workers have been trained and deployed to approximately 15,000 villages. The potential health service coverage reached 92.1% in 2011, up from 64% in 2004. While most health indicators have improved, performance in skilled delivery and postnatal care has not been satisfactory. While HEP is considered the most important institutional framework for achieving the health MDGs in Ethiopia, quality of service, utilization rate, access and referral linkage to emergency obstetric care, management, and evaluation of the program are the key

  15. Dimensions of Leadership among Community College Health Career Program Department Chairs and Implications for Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platz-Wiechert, Lynn Marie

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in community colleges, the projected need for health career workers, and the central position of the department chair in higher education, this study explored dimensions of leadership as identified by health career department chairs in five Illinois community colleges. Areas of study included: (a) professional profiles of health…

  16. Development and community-based validation of eight item banks to assess mental health.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison L

    2016-09-30

    There is a need for precise but brief screening of mental health problems in a range of settings. The development of item banks to assess depression and anxiety has resulted in new adaptive and static screeners that accurately assess severity of symptoms. However, expansion to a wider array of mental health problems is required. The current study developed item banks for eight mental health problems: social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug use, psychosis and suicidality. The item banks were calibrated in a population-based Australian adult sample (N=3175) by administering large item pools (45-75 items) and excluding items on the basis of local dependence or measurement non-invariance. Item Response Theory parameters were estimated for each item bank using a two-parameter graded response model. Each bank consisted of 19-47 items, demonstrating excellent fit and precision across a range of -1 to 3 standard deviations from the mean. No previous study has developed such a broad range of mental health item banks. The calibrated item banks will form the basis of a new system of static and adaptive measures to screen for a broad array of mental health problems in the community. PMID:27500552

  17. The Effect of an Interdisciplinary Community Health Project on Student Attitudes toward Community Health, People Who Are Indigent and Homeless, and Team Leadership Skill Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Molly A.; Lyons, Kevin J.; Miller, Kathleen Swenson; Cornman-Levy, Diane

    2003-01-01

    A study of 22 health occupations students examined whether participation in an interdisciplinary community health empowerment project with urban homeless and formerly homeless people changed their attitudes about community health practice, attitudes toward people who are indigent and homeless, and perceived leadership skills. Posttests revealed a…

  18. Developing a personal health record for community-dwelling older adults and clinicians: technology and content.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L; Paitich, Nadine; Ekstrom, Dawn; Mehle, Susan C; Kaeding, Maggie; Abdo, Sajeda; Natarajan, Gowtham; Ruddarraju, Uday Kumar Raju

    2012-07-01

    To empower older consumers and improve health outcomes, a consumer-friendly personal health record (PHR) is needed. The purpose of this article was to evaluate PHR technology and content for older community-dwelling consumers. Specific aims were to: (a) develop a secure, web-based application for a PHR to enable interoperable exchanges of data between consumers and clinicians; (b) develop structured, evidence-based shared care plan content for the PHR using an interface terminology standard; and (c) validate the shared care plans with consumers. An interoperable web-based form was developed. The standardized PHR content was developed by expert panel consensus using the Omaha System problem list and care plans, and validated by consumer interviews. Evidence-based shared care plans for 21 problems common among community-dwelling older adults were developed and encoded with Omaha System terms for data capture in the PHR. An additional problem, Neighborhood-workplace safety, was identified by consumers and will be added to the care plans.

  19. Therapeutic friendliness and the development of therapeutic leverage by mental health nurses in community rehabilitation settings.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In a world dominated by technology and driven by fiscal policy emphasis, the therapeutic relationship as a healing modality is still a central theme to mental health nurses (MHN) in their everyday work. This research, as part of a PhD program, used a constructivist grounded theory approach to explore the process of therapeutic relationships and professional boundaries. The current paper outlines how therapeutic friendliness provides a connection for the therapeutic relationship to develop but in doing so requires a balancing of the therapeutic relationship and constant maintenance of the professional boundary. The authors also discuss how community mental health nurses (CMHN) invest in the therapeutic relationship in order to develop a therapeutic alliance and how the alliance between the CMHN and the client facilitates the use of therapeutic leverage applied by the CMHN as part of the therapeutic process. PMID:20509798

  20. Mitigation of non-communicable diseases in developing countries with community health workers.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Preen, David; Kallestrup, Per; Perry, Henry B

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly becoming priorities in developing countries. While developed countries are more prepared in terms of skilled human resources for NCD management, developing the required human resources is still a challenge in developing countries. In this context, mobilizing community health workers (CHWs) for control of NCDs seems promising. With proper training, supervision and logistical support, CHWs can participate in the detection and treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and other priority chronic diseases. Furthermore, advice and support that CHWs can provide about diet, physical activity, and other healthy lifestyle habits (such as avoidance of smoking and excessive alcohol intake) have the potential for contributing importantly to NCD programs. This paper explores the possibility of involving CHWs in developing countries for addressing NCDs.

  1. Nuestro Futuro saludable: connecting public health research and community development in partnership to build a healthy environment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Linda S.; Ndulue, Uchenna; Peréa, Flavia C.

    2012-01-01

    Caribbean Latinos are the largest Latino group in Boston, primarily located in the Jamaica Plain (JP) neighborhood. There are various macro-level public health issues that result from the built environment in JP, factors which can create and sustain health disparities. Caribbean Latino youth are a priority group in JP, and it is important to address the causes of disparities early in life to promote good health. Presented here is an integrated research-and-action model to engage community stakeholders and researchers in designing an intervention to mitigate the negative health effects of the built environment and maximize community assets. The approach operates from a community empowerment model that allows public health practitioners, policy makers, researchers and residents to take an up-stream approach to improve health by focusing on the built environment, which is integral to community development. PMID:25258619

  2. Despite obstacles, considerable potential exists for more robust federal policy on community development and health.

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana; Briggs, Xavier de Souza

    2011-11-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Obama administration's urban policy create an opportunity to link community development with health in new and powerful ways. The administration's policy emphasizes improved access to and quality of care through coordinated local and regional approaches, expansion of access to healthy food, and the support of environmental health-including clean air, water, and soil-and healthy homes. New federal programs, such as the Affordable Care Act's Community Transformation Grants, seek to prevent death and disability through policy, environmental, programmatic, and infrastructure changes. But fragmented congressional jurisdiction and budget "scoring" rules pose challenges to needed reform. We argue that government agencies need to adopt so-called systems of innovation, or organizational practices and support mechanisms that seek continuously to test new models, refine promising ones, bring to scale those that work best, and restructure or terminate what does not. We also argue that a strong and well-focused policy advocacy coalition is needed to help drive reform focused on the social determinants of health. PMID:22068397

  3. Development and trialling of a tool to support a systems approach to improve social determinants of health in rural and remote Australian communities: the healthy community assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The residents of many Australian rural and remote communities do not have the essential infrastructure and services required to support healthy living conditions and community members choosing healthy lifestyle options. Improving these social determinants of health is seen to offer real opportunities to improve health among such disadvantaged populations. In this paper, we describe the development and trialling of a tool to measure, monitor and evaluate key social determinants of health at community level. Methods The tool was developed and piloted through a multi-phase and iterative process that involved a series of consultations with community members and key stakeholders and trialling the tool in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Results The indicators were found to be robust, and by testing the tool on a number of different levels, face validity was confirmed. The scoring system was well understood and easily followed by Indigenous and non-Indigenous study participants. A facilitated small group process was found to reduce bias in scoring of indicators. Conclusion The Healthy Community Assessment Tool offers a useful vehicle and process to help those involved in planning, service provision and more generally promoting improvements in community social determinants of health. The tool offers many potential uses and benefits for those seeking to address inequities in the social determinants of health in remote communities. Maximum benefits in using the tool are likely to be gained with cross-sector involvement and when assessments are part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:23442804

  4. A Community-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Device for Measuring Ambient Air Exposure, Location, and Respiratory Health

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlman, Diana; Syron, Laura; Hobbie, Kevin; Anderson, Kim A.; Scaffidi, Christopher; Sudakin, Daniel; Peterson, Elena S.; Waters, Katrina M.; Haynes, Erin; Arkin, Lisa; Feezel, Paul; Kincl, Laurel

    2015-08-15

    In west Eugene (Oregon), community research indicates residents are disproportionately exposed to industrial air pollution and exhibit increased asthma incidence. In Carroll County (Ohio), recent increases in unconventional natural gas drilling sparked air quality concerns. These community concerns led to the development of a prototype mobile device to measure personal chemical exposure, location, and respiratory function. Working directly with the environmental justice (EJ) communities, the prototype was developed to (1) meet the needs of the community and; (2) evaluate the use in EJ communities. The prototype was evaluated in 3 community focus groups (n=25) to obtain feedback on the prototype and feasibility study design to evaluate the efficacy of the device to address community concerns. Focus groups were recorded and qualitatively analyzed with discrete feedback tabulated for further refinement. The prototype was improved by community feedback resulting in 8 alterations/additions to software and instructional materials. Overall, focus group participants were supportive of the device and believed it would be a useful environmental health tool. The use of focus groups ensured that community members were engaged in the research design and development of a novel environmental health tool. We found that community-based research strategies resulted in a refined device as well as relevant research questions, specific to the EJ community needs and concerns.

  5. A Community-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Device for Measuring Ambient Air Exposure, Location, and Respiratory Health

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rohlman, Diana; Syron, Laura; Hobbie, Kevin; Anderson, Kim A.; Scaffidi, Christopher; Sudakin, Daniel; Peterson, Elena S.; Waters, Katrina M.; Haynes, Erin; Arkin, Lisa; et al

    2015-08-15

    In west Eugene (Oregon), community research indicates residents are disproportionately exposed to industrial air pollution and exhibit increased asthma incidence. In Carroll County (Ohio), recent increases in unconventional natural gas drilling sparked air quality concerns. These community concerns led to the development of a prototype mobile device to measure personal chemical exposure, location, and respiratory function. Working directly with the environmental justice (EJ) communities, the prototype was developed to (1) meet the needs of the community and; (2) evaluate the use in EJ communities. The prototype was evaluated in 3 community focus groups (n=25) to obtain feedback on the prototypemore » and feasibility study design to evaluate the efficacy of the device to address community concerns. Focus groups were recorded and qualitatively analyzed with discrete feedback tabulated for further refinement. The prototype was improved by community feedback resulting in 8 alterations/additions to software and instructional materials. Overall, focus group participants were supportive of the device and believed it would be a useful environmental health tool. The use of focus groups ensured that community members were engaged in the research design and development of a novel environmental health tool. We found that community-based research strategies resulted in a refined device as well as relevant research questions, specific to the EJ community needs and concerns.« less

  6. Planning and Developing a Regional Community College Allied Health Consortium: A Case Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tworek, Richard K.

    In an effort to reduce duplication of educational services and improve career opportunities, the East Central Illinois Community College Consortium (ECICCC) was created to provide cooperative allied health education programs. Four institutions, Danville Junior College, Lake Land College, Parkland College, and Richland Community College,…

  7. Community Health Clinics, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, David

    1986-01-01

    Describes successful Community Health Clinics, Inc., a private, non-profit health care corporation, founded in 1971, which provides health services for rural and low-income residents of southwestern Idaho. Focuses on administrative structure, staff, financial support, and services. (NEC)

  8. Community Participation in Mental Health Training. Developing Self-Reliance to Meet the Current and Future Mental Health Needs in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Charlotte M. F.

    1985-01-01

    A context is developed for viewing mental health problems and needs in Micronesia and American Samoa. The article highlights the process the trainer encounters in preparing the community for the training. The concept of community participation is developed and operationalized. A two-phased training model suggests one way to implement this concept.…

  9. Community health advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Loue, Sana

    2006-01-01

    Competing health needs of diverse populations and ever shrinking resources available to support these needs often serve as the impetus for the initiation of advocacy efforts to improve community health. However, perceptions of what constitutes a community differ, as do approaches to advocacy itself. This glossary addresses five key questions: (1) What is advocacy?; (2) What is meant by community?; (3) What are the different approaches to community health advocacy?; (4) How are priorities established in the face of competing health advocacy goals?; (5) How can community health advocacy efforts be evaluated?; and (6) What challenges may be encountered in advocating for community health? Each of these issues could serve as the basis for a text on that subject alone. Accordingly, this article is not meant to be comprehensive text on these issues but is, instead, intended to highlight key foundational issues. And, although advocacy efforts can be conducted by individuals, this article focuses specifically on advocacy efforts of communities, however they may be defined and characterised. PMID:16698972

  10. Developing Teachers' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge through a Community of Practice: Impact on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunuk, Deniz; Ince, Mustafa Levent; Tannehill, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were twofold: to examine the effects of a community of practice (CoP) on (1) physical educators' and their students' health-related fitness content knowledge and (2) the physical educators' health-related fitness pedagogical content knowledge construction process. Twelve experienced physical education teachers (six in…

  11. The Effect of a Multicomponent Professional Development Training on the Beliefs and Behaviors of Community Health Educators Concerning Food Irradiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Britta M.; Knight, Stephanie L.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs have a significant effect on the health behaviors of individuals and educators; however, they can be difficult to change. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposing community health educators, specifically family and consumer sciences county extension educators, to a multicomponent professional development training on food…

  12. Community Health Workers and Health Care Delivery: Evaluation of a Women's Reproductive Health Care Project in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Wajid, Abdul; White, Franklin; Karim, Mehtab S.

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. Results The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. Conclusions Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a

  13. Factors that hinder community participation in developing and implementing comprehensive council health plans in Manyoni District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kilewo, Emmanuel G.; Frumence, Gasto

    2015-01-01

    Background Decentralization of public health planning is proposed to facilitate public participation in health issues. Health Sector Reform in Tanzania places emphasis on the participation of lower level health facilities and community in health planning process. Despite availability of policies, guidelines, and community representative organs, actual implementation of decentralization strategies is poorly achieved. This study intended to find out factors that hinder community participation in developing and implementing Comprehensive Council Health Plan (CCHP). Materials and methods A qualitative approach was conducted in this study with key informants from Health Facility Governing Committees (HFGC), Council Health Service Board (CHSB), and Council Health Management Team (CHMT). Data were collected using in-depth interviews. Data generated were analyzed for themes and patterns. Results Factors that hindered community participation included lack of awareness on the CCHP among HFGC members, poor communication and information sharing between CHMT and HFGC, unstipulated roles and responsibilities of HFGC, lack of management capacity among HFGC members, and lack of financial resources for implementing HFGC activities. Conclusions The identified challenges call for policy makers to revisit the decentralization by devolution policy by ensuring that local governance structures have adequate resources as well as autonomy to participate in planning and managing CCHP in general and health facility plans in particular. PMID:26037041

  14. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  15. Developing a community-based neonatal care intervention: a health facility assessment to inform intervention design.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laura D; Manu, Alexander; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Kirkwood, Betty R; Hill, Zelee

    2011-03-01

    Community-based interventions are an important way of improving health in low-income countries. A necessary prerequisite for the design of such interventions is an understanding of the local health system. This will inform intervention design, help ensure the community-intervention forms part of a continuum of care, and provide information about health system strengthening activities that may be necessary for success. Such formative research processes, however, are seldom reported in the literature. We present the results of a health facility assessment used in the design stage of Newhints, a community-based intervention to improve neonatal survival in rural Ghana. We illustrate the methodology, findings and how these were used to inform the design and implementation of Newhints. The assessment involved key informant interviews with staff members at seven health facilities within the study area, including a brief inventory of available drugs and equipment. The key informant interviews identified that practices and health promotion messages at the health facilities were not consistent with one of the key target behaviours of the Newhints intervention - thermal care through delayed infant bathing. Health workers were bathing neonates soon after delivery and also advising women to do the same, which is a potential cause of hypothermia for the newborn. We found that health centres other than large district hospitals were ill-equipped to treat serious complications of labour or illness in the newborn, which had implications for advice on health seeking behaviour within the intervention. As a result of the health facility assessment, it was deemed necessary to undertake both health worker training and sensitisation activities. We demonstrate that important information can be yielded from a relatively simple health facility assessment involving key informant interviews.

  16. Developing a community-based participatory research model to engage transition age youth using mental health service in research.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Alisa K; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for the development and conduct of a community-based participatory research project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. Community-based participatory research frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion but have not been fully drawn upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project.

  17. Provider payment in community-based health insurance schemes in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Sauerborn, Rainer; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Community-based health insurance (CBI) is a common mechanism to generate financial resources for health care in developing countries. We review for the first time provider payment methods used in CBI in developing countries and their impact on CBI performance. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature on provider payment methods used by CBI in developing countries published up to January 2010. Results Information on provider payment was available for a total of 32 CBI schemes in 34 reviewed publications: 17 schemes in South Asia, 10 in sub-Saharan Africa, 4 in East Asia and 1 in Latin America. Various types of provider payment were applied by the CBI schemes: 17 used fee-for-service, 12 used salaries, 9 applied a coverage ceiling, 7 used capitation and 6 applied a co-insurance. The evidence suggests that provider payment impacts CBI performance through provider participation and support for CBI, population enrolment and patient satisfaction with CBI, quantity and quality of services provided and provider and patient retention. Lack of provider participation in designing and choosing a CBI payment method can lead to reduced provider support for the scheme. Conclusion CBI schemes in developing countries have used a wide range of provider payment methods. The existing evidence suggests that payment methods are a key determinant of CBI performance and sustainability, but the strength of this evidence is limited since it is largely based on observational studies rather than on trials or on quasi-experimental research. According to the evidence, provider payment can affect provider participation, satisfaction and retention in CBI; the quantity and quality of services provided to CBI patients; patient demand of CBI services; and population enrollment, risk pooling and financial sustainability of CBI. CBI schemes should carefully consider how their current payment methods influence their performance, how changes in the methods could improve

  18. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    A critical appraisal has been presented of the CHOP for a large-scale energy infrastructure development project that was implemented in two of the world's poorest countries. The project is under close scrutiny from various independent monitoring groups, civil society organizations, and human rights groups. Reviewing the achievements and shortcomings permits the extraction of important lessons that will be critical for the future adoption of the CHOP in the current setting and for the implementation of additional CHOPs elsewhere in the developing world. The authors believe that the design must be flexible, efficient, and innovative so that a CHOP promptly can address pressing public health issues as they arise (eg, epidemic outbreak) and include the needs and demands of the concerned communities. An innovative feature of the current project is the high degree and mix of public-private partnerships. The project's CHOP also relies on partnerships. As elaborated elsewhere, public-private partnerships should be seen as a social experiment--they reveal promise but are not the solution for every problem. For this CHOP, the focus is on partnerships between a multinational consortium, government agencies, and international organizations. The partnerships also include civil society organizations for monitoring and evaluation and local NGOs designated for the implementation of the selected public health interventions within the CHOP. The governments and their respective health policies often form the umbrella under which the partnerships operate. With the increase in globalization, however, the importance and capacities of governments have diminished, and there is growing private-sector involvement. Private enterprise is seen as an efficient, innovative, pragmatic, and powerful means to achieve environmental and social sustainability. Experiences with the partnership configurations in the current CHOP are of importance for tackling grand challenges in global health by

  19. Innovations in Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1997-01-01

    Decentralization and budget reduction in the public sector, and globalization and downsizing in the private sector have placed more responsibility on localities to address challenges to the health of their economies, ecosystems, and people. Community development theory and practice are also changing, evidenced by changes in vocabulary. Community…

  20. Simulation tools for developing policies for complex systems: modeling the health and safety of refugee communities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James; Chaturvedi, Alok; Cibulskis, Mike

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants estimated that there were over 33 million refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world at the beginning of 2005. IDP/Refugee communities behave in complex ways making it difficult to make policy decisions regarding the provision of humanitarian aid and health and safety. This paper reports the construction of an agent-based model that has been used to study humanitarian assistance policies executed by governments and NGOs that provide for the health and safety of refugee communities. Agent-based modeling (ABM) was chosen because the more widely used alternatives impose unrealistic restrictions and assumptions on the system being modeled and primarily apply to aggregate data. We created intelligent agents representing institutions, organizations, individuals, infrastructure, and governments and analyzed the resulting interactions and emergent behavior using a Central Composite Design of Experiments with five factors. The resulting model allows policy makers and analysts to create scenarios, to make rapid changes in parameters, and provides a test bed for concepts and strategies. Policies can be examined to see how refugee communities might respond to alternative courses of action and how these actions are likely to affect the health and well-being of the community.

  1. Bridging the Gap Between Community Health and School Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The responsibility for community health should be shared and coordinated among schools, parents, and health agencies. Children's knowledge and skills should be developed so that they too can promote personal good health. Issues and strategies are discussed. (BJV)

  2. Using a qualitative approach to develop an evaluation data set for community-based health promotion programs addressing racial and ethnic health disparities.

    PubMed

    Edberg, Mark C; Corey, Kristen; Cohen, Marcia

    2011-11-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health have increasingly become a central focus of health promotion efforts. At the community level, however, collecting data and evaluating these programs has been a challenge because of the diversity of populations, community contexts, and health issues as well as a range of capacities for conducting evaluation. This article outlines a qualitative research process used to develop a Web-based standard program performance data reporting system for programs funded by the U.S. Office of Minority Health (OMH), but generally applicable to community-based health promotion programs addressing health disparities. The "core-and-module" data set, known as the Uniform Data Set (UDS), is a Web-based system and is used as the programwide reporting system for OMH. The process for developing the UDS can be used by any agency, locality, or organization to develop a tailored data collection system allowing comparison across projects via an activity-based typology around which data reporting is structured. The UDS model enables the collection of grounded data reflecting community-level steps necessary to address disparities as well as a reporting structure that can guide data collection based on broader frameworks now emerging that specify criteria for measuring progress toward the elimination of health disparities.

  3. Community Bioethics: The Health Decisions Community Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate

    1993-01-01

    Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…

  4. A CLAS act? Community-based organizations, health service decentralization and primary care development in Peru. Local Committees for Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Michiyo; Petchey, Roland

    2002-12-01

    In 1994 Peru embarked on a programme of health service reform, which combined primary care development and community participation through Local Committees for Health Administration (CLAS). They are responsible for carrying out local health needs assessments and identifying unmet health needs through regular household surveys. These enable them to determine local health provision and tailor services to local requirements. CLAS build on grassroots self-help circles that developed during the economic and political crises of the 1980s, and in which women have been prominent. However, they function under a 3 year contract with the Ministry of Health and within a framework of centrally determined guidelines and regulations. These reforms were implemented in the context of neo-liberal economic policies, which stressed financial deregulation and fiscal and monetary restraint, and were aimed at reducing foreign indebtedness and inflation. We evaluate the achievements of the CLAS and analyse the relationship between health and economic policy in Peru, with the aid of two contrasting models of the role of the state - 'agency' and 'stewardship'. We argue that Peru's experience holds valuable lessons for other countries seeking to foster community involvement. These include the need for community capacity building and partnership between community organizations and state (and other civil) agencies. PMID:12546199

  5. Developing a Community-Based Participatory Research Model to Engage Transition Age Youth Using Mental Health Service in Research

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K.; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the development and conduct of a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. CBPR frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion, but have not been fully drawn-upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project. PMID:25423247

  6. Identification of community leadership in the development of public health education programs.

    PubMed

    Michielutte, R; Beal, P

    1990-02-01

    This paper deals with the identification of community leadership within the context of a community cancer prevention education program. An unusually high age-adjusted black/white mortality ratio exists for cervical cancer in Forsyth County, North Carolina. In response to this problem, a comprehensive public education program dealing with cervical cancer prevention was developed and currently is being implemented. Black community leaders have played an important role in planning for the program and in providing assistance for program implementation. Leaders were identified by means of a modified snowball technique in which ten recognized leaders in the black community initially were contacted and asked to name at least five other leaders in areas of leadership that included social/civic, political, religious, business, and less visible leaders. This process continued until no new names were generated. Interviews were conducted with 103 persons, and 589 leaders were identified. A cohort of 54 top-ranked leaders were identified, and the characteristics of these leaders are presented. The value of the leadership identification process is discussed in terms of (a) the identification process itself, (b) the generation of a list of key individuals who can serve as sources of advice for development and implementation of the program and as the beginning point for dissemination of new information on the project, and (c) a mechanism for development of a sense of community ownership of the project.

  7. Beyond the Biomedical Paradigm: The Formation and Development of Indigenous Community-Controlled Health Organizations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and development of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services in Australia, with emphasis on the Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service in Sydney. These organizations were established in the 1970s by Indigenous Australians who were excluded from and denied access to mainstream health services. The aim of this research was to explore notions of Indigenous agency against a historical backdrop of dispossession, colonialism, and racism. Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services act as a primary source of healthcare for many Indigenous communities in rural and urban areas. This study examined their philosophy of healthcare, the range of services provided, their problems with state bureaucracies and government funding bodies, and the imposition of managerialist techniques and strategies on their governance. Essentially, these organizations transcend individualistic, biomedical, and bureaucratic paradigms of health services by conceptualizing and responding to Indigenous health needs at a grassroots level and in a broad social and political context. They are based on a social model of health. PMID:26077856

  8. Beyond the Biomedical Paradigm: The Formation and Development of Indigenous Community-Controlled Health Organizations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and development of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services in Australia, with emphasis on the Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service in Sydney. These organizations were established in the 1970s by Indigenous Australians who were excluded from and denied access to mainstream health services. The aim of this research was to explore notions of Indigenous agency against a historical backdrop of dispossession, colonialism, and racism. Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services act as a primary source of healthcare for many Indigenous communities in rural and urban areas. This study examined their philosophy of healthcare, the range of services provided, their problems with state bureaucracies and government funding bodies, and the imposition of managerialist techniques and strategies on their governance. Essentially, these organizations transcend individualistic, biomedical, and bureaucratic paradigms of health services by conceptualizing and responding to Indigenous health needs at a grassroots level and in a broad social and political context. They are based on a social model of health.

  9. Health and special education: a study of new developments for handicapped children in five metropolitan communities.

    PubMed Central

    Palfrey, J S; Singer, J D; Walker, D K; Butler, J A

    1986-01-01

    Since the implementation in 1977 of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), public school systems have provided special education and related services to students with a wide range of handicapping conditions, including some children served previously in hospitals or other institutions. Although the Federal law does not require physician participation in the special education process, it does imply an active new role for the medical care community, both public and private, in helping schools to identify and diagnose children with disabilities and in ensuring that those children have adequate access to health services. This study explores the experience of five nationally dispersed urban school systems in implementing P.L. 94-142, with particular reference to the interaction of physicians and the schools. The findings highlight continued problems with early identification of certain types of childhood handicaps, classification of children's functional disorders, and adequate participation of practicing physicians in the program, especially with regard to developmental and behavioral issues. In addition, inequities in community health services are documented for a substantial number of the children studied. Improved collaboration between the health and education sectors is needed to address these concerns in order to fulfill the intent of national special education policy and to maximize the potentialities of these children and their families. PMID:2942962

  10. Community participation in formulating the post-2015 health and development goal agenda: reflections of a multi-country research collaboration.

    PubMed

    Brolan, Claire E; Hussain, Sameera; Friedman, Eric A; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Mulumba, Moses; Rusike, Itai; Beiersmann, Claudia; Hill, Peter S

    2014-10-10

    Global discussion on the post-2015 development goals, to replace the Millennium Development Goals when they expire on 31 December 2015, is well underway. While the Millennium Development Goals focused on redressing extreme poverty and its antecedents for people living in developing countries, the post-2015 agenda seeks to redress inequity worldwide, regardless of a country's development status. Furthermore, to rectify the UN's top-down approach toward the Millennium Development Goals' formulation, widespread negotiations are underway that seek to include the voices of people and communities from around the globe to ground each post-2015 development goal. This reflexive commentary, therefore, reports on the early methodological challenges the Go4Health research project experienced in its engagement with communities in nine countries in 2013. Led by four research hubs in Uganda, Bangladesh, Australia and Guatemala, the purpose of this engagement has been to ascertain a 'snapshot' of the health needs and priorities of socially excluded populations particularly from the Global South. This is to inform Go4Health's advice to the European Commission on the post-2015 global goals for health and new governance frameworks. Five methodological challenges were subsequently identified from reflecting on the multidisciplinary, multiregional team's research practices so far: meanings and parameters around qualitative participatory research; representation of marginalization; generalizability of research findings; ethical research in project time frames; and issues related to informed consent. Strategies to overcome these methodological hurdles are also examined. The findings from the consultations represent the extraordinary diversity of marginal human experience requiring contextual analysis for universal framing of the post-2015 agenda. Unsurprisingly, methodological challenges will, and did, arise. We conclude by advocating for a discourse to emerge not only critically

  11. Partnership Selection and Formation: A Case Study of Developing Adolescent Health Community-Researcher Partnerships in 15 U.S. Communities

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Diane M.; Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Willard, Nancy; Castor, Judith; Peralta, Ligia; Francisco, Vincent T; Ellen, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the partner selection process in 15 U.S. communities developing community-researcher partnerships for the Connect to Protect® (C2P): Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions, an initiative of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Methods Each site generated an epidemiological profile of urban youth in their community, selected a focus population and geographic area of youth at risk for HIV, conducted a series of successive structured interviews, and engaged in a process of relationship-building efforts culminating in a collaborative network of community agencies. Results Sites chose as their primary target population young women who have sex with men (n=8 sites), young men who have sex with men (n=6), and intravenous drug users (n=1). Of 1,162 agencies initially interviewed, 281 of 335 approached (84%) agreed to join the partnership (average 19/site). A diverse array of community agencies were represented in the final collaborative network; specific characteristics included: 93% served the sites' target population, 54% were predominantly youth-oriented, 59% were located in the geographical area of focus, and 39% reported provision of HIV/STI prevention services. Relationship-building activities, development of collaborative relationships, and lessons learned, including barriers and facilitators to partnership, are also described. Conclusions Study findings address a major gap in the community partner research literature. Health researchers and policy makers need an effective partner selection framework whereby community-researcher partnerships can develop a solid foundation to address public health concerns. PMID:17531754

  12. Community Development in Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Richard; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, six papers on community development in developed nations review the conceptual dimensions, issues, and directions of community development in the United States; pilot programs of social research, training, and consultation in rural Saskatchewan; the community development efforts of the University of New…

  13. Development and pilot test of pictograph-enhanced breast health-care instructions for community-residing immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeungok

    2012-08-01

    Current written text-based health-care instructions are not suitable for presenting lengthy, complex breast health-care instructions and are difficult for immigrant women with limited literacy skills. The aims of this study were to develop breast health-care instructions enhanced by pictographs (simple line drawings representing health-care actions) and pilot test the instructions in a sample of six immigrant women with limited literacy skills. Based on the Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, pictographs were developed in addition to low-literacy text. The text and the pictographs were then pilot tested with six immigrant women in community health centres for clarity, comprehension and acceptability through face-to-face interviews. Participants perceived that the drawings were engaging and enhanced clarity of the intended health-care messages. The black and white simple line drawings were well received by participants of varying race and ethnicity. The pictograph-based approach might be an effective tool in developing health-care instructions for immigrant women with limited literacy skills. Future research is needed to compare the effect of pictograph-enhanced instructions with written text-based instructions on adherence to instructions and health outcomes.

  14. Community embedded reproductive health interventions for adolescents in Latin America: development and evaluation of a complex multi-centre intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents in Latin America are at high risk for unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, which often result in unsafe abortions or poor maternal health outcomes. Both young men and women in the region face an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inadequate sexual and reproductive health information, services and counselling. To date, many adolescent health programmes have targeted a single determinant of sexual and reproductive health. However, recent evidence suggests that the complexity of sexual and reproductive health issues demands an equally multi-layered and comprehensive approach. Methods This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation design of the community-embedded reproductive health care for adolescents (CERCA) study in three Latin American cities: Cochabamba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador) and Managua (Nicaragua). Project CERCA’s research methodology builds on existing methodological frameworks, namely: action research, community based participatory research and intervention-mapping. The interventions in each country address distinct target groups (adolescents, parents, local authorities and health providers) and seek improvement of the following sexual health behaviours: communication about sexuality, sexual and reproductive health information-seeking, access to sexual and reproductive health care and safe sexual relationships. In Managua, we implemented a randomised controlled study, and in Cochabamba and Cuenca we adopted a non-randomised controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CERCA interventions, in addition to a process evaluation. Discussion This research will result in a methodological framework that will contribute to the improved design and implementation of future adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01722084) PMID:23311647

  15. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. Methods We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Results Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion) to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and expected them to have knowledge

  16. Community accountability at peripheral health facilities: a review of the empirical literature and development of a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Sassy; Atela, Martin; Angwenyi, Vibian; Goodman, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Public accountability has re-emerged as a top priority for health systems all over the world, and particularly in developing countries where governments have often failed to provide adequate public sector services for their citizens. One approach to strengthening public accountability is through direct involvement of clients, users or the general public in health delivery, here termed ‘community accountability’. The potential benefits of community accountability, both as an end in itself and as a means of improving health services, have led to significant resources being invested by governments and non-governmental organizations. Data are now needed on the implementation and impact of these initiatives on the ground. A search of PubMed using a systematic approach, supplemented by a hand search of key websites, identified 21 papers from low- or middle-income countries describing at least one measure to enhance community accountability that was linked with peripheral facilities. Mechanisms covered included committees and groups (n = 19), public report cards (n = 1) and patients’ rights charters (n = 1). In this paper we summarize the data presented in these papers, including impact, and factors influencing impact, and conclude by commenting on the methods used, and the issues they raise. We highlight that the international interest in community accountability mechanisms linked to peripheral facilities has not been matched by empirical data, and present a conceptual framework and a set of ideas that might contribute to future studies. PMID:22279082

  17. Community-based intervention packages for improving perinatal health in developing countries: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jessica; Darmstadt, Gary L; Agarwal, Siddharth; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2010-12-01

    The Lancet Neonatal Survival Series categorized neonatal health interventions into 3 service delivery modes: "Outreach," "Family-Community Care," and "Facility-based Clinical Care." Family-Community Care services generally have a greater potential impact on neonatal health than Outreach services, with similar costs. Combining interventions from all 3 service delivery modes is ideal for achievement of high impact. However, access to clinical care is limited in resource-poor settings with weak health systems. The current trend for those settings is to combine neonatal interventions into community-based intervention packages (CBIPs), which can be integrated into the local health care system. In this article, we searched several large databases to identify all published, large-scale, controlled studies that were implemented in a rural setting, included a control group, and reported neonatal and/or perinatal mortality as outcomes. We identified only 9 large-scale studies that fit these criteria. Several conclusions can be reached. (1) Family-Community Care interventions can have a substantial effect on neonatal and perinatal mortality. (2) Several important common strategies were used across the studies, including community mobilization, health education, behavior change communication sessions, care seeking modalities, and home visits during pregnancy and after birth. However, implementation of these interventions varied widely across the studies. (3) There is a need for additional, large-scale studies to test evidence-based CBIPs in developing countries, particularly in Africa, where no large-scale studies were identified. (4) We need to establish consistent, clearly defined terminology and protocols for designing trials and reporting outcomes so that we are able to compare results across different settings. (5) There is an urgent need to invest in research and program development focusing on neonatal health in urban areas. (6) It is crucial to integrate CBIPs in rural

  18. Successful Community Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    This paper sketches several successful community economic development programs that have implications for rural education. Case studies are used to discuss community characteristics that contribute to development success. In Virginia, a Community Certification Program offers statewide business recruitment services to communities that meet program…

  19. Development and Successful Application of a “Community-First” Communication Model for Community-Based Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Edward Anthony; Zhang, Hong; Shofer, Frances Susan; Rodway, Nancy; Desai, Chintan; Freeman, David; Hufford, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Effectively communicate results from a community exposure study to meet predetermined community priorities, maintaining ethical principles of autonomy, empowerment and justice. Methods The community established principles for the communications and a plan to inform study participants, community and other stakeholders of results and recommendations in a novel sequence: the “Community-First” communication model. Results The communications resulted in positive actions including company sponsored free bottled water, accepted by 77.6% of eligible households. Over 95% of participants in a follow-up survey had made some change to residential water supplies. Serum PFOA levels were reduced. Government agencies acted on the results. Conclusions The unique communication approach generated workable solutions to the problem investigated, raised community awareness and modified behaviors. Information generated a “free market” of community-level solutions. Each major stakeholder voluntarily adopted a “precautionary principle”. PMID:19209035

  20. Empowering community health: an educational approach.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Washington, Cynthia; Holcomb, Lygia

    2010-10-01

    Collaborative efforts among community members, health care professionals, and faith-based institutions can prove valuable in efforts to improve community health. This study used data obtained from before and after health risk assessment surveys to assess participant's knowledge of risk factors leading to chronic diseases among African Americans in an underserved community of Alabama. Data obtained from activity logs and health screening sessions was used to assess effect of knowledge gained on lifestyle practices. The study findings support the need for ongoing population-specific education program development in religious institutions located inside underserved communities.

  1. Community financing of health care.

    PubMed

    Carrin, G

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses ways to lesson the restrictions on health development in sub-Saharan Africa caused by limited public health budgets. Health improvements can be funded by the implementation of health insurance, the use of foreign aid, the raising of taxes, the reallocation of public money, and direct contributions by users or households either in the form of charges for services received or prepayments for future services. Community financing, i.e. the direct financing of health care by households in villages or distinct urban communities, is seen as preferable to a national or regional plan. When community financing is chosen, a choice must then be made between direct payment, fee-for-service, and prepayment (insurance) systems. The 3 systems, using the example of an essential drugs program, are described. Theoretically, with direct payment the government receives full cost recovery, and the patients receive the drugs they need, thereby improving their health. Of course the poor may not be able to purchase the drugs, therefore a subsidy system must be worked out at the community level. Fee-for-service means charging for a consultation or course of treatment, including drugs. A sliding scale of fees or discounts for certain types of consultations (e.g. pre-and post natal) can be used. In fee-for-service the risk is shared; because the cost of drugs is financed by the fees, those who receive costly treatments are subsidized by those whose treatments are relatively inexpensive. With prepayment or health insurance the risk of illness is shifted from the patient to the insurance firm or state. 2 issues make insurance plans hard to implement. When patients are covered by insurance, they may demand "too much" medical care (moral hazard) and thus premiums may be too small to cover treatment costs. On the other hand, people in low-risk groups may be unwilling to pay a higher premium, thus leading to adverse selection. Eventually, premiums may rise to the point where

  2. Health educaton in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kanaaneh, H A

    1977-01-01

    Health education is of great relevance in developing communities as it is a means of improving the health level which is an integral part of the overall socioeconomic development. It must be undertaken in conjunction with health services which should involve consumer participation at an early stage. Its focus is on changing behavior in respect to healthful living both at the individual and community levels. Health education subjects in developing communities include maternal and child health (MCH), nutrition, family planning and infectious diseases. Every member in the health team must be a health educator. Personal methods, especially when used by indigenous community health workers, are best suited to induce health behavior change in developing communities. Mass media as a rule is less suited for this, although radio can inform large segments of the population.

  3. Development of an electronic breast pathology database in a community health system

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Heidi D.; Weerasinghe, Roshanthi; Martel, Maritza; Bifulco, Carlo; Assur, Ted; Elmore, Joann G.; Weaver, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health care systems rely on electronic patient data, yet access to breast tissue pathology results continues to depend on interpreting dictated free-text reports. Objective: The objective was to develop a method to electronically search and categorize pathologic diagnoses of patients’ breast tissue specimens from dictated free-text pathology reports in a large health system for multiple users including clinicians. Design: A database integrating existing patient-level administrative and clinical information for breast cancer screening and diagnostic services and a web-based application for comprehensive searching of pathology reports were developed by a health system team led by pathologists. The Breast Pathology Assessment Tool and Hierarchy for Diagnosis (BPATH-Dx) provided search terms and guided electronic transcription of diagnoses from text fields on breast pathology clinical reports to standardized categories. Approach: Breast pathology encounters in the pathology database were matched with administrative data for 7332 women with breast tissue specimens obtained from an initial procedure in the health system from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011. Sequential queries of the pathology text based on BPATH-Dx categorized biopsies according to their worst pathological diagnosis, as is standard practice. Diagnoses ranged from invasive breast cancer (23.3%), carcinoma in situ (7.8%), atypical lesions (6.39%), proliferative lesions without atypia (27.9%), and nonproliferative lesions (34.7%), and were further classified into subcategories. A random sample of 5% of reports that were manually reviewed indicated 97.5% agreement. Conclusions: Sequential queries of free-text pathology reports guided by a standardized assessment tool in conjunction with a web-based search application provide an efficient and reproducible approach to accessing nonmalignant breast pathology diagnoses. This method advances the use of pathology data and electronic health

  4. Building Community for Effective Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.; Engstrom, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Health promotion on campuses has two audiences or targets: individuals and the community. Through strategies of leadership, consensus development, and community service, college and university communities cannot only change social norms, but more critically, found and nurture a flexible, gentle network of caring and connectedness that pulls people…

  5. GetHealthyHarlem.org: Developing a Web Platform for Health Promotion and Wellness Driven by and for the Harlem Community

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sharib A.; Ancker, Jessica S.; Li, Jianhua; Kaufman, David; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-01-01

    GetHealthyHarlem.org is a community website developed on an open-source platform to facilitate collaborative development of health content through participatory action research (PAR) principles. The website was developed to enable the Harlem community to create a shared health and wellness knowledgebase, to enable discourse about local and culturally relevant health information, and to foster social connections between community members and health promotion organizations. The site is gaining active use with more than 9,500 unique site visits in the six months since going live in November, 2008. In ongoing research studies, we are using the website to explore how the PAR model can be applied to the development of a community health website. PMID:20351872

  6. Developing a good practice model to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive primary health care in local communities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a model of Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC) applicable to the Australian context. CPHC holds promise as an effective model of health system organization able to improve population health and increase health equity. However, there is little literature that describes and evaluates CPHC as a whole, with most evaluation focusing on specific programs. The lack of a consensus on what constitutes CPHC, and the complex and context-sensitive nature of CPHC are all barriers to evaluation. Methods The research was undertaken in partnership with six Australian primary health care services: four state government funded and managed services, one sexual health non-government organization, and one Aboriginal community controlled health service. A draft model was crafted combining program logic and theory-based approaches, drawing on relevant literature, 68 interviews with primary health care service staff, and researcher experience. The model was then refined through an iterative process involving two to three workshops at each of the six participating primary health care services, engaging health service staff, regional health executives and central health department staff. Results The resultant Southgate Model of CPHC in Australia model articulates the theory of change of how and why CPHC service components and activities, based on the theory, evidence and values which underpin a CPHC approach, are likely to lead to individual and population health outcomes and increased health equity. The model captures the importance of context, the mechanisms of CPHC, and the space for action services have to work within. The process of development engendered and supported collaborative relationships between researchers and stakeholders and the product provided a description of CPHC as a whole and a framework for evaluation. The model was endorsed at a research symposium involving investigators, service staff, and key stakeholders

  7. Problems associated with community mental health programs.

    PubMed

    Bindman, A J

    1966-12-01

    Community mental health programs vary in relation to their types of administrative and fiscal policy and structure. Discontinuity of services may increase due to proliferation of community-based programs, and community mental health personnel must be trained to deal with many needs and new programs. There will also be conflicts over individual professional interests versus community needs. Problems of staff recruitment will increase and concerted efforts are necessary to increase inservice education in order to re-shape professional roles. Psychologists in particular are interested in new developments in "community psychology" as a means of contributing to these efforts. PMID:24190853

  8. CenteringPregnancy Smiles: A Community Engagement to Develop and Implement a New Oral Health and Prenatal Care Model in Rural Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarik, Robert E.; Skelton, Judith; Mullins, M. Raynor; Langston, LeAnn; Womack, Sara; Morris, Jack; Martin, Dan; Brooks, Robert; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    CenteringPregnancy Smiles[TM] (CPS) is a partnership between the University of Kentucky, Trover Health System, and Hopkins County Health Department. The purpose of the partnership is to: (1) establish an infrastructure to address health problems requiring research-based solutions, (2) develop a model for community partnership formation, and (3)…

  9. Community health workers in global health: scale and scalability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anne; Sullivan, Sarah; Khan, Mohammed; Sachs, Sonia; Singh, Prabhjot

    2011-01-01

    Community health worker programs have emerged as one of the most effective strategies to address human resources for health shortages while improving access to and quality of primary healthcare. Many developing countries have succeeded in deploying community health worker programs in recognition of the potential of community health workers to identify, refer, and in many cases treat illnesses at the household level. However, challenges in program design and sustainability are expanded when such programs are expanded at scale, particularly with regard to systems management and integration with primary health facilities. Several nongovernmental organizations provide cases of innovation on management of community health worker programs that could support a sustainable system that is capable of being expanded without being stressed in its functionality nor effectiveness--therefore, providing for stronger scalability. This paper explores community health worker programs that have been deployed at national scale, as well as scalable innovations found in successful nongovernmental organization-run community health worker programs. In exploration of strategies to ensure sustainable community health worker programs at scale, we reconcile scaling constraints and scalable innovations by mapping strengths of nongovernmental organizations' community health worker programs to the challenges faced by programs currently deployed at national scale. PMID:21598268

  10. Curriculum for Community Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Paula S.

    The Community Outreach Curriculum described in this paper is designed to prepare community health aides employed through the Outreach Department of Pima County (Arizona) Indian Health Inc., (PCIHI), which consists of two medical clinics on two separate reservations. The first sections of the paper describe PCIHI, provide a rationale for the…

  11. Introduction of mobile phones for use by volunteer community health workers in support of integrated community case management in Bushenyi District, Uganda: development and implementation process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A substantial literature suggests that mobile phones have great potential to improve management and survival of acutely ill children in rural Africa. The national strategy of the Ugandan Ministry of Health calls for employment of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) in implementation of Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) of common illnesses (diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, pneumonia, fever/malaria) affecting children under five years of age. A mobile phone enabled system was developed within iCCM aiming to improve access by CHWs to medical advice and to strengthen reporting of data on danger signs and symptoms for acutely ill children under five years of age. Herein critical steps in development, implementation, and integration of mobile phone technology within iCCM are described. Methods Mechanisms to improve diagnosis, treatment and referral of sick children under five were defined. Treatment algorithms were developed by the project technical team and mounted and piloted on the mobile phones, using an iterative process involving technical support personnel, health care providers, and academic support. Using a purposefully developed mobile phone training manual, CHWs were trained over an intensive five-day course to make timely diagnoses, recognize clinical danger signs, communicate about referrals and initiate treatment with appropriate essential drugs. Performance by CHWs and the accuracy and completeness of their submitted data was closely monitored post training test period and during the subsequent nine month community trial. In the full trial, the number of referrals and correctly treated children, based on the agreed treatment algorithms, was recorded. Births, deaths, and medication stocks were also tracked. Results and Discussion Seven distinct phases were required to develop a robust mobile phone enabled system in support of the iCCM program. Over a nine month period, 96 CHWs were trained to use mobile phones and their

  12. Strategies in Urban Community Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellman, Sheppard G.; And Others

    The paper presents an outline for the development of a community mental health program based on assessment of a first grade population in an urban Negro neighborhood and involving a strategy that places primary emphasis on establishing ongoing community sanction and participation in policy-making. The strategy included the development of a…

  13. Community health nursing vision for 2020: shaping the future.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Ruth; Ganann, Rebecca; Brooks, Sandy; McGugan, Jennifer; Dalla Bona, Kim; Betker, Claire; Dilworth, Katie; Parton, Laurie; Reid-Haughian, Cheryl; Slepkov, Marlene; Watson, Cori

    2011-12-01

    As health care is shifting from hospital to community, community health nurses (CHNs) are directly affected. This descriptive qualitative study sought to understand priority issues currently facing CHNs, explore development of a national vision for community health nursing, and develop recommendations to shape the future of the profession moving toward the year 2020. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted across Canada. Five key themes were identified: community health nursing in crisis now, a flawed health care system, responding to the public, vision for the future, and CHNs as solution makers. Key recommendations include developing a common definition and vision of community health nursing, collaborating on an aggressive plan to shift to a primary health care system, developing a comprehensive social marketing strategy, refocusing basic baccalaureate education, enhancing the capacity of community health researchers and knowledge in community health nursing, and establishing a community health nursing center of excellence.

  14. Community health nursing vision for 2020: shaping the future.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Ruth; Ganann, Rebecca; Brooks, Sandy; McGugan, Jennifer; Dalla Bona, Kim; Betker, Claire; Dilworth, Katie; Parton, Laurie; Reid-Haughian, Cheryl; Slepkov, Marlene; Watson, Cori

    2011-12-01

    As health care is shifting from hospital to community, community health nurses (CHNs) are directly affected. This descriptive qualitative study sought to understand priority issues currently facing CHNs, explore development of a national vision for community health nursing, and develop recommendations to shape the future of the profession moving toward the year 2020. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted across Canada. Five key themes were identified: community health nursing in crisis now, a flawed health care system, responding to the public, vision for the future, and CHNs as solution makers. Key recommendations include developing a common definition and vision of community health nursing, collaborating on an aggressive plan to shift to a primary health care system, developing a comprehensive social marketing strategy, refocusing basic baccalaureate education, enhancing the capacity of community health researchers and knowledge in community health nursing, and establishing a community health nursing center of excellence. PMID:20660926

  15. Development of the Health Atlas of Jalisco: A New Web-Based Service for the Ministry of Health and the Community in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Juan; Fonseca León, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background Maps have been widely used to provide a visual representation of information of a geographic area. Health atlases are collections of maps related to conditions, infrastructure or services provided. Various countries have put resources towards producing health atlases that support health decision makers to enhance their services to the communities. Latin America, as well as Spain, have produced several atlases of importance such as the interactive mortality atlas of Andalucía, which is very similar to the one that is presented in this paper. In Mexico, the National Institute of Public Health produced the only health atlas found that is of relevance. It was published online in 2003 and is currently still active. Objective The objective of this work is to describe the methods used to develop the Health Atlas of Jalisco (HAJ), and show its characteristics and how it interactively works with the user as a Web-based service. Methods This work has an ecological design in which the analysis units are the 125 municipalities (counties) of the state of Jalisco, Mexico. We created and published online a geographic health atlas displaying a system based on input from official health database of the Health Ministry of Jalisco (HMJ), and some databases from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (NISGI). The atlas displays 256 different variables as health-direct or health-related indicators. Instant Atlas software was used to generate the online application. The atlas was developed using these procedures: (1) datasheet processing and base maps generation, (2) software arrangements, and (3) website creation. Results The HAJ is a Web-based service that allows users to interact with health and general data, regions, and categories according to their information needs and generates thematic maps (eg, the total population of the state or of a single municipality grouped by age or sex). The atlas is capable of displaying more than 32,000 different maps by

  16. Community Development in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anna

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade, community development in Ireland has emphasized social and economic inclusion, regeneration, and civic participation. Continuing challenges include designation of diverse community representatives, demand for increased administrative efficiency, and management of mandates and accountability. There are more community development…

  17. Health literacy of an urban business community.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Barbara H; Hayes, Sandra C; Ekundayo, Olugbemiga T; Wheeler, Primus; Ford, D'Arcy M

    2012-02-01

    The impact of community-based organizations on the delivery of health care knowledge is well documented. Little research has focused on the importance of health literacy in the dissemination of health care information by minority small business owners. This study sampled 38 business owners within a local business district to assess their level of health literacy. Although adequate health literacy is not required to serve as a community resource, it may be necessary to understand the health literacy level of local business owners as gatekeepers in order to develop appropriate training/educational programs. The results of this descriptive cross-sectional study indicate that for sample of business owners, health literacy levels are adequate. The findings suggest the feasibility of using local business owners as disseminators of health-related materials to the communities in which they operate their businesses.

  18. Health literacy of an urban business community.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Barbara H; Hayes, Sandra C; Ekundayo, Olugbemiga T; Wheeler, Primus; Ford, D'Arcy M

    2012-02-01

    The impact of community-based organizations on the delivery of health care knowledge is well documented. Little research has focused on the importance of health literacy in the dissemination of health care information by minority small business owners. This study sampled 38 business owners within a local business district to assess their level of health literacy. Although adequate health literacy is not required to serve as a community resource, it may be necessary to understand the health literacy level of local business owners as gatekeepers in order to develop appropriate training/educational programs. The results of this descriptive cross-sectional study indicate that for sample of business owners, health literacy levels are adequate. The findings suggest the feasibility of using local business owners as disseminators of health-related materials to the communities in which they operate their businesses. PMID:22643474

  19. Scenario planning for community development in Vietnam: a new tool for integrated health approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Wiese, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Like many countries in Southeast Asia, Vietnam's rapid population and economic growth has met challenges in infrastructure development, especially sanitation in rural areas. Objective As an entry point, we developed scenario planning as an action–research tool in a peri-urban community to identify first steps towards improving their complex sanitation problem and to, systemically, address emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases, as these are commonly linked to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation conditions. As an integrated approach, the process of constructing scenarios allowed us to work across sectors and stakeholders to incorporate this knowledge into a common vision. Design We conducted focus group discussions to identify and rank driving forces, orally constructed scenarios for the most uncertain drivers, discussed scenario implications and options, and examined the overall process for usefulness and sustainability. During a one-month scoping phase and in between focus group meetings, we carried out household visits which helped us understand the context of data and gather feedback from participants outside of the formal data collection process. Recorded results from these activities were used to develop subsequent tools. Results and Conclusions The research process gave us insights into how to adapt the scenario planning tool to identify alternative options. This involved choosing boundary partners, negotiating priorities, drawing out participant learning through self-assessment of our process (a prerequisite for changing mental models and thus achieving outcomes), and understanding how conveyed messages may reinforce the status quo. These insights showed the importance of examining research results beyond outputs and outcomes, namely through process. PMID:25138530

  20. The role of "Theatre for Development" in mobilising rural communities for primary health care: the case of Liwonde PHC Unit in southern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kalipeni, E; Kamlongera, C

    1996-01-01

    The improved health conditions that are essential for development may depend more upon the self-help motivation of local people than upon the provision of Western-style health facilities. Such motivation can be created by the culturally-appropriate dissemination of health education at the community level. This article describes an effective health improvement strategy implemented in three villages in southern Malawi during the late 1980s. After an introduction, the paper presents an overview of current strategies used in Malawi for the dissemination of primary health care information and notes that these strategies have failed to reach the rural population. Next, the paper describes the health status of two of the villages, Mbela and Mwima, before the introduction of the Liwonde Agricultural Development Division Primary Health Care Program. None of the three village involved had access to modern health care facilities. This program involved the joint efforts of the community, a primary health care team, and the Chancellor College Theatre for Development. The paper continues by presenting a conceptual model of the process. Community involvement was assured by the election of the members of village health committees and the delivery of health training to two members of each committee. The Theatre for Development used interactive dramatic techniques and participatory research activities in Mwima and Mbela to help the communities assess their health needs and possible solutions in conjunction with the introduction of primary health care activities. The article also contrasts the Theatre for Development technique with the focus group approach and notes that the latter may not be successful in motivating self-help efforts. Finally, the relative success of the Theatre for Development methodology used in the two villages is described by comparing health indicators with those before the intervention and with those in the third village where this approach was not used in

  1. Health Action Theatre by Seniors: Community Development and Education with Groups of Diverse Languages and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmar, Isabel; Nascimento, Odete

    2002-01-01

    Describes St. Christopher House Health Action Theatre by Seniors in Toronto, which uses interactive theater to address such issues as elder abuse, mental health, substance abuse, and other health care issues. Includes information about the lack of appropriate culturally sensitive healthcare and home care support services. (JOW)

  2. Developing Community Leadership in Healthy Cities: The Indiana Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Beverly C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Part of a worldwide movement, Healthy Cities Indiana is a community development approach to health promotion that involves a public-private partnership and citizen participation in examining community health problems. Development of community leaders is an essential part. (SK)

  3. Effectiveness of the Rural Trauma Team Development Course for Educating Nurses and Other Health Care Providers at Rural Community Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Thein Hlaing; Hollister, Lisa; Scheumann, Christopher; Konger, Jennifer; Opoku, Dazar

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates (1) health care provider perception of the Rural Trauma Team Development Course (RTTDC); (2) improvement in acute trauma emergency care knowledge; and (3) early transfer of trauma patients from rural emergency departments (EDs) to a verified trauma center. A 1-day, 8-hour RTTDC was given to 101 nurses and other health care providers from nine rural community hospitals from 2011 to 2013. RTTDC participants completed questionnaires to address objectives (1) and (2). ED and trauma registry data were queried to achieve objective (3) for assessing reduction in ED time (EDT), from patient arrival to decision to transfer and ED length of stay (LOS). The RTTDC was positively perceived by health care providers (96.3% of them completed the program). Significant improvement in 13 of the 19 knowledge items was observed in nurses. Education intervention was an independent predictor in reducing EDT by 28 minutes and 95% confidence interval (CI) [-57, -0.1] at 6 months post-RTTDC, and 29 minutes and 95% CI [-53, -6] at 12 months post-RTTDC. Similar results were observed with ED LOS. The RTTDC is well-perceived as an education program. It improves acute trauma emergency care knowledge in rural health care providers. It promotes early transfer of severely injured patients to a higher level of care.

  4. Black Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William M.

    This published dissertation discusses the community development process as applied to urban black ghettoes. It provides extensive documentation on the many issues, concepts, and procedures in the field of community development. The method employed in collecting the data is a through review of existing literature in the topical areas for relevance…

  5. Health survey instrument development through a community-based participatory research approach: Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) and Brazilian immigrants in Greater Boston.

    PubMed

    Tajik, Mansoureh; Galvão, Heloisa M; Eduardo Siqueira, C

    2010-06-01

    Brazilians are among the fastest growing segment of immigrant populations in several states of the United States. Culturally appropriate and validated health survey instruments do not exist to adequately assess the health needs of this population. Through a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, a cross-cultural pilot project was conducted to develop and test a culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese-version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP-II) instrument with a convenience sample of 60 bilingual and bicultural Brazilian immigrants using a combined quasi experimental and focus group design. The project evaluated HPLP-II instrument's psychometric properties of equivalency, reliability, and score distribution in Portuguese and English. This pilot test supports equivalency, consistency, and reliability of the English and culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese versions of the instrument. CBPR is an effective approach in health instrument development. This instrument is an important first step in designing other appropriate instruments to explore health conditions of Brazilian immigrants in the U.S.

  6. Assessing Financial Health in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy H.; Head, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    In this age of educational accountability, there is an increasing emphasis on assessment and institutional effectiveness, not only in the academic arena but also in other aspects of community college operation, such as fiscal health and stability, revenue generation, resource allocation, facilities, workforce development, and community enrichment…

  7. Health and Taxes: Hospitals, Community Health and the IRS.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act created new conditions of federal tax exemption for nonprofit hospitals, including a requirement that hospitals conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) every three years to identify significant health needs in their communities and then develop and implement a strategy responding to those needs. As a result, hospitals must now do more than provide charity care to their patients in exchange for the benefits of tax exemption. The CHNA requirement has the potential both to prompt a radical change in hospitals' relationship to their communities and to enlist hospitals as meaningful contributors to community health improvement initiatives. Final regulations issued in December 2014 clarify hospitals' obligations under the CHNA requirement, but could do more to facilitate hospitals' engagement in collaborative community health projects. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has a rich opportunity, while hospitals are still learning to conduct CHNAs, to develop guidance establishing clear but flexible expectations for how providers should assess and address community needs. This Article urges the IRS to seize that opportunity by refining its regulatory framework for the CHNA requirement. Specifically, the IRS should more robustly promote transparency, accountability, community engagement, and collaboration while simultaneously leaving hospitals a good degree of flexibility. By promoting alignment between hospitals' regulatory compliance activities and broader community health improvement initiatives, the IRS could play a meaningful role in efforts to reorient our system towards promoting health and not simply treating illness. PMID:27363258

  8. Health and Taxes: Hospitals, Community Health and the IRS.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act created new conditions of federal tax exemption for nonprofit hospitals, including a requirement that hospitals conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) every three years to identify significant health needs in their communities and then develop and implement a strategy responding to those needs. As a result, hospitals must now do more than provide charity care to their patients in exchange for the benefits of tax exemption. The CHNA requirement has the potential both to prompt a radical change in hospitals' relationship to their communities and to enlist hospitals as meaningful contributors to community health improvement initiatives. Final regulations issued in December 2014 clarify hospitals' obligations under the CHNA requirement, but could do more to facilitate hospitals' engagement in collaborative community health projects. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has a rich opportunity, while hospitals are still learning to conduct CHNAs, to develop guidance establishing clear but flexible expectations for how providers should assess and address community needs. This Article urges the IRS to seize that opportunity by refining its regulatory framework for the CHNA requirement. Specifically, the IRS should more robustly promote transparency, accountability, community engagement, and collaboration while simultaneously leaving hospitals a good degree of flexibility. By promoting alignment between hospitals' regulatory compliance activities and broader community health improvement initiatives, the IRS could play a meaningful role in efforts to reorient our system towards promoting health and not simply treating illness.

  9. Health, hope, and human development: building capacity in public housing communities on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Mata, Holly; Flores, Maria; Castañeda, Ernesto; Medina-Jerez, William; Lachica, Josue; Smith, Curtis; Olvera, Hector

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we highlight results from our recent survey of public housing residents living in the U.S.-Mexico border region. Our data inform our interdisciplinary (public health, education, environmental engineering, sociology) efforts to improve health and educational equity in our community, and provide ripe opportunities for policy advocacy. PMID:24185141

  10. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, A.

    2001-01-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues—which are often not acknowledged by commentators—that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). Key Words: World Bank • poverty • health • population • health economics • global ethics PMID:11479358

  11. Developing an online learning community for mental health professionals and service users: a discursive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in online collaborative learning tools in health education, to reduce costs, and to offer alternative communication opportunities. Patients and students often have extensive experience of using the Internet for health information and support, and many health organisations are increasingly trying out online tools, while many healthcare professionals are unused to, and have reservations about, online interaction. Methods We ran three week-long collaborative learning courses, in which 19 mental health professionals (MHPs) and 12 mental health service users (MHSUs) participated. Data were analysed using a discursive approach to consider the ways in which participants interacted, and how this contributed to the goal of online learning about using Internet technologies for mental health practice. Results MHSUs and MHPs were able to discuss issues together, listening to the views of the other stakeholders. Discussions on synchronous format encouraged participation by service users while the MHPs showed a preference for an asynchronous format with longer, reasoned postings. Although participants regularly drew on their MHP or MHSU status in discussions, and participants typically drew on either a medical expert discourse or a "lived experience" discourse, there was a blurred boundary as participants shifted between these positions. Conclusions The anonymous format was successful in that it produced a "co-constructed asymmetry" which permitted the MHPs and MHSUs to discuss issues online, listening to the views of other stakeholders. Although anonymity was essential for this course to 'work' at all, the recourse to expert or lay discourses demonstrates that it did not eliminate the hierarchies between teacher and learner, or MHP and MHSU. The mix of synchronous and asynchronous formats helped MHSUs to contribute. Moderators might best facilitate service user experience by responding within an experiential discourse rather than an

  12. Developing Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sue

    2005-01-01

    The author talks about a vision of a "learning community" that is currently being trialled in 26 testbeds in England. As the first learning community testbeds develop across England, the author looks at some of the early issues that are emerging from the first few months of activity. The issues identified have emerged from early discussion about…

  13. [Health promotion. Concept development].

    PubMed

    Sito, A; Berkowska, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of health promotion in theory and practice is presented-from the Ottawa Charter in 1986, to the community based health promotion programmes, as the vision for the 21 Century. The historical mile stones in the process of change and the conceptualisation of health promotion are discussed with reference to the World WHO Conferences and documents from these conferences. These events and documents have been vital as guidelines for member countries, both for implementation of community based programmes, as well as for healthy public policy and for training, especially concerning evaluation. The paper also discusses the main trends in research; definitions of principal concepts are highlighted, concerning planning, implementation and evaluation of health promotion programmes.

  14. Developing Local Community Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Delwyn A.; Williams, Oscar M.

    The successful development of local leaders is the goal of leadership training and community development. Development involves defining and developing leadership. Although leader-centered leadership offers few chances of meeting the maintenance needs of the group as a whole, shared leadership allows the group to join in the decision-making…

  15. Building communities that create health.

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, R; Knapp, A

    2000-01-01

    Typically, public health policy, program design, and resource allocation are based on issue-specific, targeted interventions directed at specific populations or sub-populations. The authors argue that this approach fails to meet the goal of public health-to improve health for all--and that the key to health improvement is to create a social context in which healthy choices are the norm. The authors present as case studies two Pennsylvania cities that used multisectoral approaches to achieve community health improvements. Images p141-a PMID:10968745

  16. Learning about Urban Congregations and HIV/AIDS: Community-Based Foundations for Developing Congregational Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael; Oden, Clyde W.

    2010-01-01

    Religious congregations are important community institutions that could help fight HIV/AIDS; however, barriers exist, particularly in the area of prevention. Formative, participatory research is needed to understand the capacity of congregations to address HIV/AIDS. This article describes a study that used community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to learn about congregation-sponsored HIV activities. CBPR strategies were used throughout the study, including proposal development, community expert interviews, Community Advisory Board, congregational telephone survey, congregational case studies, and congregational feedback sessions. Involving community consultants, experts, and advisory board members in all stages of the study helped the researchers to conceptualize congregational involvement in HIV, be more sensitive to potential congregational concerns about the research, achieve high response rates, and interpret and disseminate findings. Providing preliminary case findings to congregational participants in an interactive feedback session improved data quality and relationships with the community. Methods to engage community stakeholders can lay the foundation for future collaborative interventions. PMID:20361357

  17. Learning about urban congregations and HIV/AIDS: community-based foundations for developing congregational health interventions.

    PubMed

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Mendel, Peter J; Kanouse, David E; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael; Oden, Clyde W

    2010-07-01

    Religious congregations are important community institutions that could help fight HIV/AIDS; however, barriers exist, particularly in the area of prevention. Formative, participatory research is needed to understand the capacity of congregations to address HIV/AIDS. This article describes a study that used community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to learn about congregation-sponsored HIV activities. CBPR strategies were used throughout the study, including proposal development, community expert interviews, Community Advisory Board, congregational telephone survey, congregational case studies, and congregational feedback sessions. Involving community consultants, experts, and advisory board members in all stages of the study helped the researchers to conceptualize congregational involvement in HIV, be more sensitive to potential congregational concerns about the research, achieve high response rates, and interpret and disseminate findings. Providing preliminary case findings to congregational participants in an interactive feedback session improved data quality and relationships with the community. Methods to engage community stakeholders can lay the foundation for future collaborative interventions.

  18. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lewis L; Green, Nancy S; Donnell Ivy, E; Neunert, Cindy E; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R; Martin, Molly

    2016-07-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This paper outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of "best practices" for this area of community-based care.

  19. The Health of the School Nurse Community: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christeson, Elisabeth P.

    2003-01-01

    School nursing is based on a conceptual foundation of community health nursing. Using community health nursing as a reference point, this article describes a viewpoint of school nurses as the population of care. With this perspective, school nurses will better understand how to foster the health of their community. Developed on the basis of…

  20. Measuring Socioeconomic Status in Health Research in Developing Countries: Should We Be Focusing on Households, Communities or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kuate-Defo, Barthelemy

    2005-01-01

    Research on the effects of socioeconomic well-being on health is important for policy makers in developing countries, where limited resources make it crucial to use existing health care resources to the best advantage. This paper develops and tests a set of measures of socioeconomic status indicators for predicting health status in developing…

  1. Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: Development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions

    PubMed Central

    Casapia, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-01-01

    Background Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Methods Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. Results The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1) infant malnutrition; 2) adolescent pregnancy; 3) diarrhoea; 4) anaemia; 5) parasites; 6) lack of basic sanitation; 7) low level of education; 8) sexually transmitted diseases; 9) domestic violence; and 10) delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. Conclusion The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of Belen. The

  2. The health of the school nurse community: a framework.

    PubMed

    Christeson, Elisabeth P

    2003-04-01

    School nursing is based on a conceptual foundation of community health nursing. Using community health nursing as a reference point, this article describes a viewpoint of school nurses as the population of care. With this perspective, school nurses will better understand how to foster the health of their community. Developed on the basis of McKenzie, Pinger, and Kotecki's community health model, the Health of the School Nurse Community Framework has been designed to (a) facilitate understanding of the concept of "school nurse community" and (b) organize the factors that affect the health of the school nurse community. Essential to its use is the identification of the school nurse community's assets and capacities as well as its needs. Application of the framework to strive to improve the health of one state's school nurse community is also presented.

  3. Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

  4. Adult Learning, Community Education, and Public Health: Making the Connection through Community Health Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Community health education does more than educate communities about health. In the most basic form, community health education seeks to enable citizens to assume responsibility for their own and their community's health through an understanding of their community's health problems and the societal influences that act upon them. Many community…

  5. Community Education and Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Elizabeth

    Because it is based on the premise that learning is a lifelong process and that citizen involvement is essential to neighborhood problem solving, community education is particularly attuned to the current needs of cities and can be a major vehicle for cities attempting to provide convenient, comprehensive health services in an efficient,…

  6. Public health and health education in faith communities.

    PubMed

    Chatters, L M; Levin, J S; Ellison, C G

    1998-12-01

    This special issue of Health Education & Behavior is devoted to broadly examining the interconnections among public health, health education, and faith-based communities. In addition to a focus on questions related to the practice of public health and health education within religious settings (e.g., program development, implementation, and evaluation), the articles in this issue examine a broad range of both substantive and methodological questions and concerns. These articles include contributions that address (1) various theoretical and conceptual issues and frameworks explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health; (2) substantive reviews of current research in the area; (3) individual empirical studies exploring the associations between religious involvement and health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; (4) evaluations of health education programs in faith communities; and (5) religious institutions and their contributions to the development of health policy. The articles comprising the issue are selective in their coverage of the field and provide different and complementary perspectives on the connections between religious involvement and health. It is hoped that this approach will appeal to a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others from health education, public health, and related social and behavioral science disciplines.

  7. Evaluating the ecological association of casino industry economic development on community health status: a natural experiment in the Mississippi delta region.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Simoes, Eduardo J; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Wang, Xueyuan; Brown, Lovetta

    2007-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to examine for associations of casino industry economic development on improving community health status and funding for public health services in two counties in the Mississippi Delta Region of the United States. An ecological approach was used to evaluate whether two counties with casino gaming had improved health status and public health funding in comparison with two noncasino counties in the same region with similar social, racial, and ethic backgrounds. Variables readily available from state health department records were used to develop a logic model for guiding analytical work. A linear regression model was built using a stepwise approach and hierarchical regression principles with many dependent variables and a set of fixed and nonfixed independent variables. County-level data for 23 variables over an 11-year period were used. Overall, this study found a lack of association between the presence of a casino and desirable health outcomes or funding for public health services. Changes in the environment were made to promote health by utilizing gaming revenues to build state-of-the-art community health and wellness centers and sports facilities. However, significant increases in funding for local public health services were not found in either of the counties with casinos. These findings are relevant for policy makers when debating economic development strategies. Analysis similar to this should be combined with other routine public health assessments after implementation of development strategies to increase knowledge of health outcome trends and shifts in socioeconomic position that may be expected to accrue from economic development projects.

  8. Use of the Persuasive Health Message framework in the development of a community-based mammography promotion campaign

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Turbes, Ashani

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We describe how the Persuasive Health Message (PHM) framework was used to guide the formative evaluation informing development of messages and materials used in a community-based multi-media campaign intended to motivate low-income African American women to obtain low- or no-cost mammograms through the CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Methods Seventy-eight African American women were recruited for eight focus groups that discussed breast cancer screening. The moderator guide was developed in accordance with the PHM framework and solicited information on perceived threat and efficacy, cues, salient beliefs and referents, and barriers to self-efficacy. Results We created persuasive messages to emphasize that African American women are susceptible to the threat of breast cancer, but that their personal action in obtaining regular mammograms may lead to early detection, subsequent treatment, and reduced cancer mortality. The messages addressed concerns of self-efficacy by emphasizing that uninsured women can also obtain high-quality low- or no-cost mammograms. In an attempt to combat the sentiment that breast cancer is a death sentence, the messages indicated that breast cancer can be successfully treated, especially when detected early. Conclusions The PHM framework consists of three steps: (1) determine information about threat and efficacy; (2) develop an audience profile; and (3) construct a persuasive message. It offered our team easy-to-follow, flexible steps to create a persuasive and effective campaign promoting awareness and use of mammogram screening among low-income African American women. PMID:25724414

  9. Using Community Health Assessment to Teach and Explore Health Status Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Marianne; Levine, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Community health assessment (CHA) is a useful tool for identifying health status disparities at the community level. Developing the skills of master's level public health students to conduct CHA addresses a number of the Association of Schools of Public Health Core competencies for graduate public health education. Teaching…

  10. Patient moderator interaction in online health communities.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Hartzler, Andrea; Pratt, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of people visit online health communities to share experiences and seek health information. Although studies have enumerated reasons for patients' visits to online communities for health information from peers, we know little about how patients gain health information from the moderators in these communities. We qualitatively analyze 480 patient and moderator posts from six communities to understand how moderators fulfill patients' information needs. Our findings show that patients use the community as an integral part of their health management practices. Based on our results, we suggest enhancements to moderated online health communities for their unique role to support patient care.

  11. Community control of health services. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Health Center's community management system.

    PubMed

    Tichy, N M; Taylor, J I

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the case of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Health Center's unique community management system in which neighborhood workers have been developed to assume managerial responsibilities and are directing the Center. The Martin Luther King Center experience is instructive because the Center was able to achieve significant community control by focusing primarily on the internal dimension of control, namely, management, without experiencing destructive conflicts and the deterioration of health services.

  12. Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Yoo Jin; Sung, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Hyo Jin; Choi, Hyung Yun; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean. PMID:26430619

  13. Keep It Up: development of a community-based health screening and HIV prevention strategy for reaching young African American men.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Bonaparte, Beverly; Joseph, Heather; Agronick, Gail; Leow, Deborah McLean; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing HIV prevention interventions that not only prove to be efficacious but also are designed from the outset to overcome obstacles to reaching priority populations. We describe how community input has informed development of Keep It Up (KIU), a community health screening and behavioral prevention program for young Black men. KIU embeds HIV prevention in a broader health promotion campaign, with the goal of reducing stigma and reaching a population that bears a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS and other health problems-hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. Information from community partners, expert advisers, and focus groups was collected at key junctures and incorporated into four core components: social marketing, a computerized behavioral learning module, biological testing for HIV and other conditions, and a personalized health profile and risk reduction plan. A pilot with 116 participants provided evidence that the KIU model of integrating HIV prevention with other health screening is acceptable and has the potential to reach Black men at risk for HIV as well as other chronic health conditions.

  14. Keep It Up: development of a community-based health screening and HIV prevention strategy for reaching young African American men.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Bonaparte, Beverly; Joseph, Heather; Agronick, Gail; Leow, Deborah McLean; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing HIV prevention interventions that not only prove to be efficacious but also are designed from the outset to overcome obstacles to reaching priority populations. We describe how community input has informed development of Keep It Up (KIU), a community health screening and behavioral prevention program for young Black men. KIU embeds HIV prevention in a broader health promotion campaign, with the goal of reducing stigma and reaching a population that bears a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS and other health problems-hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. Information from community partners, expert advisers, and focus groups was collected at key junctures and incorporated into four core components: social marketing, a computerized behavioral learning module, biological testing for HIV and other conditions, and a personalized health profile and risk reduction plan. A pilot with 116 participants provided evidence that the KIU model of integrating HIV prevention with other health screening is acceptable and has the potential to reach Black men at risk for HIV as well as other chronic health conditions. PMID:19670966

  15. Ethnographic approach to community organization and health empowerment.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, R L; Bianchi, C; Taylor, S E

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address pertinent issues relative to the association between community organization and health empowerment methods in ethnic communities of colour. It seeks to address these issues by utilizing ethnographic procedures for documenting community health concerns and by advocating for empowerment for people of colour and their participation in coalition partnerships. Increasingly the importance of citizen participation in the planning, assessment, and implementation of community-based health initiatives has been identified as essential for effective health promotion and disease prevention programs. This article argues for the utility of a community organization approach for achieving health empowerment, and subsequently decreasing the excess deaths in communities of colour. The interface of ethnographic procedures, community organization, and development of community-owned action plans for programming health interventions is discussed.

  16. Contributing to the Community: The Economic Significance of Academic Health Centers and Their Role in Neighborhood Development. Report IV. Report of the Task Force on Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report is a selective analysis and assessment of quantitative data and field studies that reflect the economic role of the Academic Health Center (AHC) in the urban economy and in neighborhood revitalization. It describes the effect of a variety of cooperative efforts between local community organizations and AHCs, which usually include a…

  17. Epidemiological study of mental morbidity in an urban slum community in India for the development of a community mental health programme.

    PubMed

    Silvanus, V; Subramanian, P

    2012-03-01

    A crossectional field study was carried out in an urban slum in order to assess the prevalence and nature of mental morbidity and identify stressors in the community. A face to face interview was conducted with the help of a questionnaire. The interview consisted of three sections as follows: Data identifying the informant by age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, age at marriage, number of members, children and monthly income. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 5- item version used as a screening instrument to assess the present mental health status of the informant and data of past illnesses in self or family and questions framed to elicit perceptions regarding mental illness, alcoholism, their causation and treatment. The subjects who scored above 2 ie 3,4,and 5 in the GHQ were requested to follow up at the Mental Health OPD and subjected to a standardized psychiatric interview by a Psychiatrist. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Third Revised (DSM 3 R) criteria were used for diagnosis. After the interview and examination, the appropriate treatment was instituted. A total of 443 individuals were screened. The overall prevalence rate of mental illness in the community was 61 per thousand. It is estimated that the case rate ranges from 38 to 84 per thousand within 95% confidence limits. The overall severity ranged from mild to severe morbidity. The prevalence of severe mental morbidity which includes psychosis, depressive illness, mental retardation was 22.5 per thousand. Neurosis (63.31%) especially Major Depression and Adjustment disorder, Psychosis (10.00%), Somatization disorder (6.66%) and Psychiatric symptoms secondary to physical illness were the major groups of illness. Women were found to have more mental health problems than men. The morbidity pattern also differs significantly with the gender. Neurosis was seen more among the female subjects. There was a significant association of mental health problems with low educational status

  18. Development of a community sustainability visualization tool through integration of US EPA’s Sustainable and Health Community Research Program tasks

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a 2-day session combining multiple components of an ongoing integrative research program in USEPA’s Office of Research and Development into a functional community sustainability visualization and assessment tool. The working group will include project leads for a US H...

  19. A Community Health Education System to meet the health needs of Indo-Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Ratnaike, R N; Chinner, T L

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a Community Health Education System which is cost-effective, sustainable, strongly community-based, and directed at improving the health status of rural women in Indo-china (Kampuchea, Laos and Vietnam). The system is developed through a series of steps which are concerned with the education of Community Health Education Units (in national ministries of health) and, at the village level, among community health workers, women's groups, and other women. The ultimate aim is the establishment of a community health education program in Indochinese villages. PMID:1602046

  20. Collaborative Community: Health Education Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Setta

    2004-01-01

    Four community colleges in Western Massachusetts--Berkshire Community College (BCC), Greenfield Community College (GCC), Holyoke Community College (HCC), and Springfield Technical Community College (STCC)--have created a collaborative Web site, at www.healthprograms.org, to present information on allied health associate degrees or certificate…

  1. Communities of practice as a professional and organizational development strategy in local public health organizations in Quebec, Canada: an evaluation model.

    PubMed

    Richard, Lucie; Chiocchio, François; Essiembre, Hélène; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Lamy, Geneviève; Champagne, François; Beaudet, Nicole

    2014-02-01

    Communities of practice (CoPs) are among the professional development strategies most widely used in such fields as management and education. Though the approach has elicited keen interest, knowledge pertaining to its conceptual underpinnings is still limited, thus hindering proper assessment of CoPs' effects and the processes generating the latter. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a conceptual model that was developed to evaluate an initiative based on a CoP strategy: Health Promotion Laboratories are a professional development intervention that was implemented in local public health organizations in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). The model is based on latest theories on work-group effectiveness and organizational learning and can be usefully adopted by evaluators who are increasingly called upon to illuminate decision-making about CoPs. Ultimately, validation of this conceptual model will help advance knowledge and practice pertaining to CoPs as well as professional and organizational development strategies in public health.

  2. Communities of Practice as a Professional and Organizational Development Strategy in Local Public Health Organizations in Quebec, Canada: An Evaluation Model

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Lucie; Chiocchio, François; Essiembre, Hélène; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Lamy, Geneviève; Champagne, François; Beaudet, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Communities of practice (CoPs) are among the professional development strategies most widely used in such fields as management and education. Though the approach has elicited keen interest, knowledge pertaining to its conceptual underpinnings is still limited, thus hindering proper assessment of CoPs' effects and the processes generating the latter. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a conceptual model that was developed to evaluate an initiative based on a CoP strategy: Health Promotion Laboratories are a professional development intervention that was implemented in local public health organizations in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). The model is based on latest theories on work-group effectiveness and organizational learning and can be usefully adopted by evaluators who are increasingly called upon to illuminate decision-making about CoPs. Ultimately, validation of this conceptual model will help advance knowledge and practice pertaining to CoPs as well as professional and organizational development strategies in public health. PMID:24726072

  3. Community Health. Guide to Standards and Implementation. Career & Technology Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    With this Career and Technology Studies (CTS) curriculum guide, secondary students in Alberta can do the following: develop skills that can be applied in their daily lives; refine career-planning skills; develop technology-related skills in community health; enhance employability skills, especially in community health; and apply and reinforce…

  4. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    PubMed

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to <.001. The Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health. PMID:23975798

  5. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lewis L; Green, Nancy S; Donnell Ivy, E; Neunert, Cindy E; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R; Martin, Molly

    2016-07-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This paper outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of "best practices" for this area of community-based care. PMID:27320471

  6. How community mental health centers are coping.

    PubMed

    Okin, R L

    1984-11-01

    Many community mental health centers have had to operate with less funding in the past several years, especially since the advent of block grant funding. Evidence is now accumulating that some centers have had to decrease their overall level of services and staffing. Others have attempted to adjust by increasing their clinician caseloads, closing their satellite facilities, and de-emphasizing services that fail to generate adequate fees and third-party reimbursements, such as consultation and education, partial hospitalization, and programs for children and the elderly. In contrast, and partly as a result of the increased authority of the states over the community mental health centers program, services for the severely and chronically mentally ill appear to be receiving higher priority. This development will require that centers improve their access to the general health care sector, maintain and improve their relationships with academic institutions, and increase the number, responsibilities, and rewards of the psychiatrists they employ. PMID:6500524

  7. Cooperative Health Occupation Education (Course Outline), The Life Span and Community Health: 3099.10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade twlve. SUBJECT MATTER: The physical development and needs, as well as the psychological development and needs of the individual from infancy to old age. The health of the community is studied in terms of communicable diseases, immunology, resources available for the optimal health of any community (including health services…

  8. Lessons in Community Health Activism

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study employed historical methodologies to explore the means through which the Maternity Care Coalition used grassroots activism to dismantle the power structures and other obstacles that contributed to high infant mortality rates in Philadelphia’s health districts 5 and 6 during the 1980s. Infant mortality within the black community has been a persistent phenomenon in the United States. Refusing to accept poverty as a major determinant of infant mortality within marginalized populations of women, activists during the 1980s harnessed momentum from a postcivil rights context and sought alternative methods toward change and improvement of infant mortality rates. PMID:24892861

  9. Facilitating communities in designing and using their own community health impact assessment tool

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Colleen; Ghosh, Sebanti; Eaton, Susan L.

    2011-07-15

    Reducing health inequities and improving the health of communities require an informed public that is aware of the social determinants of health and how policies and programs have an impact on the health of their communities. People Assessing Their Health (PATH) is a process that uses community-driven health impact assessment to build the capacity of people to become active participants in the decisions that affect the well-being of their community. The PATH process is both a health promotion and a community development approach that builds people's ability to bring critical analysis to a situation and to engage in effective social action to bring about desired change. Because it increases analytical skills and provides communities with their own unique tool to assess the potential impact of projects, programs or policies on the health and well-being of their community it is an empowering process. PATH was originally used in three communities in northeastern Nova Scotia, Canada in 1996 when the Canadian health care system was being restructured to a more decentralized system. Since then it has been used in other communities in Nova Scotia and India. This paper will describe the PATH process and the use of the community health impact assessment as well as the methodology used in the PATH process. The lessons learned from PATH's experiences of building capacity among the community in Canada and India will be presented.

  10. Community participation within an Irish Health Board area.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A; Chavasse, J

    This article gives a brief analysis of the concept of community participation followed by an account of a small study exploring the views and practices of two populations. Public health nurses have implemented their 'community as client' role and under favourable conditions would wish to develop further this aspect of their work. Women in the community are aware of the primary healthcare services available to them and as demonstrated by their comments have a holistic understanding of health. The study shows that both public health nurses and women in the community are interested and willing to take part in actions to improve health and welfare. Before genuine community partnership is developed a more defined leadership role which incorporates the skills of both community empowerment and community organization is needed.

  11. Elimination of Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities: Developing Data Indicators To Assess the Progress of Community-Based Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark C.; Wong, Frank Y.; Woo, Violet; Doong, Tuei

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of a pilot uniform data set (UDS) intended to serve as the primary data collection mechanism for all grants and standard cooperative agreements funded by the U.S. Office of Minority Health. The UDS is the product of a formative research project with implications for other program evaluations. (SLD)

  12. Micro-regional planning: evidence-based community buy-in for health development in five of Mexico’s poorest rural districts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community participation was a core tenet of Primary Health Care as articulated in the 1970s. How this could be generated and maintained was less clear. This historical article describes development of protocols for evidence-based community mobilisation in five local administrative units (municipios) in the Mexican state of Guerrero between 1992 and 1995. Methods A sample of five to eight sentinel sites represented each of the most impoverished municipalities of the poorest five of the state's seven regions. A 1992 baseline survey of diarrhoea and its actionable determinants provided the substrate for discussion with local planners and communities. Municipal planners used different strategies to promote participation. In one municipality, new health committees took control of water quality. In another, municipal authorities hired health promoters; a song promoted oral rehydration, and house-to-house interpersonal discussions promoted chlorination. In the poorest and most mountainous municipality, radio casera (home-made radio) soap operas used local "stars". In the largest and most disparate municipality, a child-to-family scheme relied on primary and secondary school teachers. The research team assessed outcomes at intervals and used the results to reinforce local planning and action. Results Diarrhoea rates declined in all five municipalities, and there were several positive intermediate outcomes from the communication strategies – changing knowledge, household practices and uptake of services. There was a strong link between specific contents of the communication package and the changing knowledge or practices. Conclusions Apart from these evidence-based interventions, other factors probably contributed to the decline of childhood diarrhoea. But, by monitoring implementation of planning decisions and the impact this has at community level, micro-regional planning can stimulate and reinforce actions likely to improve the health of communities. The

  13. Conducting Community Health Needs Assessments in rural communities: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karin L

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 requires all nonprofit hospitals in the United States to conduct a Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA) at least every 3 years. With this law in its infancy, the best practice to conduct an assessment that complies with the law is unknown. Research designs vary across states and agencies, and little is known about the reliability or representativeness of results. The rural community group model (RCGM) is a newly developed model designed for conducting assessments in rural communities. Key components of the model are disseminating surveys, conducting key informant interviews, facilitating focus groups, and integrating secondary data of county-level health behaviors and outcomes. It has been used to conduct CHNAs on more than half the critical access hospitals in North Dakota (58%). Given this large sample size, which used the same methodology, this article provides an evaluation of the model focusing on lessons learned and challenges encountered in the conduct of CHNAs. Particular strategies for assessment planners are warding off group think, monitoring against bias creep in data collection, and integrating multiple data sources to inform decision making. The model is recommended for replication in rural settings to provide meaningful feedback that allows a hospital to match long-term planning with community needs.

  14. Securing health and human rights: Sandwell's community health network.

    PubMed

    Al-Osaimi, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Minority communities face discrimination and abuse. The main health problems they face are those of severe and early chronic disease and poor well-being due to inequality in jobs, education and access to health care. The Sandwell community health network provides support workers to six major minority groups in Sandwell, providing information and access to skilled health services. Without securing health as a basic right for our minorities we perpetuate divisions in our society which cause mistrust, conflict and violence. The health system has a vital role to play in securing people's rights and campaigning for equality and justice for all our communities, to enhance community cohesion.

  15. Preserving community in health care.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, E J; Emanuel, L L

    1997-02-01

    There are two prominent trends in health care today: first, increasing demands for accountabilty, and second, increasing provision of care through managed care organizations. These trends promote the question: What form of account-ability is appropriate to managed care plans? Accountability is the process by which a party justifies its actions and policies. Components of accountability include parties that can be held or hold others accountable, domains and content areas being assessed, and procedures of assessment. Traditionally, the professional model of accountability has operated in medical care. In this model, physicians establish the standards of accountability and hold each other accountable through professional organizations. This form of accountability seems outdated and inapplicable to managed care plans. The alternatives are the economic and the political models of accountability. In the economic model, medicine becomes more like a commodity, and "exit" (consumers changing providers for reasons of cost and quality) is the dominant procedure of accountability. In the political model, medicine becomes more like a community good, and "voice" (citizens communicating their views in public forums or on policy committees, or in elections for representatives) is the dominant procedure of accountability. The economic model's advantages affirm American individualism, make minimal demands on consumers, and use a powerful incentive, money. Its disadvantages undermine health care as a nonmarket good, undermine individual autonomy, undermine good medical practice, impose significant demands on consumers to be informed, sustain differentials of power, and use indirect procedures of accountability. The political model's advantages affirm health care as a matter of justice, permit selecting domains other than price and quality for accountability, reinforce good medical practice, and equalize power between patients and physicians. Its disadvantages include inefficiency in

  16. Preserving community in health care.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, E J; Emanuel, L L

    1997-02-01

    There are two prominent trends in health care today: first, increasing demands for accountabilty, and second, increasing provision of care through managed care organizations. These trends promote the question: What form of account-ability is appropriate to managed care plans? Accountability is the process by which a party justifies its actions and policies. Components of accountability include parties that can be held or hold others accountable, domains and content areas being assessed, and procedures of assessment. Traditionally, the professional model of accountability has operated in medical care. In this model, physicians establish the standards of accountability and hold each other accountable through professional organizations. This form of accountability seems outdated and inapplicable to managed care plans. The alternatives are the economic and the political models of accountability. In the economic model, medicine becomes more like a commodity, and "exit" (consumers changing providers for reasons of cost and quality) is the dominant procedure of accountability. In the political model, medicine becomes more like a community good, and "voice" (citizens communicating their views in public forums or on policy committees, or in elections for representatives) is the dominant procedure of accountability. The economic model's advantages affirm American individualism, make minimal demands on consumers, and use a powerful incentive, money. Its disadvantages undermine health care as a nonmarket good, undermine individual autonomy, undermine good medical practice, impose significant demands on consumers to be informed, sustain differentials of power, and use indirect procedures of accountability. The political model's advantages affirm health care as a matter of justice, permit selecting domains other than price and quality for accountability, reinforce good medical practice, and equalize power between patients and physicians. Its disadvantages include inefficiency in

  17. Root shock revisited: perspectives of early head start mothers on community and policy environments and their effects on child health, development, and school readiness.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Carol L; Thomas, Tammy L; Wilson, Patrick C; Green, Beth L

    2009-02-01

    Racial differences in school readiness are a form of health disparity. By examining, from the perspective of low-income minority families participating in an Early Head Start study, community and policy environments as they shape and inform lived experiences, we identified several types of social and economic dislocation that undermine the efforts of parents to ready their children for school. The multiple dislocations of community triggered by housing and welfare reform and "urban renewal" are sources of stress for parents and children and affect the health and development of young children. Our findings suggest that racial differences in school readiness result not from race but from poverty and structural racism in American society.

  18. Root Shock Revisited: Perspectives of Early Head Start Mothers on Community and Policy Environments and Their Effects on Child Health, Development, and School Readiness

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Carol L.; Thomas, Tammy L.; Green, Beth L.

    2009-01-01

    Racial differences in school readiness are a form of health disparity. By examining, from the perspective of low-income minority families participating in an Early Head Start study, community and policy environments as they shape and inform lived experiences, we identified several types of social and economic dislocation that undermine the efforts of parents to ready their children for school. The multiple dislocations of community triggered by housing and welfare reform and “urban renewal” are sources of stress for parents and children and affect the health and development of young children. Our findings suggest that racial differences in school readiness result not from race but from poverty and structural racism in American society. PMID:19059871

  19. Application of Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based health promotion pre-pregnancy intervention for adolescent girls in rural South Africa: Project Ntshembo (Hope)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals’ health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the health and well-being of adolescent girls in order to limit the inter-generational transfer of risk of metabolic disease, in particular diabetes risk. Methods This paper describes the application of the first four steps of IM. Evidence is provided to support the selection of four key behavioural objectives: viz. to eat a healthy, balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and promote reproductive health. Appropriate behaviour change techniques are suggested and a theoretical framework outlining components of relevant behaviour change theories is presented. It is proposed that the Ntshembo intervention will be community-based, including specialist adolescent community health workers who will deliver a complex intervention comprising of individual, peer, family and community mobilisation components. Conclusions The Ntshembo intervention is novel, both in SA and globally, as it is: (1) based on strong evidence, extensive formative work and best practice from evaluated interventions; (2) combines theory with evidence to inform intervention components; (3) includes multiple domains of influence (community through to the individual); (4) focuses on an at-risk target group; and (5) embeds within existing and planned health service priorities in SA. PMID:25080940

  20. Popular participation in community health programmes.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M

    1993-01-01

    Community health programmes can be one of the most important and most available forms of education for the total community. This article outlines health programmes and health education initiatives, as well as approaches to participatory training, in several South Pacific countries.

  1. Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Arthur J., Ed.

    Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…

  2. Community participation in rural primary health care: intervention or approach?

    PubMed

    Preston, Robyn; Waugh, Hilary; Larkins, Sarah; Taylor, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Community participation is considered important in primary health care development and there is some evidence to suggest it results in positive health outcomes. Through a process of synthesising existing evidence for the effectiveness of community participation in terms of health outcomes we identified several conceptual areas of confusion. This paper builds on earlier work to disentangle the conceptual gaps in this area, and clarify our common understanding of community participation. We conducted a research synthesis of 689 empirical studies in the literature linking rural community participation and health outcomes. The 37 final papers were grouped and analysed according to: contextual factors; the conceptual approach to community participation (using a modification of an existing typology); community participation process; level of evidence; and outcomes reported. Although there is some evidence of benefit of community participation in terms of health outcomes, we found only a few studies demonstrating higher levels of evidence. However, it is clear that absence of evidence of effect is not necessarily the same as absence of an effect. We focus on areas of debate and lack of clarity in the literature. Improving our understanding of community participation and its role in rural primary health care service design and delivery will increase the likelihood of genuine community-health sector partnerships and more responsive health services for rural communities.

  3. A model for community health care in rural Java.

    PubMed

    Hendrate, L

    1981-01-01

    This article describes a method of conveying health care to poor villages by training residents for part-time voluntary service, combined with localized health insurance covering both local medicines and the fees for a nearby health center. The project began under the auspices of the Foundation for Christian Hospitals in Hurakarta, in Central Java. The village of Klampok has a population of 5,614, mostly farm workers. Health services are supplied by the Emmanuel Health Center. Although the program was granted funds for jeeps, buildings, instruments, and personnel, the center lacked community participation. Health workers developed a strategy of communication and understanding of the village to encourage participation. Implementation of the strategy included 2 elements: the village health cadre, voluntary workers from the community selected by the community; and the village health insurance scheme, in which each household partially pays for the overall health service, and credit is extended. Rather than being distributors of health care, the project staff sees itself as a stimulant and enabler of the community being able to accept the responsibility of handling its own health problems. This Indonesian experience has proven itself replicable in that health cadre systems have spread to several surrounding villages. To make community health care participation a viable plan both the health personnel and community leaders need to be oriented and motivated to the idea. PMID:12278505

  4. Procuring incentives for community health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Engelberg, M; Elder, J P; Hammond, N; Boskin, W; Molgaard, C A

    1987-01-01

    Many community health promotion programs have used incentives to encourage participation and to reward health behavior change. To minimize expenses and to enhance a sense of shared responsibility, a number of projects have turned to community merchants as a source of incentives. This study investigated the relative effectiveness of solicitation methods used to procure incentives from local merchants for community health promotion programs. The effect of setting, i.e. level of urban development, and type of business were also analyzed in terms of procurement rates. Two hundred and eighteen merchants were solicited to gain incentives for two programs. Twenty-four incentives were procured at a total value of $480. Telemarketing and face-to-face contact had similar procurement rates, restaurants were by far the type of business most likely to donate, and rural merchants provided incentives significantly more often than urban merchants, while developing urban area merchants' donation rates were midway in between. Telemarketing was the solicitation method clearly most cost effective.

  5. Pharmacy assistance programs in a community health center setting.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Maxsimo C.; Herman, Debra; Montano, Seferino; Love, Leah

    2002-01-01

    Prescription drug costs represent the fastest growing item in health care and are a driving force in rapidly increasing health care costs. Community health centers serve an indigent population with limited access to pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical companies sponsor patient assistance programs. These pharmacy assistance programs can be developed to facilitate the provision of needed pharmaceuticals to this vulnerable population. La Casa de Buena Salud is a rural community health center in eastern New Mexico, which has provided access to a substantial amount of pharmaceuticals to indigent patients through patient assistance programs. Cost savings potential are considerable for a community health center and for patients when a pharmacy assistance program is organized efficiently and employed systematically. Secondary benefits are derived from the entire medical community. While some community health centers currently make effective use of pharmaceutical company-sponsored pharmacy assistance programs, a comprehensive, long-term approach at a national level may be required. PMID:12510707

  6. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process.

    PubMed

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services.

  7. [The implications of economic development on work, the environment and health in port communities in the State of Ceará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Maria das Graças Viana; Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; da Silva, Flora Viana Elizeu

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses aspects of economic development and the implications on work, the environment and health in the surrounding communities of the Industrial and Harbor Complex in Pecém in the State of Ceará. Qualitative research was adopted as the methodological strategy, by conducting participatory research with document analysis and a focus group. The reports of the subjects involved in the fieldwork were analyzed as being representative of their perceptions regarding the changes occurring in the territory and the impacts on health. Results observed in the use and appropriation of land by entrepreneurs are based on a belief in progress and development, contradicting the way of living, producing and interacting with nature submitted by the community that seeks to resist this intervention supported by social movements. These changes are out of step with the development of other public policies to mitigate the impacts with regard to environmental protection of the territory and the promotion of the health of this population. PMID:25272111

  8. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process

    PubMed Central

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services. PMID:26346580

  9. Service functions of private community health stations in China: A comparison analysis with government-sponsored community health stations.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wanli; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fang; Chai, Yun; Xu, Hancheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Bin; Jin, Jianqiang; Lu, Zuxun

    2012-04-01

    In China, with the restructuring of health care system moving forward, private community health facilities have been playing a complementary but increasingly important role in providing public health and basic medical care services in urban areas. However, only limited evidence is available concerning the service functions of private community health facilities in China. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of private community health stations (PCHSs) to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy-making and practice in the development of urban community health services systems. A total of 818 PCHSs and 4320 government-sponsored community health stations (GCHSs) located in 28 cities of China were investigated in 2008. The percentages of stations that provided health services and the annual workload per community health worker (CHW) were compared between the two types of institutions. The results showed that the percentages of PCHSs providing public health services were significantly higher than those of GCHSs (P<0.05); but no significant differences were found in the percentages of basic medical services providing between PCHSs and GCHSs (P>0.05). The annual workloads of all the public health services and basic medical services per CHW in PCHSs were lighter than those in GCHSs (P<0.05), except for resident health records establishment and health education materials distribution (P>0.05). At present, the GCHSs are still the mainstream in urban China, which will last for a long period in future. However, our findings showed that the annual workloads of CHWs in PCHSs were no heavier than those in GCHSs, and the PCHSs were willing to provide public health services. In view of current inadequacy of health resources in China, it is feasible to further develop PCHSs under the guidance of the government, given that PCHSs can perform the basic functions of community health services, which is useful for the formation of public-private partnerships (PPP

  10. Development and application of a community sustainability visualization tool through integration of US EPA’s Sustainable and Health Community Research Program tasks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maintaining a harmonious balance between economic, social, and environmental well-being is paramount to community sustainability. Communities need a practical/usable suite of measures to assess their current position on a "surface" of sustainability created from the interaction ...

  11. Community involvement in health services at Namayumba and Bobi health centres: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Ndoboli, Fred; Kuule, Julius; Besigye, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Community involvement has been employed in the development of both vertical and horizontal health programmes. In Uganda, there is no empirical evidence on whether and how communities are involved in their health services. Aim and Setting The aim of this study was to establish the existence of community involvement in health services and to identify its support mechanisms in Namayumba and Bobi health centres in Wakiso and Gulu districts, respectively. Methods Participants were selected with the help of a community mobiliser. Key informants were selected purposively depending on their expertise and the roles played in their respective communities. The focus group discussions and key informant interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analysed manually for emerging themes and sub-themes. Results Several themes emerged from the transcripts and we categorised them broadly into those that promote community involvement in health services and those that jeopardise it. Easy community mobilisation and several forms of community and health centre efforts promote community involvement, whilst lack of trust for health workers and poor communication downplay community involvement in their health services. Conclusion Community involvement is low in health services in both Namayumba and Bobi health centres.

  12. Towards a unified taxonomy of health indicators: academic health centers and communities working together to improve population health.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton Mickey; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B; Strelnick, A Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public's health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium's Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators.The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy's application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health.

  13. Towards a unified taxonomy of health indicators: academic health centers and communities working together to improve population health.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton Mickey; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B; Strelnick, A Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public's health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium's Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators.The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy's application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  14. Institutional Racism and Pregnancy Health: Using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Data to Develop an Index for Mortgage Discrimination at the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Dara D.; Hogan, Vijaya K.; Culhane, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We used Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data to demonstrate a method for constructing a residential redlining index to measure institutional racism at the community level. We examined the application of the index to understand the social context of health inequities by applying the residential redlining index among a cohort of pregnant women in Philadelphia. Methods We used HMDA data from 1999–2004 to create residential redlining indices for each census tract in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. We linked the redlining indices to data from a pregnancy cohort study and the 2000 Census. We spatially mapped the levels of redlining for each census tract for this pregnancy cohort and tested the association between residential redlining and other community-level measures of segregation and individual health. Results From 1999–2004, loan applicants in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, of black race/ethnicity were almost two times as likely to be denied a mortgage loan compared with applicants who were white (e.g., 1999 odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63, 2.28; and 2004 OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.98, 2.58). The majority (77.5%) of the pregnancy cohort resided in redlined neighborhoods, and there were significant differences in residence in redlined areas by race/ethnicity (p<0.001). Among the pregnancy cohort, redlining was associated with residential segregation as measured by the percentage of black population (r=0.155), dissimilarity (r=0.250), exposure (r=–0.115), and isolation (r=0.174) indices. Conclusions The evidence of institutional racism may contribute to our understanding of health disparities. Residential redlining and mortgage discrimination against communities may be a major factor influencing neighborhood structure, composition, development, and wealth attainment. This residential redlining index as a measure for institutional racism can be applied in health research to understand the unique social and neighborhood

  15. Community participation in primary health care.

    PubMed

    MacCormack, C P

    1983-04-01

    The advantages of a community participation approach in primary health care (PHC) are as follows: a community participation approach is a cost effective way to extend a health care system to the geographical and social periphery of a country; communities that begin to understand their health status objectively rather than fatalistically may be moved to take a series of preventive measures; communities that invest labor, time, money, and materials in health promoting activities are more committed to the use and maintenance of the things they produce, such as water supplies; health education is most effective in the context of village activities; and community health workers, if they are well chosen, have the confidence of the people. An error made in early efforts at community participation was to assume that villages were uniformly free from internal exploitation. Some are cohesive moral communities, but in other there is grievous exploitation of landless laborers by landowners and shopkeepers. Villages may be divided by caste or ethnic origin. Political organization of villages may be democratic or they may be governed in an authoritarian manner. In politically unstable countries where the central government has a rather tenuous control over the rural periphery, genuine community initiatives may be viewed as threatening and may not receive official encouragement. Social groups within communities may be tremendous assets. In planning the community participation aspects of primary health care, the collaboration of an anthropologist or rural sociologist with field experience is recommended. Promoting community participation is a skill which must be taught to community health workers, and backed up with support services. The genuine commitment of medical staff to community self help is crucial to the motivation process. Motivation within the community quickly breaks down if materials, expertise, and salaries fail to arrive when promised. Community activities are most

  16. Creating Meaningful Partnerships Between Communities and Environmental Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Rachael; Aguilar, Genevieve C.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement is a necessary, although challenging, element of environmental health research in communities. To facilitate the engagement process, direct action community organizing agencies can be useful in bringing together communities and researchers. This article describes the preliminary activities that one direct action community organizing agency used in partnership with researchers to improve community engagement in the first 6 months of an environmental health study conducted in a major U.S. city. Activities included developing communication strategies, creating opportunities for researcher–community interaction, and sustaining project momentum. To conduct environmental research that is both scientifically rigorous and relevant to communities, collaborating partners had to develop professional skills and strategies outside of their areas of expertise. PMID:23875568

  17. Community Health Nursing through a Global Lens.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Norma; Dallwig, Amber; Abbott, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Community Health Nursing (N456) is a required senior clinical course in the undergraduate nursing curriculum at the University of Michigan in which students learn to assess and address the health of populations and communities. In 2012, we began our efforts to internationalize the curriculum using a globally engaged nursing education framework. Our goal is for all students to have an intercultural learning experience understanding that all students are unable to travel internationally. Therefore, this intercultural learning was implemented through a range of experiences including actual immersion, virtual activities (videoconferencing) and interventions with local vulnerable populations. Grants were obtained to provide immersion experiences in Quito, Ecuador and New Delhi, India. Several technologies were initiated with partner nursing schools in Leogane, Haiti and New Delhi, India. Weekly videoconferencing utilizing BlueJeans software and exchange of knowledge through the Knowledge Gateway facilitated intercultural exchange of knowledge and culture. Local clinical groups work with a variety of vulnerable populations. A private blog was developed for all sections to share community assessment data from local and international communities. Qualitative evaluation data was collected for local and international students to begin to assess cultural competence and student learning. Analysis of data documented increased awareness of culture and identified the many positive benefits of interaction with a global partner. PMID:25980716

  18. Community exposures to chemical incidents: development and evaluation of the first environmental public health surveillance system in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, H; Palmer, S; Fielder, H; Coleman, G; Routledge, P; Fone, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the frequency, nature and location of acute chemical incidents in Wales, and the morbidity in employees, emergency responders and the general public who were exposed.
DESIGN—Active multi-agency community-based surveillance system.
SETTING—Wales, 1993-5.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Frequency, nature and location of incidents, populations potentially exposed and with symptoms.
RESULTS—Most of the 402 incidents identified were not associated with sites governed by the Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Regulations but with smaller industrial sites and commercial premises. About two in every thousand of the estimated 236 000 members of the public considered to be at risk from exposure reported symptoms, which were mainly nausea, headaches, and irritation of the eye, skin and respiratory tract. The most commonly reported chemicals that members of the public were exposed to were smoke toxins, miscellaneous organics, toxic gases and flammable gases. A health authority was reported to be involved in only 34 (8%) of the incidents and in only 3 of the 29 incidents where more than 100 members of the public were exposed.
CONCLUSION—A geographically defined, multi-agency surveillance system can identify high risk locations and types of incidents, together with the chemicals most likely to be involved. Such ongoing surveillance information is essential for appropriate policy making, emergency planning, operational management and training.


Keywords: surveillance; pollution; chemical PMID:11027203

  19. Perspectives on Cognitive Therapy Training within Community Mental Health Settings: Implications for Clinician Satisfaction and Skill Development

    PubMed Central

    Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Miller, Christopher J.; Toder, Katherine; Calloway, Amber; Beck, Aaron T.; Evans, Arthur C.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Despite the mounting evidence of the benefits of cognitive therapy for depression and suicidal behaviors over usual care, like other evidence-based psychosocial treatments (EBTs), it has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Studies have shown that training followed by intensive consultation is needed to prepare providers to an appropriate level of competency in complex, multisession treatment packages such as cognitive therapy. Given the critical role of training in EBT implementation, more information on factors associated with the success and challenges of training programs is needed. To identify potential reasons for variation in training outcomes across ten agencies in a large, urban community mental health system, we explored program evaluation data and examined provider, consultant, and training program administrator perspectives through follow-up interviews. Perceptions of cognitive therapy, contextual factors, and reactions to feedback on audio recordings emerged as broad categories of themes identified from interviews. These factors may interact and impact clinician efforts to learn cognitive therapy and deliver it skillfully in their practice. The findings highlight experiences and stakeholder perspectives that may contribute to more or less successful training outcomes. PMID:23056933

  20. Community health planning from an interorganizational perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, P D

    1982-01-01

    Planning agencies do not have control over health care resources in the community. Resources are concentrated in a number of provider organizations, associations, and government agencies, which have common goals as well as a diversity of individual objectives, and therefore enter into networks of relationships to accomplish their overlapping service missions. Interorganizational research shows that it is important to enhance the interdependence and benefits of cooperation between organizations and at the same time maintain the identity and distinctive qualities of each organization. Thus, in addition to the important role to provide information for decisions, planners have a role to manage the interdependencies and identities among organizations in the health system. Research shows that in situations where only methods, data, and analysis were emphasized by health planners, they had less impact on community decisions than in situations where planners also emphasized the development of the interorganizational system of decision-making. In a neutral position with respect to competing forces, planners can more effectively use their leverage from their information processing role and from their regulatory powers to facilitate the balancing of interorganizational interests and to enhance cooperative benefits to the community. PMID:7091463

  1. Function Model for Community Health Service Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Pan, Feng; Liu, Danhong; Xu, Yongyong

    In order to construct a function model of community health service (CHS) information for development of CHS information management system, Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0), an IEEE standard which is extended from Structured Analysis and Design(SADT) and now is a widely used function modeling method, was used to classifying its information from top to bottom. The contents of every level of the model were described and coded. Then function model for CHS information, which includes 4 super-classes, 15 classes and 28 sub-classed of business function, 43 business processes and 168 business activities, was established. This model can facilitate information management system development and workflow refinement.

  2. The community leaders institute: an innovative program to train community leaders in health research.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Parr, William; Smith, Teresa; Mitchell, Monica J

    2013-03-01

    An emerging best practice of addressing health and improving health disparities in communities is ensuring that academic health centers (AHCs) are engaged with area schools, primary care practices, and community advocates as equal partners in research, services, and programs. The literature documents the importance of ensuring that academic-community collaboration is based on equity, trust, and respect and that there is capacity (time and resources) and a shared culture (language, skills, and applied knowledge) for accomplishing mutual goals in academic-community research partnerships. It is also essential that an academic-community collaboration result in tangible and measurable goals and outcomes for both the target community and the AHC. Currently, the models for implementing best practices in community health partnerships, especially training programs, are limited.This article summarizes the goals and outcomes for the Community Leaders Institute (CLI), a six-week innovative leadership development training program designed to enhance academic-community research, integrate the interests of community leaders and AHC researchers, and build research capacity and competencies within the community. On the basis of two years of outcome data, the CLI is achieving its intended goals of engaging faculty as trainer-scholars while promoting academic-community partnerships that align with community and AHC priorities. The training and collaborative research paradigm used by the CLI has served to accelerate AHC-community engagement and integration efforts, as CLI graduates are now serving on AHC steering, bioethics, and other committees.

  3. Observational study on factors related to health-promoting community activity development in primary care (frAC Project): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ripoll, Joana; Ruiz-Giménez, Juan Luís; Montaner Gomis, Isabel; Benedé Azagra, Carmen Belén; Elizalde Soto, Lázaro; Vidal, Mª Clara; Bauzà Amengual, M de Lluc; Planas Juan, Trinidad; Maria Pérez Mariano, Damiana; Llull Sarralde, Micaela; Bajo Viñas, Rosa; Jordan Martin, Matilde; Solano Villarubia, Carmen; Rodriguez Bajo, Maria; Cordoba Victoria, Manuela; Badia Capdevila, Marta; Serrano Ferrandez, Elena; Bosom Diumenjo, Maria; Zabaleta del Olmo, Nieves; Bolívar-Ribas, Bonaventura; Antoñanzas Lombarte, Angel; Bregel Cotaina, Samantha; Calvo Tocado, Ana; Olivan Blázquez, Barbara; Magallón Botaya, Rosa; Marín Palacios, Pilar; Echauri Ozcoidi, Margarita; Perez-Jarauta, Mª Jose; Ramos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Introduction According to Spanish health regulations, primary care professionals have the responsibility to carry out health-promoting community activities (CAs). However, in practice, their implementation is not as widespread as it should be. The aims of this study were to identify factors within the team, the community and the professionals that influence the development of these activities and to describe the community interventions in progress. Methods and analysis This study is an observational analytical retrospective study. The information will be collected from five Spanish regions: Catalonia, Madrid, the Balearic Islands, Navarra and Aragón. The authors will contact primary care teams (PCTs) and identify the CAs from the previous year. The research team will conduct a peer review whether the inclusion criteria are met. In the health centres where CAs are implemented, the authors will select professionals carrying them out and randomly select an identical number of professionals not doing these activities. In the centres where no CA is implemented, three professionals will be randomly selected. The selected professionals will complete the questionnaires for individual-level variables. Information about the registered population and the PCTs will be collected through questionnaires and secondary sources. Outcomes Variables will be collected from the community, the PCTs, the individual professionals and CAs. Analysis A descriptive analysis of all the variables will be carried out, along with a bivariate and a logistic regression analysis, with CAs being the primary outcome. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Jordi Gol y Gurina Foundation in Barcelona and area 11 in Madrid. The questionnaire distributed to the professionals will be anonymous. PMID:22586288

  4. Community Development in Emergent Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgdon, Linwood L.; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, these papers on community development in developing nations deal largely with conditions, requirements, and effective principles of rural extension; the government system of community development village workers in outlying regions of Thailand; the methods, organization, accomplishments, and prospects of…

  5. Constraints perceived by psychiatrists working in community mental health services. Development and pilot study of a novel instrument.

    PubMed

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Mackinnon, Andrew; Curci, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    An inventory of institutional constraints perceived as limiting therapeutic choices was developed and completed by psychiatrists working in Italian public mental health services. Constraints considered most limiting were social and institutional pressures toward social control, violence risk assessment and prevention, and lack of control over workload. The total mean score of the perceived constraints instrument was significantly negatively correlated with ratings of perceived freedom in therapeutic choices and with overall job satisfaction. Reliability was good (alpha = 0.85). Addressing perceived constraints may result in more choice options to reach therapeutic goals in a collaborative framework with patients, and improve job satisfaction.

  6. [Health and the development of a rural health service system].

    PubMed

    Echeverri, O; de Salazar, L M

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this article reviews the interesting experience of the Center for Multidisciplinary Research in Rural Development (CIMDER) of Cali, Colombia, in the application of a model for the integrated development of health services. The strategies used in the model were: services available to all individuals and families in the community, use of accessible technology, community participation, and cooperation between the health sector and other development sectors. The second part briefly reviews the role of the nurse in health and development and takes issue with the traditional narrow view of the sphere of action of nursing as a profession. It is asserted that, in order to bring about the extension of health services and community development, it is necessary that the nurse serve in a position of leadership on a multidisciplinary team as either coordinator of services, supervisor of personnel, or education, and as liaison for the formal health care system with the community to enlist its active participation.

  7. Multiple intervention research programs in community health.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nancy; Mill, Judy; Kothari, Anita R

    2004-03-01

    The authors describe an organizing framework for multiple interventions in community health. The framework provides a foundation for programmatic research on multiple interventions and poses critical questions that need to be addressed in the next generation of research in this field. Multiple intervention programs are characterized by the use of multiple strategies targeted at multiple levels of the socio-ecological system and delivered to multiple target audiences. Consequently, they complement the growing literature on the broad determinants of health and health promotion. The authors describe a 4-stage framework and identify gaps and challenges in this field of research. There are 5 key research areas requiring concerted action; researchers must: examine nested determinants, develop integrated conceptual frameworks, examine ways to optimize synergies among interventions, describe spin-offs from multiple intervention programs, and monitor the sustainability of their impact.

  8. Group Health Cooperative's community services initiative.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, K M; Beery, W L; Pearson, D C

    1993-12-01

    Service to the broader community is an important component of Group Health Cooperative's (GHC's) tradition, values, and mission. The role and potential of community services in a staff model HMO requires consensus, careful planning and communication, and attention to results. This paper describes GHC's efforts to define, implement, and sustain its community services initiative.

  9. Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guard, Roger; And Others

    The Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network (OVCHIN) works to determine the efficacy of delivering health information to residents of rural southern Ohio and the urban and suburban Cincinnati area. OVCHIN is a community-based, consumer-defined demonstration grant program funded by the National Telecommunications and Information…

  10. Team management in community mental health.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, M

    2000-02-01

    The community mental health team is now the established model for mental health service delivery in the community. Managing CMHTs requires a diverse range of managerial skills, role clarity and authority. More research needs to be undertaken on the role and effectiveness of the CMHT manager.

  11. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician

  12. The narrative psychology of community health workers.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike

    2015-03-01

    Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work.

  13. Health Knowledge Effects: An Integrated Community Health Promotion Platform.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Chiu; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Hsiao-Ting; Ho, Wen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The Taiwanese government subsidizes healthcare providers offering preventive medicine to patients to help reduce the threats of chronic sickness and halt skyrocketing medical expenditures. Usually, nurses are the primary workers who perform community health promotion; however, because of the chronic shortage of working nurses, many Taiwan hospitals have closed wards and deferred the responsibility of promoting primary prevention. With a community health promotion platform integrating interactive response features and Web sites for community patients and hospital staff, a case hospital efficiently sustained the community health services. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the integrated community health promotion platform for conducting education. Fifty-four patients/residents were invited to join a quasi-experiment of health education, and a follow-up survey was conducted to assess the acceptance of the community health promotion platform from both the experimental group of learners/users and the hospital staff. The results showed that the community health promotion platform was effective in improving participant health awareness. The experimental group outperformed the control group, with higher posttest scores and longer knowledge retention. Furthermore, users indicated a high acceptance of the community health promotion platform. PMID:26657621

  14. Environmental metrics for community health improvement.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Benjamin; Frumkin, Howard

    2010-07-01

    Environmental factors greatly affect human health. Accordingly, environmental metrics are a key part of the community health information base. We review environmental metrics relevant to community health, including measurements of contaminants in environmental media, such as air, water, and food; measurements of contaminants in people (biomonitoring); measurements of features of the built environment that affect health; and measurements of "upstream" environmental conditions relevant to health. We offer a set of metrics (including unhealthy exposures, such as pollutants, and health-promoting assets, such as parks and green space) selected on the basis of relevance to health outcomes, magnitude of associated health outcomes, corroboration in the peer-reviewed literature, and data availability, especially at the community level, and we recommend ways to use these metrics most effectively.

  15. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services. PMID:24363179

  16. Weaving Clinical Expertise in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Many patients visit online health communities to receive support. In face-to-face support groups, health professionals facilitate peer-patients exchanging experience while adding their clinical expertise when necessary. However, the large scale of online health communities makes it challenging for such health professional moderators’ involvement to happen. To address this challenge of delivering clinical expertise to where patients need them, we explore the idea of semi-automatically providing clinical expertise in online health communities. We interviewed 14 clinicians showing them example peer-patient conversation threads. From the interviews, we examined the ideal practice of clinicians providing expertise to patients. The clinicians continuously assessed when peer-patients were providing appropriate support, what kinds of clinical help they could give online, and when to defer to patients’ healthcare providers. The findings inform requirements for building a semi-automated system delivering clinical expertise in online health communities. PMID:26413582

  17. Environmental and Community Health. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. This book is divided into two parts: Part…

  18. Developing Communities of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some of the findings of an evaluation of a "cross-curricular" digital media arts project for Year 8 students at Lister Community School in the London Borough of Newham. The project was designed to provide opportunities for a thematic curriculum in which quality learning encompassing both independent and collaborative…

  19. Facilitating Health Data Sharing Across Diverse Practices and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Black, Robert A.; LaPlante, Jay; Keppel, Gina A.; Tuzzio, Leah; Berg, Alfred O.; Whitener, Ron J.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Fishman, Paul A.; Greene, Sarah M.; Gennari, John H.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Stephens, Kari A.

    2010-01-01

    Health data sharing with and among practices is a method for engaging rural and underserved populations, often with strong histories of marginalization, in health research. The Institute of Translational Health Sciences, funded by a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award, is engaged in the LC Data QUEST project to build practice and community based research networks with the ability to share semantically aligned electronic health data. We visited ten practices and communities to assess the feasibility of and barriers to developing data sharing networks. We found that these sites had very different approaches and expectations for data sharing. In order to support practices and communities and foster the acceptance of data sharing in these settings, informaticists must take these diverse views into account. Based on these findings, we discuss system design implications and the need for flexibility in the development of community-based data sharing networks. PMID:21347138

  20. Facilitating health data sharing across diverse practices and communities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Black, Robert A; Laplante, Jay; Keppel, Gina A; Tuzzio, Leah; Berg, Alfred O; Whitener, Ron J; Buchwald, Dedra S; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Fishman, Paul A; Greene, Sarah M; Gennari, John H; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Stephens, Kari A

    2010-03-01

    Health data sharing with and among practices is a method for engaging rural and underserved populations, often with strong histories of marginalization, in health research. The Institute of Translational Health Sciences, funded by a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award, is engaged in the LC Data QUEST project to build practice and community based research networks with the ability to share semantically aligned electronic health data. We visited ten practices and communities to assess the feasibility of and barriers to developing data sharing networks. We found that these sites had very different approaches and expectations for data sharing. In order to support practices and communities and foster the acceptance of data sharing in these settings, informaticists must take these diverse views into account. Based on these findings, we discuss system design implications and the need for flexibility in the development of community-based data sharing networks.

  1. Afghan Health Education Project: a community survey.

    PubMed

    Lipson, J G; Omidian, P A; Paul, S M

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the health concerns and needs for health education in the Afghan refugee and immigrant community of the San Francisco Bay Area. The study used a telephone survey, seven community meetings and a survey administered to 196 Afghan families through face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed qualitatively and statistically. Health problems of most concern are mental health problems and stress related to past refugee trauma and loss, current occupational and economic problems, and culture conflict. Physical health problems include heart disease, diabetes and dental problems. Needed health education topics include dealing with stress, heart health, nutrition, raising children in the United States (particularly adolescents), aging in the United States, and diabetes. Using coalition building and involving Afghans in their community assessment, we found that the Afghan community is eager for culture- and language-appropriate health education programs through videos, television, lectures, and written materials. Brief health education talks in community meetings and a health fair revealed enthusiasm and willingness to consider health promotion and disease-prevention practices. PMID:7596962

  2. Development and psychometric evaluation of a new team effectiveness scale for all types of community adult mental health teams: a mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Middleton, Hugh; Dawson, Jeremy F; Naylor, Paul B; West, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Defining 'effectiveness' in the context of community mental health teams (CMHTs) has become increasingly difficult under the current pattern of provision required in National Health Service mental health services in England. The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of multi-professional team working effectiveness in adult CMHTs to develop a new measure of CMHT effectiveness. The study was conducted between May and November 2010 and comprised two stages. Stage 1 used a formative evaluative approach based on the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System to develop the scale with multiple stakeholder groups over a series of qualitative workshops held in various locations across England. Stage 2 analysed responses from a cross-sectional survey of 1500 members in 135 CMHTs from 11 Mental Health Trusts in England to determine the scale's psychometric properties. Based on an analysis of its structural validity and reliability, the resultant 20-item scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and captured one overall latent factor of CMHT effectiveness comprising seven dimensions: improved service user well-being, creative problem-solving, continuous care, inter-team working, respect between professionals, engagement with carers and therapeutic relationships with service users. The scale will be of significant value to CMHTs and healthcare commissioners both nationally and internationally for monitoring, evaluating and improving team functioning in practice. PMID:25711121

  3. Development and psychometric evaluation of a new team effectiveness scale for all types of community adult mental health teams: a mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Middleton, Hugh; Dawson, Jeremy F; Naylor, Paul B; West, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Defining 'effectiveness' in the context of community mental health teams (CMHTs) has become increasingly difficult under the current pattern of provision required in National Health Service mental health services in England. The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of multi-professional team working effectiveness in adult CMHTs to develop a new measure of CMHT effectiveness. The study was conducted between May and November 2010 and comprised two stages. Stage 1 used a formative evaluative approach based on the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System to develop the scale with multiple stakeholder groups over a series of qualitative workshops held in various locations across England. Stage 2 analysed responses from a cross-sectional survey of 1500 members in 135 CMHTs from 11 Mental Health Trusts in England to determine the scale's psychometric properties. Based on an analysis of its structural validity and reliability, the resultant 20-item scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and captured one overall latent factor of CMHT effectiveness comprising seven dimensions: improved service user well-being, creative problem-solving, continuous care, inter-team working, respect between professionals, engagement with carers and therapeutic relationships with service users. The scale will be of significant value to CMHTs and healthcare commissioners both nationally and internationally for monitoring, evaluating and improving team functioning in practice.

  4. Health politics meets post-modernism: its meaning and implications for community health organizing.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, P V

    1994-01-01

    In this article, post-modern theory is described and applied to health politics with examples from community health organizing, social movements, and health promotion. Post-modernism questions conventional assumptions about concepts such as representation, participation, empowerment, community, identity, causality, accountability, responsibility, authority, and roles in community health promotion (those of expert, leader, and organizer). I compare post-modern social movements with their modern counterparts: the organizational forms, leadership styles, and substantive intellectual orientations of the two differ. I explain the social planning, community development, and social action models of community health organizing, comparing them with the priorities of post-modern social movements, and show the similarities and differences between them as to structural preferences, process, and strategies. Finally, and most importantly, I present the implicit lessons that post-modernism offers to health politics and outline the strengths and weaknesses of this approach to health politics.

  5. [Health promotion in the Pankararu indigenous community].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health. PMID:23032334

  6. The reach and rationale for community health fairs

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate; Liang, Annie; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica; Navarro, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos living in the United States account for one-third of the uninsured population and face numerous cultural, linguistic, and financial barriers to accessing health care services. Community health fairs have developed to address the unmet need for no- and low-cost services that target prevention and education among underserved communities. The current research describes an ongoing effort in a community in southern California and examines the barriers to health care among participants registering to receive free breast health screenings, one of the major services offered at a 2010 health fair. A total of 186 adult Latina women completed a brief questionnaire assessing their health care utilization and self-reported barriers to engaging in preventive and screening services. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported never receiving or having more than 2 years passing since receiving a preventive health check-up. Participants identified cost (64.5%) and knowledge of locations for services (52.3%) as the primary barriers to engaging in routine health care services. Engaging with health professionals represents a leading way in which adults obtain health information and health fairs offering cancer health screenings represent a culturally appropriate venue for increased cancer health equity. Implications of the current research for future health fairs and their role in community cancer education are discussed. PMID:23907787

  7. Charting the future of community health promotion: recommendations from the National Expert Panel on Community Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Amanda M; Voetsch, Karen P; Liburd, Leandris C; Giles, H Wayne; Collins, Janet L

    2007-07-01

    In the decades since chronic illnesses replaced infectious diseases as the leading causes of death, public health researchers, particularly those in the field of health promotion and chronic disease prevention, have shifted their focus from the individual to the community in recognition that community-level changes will foster and sustain individual behavior change. The former emphasis on individual lifestyle change has been broadened to include social and environmental factors, often without increased resources. To find new ways to support community health promotion at the national level, the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and the Division of Adult and Community Health invited an external panel of experts to participate in the National Expert Panel on Community Health Promotion. This article highlights the process through which the expert panel developed its eight recommendations. The recommendations include issues related to community-based participatory research and surveillance, training and capacity building, new approaches for health and wellness, and changes in federal investments. They illustrate the steps needed to broaden the traditional scope of public health and to advance a new vision for improving community health and wellness.

  8. Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842

  9. Anishinabe youth perceptions about community health: toward environmental repossession.

    PubMed

    Big-Canoe, Katie; Richmond, Chantelle A M

    2014-03-01

    This community-based research applied environmental dispossession as a theoretical framework for understanding Anishinabe youth perceptions about health, social relationships and contemporary Anishinabe way of life in Northern Ontario, Canada. Qualitative interviews with 19 youth reveal considerable worry about their community's health. Youth perceive changes in the Anishinabe way of life, including decreased access to their traditional lands, to be central to poor health at the community level. Youth emphasized the importance of social relationships for fostering healthy behaviours and developing community wide initiatives that will provide opportunities for reconnecting to land, and for learning and practicing Indigenous Knowledge. This study builds on the growing body of decolonizing research with Indigenous communities, and it concludes by offering the concept of environmental repossession as a way forward for studies on the Indigenous environment-health interface. PMID:24440804

  10. Community Involvement in Developing Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddin, Estoy

    The community at large can make a definite contribution in helping children develop the desire to read. First, community groups can make books available to children through such methods as sponsoring book fairs and donating the proceeds to school libraries for the purchase of books. Other methods of making books available to children, used in the…

  11. Improving population health: the business community imperative.

    PubMed

    Webber, Andrew; Mercure, Suzanne

    2010-11-01

    Information on the economic effect of poor population health is needed to engage the business community in population health improvement. In a competitive global market, the United States has high health care costs and poor outcomes (measured by such factors as healthy and productive lives) compared with other countries. US business needs to understand population health and not focus just on the health of employees at the worksite. We describe a long-term approach to population health, including incentives, and identify what is needed to engage business leadership in population health improvement.

  12. Listening to community health workers: how ethnographic research can inform positive relationships among community health workers, health institutions, and communities.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth; Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-05-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs' desires for alleviation of their own and others' economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions.

  13. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of dental care access? The Rural Health Information Hub provides two useful tools that may be useful when looking for additional strategies to address dental care access. RHIhub’s Rural Health ...

  14. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  15. Building a community-academic partnership to improve health outcomes in an underserved community.

    PubMed

    McCann, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    East Garfield Park, IL, is an impoverished community with 59.7% of residents falling below twice the poverty level and 42.6% of its children in poverty. In 2001, the leading causes of hospitalizations were heart disease (10.3%), diabetes (2%), and asthma (3.9%), all of which occur at frequencies 33% greater than the Chicago average. Finally, a review of the health care facilities in the community suggests that there is a need for accessible primary health care services in the area. The purpose of this project was to improve health outcomes in an impoverished, underserved community with documented health care needs and lack of adequate health care services by creating a community-academic partnership to provide on-site, interdisciplinary, health care services within an established and trusted community-based social service agency, Marillac House. The short-term objectives for this project included creating a community-academic partnership between Marillac House and Colleges of Nursing, Medicine, and Health Sciences; providing comprehensive health care services; and developing an innovative clinical education model for interdisciplinary care across specialties. Long-term objectives included providing preventative services; evidenced-based management of acute and chronic illness; evaluating client's health outcomes; and creating a sustainability plan for the long-term success of the health center. PMID:20055966

  16. Residential Treatment for Child Mental Health Towards Ego-Social Development and a Community-Child Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amato, Gabriel

    An account of theory and practice in the psychiatric inpatient care of children at a large residential treatment center is presented. The formative factors of the home and community are discussed; consideration is given to the validity of the residential center as a treatment center and to the omnipotence and/or helplessness of the patient. Ego…

  17. Community Mental Health Centers and Insurance Reimbursements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim-Sabat, Denis; And Others

    The economic solvency of Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) is a problem that needs immediate attention. In order to study the shift in funding sources for the 40 Community Services Boards (CSBs) which administer the 114 CMHCs in Virginia, the funding sources of CMHCs, and the fee collections of the CSBs, were examined. Data revealed that…

  18. Mothers' Community Participation and Child Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Jenna; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    We use rich data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey to assess the relationship between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community activities and their children's health. We exploit the advantages of longitudinal data and community fixed effects to mitigate some of the concerns about spuriousness and reverse causality that…

  19. Creating Health-Focused Academic Community Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Sherry K.; Kelley, Susan J.; Spencer, Lorine

    1997-01-01

    Partnerships with communities help universities respond to contemporary societal issues, enrich educational experiences, and offer opportunities for research and faculty service. At Georgia State University, three health-related programs link campus and community in projects for grandparents raising grandchildren, migrant farm workers, and…

  20. Community-based advocacy training: applying asset-based community development in resident education.

    PubMed

    Hufford, Laura; West, Daniel C; Paterniti, Debora A; Pan, Richard J

    2009-06-01

    Communities and Physicians Together (CPT) at University of California, Davis Health System provides a novel approach to teaching residents to be effective community advocates. Founded in 1999, CPT is a partnership between a pediatric residency program, five community collaboratives located in diverse neighborhoods, and a grassroots child advocacy organization. Using the principles of Asset-Based Community Development, the program emphasizes establishing partnerships with community members and organizations to improve child health and identifies community assets and building capacity. Community members function as the primary faculty for CPT.The authors describe the CPT curriculum, which teaches residents to build partnerships with their assigned community. Residents have three, two-week blocks each year for CPT activities and maintain a longitudinal relationship with their community. In the first year, collaborative coordinators from each community orient residents to their community. Residents identify community assets and perform activities designed to provide them with a community member's perspective. In the second and third years, residents partner with community members and organizations to implement a project to improve the health of children in that community. CPT also provides faculty development to community partners including a workshop on medical culture and resident life. A qualitative evaluation demonstrated residents' attitudes of their role as pediatricians in the community changed with CPT.CPT is unique because it provides a model of service learning that emphasizes identifying and utilizing strengths and building capacity. This approach differs from the traditional medical model, which emphasizes deficits and needs. PMID:19474556

  1. Sexual health needs and the LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sue

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) individuals have particular vulnerabilities to sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection. Globally, reasons for this include physiological factors, discrimination and poor understanding of their sexual health needs. In many countries LGBT individuals are not able to exercise fully their rights to health care. This raises public health concerns for the LGBT community and the wider population. This article explores these issues, and makes recommendations for the healthcare profession to address health inequalities and promote improved health outcomes for LGBT populations. This article aims to promote an evidence-based approach that focuses on rights and public health issues.

  2. Sexual health needs and the LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sue

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) individuals have particular vulnerabilities to sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection. Globally, reasons for this include physiological factors, discrimination and poor understanding of their sexual health needs. In many countries LGBT individuals are not able to exercise fully their rights to health care. This raises public health concerns for the LGBT community and the wider population. This article explores these issues, and makes recommendations for the healthcare profession to address health inequalities and promote improved health outcomes for LGBT populations. This article aims to promote an evidence-based approach that focuses on rights and public health issues. PMID:23641652

  3. A Community Health Record: Improving Health Through Multisector Collaboration, Information Sharing, and Technology.

    PubMed

    King, Raymond J; Garrett, Nedra; Kriseman, Jeffrey; Crum, Melvin; Rafalski, Edward M; Sweat, David; Frazier, Renee; Schearer, Sue; Cutts, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for developing a community health record to bring stakeholders, information, and technology together to collectively improve the health of a community. It is both social and technical in nature and presents an iterative and participatory process for achieving multisector collaboration and information sharing. It proposes a methodology and infrastructure for bringing multisector stakeholders and their information together to inform, target, monitor, and evaluate community health initiatives. The community health record is defined as both the proposed framework and a tool or system for integrating and transforming multisector data into actionable information. It is informed by the electronic health record, personal health record, and County Health Ranking systems but differs in its social complexity, communal ownership, and provision of information to multisector partners at scales ranging from address to zip code. PMID:27609300

  4. A Community Health Record: Improving Health Through Multisector Collaboration, Information Sharing, and Technology

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Nedra; Kriseman, Jeffrey; Crum, Melvin; Rafalski, Edward M.; Sweat, David; Frazier, Renee; Schearer, Sue; Cutts, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for developing a community health record to bring stakeholders, information, and technology together to collectively improve the health of a community. It is both social and technical in nature and presents an iterative and participatory process for achieving multisector collaboration and information sharing. It proposes a methodology and infrastructure for bringing multisector stakeholders and their information together to inform, target, monitor, and evaluate community health initiatives. The community health record is defined as both the proposed framework and a tool or system for integrating and transforming multisector data into actionable information. It is informed by the electronic health record, personal health record, and County Health Ranking systems but differs in its social complexity, communal ownership, and provision of information to multisector partners at scales ranging from address to zip code. PMID:27609300

  5. Diabetes Training for Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background A 2.5-month diabetes education training for community health workers (CHWs) was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Methods Training methods used included case studies, role-playing, and lectures. Exams were used throughout the training for its evaluation. Teaching was delivered by different ways: a one day American Diabetes Association (ADA) course; a five day Diabetes Self-Management Program (DSMP); Conversation Maps; and a series of seven National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) diabetes education booklets. Results Qualitative and quantitative evaluative methods were used during and after the training. The CHWs’ diabetes knowledge was evaluated by a pre- and post-test Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ). The post-test was conducted one week after completing the training. The findings showed that the diabetes knowledge of the CHWs increased. Conclusions Diabetes competencies and evaluative tools need to be developed specific for CHWs as a way to standardize all CHW diabetes trainings. PMID:27110434

  6. Caring for older people. Community services: health.

    PubMed

    Pushpangadan, M; Burns, E

    1996-09-28

    Many frail or disabled elderly people are now being maintained in the community, partially at least as a consequence of the Community Care Act 1993. This paper details the work of the major health professionals who are involved in caring for older people in the community and describes how to access nursing, palliative care, continence, mental health, Hospital at Home, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, equipment, and optical, dental, and dietetic services. In many areas, services are evolving to meet needs and some examples of innovative practice are included.

  7. Development of the Community Midwifery Education initiative and its influence on women’s health and empowerment in Afghanistan: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Political transition in Afghanistan enabled reconstruction of the destroyed health system. Maternal health was prioritised due to political will and historically high mortality. However, severe shortages of skilled birth attendants - particularly in rural areas - hampered safe motherhood initiatives. The Community Midwifery Education (CME) programme began training rural midwives in 2002, scaling-up nationally in 2005. Methods This case study analyses CME development and implementation to help determine successes and challenges. Data were collected through documentary review and key informant interviews. Content analysis was informed by Walt and Gilson’s policy triangle framework. Results The CME programme has contributed to consistently positive indicators, including up to a 1273/100,000 reduction in maternal mortality ratios, up to a 28% increase in skilled deliveries, and a six-fold increase in qualified midwives since 2002. Begun as a small pilot, CME has gained support of international donors, the Afghan government, and civil society. Conclusion CME is considered by stakeholders to be a positive model for promoting women’s education, employment, and health. However, its future is threatened by insecurity, corruption, lack of regulation, and funding uncertainties. Strategic planning and resource mobilisation are required for it to achieve its potential of transforming maternal healthcare in Afghanistan. PMID:25220577

  8. Community Health Workers: Social Justice and Policy Advocates for Community Health and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Leda M.; Martinez, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Community health workers are resources to their communities and to the advocacy and policy world on several levels. Community health workers can connect people to health care and collect information relevant to policy. They are natural researchers who, as a result of direct interaction with the populations they serve, can recount the realities of exclusion and propose remedies for it. As natural researchers, they contribute to best practices while informing public policy with the information they can share. In this light, community health workers may also be advocates for social justice. PMID:18048789

  9. Training of Health Workers for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1985-01-01

    The author argues that the achievement of health in developing countries requires that health workers be trained to prevent disease in addition to any training they receive in the identification and management of disease. This preventive role includes communication of health promotion concepts to people and gaining the confidence of communities.…

  10. Papago Indian Modernization: A Community Scale for Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Ralph; Tyroler, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    An index of the modernization of Papago communities was developed to test whether social and cultural processes are involved in the determination of human health and whether rapid social change affects health. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Detroit, 1964. (FF)

  11. An Informatics Approach to Establishing a Sustainable Public Health Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in…

  12. Community participation in the field of health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the concept of community participation as a strategy for achieving development. Community assessment, awareness, involvement, participation, and empowerment need to be to ensured before community participation can become a self-dynamic process. From the Integrated Nutrition Health Programme (INHP) in India came the following features that highlighted the community participation process, including: (a) women group formation and/or strengthening, (b) a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) exercise, (c) sub-center level team formation, (d) mother meetings, and (e) service providers with women's groups (WGs). The strategies of the INHP integrate several developmental sectors so as to bring about lasting positive health and nutrition related behavioral changes among the targeted beneficiaries. The Convergent Community Action (CCA) approach, introduced by the Panchayat government, is an updated social action strategy enhancing the capability of the family and the community to meet the needs of children and women.

  13. Exploring community health through the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework

    PubMed Central

    Barnidge, Ellen; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Motton, Freda; Fitzgerald, Teresa; Rose, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Health disparities are a major concern in the United States. Research suggests that inequitable distribution of money, power, and resources shape the circumstances for daily life and create and exacerbate health disparities. In rural communities, inequitable distribution of these structural factors seems to limit employment opportunities. The Sustainable Livelihoods framework, an economic development model, provides a conceptual framework to understand how distribution of these social, economic, and political structural factors affect employment opportunities and community health in rural America. This study uses photo-elicitation interviews, a qualitative, participatory method, to understand community members perceptions of how distribution of structural factors through creation and maintenance of institutional practices and policies, influence employment opportunities and, ultimately, community health for African Americans living in rural Missouri. PMID:21169478

  14. Exploring community health through the Sustainable Livelihoods framework.

    PubMed

    Barnidge, Ellen K; Baker, Elizabeth A; Motton, Freda; Fitzgerald, Teresa; Rose, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Health disparities are a major concern in the United States. Research suggests that inequitable distribution of money, power, and resources shape the circumstances for daily life and create and exacerbate health disparities. In rural communities, inequitable distribution of these structural factors seems to limit employment opportunities. The Sustainable Livelihoods framework, an economic development model, provides a conceptual framework to understand how distribution of these social, economic, and political structural factors affect employment opportunities and community health in rural America. This study uses photo-elicitation interviews, a qualitative, participatory method, to understand community members' perceptions of how distribution of structural factors through creation and maintenance of institutional practices and policies influence employment opportunities and, ultimately, community health for African Americans living in rural Missouri.

  15. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohort

    study that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the health

    and well-being of children. Approximately 10...

  16. Effective Regional Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Rebecca; Merkowitz, Rose Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Times are changing, and so are Extension programs. These changes affect every aspect of the educational effort, including program development, project funding, educational delivery, partnership building, marketing, sharing impacts, and revenue generation. This article is not about how Extension is restructuring to adapt to changes; instead, it…

  17. Making ENDS Meet: Community Networks and Health Promotion Among Blacks in the City of Brotherly Love

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This historical inquiry illustrates the power of social networks by examining the Starr Centre and the Whittier Centre, two civic associations that operated in Philadelphia during the early 20th century, a time when Black Americans faced numerous public health threats. Efforts to address those threats included health initiatives forged through collaborative social networks involving civic associations, health professionals, and members of Black communities. Such networks provided access to important resources and served as cornerstones of health promotion activities in many large cities. I trace the origins of these two centers, the development of their programs, their establishment of ties with Black community residents, and the relationship between strong community ties and the development of community health initiatives. Clinicians, researchers, and community health activists can draw on these historical precedents to address contemporary public health concerns by identifying community strengths, leveraging social networks, mobilizing community members, training community leaders, and building partnerships with indigenous community organizations. PMID:21680936

  18. Community Engagement and Data Disclosure in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Erin N.; Elam, Sarah; Burns, Roxanne; Spencer, Alonzo; Yancey, Elissa; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Walton, Mike; Reynolds, Virgil; Newman, Nicholas; Wright, Robert O.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Federal funding agencies increasingly support stakeholder participation in environmental health studies, and yet there is very little published research on engagement of community members in the development of data disclosure (DD) strategies. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency reported airborne manganese (Mn) concentrations in East Liverpool, Ohio, 30 times higher than the reference concentration, which led to an academic–community research partnership to address community concern about Mn exposure, particularly among children. Children and their families were recruited to participate in a pilot study. Samples of blood and hair were collected from the children and analyzed for metals. DD mechanisms were developed using an iterative approach between community and academic partners. Individual DD letters were mailed to each participating family, and a community meeting was held. A post-meeting survey was administered to gauge community perception of the DD strategies. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the effectiveness of engaging community partners in the conduct of environmental health research and in the development of DD strategies for individuals and the community at large. Scientists should include community partners in the development of DD strategies to enhance translation of the research findings and support the right of study participants to know their individual results. PMID:26829152

  19. Community environmental health assessment strengthens environmental public health services in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Brian; Gelting, Richard; Baffigo, Virginia; Sarisky, John

    2005-01-01

    In December 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Peru Country Office (CARE Peru), initiated the Urban Environmental Health Project (SAU, in Spanish) to strengthen environmental public health services in urban and periurban settlements in Peru. The project received funding from the Woodruff Foundation as part of the CARE-CDC Health Initiative (CCHI). The "Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health" (PACE EH) guided the development of a community environmental public health assessment (CEHA) process in Cardozo, a settlement in Iquitos, Peru. The project developed a three-phase process that merged scientific understanding and community perception about local environmental health problems. In phase 1, local environmental health technicians assisted the community in understanding environmental health conditions in Cardozo and selecting priorities. During phase 2, local technicians assessed the community-selected priorities: water and sanitation. Results from recent water quality assessments revealed that 82% (9 of 11) of samples from shallow dug wells, 18% (2 of 11) from deeper drilled wells, and 61% (11/18) from household drinking containers were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. Phase 3 activities produced an action plan and an intervention to mitigate health problems associated with inadequate water and sanitation services in the Cardozo community. As a result of the CEHA process, CARE Peru obtained funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to develop and implement an environmental health risk monitoring system and the proposed water and sewage intervention in the settlement. CDC continues to provide technical assistance to the local environmental health services groups in Iquitos through an agreement with CARE Peru as part of the USAID-funded Urban Environmental Health Models Project (MUSA). Technical assistance activities

  20. Community Size as a Factor in Health Partnerships in Community Parks and Recreation, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Jo An M.; Mowen, Andrew J.; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although partnerships between park and recreation agencies and health agencies are prevalent, little research has examined partnership characteristics and effectiveness among communities of different sizes. The objective of this study was to determine whether park and recreation leaders’ perceptions of partnership characteristics, effectiveness, and outcomes vary by community size. Methods A web-based survey was completed in 2007 by 1,217 National Recreation and Park Association members. Community size was divided into 4 categories: very small, small, medium, and large. Questions measured agencies’ recognition of the need for partnerships, their level of experience, and the effectiveness and outcomes of partnerships. Results Larger communities were significantly more likely to recognize the need for and have more experience with partnerships than smaller communities. Very small and large communities partnered significantly more often with senior services, nonprofit health promotion agencies, and public health agencies than did small and medium ones. Large and small communities were significantly more likely than very small and medium communities to agree that their decision making in partnerships is inclusive and that they have clearly defined goals and objectives. Large communities were significantly more likely than very small communities to report that their partnership helped leverage resources, make policy changes, meet their mission statement, and link to funding opportunities. Conclusion Community size shapes partnership practices, effectiveness, and outcomes. Very small communities are disadvantaged in developing and managing health partnerships. Increasing education, training, and funding opportunities for small and rural park and recreation agencies may enable them to more effectively partner with organizations to address community health concerns. PMID:23886043

  1. Leadership development for rural health.

    PubMed

    Size, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is the capacity to help transform a vision of the future into reality. Individuals who can and will exercise leadership are like a river's current--a part past where we now stand, a part yet to come. We have an ongoing need to remember and to look toward the next "generation." A key responsibility of those here now, is to mentor and to create structures for mentoring, in order to maximize the flow and effectiveness of tomorrow's leaders. When recruiting organizational leaders, the recruitment and interview process must seek individuals who in addition to technical competence, also have demonstrated leadership in their prior work and activities. To exercise effective leadership, we must work to know who we are, how we relate to others, and the environment around us. "Servant leadership" is a perspective held by many throughout the rural health community and offers a key set attributes of leadership useful to rural health. To implement the Institute of Medicine's recommendations in Through Collaboration: the Future of Rural Health, we must develop leaders skilled in collaboration, both internal to their organization and across organizations. The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services had it right when they said to the Secretary and to the rest of us, "the best way to honor Jim is to consciously work to help develop the next generation of rural health leaders." There are, of course, a multitude of leadership institutes, programs, and courses throughout America; this is not a call for yet another separate entity. But it is a call to each of us in rural health to assure that we are deliberate in how we identify "emerging leaders from and for rural communities and provide them with the training and resources to play a lead role in ensuring access to quality healthcare in their states and communities." Let's get started.

  2. Considerations for community-based mHealth initiatives: insights from three Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Nebeyou A; Capozza, Korey L; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Kulick, David A; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Turske, Scott A

    2013-10-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs.

  3. Considerations for Community-Based mHealth Initiatives: Insights From Three Beacon Communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs. PMID:24128406

  4. Website Sharing in Online Health Communities: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Chinmoy; Huh, Jina; Adupa, Abhishek Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    other communities. Members used websites to disseminate information, supportive evidence, resources for social support, and other ways to communicate. Conclusions Online health communities can be used as important health care information resources for patients and caregivers. Our findings inform patients’ health information–sharing activities. This information assists health care providers, informaticians, and online health information entrepreneurs and developers in helping patients and caregivers make informed choices. PMID:26764193

  5. Globalization, socioeconomic restructuring, and community health.

    PubMed

    Waters, W F

    2001-04-01

    New trends in global public health have social, economic, and political underpinnings that can be found in three 20th century revolutions: globalization, a new epidemiological transition, and an historical shift in patterns of production and consumption throughout the world. Globalization is more than the internationalization of commerce and manufacture; it represents a new development paradigm that creates new links among corporations, international organizations, governments, communities, and families. Social and economic restructuring is reflected in the emerging health profile in underdeveloped countries, including those in Latin America. This emerging profile defies simple categorization, however; while the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancer has increased, the traditional diseases (infectious and respiratory disease) are still the leading cause of death. At the same time, industrialized countries are experiencing the re-emergence of those same traditional diseases. These apparent anomalies can be understood by examining class structures within and among countries and by linking health outcomes at the local level to new patterns of production and consumption in the global system. PMID:11322756

  6. Functionalism and holism: community nurses' perceptions of health.

    PubMed

    Long, A; Baxter, R

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a study that was designed to explore and examine the perceptions of two groups of newly qualified community nurses about the factors they considered to be embedded within the concepts of health, health-enhancing behaviours at individual, family and community levels and their 'innermost self'. The research was exploratory in nature, and included two sample groups: group 1 comprised 16 newly qualified health visitors; group 2 comprised 16 newly qualified community mental health nurses. Purposive sampling was used and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The group of health visitors perceived health in terms of physical fitness and functional states. At a global level they perceived the need to provide education on health matters. They gave generously to 'charities' and perceived the 'inner self' as 'that part that matters'. The group of community mental health nurses perceived health in terms of holism and being states. Their concept of health was related to listening to each individual's perception of what is 'right' and 'health-enhancing' for them. At a global level they considered the protection of the ozone layer and the promotion of a just and equitable society which focused on the reduction of poverty, to be key health-enhancing activities. They perceived their 'innermost self' to be 'that part of me that makes life worth living', and the soul. The findings have implications for developing new and creative approaches for teaching the holistic concept of health and healing. Educational activities could be designed which strive to ensure that nurses themselves have safe and health embracing opportunities for exploring all the elements that are embedded within the topic of health. Their role in facilitating holistic health promoting activities for all clients also needs to be addressed.

  7. Measuring Population Health Using Electronic Health Records: Exploring Biases and Representativeness in a Community Health Information Exchange.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Gibson, P Joseph; Frederickson Comer, Karen; Rosenman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Assessment is a core function of public health. Comprehensive clinical data may enhance community health assessment by providing up-to-date, representative data for use in public health programs and policies, especially when combined with community-level data relevant to social determinants. In this study we examine routinely collected and geospatially-enhanced EHR data to assess population health at various levels of geographic granularity available from a regional health information exchange. We present preliminary findings and discuss important biases in EHR data. Future work is needed to develop methods for correcting for those biases to support routine epidemiology work of public health.

  8. Smart health community: the hidden value of health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, James N; Kulatilaka, Nalin

    2010-12-01

    Investments in health information technology are accelerating the digitization of medicine. The value from these investments, however, can grow beyond efficiencies by filling the information gaps between the various stakeholders. New work processes, governance structures, and relationships are needed for the coevolution of healthcare markets and business models. But coevolution is slow, hindered by the scarcity of incentives for legacy delivery systems and constrained by the prevailing patient-healthcare paradigm. The greater opportunity lies in wellness for individuals, families, communities, and society at large: a consumer-community paradigm. Capturing new value from this opportunity can start with investment in health information exchange and the creation of Smart Health Communities. By shifting the focus of exchange from public servant to value-added service provider, these communities can serve as a platform for a wider array of wellness services from consumer care, traditional healthcare, and research. PMID:21314218

  9. Applying community-based participatory research methods to improve maternal and child health in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Hirani, Saima; Shehzad, Shireen; Zaidi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    To achieve health for all, the development of partnerships between community residents and researchers is essential. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) engages community members, uses local knowledge in the understanding of health problems and the design of interventions, and invests community members in the processes and products of research. CBPR pivots on an iterative process of open communication, mutual respect, and power sharing to build community capacity to sustain effective health interventions. This article describes how the tenets of CBPR were applied by a multidisciplinary, international research team of maternal-child health specialists toward better health for women and children in multilingual, multiethnic, low socioeconomic communities in Karachi, Pakistan.

  10. Volunteers in Community Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet gives detailed accounts of mental health programs in operation around the nation. A total of nine different types of activities is included. "Helping Children" describes a program whereby students from nearby colleges give troubled children, at home, an experience in friendship by serving as big brothers or sisters. "Helping the…

  11. Community health workers--an evolving force.

    PubMed

    Ramprasad, V

    1988-01-01

    An assessment was made in Indian villages of the performance of community health workers in primary care projects supported by funding agencies. In general these workers were neither adequately trained nor properly integrated into the programs to which they were attached, and the results left much to be desired. In some of the projects the training of health workers was invariably seen by the projects as a way of ensuring funding rather than of meeting a need. The only knowledge transfer between trainers and health workers occurred at monthly meetings. Manuals and teaching materials were scarce in many programs and those used were sometimes considered inappropriate. It was often observed that community health workers were very willing to offer assistance to patients and fellow-workers. They had a good grasp of theory and technical detail and were fully capable of performing allotted tasks. However, most of the projects lacked any system for evaluating the community health workers and consequently there was very little scope for upgrading their skills. Nevertheless, valuable experience was gained and it has been possible to draw up guidelines for organizing future programs in which community health workers should be able to realize their full potential.

  12. Community health nursing and the AIDS pandemic: case report of one community's response.

    PubMed

    Kuehnert, P L

    1991-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently projects that there may be a cumulative total of 30 million cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) worldwide by the year 2000 ("WHO Predicts," 1991). Community health nurses (CHNs), particularly those employed by local and state health departments, have a major role to play in the worldwide public health effort being mounted in response to the AIDS pandemic. CHN roles may include: direct caregiver, advocate, case manager, health educator, program planner, program coordinator, and policy advocate. How CHNs contribute to the effort against AIDS in various CHN roles is illustrated through a case report of a Midwestern U.S. suburban community's response to AIDS. The community's response was fostered and an AIDS program developed and implemented by CHNs employed by the community's health department. In addition to enabling this community to respond to AIDS in a humane and caring manner, the CHN initiatives have resulted in positive community feelings about the health department, and enhanced the image of CHNs as innovators and facilitators of change.

  13. Therapeutic Communities and Mental Health System Reform

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Barbara; Ware, Norma C.

    2009-01-01

    Topic The contemporary relevance of therapeutic communities as a treatment modality in mental health is described. Methods This paper builds upon on a qualitative study to provide a case illustration of a working therapeutic community for persons with serious mental illness. Sources Used The data are seventeen interviews conducted with staff and residents and observations carried out during four days of field work by the research team. Conclusions Studies are needed to determine whether therapeutic communities strengthen consumer capacity for social integration and thus contribute to empowerment and the larger recovery agenda. PMID:18840564

  14. Community health nursing advocacy: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Ezeonwu, Mabel C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an in-depth analysis of the concept of community health nursing (CHN) advocacy. Walker and Avant's (2010) 8-step concept analysis methodology was used. A broad inquiry into the literature between 1994 and 2014 resulted in the identification of the uses, defining attributes, empirical referents, antecedents, and consequences, as well as the articulation of an operational definition of CHN advocacy. Model and contrary cases were identified to demonstrate the concept's application and to clarify its meaning. This analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge of CHN advocacy and provides nurse clinicians, educators, and researchers with some conceptual clarity to help improve community health outcomes.

  15. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  16. Community Participation, Cultural Discourse, and Health Education Projects in Developing Areas: The Case of the Radio Communication Project in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, J. Gary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on the article by Dutta and Basnyat (see EJ802883) that provides an insightful and comprehensive critique of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) entertainment-education program, The Radio Communication Program (RCP) in Nepal, which has been reported to be highly participatory. Despite…

  17. Urban Problems and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Ronald F., Ed.; Dickens, William T., Ed.

    The essays in this collection promote a conception of community development that entails building practical capacities to improve the quality of life among residents of targeted neighborhoods. The causes, consequences, and potential solutions of urban problems that lie both inside and outside neighborhood borders are emphasized. The chapters are:…

  18. Developing community friendly appropriate biomarkers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation we discuss the statistical methodology used in the development of biomarkers to track disease as an outcome for nutrition or exercise interventions in community settings. Obesity and co-morbidities are of growing concern. Nutrition and physical activity interventions have been d...

  19. Design of an online health-promoting community: negotiating user community needs with public health goals and service capabilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An online health-promoting community (OHPC) has the potential to promote health and advance new means of dialogue between public health representatives and the general public. The aim of this study was to examine what aspects of an OHPC that are critical for satisfying the needs of the user community and public health goals and service capabilities. Methods Community-based participatory research methods were used for data collection and analysis, and participatory design principles to develop a case study OHPC for adolescents. Qualitative data from adolescents on health appraisals and perspectives on health information were collected in a Swedish health service region and classified into categories of user health information exchange needs. A composite design rationale for the OHPC was completed by linking the identified user needs, user-derived requirements, and technical and organizational systems solutions. Conflicts between end-user requirements and organizational goals and resources were identified. Results The most prominent health information needs were associated to food, exercise, and well-being. The assessment of the design rationale document and prototype in light of the regional public health goals and service capabilities showed that compromises were needed to resolve conflicts involving the management of organizational resources and responsibilities. The users wanted to discuss health issues with health experts having little time to set aside to the OHPC and it was unclear who should set the norms for the online discussions. Conclusions OHPCs can be designed to satisfy both the needs of user communities and public health goals and service capabilities. Compromises are needed to resolve conflicts between users’ needs to discuss health issues with domain experts and the management of resources and responsibilities in public health organizations. PMID:23826944

  20. Visual Methodologies in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: Using Photography, Video, and New Media to Engage Communities in Research and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalani, Caricia Eleanora Celebes

    2009-01-01

    The challenges facing public health today are too vast, complex, and urgent to be met by public health professionals alone. To improve the health and wellbeing of diverse communities around the globe, public health leaders are developing tools that engage communities in research and action, most particularly community-based participatory research…

  1. Expanding the Trilinos developer community.

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2010-10-01

    The Trilinos Project started approximately nine years ago as a small effort to enable research, development and ongoing support of small, related solver software efforts. The 'Tri' in Trilinos was intended to indicate the eventual three packages we planned to develop. In 2007 the project expanded its scope to include any package that was an enabling technology for technical computing. Presently the Trilinos repository contains over 55 packages covering a broad spectrum of reusable tools for constructing full-featured scalable scientific and engineering applications. Trilinos usage is now worldwide, and many applications have an explicit dependence on Trilinos for essential capabilities. Users come from other US laboratories, universities, industry and international research groups. Awareness and use of Trilinos is growing rapidly outside of Sandia. Members of the external research community are becoming more familiar with Trilinos, its design and collaborative nature. As a result, the Trilinos project is receiving an increasing number of requests from external community members who want to contribute to Trilinos as developers. To-date we have worked with external developers in an ad hoc fashion. Going forward, we want to develop a set of policies, procedures, tools and infrastructure to simplify interactions with external developers. As we go forward with multi-laboratory efforts such as CASL and X-Stack, and international projects such as IESP, we will need a more streamlined and explicit process for making external developers 'first-class citizens' in the Trilinos development community. This document is intended to frame the discussion for expanding the Trilinos community to all strategically important external members, while at the same time preserving Sandia's primary leadership role in the project.

  2. Health training intervention for community elderly

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Acee, Taylor W.; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Pituch, Keenan; Delville, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a psychosocial intervention that tested whether health training could improve health and functional ability in a group community-residing elders. The health training intervention consisted of eight, 90-minute lecture and discussion classes conducted twice a week for one month. In 3 months following the post-test, an additional 4 booster sessions were delivered once per week for one month. Participants received a total of 20 hours of health training. The NIH-funded SeniorWISE© (Wisdom Is Simply Exploration) study was advertised in the community as a program to learn strategies for successful aging. We describe the health curriculum, and the health and functional outcomes for a 6-month period at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and post-booster sessions. Complete data were available for 110 individuals. There was a statistically significant change on the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS) (F = 4.69 (2, 107), p < .012). Health variables remained stable over time. This intervention demonstrated that health training has the potential for noticeable improvement in IADL function. PMID:20303452

  3. Development and formative evaluation of an innovative mHealth intervention for improving coverage of community-based maternal, newborn and child health services in rural areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Dhiren; Gopalan, Ravi; Shah, Shobha; Venkatraman, Sethuraman; Desai, Gayatri; Desai, Shrey; Shah, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Background A new cadre of village-based frontline health workers, called Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), was created in India. However, coverage of selected community-based maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services remains low. Objective This article describes the process of development and formative evaluation of a complex mHealth intervention (ImTeCHO) to increase the coverage of proven MNCH services in rural India by improving the performance of ASHAs. Design The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing complex interventions was used. Gaps were identified in the usual care provided by ASHAs, based on a literature search, and SEWA Rural's1 three decades of grassroots experience. The components of the intervention (mHealth strategies) were designed to overcome the gaps in care. The intervention, in the form of the ImTeCHO mobile phone and web application, along with the delivery model, was developed to incorporate these mHealth strategies. The intervention was piloted through 45 ASHAs among 45 villages in Gujarat (population: 45,000) over 7 months in 2013 to assess the acceptability, feasibility, and usefulness of the intervention and to identify barriers to its delivery. Results Inadequate supervision and support to ASHAs were noted as a gap in usual care, resulting in low coverage of selected MNCH services and care received by complicated cases. Therefore, the ImTeCHO application was developed to integrate mHealth strategies in the form of job aid to ASHAs to assist with scheduling, behavior change communication, diagnosis, and patient management, along with supervision and support of ASHAs. During the pilot, the intervention and its delivery were found to be largely acceptable, feasible, and useful. A few changes were made to the intervention and its delivery, including 1) a new helpline for ASHAs, 2) further simplification of processes within the ImTeCHO incentive management system and 3) additional web-based features for

  4. Primary Health Care and partnerships: collaboration of a community agency, health department, and university nursing program.

    PubMed

    Leonard, L G

    1998-03-01

    Health care reform proposals emphasize health care that is essential, practical, scientifically sound, coordinated, accessible, appropriately delivered, and affordable. One route to achievement of improved health outcomes within these parameters is the formation of partnerships. Partnerships adopting the philosophy and five principles of Primary Health Care (PHC) focus on health promotion and prevention of illness and disability, maximum community participation, accessibility to health and health services, interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration, and use of appropriate technologies such as resources and strategies. A community service agency serving a multicultural population initiated a partnership with a health department and a university undergraduate nursing program. The result was a preschool health fair and there were benefits for each partner-benefits which could not have been realized without the collaboration. The health fair partnership planning, implementation, and evaluation process was guided by a framework shaped by the philosophy and five principles of PHC. The educational process described can be applied to other learning experiences where the goal is to help students understand and apply the concepts of PHC, develop myriad nursing competencies, and form collaborative relationships with the community and health agencies. Community health care dilemmas and nursing education challenges can be successfully addressed when various disciplines and sectors form effective partnerships. PMID:9535233

  5. Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure.

  6. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    PubMed

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.

  7. The community need index. A new tool pinpoints health care disparities in communities throughout the nation.

    PubMed

    Roth, Richard; Barsi, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    Catholic Healthcare West, San Francisco (CHW), has developed a national Community Need Index (CNI) in partnership with Solucient, an information products company, to help health care organizations, not-for-profits, and policymakers identify and address barriers to health care access in their communities. The CNI aggregates five socioeconomic indicators long known to contribute to health disparity--income, culture/language, education, housing status, and insurance coverage--and applies them to every zip code in the United States. Each zip code is then given a score ranging from 1.0 (low need) to 5.0 (high need). Residents of communities with the highest CNI scores were shown to be twice as likely to experience preventable hospitalization for manageable conditions--such as ear infections, pneumonia or congestive heart failure--as communities with the lowest CNI scores. The CNI provides compelling evidence for addressing socioeconomic barriers when considering health policy and local health planning. The tool highlights health care disparities between geographic regions and illustrates the acute needs of several notable geographies, including inner city and rural areas.Further, it should enable health care providers, policymakers, and others to allocate resources where they are most needed, using a standardized, quantitative tool. The CNI provides CHW with an important means to strategically allocate resources where it will be most effective in maintaining a healthy community.

  8. [Community health centers: an alternative for the health system

    PubMed

    Fernandes; Monteiro

    1997-01-01

    Reflecting on the current reorganization of the relationship between the state and civil society, the health care field is involved in an intense debate over the organization and use of government and private health services. The authors propose an alternative, consisting of the implementation of primary health care clinics, managed by local institutions and funded by the Unified Health System. To support this proposition, they report on the current experience at the Rocinha slum in Rio de Janeiro, where a community health center was built by the neighborhood association 12 years ago and has been managed by the community since then. The hospital referral rate at the clinic, requests for laboratory tests, and use of precriptions have been considerably limited, although these services are available. These low rates are attributed to the possibility of closer social control by the community, as well as to the geographical features of the center, favoring a broader perception of both health problems and treatment. In order to provide more substantial support to the proposed centers, some suggestions are presented, like the implementation of direct agreements between the government and neighborhood associations (not allowed under current legislation) and expanding potential sources of funding for the health centers, currently restricted to government programs. PMID:10886837

  9. Professional development using student-led, community-based activities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley E; Cunningham, Stacey C; Magnus, Jeanette H

    2011-01-01

    As a community health education center affiliated with an academic institution, we recognize that by investing in the professional development of our students, we not only maximize our own outcomes but those of our students as well. Our project, Creating Community Connections, was developed to aid the work of our Center in characterizing the evolving community landscape following Hurricane Katrina while providing opportunities for students to engage in experiential learning. Students in the project could gain skills in program planning and community assessment, as well as leadership and communications. Twenty-three students worked on the project during its 2 years, developing data collection tools, organizing and conducting key informant interviews, facilitating focus groups and community forums, managing data, and summarizing project findings for community presentations. Participation in this project allowed our students to grow as public health leaders and researchers while gaining a greater appreciation for community collaboration. PMID:21617412

  10. Professional development using student-led, community-based activities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley E; Cunningham, Stacey C; Magnus, Jeanette H

    2011-01-01

    As a community health education center affiliated with an academic institution, we recognize that by investing in the professional development of our students, we not only maximize our own outcomes but those of our students as well. Our project, Creating Community Connections, was developed to aid the work of our Center in characterizing the evolving community landscape following Hurricane Katrina while providing opportunities for students to engage in experiential learning. Students in the project could gain skills in program planning and community assessment, as well as leadership and communications. Twenty-three students worked on the project during its 2 years, developing data collection tools, organizing and conducting key informant interviews, facilitating focus groups and community forums, managing data, and summarizing project findings for community presentations. Participation in this project allowed our students to grow as public health leaders and researchers while gaining a greater appreciation for community collaboration.

  11. Growing your own: community health workers and jobs to careers.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Brandy; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Chuang, Emmeline; Konrad, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates the implementation and impact of 5 workforce development programs aimed at achieving skills upgrades, educational advancement, and career development for community health workers (CHWs). Quantitative and qualitative case study data from the national evaluation of the Jobs to Careers: Transforming the Front Lines of Health Care initiative demonstrate that investing in CHWs can achieve measurable worker (eg, raises) and programmatic (eg, more skilled workers) outcomes. To achieve these outcomes, targeted changes were made to the structure, culture, and work processes of employing organizations. These findings have implications for other health care employers interested in developing their CHW workforce.

  12. Community participation in rural health: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for research, policy and practice

  13. Upgrading Health Technology Curriculum: A Community Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramson, Sharon; Merlino, Ann

    1976-01-01

    Describes the phased development of a program in Blood Transfusion Technology at Staten Island Community College of the City University of New York. Presents a detailed outline of the instructional content of the course. (SL)

  14. Literacy Practitioner. Literacy and Community Development Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Practitioner, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue of a newsletter for adult literacy practitioners focuses on community development. Nine articles on this topic include the following: "Adult Literacy and Community Development" (Hal Beder); "Why Community Development?" (Kirk Baker); "Freire's Revolution" (Ruth Pelz); "Impacting Communities through Literacy" (Jane Hugo); "Community…

  15. Multiculturalism, Medicine and Health Part V: Community Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Masi, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this article the author examines multicultural health issues from a community perspective, dealing with relationships between cultural communities and health-care systems in terms of: hospitals and health-care institutions, family and social supports, social norms, and community-health programs. PMID:21248882

  16. Institutionalization of Community Partnerships: The Challenge for Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Magwood, Gayenell S.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Zapka, Jane; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan; Stuart, Gail W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Current public health priorities emphasize the elimination of health disparities, translational research, and transdisciplinary and community alliances. The Center for Community Health Partnerships is a proactive initiative to address new paradigms and priorities in health care through institutionalization of community-university partnerships. This report highlights innovative strategies and lessons learned. PMID:23698666

  17. Emergency preparedness training of tribal community health representatives.

    PubMed

    Hites, Lisle S; Granillo, Brenda S; Garrison, Edward R; Cimetta, Adriana D; Serafin, Verena J; Renger, Ralph F; Wakelee, Jessica F; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of online Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) training adapted to the learning styles and needs of tribal Community Health Representatives (CHRs). Working through a university-tribal community college partnership, the Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Arizona and Diné College of the Navajo Nation delivered a blended online and face-to-face public health preparedness certificate program based on core public health emergency preparedness competencies. This program was carefully adapted to meet the environmental and learning needs of the tribal CHRs. The certificate program was subsequently evaluated via a scenario-based decision-making methodology. Significant improvements in five of six competency areas were documented by comparison of pre- and post-certificate training testing. Based on statistical support for this pedagogical approach the cultural adaptations utilized in delivery of the certificate program appear to be effective for PHEP American Indian education. PMID:21240557

  18. Emergency preparedness training of tribal community health representatives.

    PubMed

    Hites, Lisle S; Granillo, Brenda S; Garrison, Edward R; Cimetta, Adriana D; Serafin, Verena J; Renger, Ralph F; Wakelee, Jessica F; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of online Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) training adapted to the learning styles and needs of tribal Community Health Representatives (CHRs). Working through a university-tribal community college partnership, the Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Arizona and Diné College of the Navajo Nation delivered a blended online and face-to-face public health preparedness certificate program based on core public health emergency preparedness competencies. This program was carefully adapted to meet the environmental and learning needs of the tribal CHRs. The certificate program was subsequently evaluated via a scenario-based decision-making methodology. Significant improvements in five of six competency areas were documented by comparison of pre- and post-certificate training testing. Based on statistical support for this pedagogical approach the cultural adaptations utilized in delivery of the certificate program appear to be effective for PHEP American Indian education.

  19. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  20. Community health and socioeconomic issues surrounding concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M; Thorne, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  1. Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  2. Forging successful academic-community partnerships with community health centers: the California statewide Area Health Education Center (AHEC) experience.

    PubMed

    Fowkes, Virginia; Blossom, H John; Mitchell, Brenda; Herrera-Mata, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Increased access to insurance under the Affordable Care Act will increase demands for clinical services in community health centers (CHCs). CHCs also have an increasingly important educational role to train clinicians who will remain to practice in community clinics. CHCs and Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) are logical partners to prepare the health workforce for the future. Both are sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration, and they share a mission to improve quality of care in medically underserved communities. AHECs emphasize the educational side of the mission, and CHCs the service side. Building stronger partnerships between them can facilitate a balance between education and service needs.From 2004 to 2011, the California Statewide AHEC program and its 12 community AHECs (centers) reorganized to align training with CHC workforce priorities. Eight centers merged into CHC consortia; others established close partnerships with CHCs in their respective regions. The authors discuss issues considered and approaches taken to make these changes. Collaborative innovative processes with program leadership, staff, and center directors revised the program mission, developed common training objectives with an evaluation plan, and defined organizational, functional, and impact characteristics for successful AHECs in California. During this planning, centers gained confidence as educational arms for the safety net and began collaborations with statewide programs as well as among themselves. The AHEC reorganization and the processes used to develop, strengthen, and identify standards for centers forged the development of new partnerships and established academic-community trust in planning and implementing programs with CHCs. PMID:24280858

  3. Reimagining community health psychology: maps, journeys and new terrains.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2014-01-01

    This special issue celebrates and maps out the 'coming of age' of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field's engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change - in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health.

  4. Building Sustainable Health and Education Partnerships: Stories From Local Communities

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high school ready for college, technical school, on-the-job training, career, and citizenship. METHODS Results from Milwaukie High School, North Clackamas, OR; Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA; and Cincinnati Community Learning Centers, Cincinnati, OH were based on a review of local site documents, web-based information, interviews, and e-mail communication with key local actors. RESULTS The schools and districts with strong health partnerships reflecting community schools strategy have shown improvements in attendance, academic performance, and increased access to mental, dental, vision, and health supports for their students. CONCLUSIONS To build deep health-education partnerships and grow community schools, a working leadership and management infrastructure must be in place that uses quality data, focuses on results, and facilitates professional development across sectors. The leadership infrastructure of community school initiatives offers a prototype on which others can build. Moreover, as leaders build cross-sector relationships, a clear definition of what scaling up means is essential for subsequent long-term systemic change. PMID:26440823

  5. A Healthy Communities Initiative in Rural Alberta: Building Rural Capacity for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GermAnn, Kathy; Smith, Neale; Littlejohns, Lori Baugh

    Efforts of health professionals are shifting away from programs that "deliver health" toward those that build the capacity of communities to work together to create healthy places. The Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) is a community development model in central Alberta (Canada) that involves the creation of a widely shared vision of a…

  6. Ending the HIV Epidemic: Community Strategies in Disease and Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrow, Steven, Ed.; And Others

    This book was written to provide public health leaders, community organizers, policymakers, community-based agency directors, and health educators with the most accurate information available on developing prevention strategies to reduce the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in communities throughout the United States. In the late 1980s…

  7. The Tennessee Department of Health WORKshops on Use of Secondary Data for Community Health Assessment, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Omohundro, Ellen; Boswell, Derrick; Evans, Dwayne; Ferranti, Lori B.

    2014-01-01

    Community health assessment is a core function of public health departments, a standard for accreditation of public health departments, and a core competency for public health professionals. The Tennessee Department of Health developed a statewide initiative to improve the processes for engaging county health departments in assessing their community’s health status through the collection and analysis of secondary data. One aim of the Tennessee Department of Health was to position county public health departments as trusted leaders in providing population data and engaging community stakeholders in assessments. The Tennessee Department of Health’s Division of Policy, Planning, and Assessment conducted regional 2-day training workshops to explain and guide completion of computer spreadsheets on 12 health topics. Participants from 93 counties extracted data from multiple and diverse sources to quantify county demographics, health status, and resources and wrote problem statements based on the data examined. The workshops included additional staff development through integration of short lessons on data analysis, epidemiology, and social-behavior theory. Participants reported in post-workshop surveys higher degrees of comfort in interpreting data and writing about their findings on county health issues, and they shared their findings with health, hospital, school, and government leaders (including county health council members) in their counties. Completion of the assessments enabled counties and the Tennessee Department of Health to address performance-improvement goals and assist counties in preparing to meet public health accreditation prerequisites. The methods developed for using secondary data for community health assessment are Tennessee’s first-phase response to counties’ request for a statewide structure for conducting such assessments. PMID:24384302

  8. Lessons Learned from the Uniontown Community Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Mary Ann; Cornell, Carol E.; Dignan, Mark; Brownstein, J. Nell; Raczynski, James M.; Stalker, Varena G.; McDuffie, Kathleen Y.; Greene, Paul G.; Sanderson, Bonnie; Struempler, Barbara Jo.

    2002-01-01

    Examines lessons learned from a 5-year project designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted community health advisor-based intervention to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among older, rural, African American women. Data from observations surveys, and discussion groups highlight six lessons (e.g., establish personal working…

  9. Building Sustainable Health and Education Partnerships: Stories from Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high…

  10. Community participatory research with deaf sign language users to identify health inequities.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Steven; Klein, Jonathan D; Pollard, Robert Q; Samar, Vincent; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Starr, Matthew; Sutter, Erika; Yang, Hongmei; Pearson, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Deaf people who use American Sign Language (ASL) are medically underserved and often excluded from health research and surveillance. We used a community participatory approach to develop and administer an ASL-accessible health survey. We identified deaf community strengths (e.g., a low prevalence of current smokers) and 3 glaring health inequities: obesity, partner violence, and suicide. This collaborative work represents the first time a deaf community has used its own data to identify health priorities.

  11. Emergency medicine systems advancement through community-based development.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings. PMID:24429185

  12. Emergency medicine systems advancement through community-based development.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings.

  13. [Development and perspectives of community DOTS].

    PubMed

    Narita, Tomoyo; Kobayashi, Noriko

    2009-04-01

    -finding, standardized treatment, quality patient support, and research, which are implemented in twenty-four related activities including the cohort meeting. This meeting is held regularly and contributes greatly to the comprehensive patient care and support for their completion of regular treatment. 3. Development of TB clinical path in hospital-community health partnership--from public health centers' viewpoint: Yui ASO (Nishi Tama Public Health Center), Tomoyo NARITA (Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health Tokyo Metropolitan Government) In order to lead all TB patients to treatment success, public health centers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Tokyo Metropolitan Fuchu Hospital developed a TB clinical path (TBCP) hospital-community health partnership with the cooperation of the local medical association, the pharmacists' association, and organizations for home recuperation of elderly people. In a questionnaire, all the patients who used TBCP answered that they could take medicine themselves. It was also found that over 50% of hospital doctors and nurses, pharmacists, and public health nurses who were involved in TBCP were satisfied with good cooperation with other partners and patients' positive attitude toward their treatment. These trials revealed that the important keys to the effectiveness of TBCP include a) the shared informed consent by all the partners of the TBCP, b) timely sharing of information about patients, c) standardization of treatment and care for patients, and d) promotion of cooperation with other related players. 4. Development of TB clinical path in hospital-community health partnership--from a hospital's viewpoint: Akira FUJITA (Department of Pulmonary Medicine Tokyo Metropolitan Fuchu Hospital). Health Centers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Tokyo Metropolitan Fuchu Hospital, and other organizations developed a tuberculosis clinical path in a hospital-community health partnership (TBCP). Preliminarily, we applied TBCP for 23 patients with

  14. Constructing an action agenda for community empowerment at the 7th Global Conference on Health Promotion in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Stephen; Abeykoon, Palitha; Arora, Monika; Dobe, Madhumita; Galloway-Gilliam, Lark; Liburd, Leandris; Munodawafa, Davison

    2010-12-01

    This report describes an action agenda for community empowerment developed by participants at the 7th Global Conference on Health Promotion in Nairobi. It outlines gaps and barriers in enabling community empowerment; including those related to institutional capacity, institutional relationships to the community, and institutional responses to the social structure of the community. The report features nine recommended actions to enhance community control of health promotion initiatives, develop sustainable resources for community health efforts, and support implementation and build evidence for health promotion effectiveness. Implementing these recommended actions can enhance community empowerment and help close the implementation gap in health promotion.

  15. Developing the Trust of a Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Susan A.

    1984-01-01

    After discussing theories of attitude change, recommends that mental health workers overcome the negative attitudes of rural communities toward mental health programs by forming positive, personal, affective bonds with rural community members. Presents strategies for establishing and maintaining these bonds in private life, clinical work, and…

  16. Promoting the Health of Families and Communities: A Moral Imperative.

    PubMed

    Mason, Diana J

    2016-09-01

    The Hill Burton Act, which was signed into law in 1946 and ended in 1997, was one of the most significant forces that shaped the health care system we have today. Providing grants and loans for the construction and expansion of hospitals across the country, it required beneficiary hospitals to give some amount of uncompensated care to the poor and uninsured in return. The act not only led to our health care system's current emphasis on the acute-care hospital as the primary site of health care delivery, but it also had a profound effect on nursing, fully involving the profession in an acute-care world. The act created jobs for nurses at an unprecedented level. There are over 3.4 million nurses in the United States, and in 2013, 63 percent of all nurses worked for hospitals. Nursing education continues to emphasize acute care, despite the calls for shifting the curriculum to more community-based content and experiences that focus on health promotion and wellness for individuals, families, and communities. It is my premise that the nursing profession and all who profess to be committed to promoting health have a moral obligation to help the nation adopt a Hill-Burton Act of the twenty-first century that will focus on building healthy communities, supporting families in ways that promote health, and helping individuals to live healthier lives. This would require a shift in resources from a costly health care system to investing in community development, whether job creation, building safe places to play and exercise, providing access to affordable and nutritious foods, advancing the quality of education, or other approaches to addressing and improving the social determinants of health. Making this kind of investment would speak to the principles of beneficence, least harm, and justice, particularly for socioeconomically stressed communities.

  17. Promoting the Health of Families and Communities: A Moral Imperative.

    PubMed

    Mason, Diana J

    2016-09-01

    The Hill Burton Act, which was signed into law in 1946 and ended in 1997, was one of the most significant forces that shaped the health care system we have today. Providing grants and loans for the construction and expansion of hospitals across the country, it required beneficiary hospitals to give some amount of uncompensated care to the poor and uninsured in return. The act not only led to our health care system's current emphasis on the acute-care hospital as the primary site of health care delivery, but it also had a profound effect on nursing, fully involving the profession in an acute-care world. The act created jobs for nurses at an unprecedented level. There are over 3.4 million nurses in the United States, and in 2013, 63 percent of all nurses worked for hospitals. Nursing education continues to emphasize acute care, despite the calls for shifting the curriculum to more community-based content and experiences that focus on health promotion and wellness for individuals, families, and communities. It is my premise that the nursing profession and all who profess to be committed to promoting health have a moral obligation to help the nation adopt a Hill-Burton Act of the twenty-first century that will focus on building healthy communities, supporting families in ways that promote health, and helping individuals to live healthier lives. This would require a shift in resources from a costly health care system to investing in community development, whether job creation, building safe places to play and exercise, providing access to affordable and nutritious foods, advancing the quality of education, or other approaches to addressing and improving the social determinants of health. Making this kind of investment would speak to the principles of beneficence, least harm, and justice, particularly for socioeconomically stressed communities. PMID:27649921

  18. Fetal Health and Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems that ...

  19. Community Leaders' Perspectives of a Rural Community College's Impact on Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Reine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to examine the role a rural community college plays in the development of its community, using a holistic, community-based lens that considered college and community context, interactions and results to answer the question: "How does the rural community college impact the development of the…

  20. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  1. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  2. The influence of Community Access to Child Health (CATCH) program on community pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Soares, Neelkamal S; Hobson, Wendy L; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Finneran, Maureen; Varrasso, Denia A; Keller, David

    2014-01-01

    The CATCH (Community Access to Child Health) Program, which supports pediatricians who engage with the community to improve child health, increase access to health care, and promote advocacy through small seed grants, was last evaluated in 1998. The objective was to describe the characteristics of CATCH grant recipients and projects and assess the community impact of funded projects. Prospective data was collected from CATCH applications (grantee characteristics, topic area and target population for projects funded from 2006-2012) and post-project 2-year follow-up survey (project outcomes, sustainability, and impact for projects funded from 2008 through 2010). From 2006 through 2012, the CATCH Program awarded 401 projects to grantees working mostly in general pediatrics. Eighty-five percent of projects targeted children covered by Medicaid, 33% targeted uninsured children, and 75% involved a Latino population. Main topic areas addressed were nutrition, access to health care, and medical home. Sixty-nine percent of grantees from 2008 to 2010 responded to the follow-up survey. Ninety percent reported completing their projects, and 86% of those projects continued to exist in some form. Grantees reported the development of community partnerships (77%) and enhanced recognition of child health issues in the community (73%) as the most frequent changes due to the projects. The CATCH Program funds community-based projects led by pediatricians that address the medical home and access to care. A majority of these projects and community partnerships are sustained beyond their original CATCH funding and, in many cases, are leveraged into additional financial or other community support.

  3. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  4. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated. PMID:26212466

  5. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  6. Community Health, Community Involvement, and Community Empowerment: Too Much to Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, Lynne; Broughton, Sandra; Bassett-Smith, Joan; Aasen, Wendy; Oostindie, Madeleine; Marino, Betty Anne; Hewitt, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The Primary Prevention of Cancer Program at the British Columbia Cancer Agency Centre for the Southern Interior (BCCA-CSI), known as the Waddell Project, is now five years old and currently is in partnership with fourteen regional communities. Each of these communities has a range of community-developed programs currently in place. The driving…

  7. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  8. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them.

  9. Developing Three-Star Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2001-01-01

    Tennessee's Three-Star Program for Community Economic Preparedness helps rural communities sell themselves as desirable locations for industry. The program emphasizes community planning and improved quality of life; features include adult leadership programs, community action projects, after-school and extracurricular programs for children and…

  10. A Multidimensional Data Warehouse for Community Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Kunjan, Kislaya; Toscos, Tammy; Turkcan, Ayten; Doebbeling, Brad N

    2015-01-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) play a pivotal role in healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations, but have not yet benefited from a data warehouse that can support improvements in clinical and financial outcomes across the practice. We have developed a multidimensional clinic data warehouse (CDW) by working with 7 CHCs across the state of Indiana and integrating their operational, financial and electronic patient records to support ongoing delivery of care. We describe in detail the rationale for the project, the data architecture employed, the content of the data warehouse, along with a description of the challenges experienced and strategies used in the development of this repository that may help other researchers, managers and leaders in health informatics. The resulting multidimensional data warehouse is highly practical and is designed to provide a foundation for wide-ranging healthcare data analytics over time and across the community health research enterprise.

  11. A Multidimensional Data Warehouse for Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Kunjan, Kislaya; Toscos, Tammy; Turkcan, Ayten; Doebbeling, Brad N.

    2015-01-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) play a pivotal role in healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations, but have not yet benefited from a data warehouse that can support improvements in clinical and financial outcomes across the practice. We have developed a multidimensional clinic data warehouse (CDW) by working with 7 CHCs across the state of Indiana and integrating their operational, financial and electronic patient records to support ongoing delivery of care. We describe in detail the rationale for the project, the data architecture employed, the content of the data warehouse, along with a description of the challenges experienced and strategies used in the development of this repository that may help other researchers, managers and leaders in health informatics. The resulting multidimensional data warehouse is highly practical and is designed to provide a foundation for wide-ranging healthcare data analytics over time and across the community health research enterprise. PMID:26958297

  12. Integrating the environment, the economy, and community health: a Community Health Center's initiative to link health benefits to smart growth.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Peter V; Driscoll, Mary Beth; Gramling, Benjamin J

    2004-04-01

    The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center (SSCHC) in Milwaukee, Wis, is making a difference in the livability of surrounding neighborhoods and the overall health of the families it serves. SSCHC is going beyond traditional health care provider models and working to link the environment, the economy, and community health through urban brownfield redevelopment and sustainable land-use planning. In 1997, SSCHC recognized that restoration of local air and water quality and other environmental conditions, coupled with restoring family-supporting jobs in the neighborhood, could have a substantial impact on the overall health of families. Recent events indicate that SSCHC's pursuit of smart growth strategies has begun to pay off. PMID:15053995

  13. Population health improvement: a community health business model that engages partners in all sectors.

    PubMed

    Kindig, David A; Isham, George

    2014-01-01

    Because population health improvement requires action on multiple determinants--including medical care, health behaviors, and the social and physical environments--no single entity can be held accountable for achieving improved outcomes. Medical organizations, government, schools, businesses, and community organizations all need to make substantial changes in how they approach health and how they allocate resources. To this end, we suggest the development of multisectoral community health business partnership models. Such collaborative efforts are needed by sectors and actors not accustomed to working together. Healthcare executives can play important leadership roles in fostering or supporting such partnerships in local and national arenas where they have influence. In this article, we develop the following components of this argument: defining a community health business model; defining population health and the Triple Aim concept; reaching beyond core mission to help create the model; discussing the shift for care delivery beyond healthcare organizations to other community sectors; examining who should lead in developing the community business model; discussing where the resources for a community business model might come from; identifying that better evidence is needed to inform where to make cost-effective investments; and proposing some next steps. The approach we have outlined is a departure from much current policy and management practice. But new models are needed as a road map to drive action--not just thinking--to address the enormous challenge of improving population health. While we applaud continuing calls to improve health and reduce disparities, progress will require more robust incentives, strategies, and action than have been in practice to date. Our hope is that ideas presented here will help to catalyze a collective, multisectoral response to this critical social and economic challenge.

  14. Population health improvement: a community health business model that engages partners in all sectors.

    PubMed

    Kindig, David A; Isham, George

    2014-01-01

    Because population health improvement requires action on multiple determinants--including medical care, health behaviors, and the social and physical environments--no single entity can be held accountable for achieving improved outcomes. Medical organizations, government, schools, businesses, and community organizations all need to make substantial changes in how they approach health and how they allocate resources. To this end, we suggest the development of multisectoral community health business partnership models. Such collaborative efforts are needed by sectors and actors not accustomed to working together. Healthcare executives can play important leadership roles in fostering or supporting such partnerships in local and national arenas where they have influence. In this article, we develop the following components of this argument: defining a community health business model; defining population health and the Triple Aim concept; reaching beyond core mission to help create the model; discussing the shift for care delivery beyond healthcare organizations to other community sectors; examining who should lead in developing the community business model; discussing where the resources for a community business model might come from; identifying that better evidence is needed to inform where to make cost-effective investments; and proposing some next steps. The approach we have outlined is a departure from much current policy and management practice. But new models are needed as a road map to drive action--not just thinking--to address the enormous challenge of improving population health. While we applaud continuing calls to improve health and reduce disparities, progress will require more robust incentives, strategies, and action than have been in practice to date. Our hope is that ideas presented here will help to catalyze a collective, multisectoral response to this critical social and economic challenge. PMID:25671991

  15. Close to community health providers post 2015: Realising their role in responsive health systems and addressing gendered social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Universal health coverage is gaining momentum and is likely to form a core part of the post Millennium Development Goal (MDG) agenda and be linked to social determinants of health, including gender; Close to community health providers are arguably key players in meeting the goal of universal health coverage through extending and delivering health services to poor and marginalised groups; Close to community health providers are embedded in communities and may therefore be strategically placed to understand intra household gender and power dynamics and how social determinants shape health and well-being. However, the opportunities to develop critical awareness and to translate this knowledge into health system and multi-sectoral action are poorly understood; Enabling close to community health providers to realise their potential requires health systems support and human resource management at multiple levels.

  16. The implementation of Good For The Neighborhood: a participatory community health program model in four minority underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene M; Kahn, Linda; Watkins, Robert; Goehle, Melanie; Meyer, Carrie

    2011-08-01

    To describe the participatory approach used to develop "Good For The Neighborhood" (GFTN), a community program to improve the health of four underserved communities. A core program was developed involving a "park and stay" approach to impact four underserved predominately minority communities (two predominately African American, 1 predominately Latino, and the Seneca Nation of Indians). The core program includes health screenings, risk assessments, health education, and exposure to health services. An extensive tracking and evaluation system was developed to determine participation and impact on the community. Multi-methods (key informant interviews, focus groups, surveys) were implemented to gain feedback from community partners and participants as to how to adopt the program to meet the needs of the community. GFTN has been sustained for over 3 years and has reached over 3,500 predominately minority individuals in four communities with 1/3 of participants engaging regularly in the program. The program has evolved in the four communities to meet specific needs. A "park and stay" approach in partnership with the community has led to a strong program that community partners and residents embrace. Community ownership and social networking, including word-of-mouth from residents is essential to establishing a successful program.

  17. Developing a sense of virtual community measure.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Anita L

    2007-12-01

    Sense of virtual community is an important feature of virtual communities. This study develops a sense of virtual community (SOVC) measure, building off the strengths of a widely used measure of sense of community (SOC) for face-to-face communities. Although there is overlap between the senses of community for face-to-face and virtual communities, there are significant differences. The new SOVC measure is compared to the SOC measure on 265 members of seven online groups, explaining at least 7% more of the variance from exchanging support and member identification. This study represents an important step in developing a valid measure of SOCV.

  18. The health information seeking behaviour and needs of community health workers in Chandigarh in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Sonika; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Singh, Amarjeet; Goel, Sonu

    2015-06-01

    This article represents two-firsts for the feature--it is the first to report on a study outside the UK and the first to examine the health information needs of community health workers. Sonika Raj is pursuing PhD at the Centre for Public Health, Panjab University, Chandigarh, in India and she conducted her research in Chandigarh. The article outlines the important role that health workers at community level play in determining health outcomes in the developing world, including Chandigarh. It demonstrates that while those workers recognise their information needs, there are many issues affecting their ability to access health information effectively, not least their limited access to appropriate technology and training. AM.

  19. The health information seeking behaviour and needs of community health workers in Chandigarh in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Sonika; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Singh, Amarjeet; Goel, Sonu

    2015-06-01

    This article represents two-firsts for the feature--it is the first to report on a study outside the UK and the first to examine the health information needs of community health workers. Sonika Raj is pursuing PhD at the Centre for Public Health, Panjab University, Chandigarh, in India and she conducted her research in Chandigarh. The article outlines the important role that health workers at community level play in determining health outcomes in the developing world, including Chandigarh. It demonstrates that while those workers recognise their information needs, there are many issues affecting their ability to access health information effectively, not least their limited access to appropriate technology and training. AM. PMID:25943970

  20. Communication and community development: early child development programs.

    PubMed

    Wood, F; Reinhold, A J

    1993-01-01

    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school.

  1. [Social participation and community orientation in health services].

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Manuel; Ponte-Mittelbrun, Carlos; Sánchez-Bayle, Marciano

    2006-03-01

    The community participation in the health systems is a concept that develops from the health policy proposals that have led the World Health Organization and that they highlight the fundamental role of health promotion and of primary care to answer to the health challenges from the middle of the XXth century. Its development has encountered big obstacles that have become major from the increasing trend of introduction of healthcare marketing. This explains partly its scanty advance in the developed countries, though there exist very interesting experiences that are based especially on the effort of professionals and social organizations. The fundamental dilemma is one in the option among the assumption of the role like consumers or clients that it supports a relation subordinated of the patients with a major dependence of the consumption, or on the contrary to give voice and vote for the citizens incorporating them into the productive process and turning them into producers of health. There are analyzed also the existing practices of community participation in Spain and offers are realized for its impulse and development. PMID:16539982

  2. [Social participation and community orientation in health services].

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Manuel; Ponte-Mittelbrun, Carlos; Sánchez-Bayle, Marciano

    2006-03-01

    The community participation in the health systems is a concept that develops from the health policy proposals that have led the World Health Organization and that they highlight the fundamental role of health promotion and of primary care to answer to the health challenges from the middle of the XXth century. Its development has encountered big obstacles that have become major from the increasing trend of introduction of healthcare marketing. This explains partly its scanty advance in the developed countries, though there exist very interesting experiences that are based especially on the effort of professionals and social organizations. The fundamental dilemma is one in the option among the assumption of the role like consumers or clients that it supports a relation subordinated of the patients with a major dependence of the consumption, or on the contrary to give voice and vote for the citizens incorporating them into the productive process and turning them into producers of health. There are analyzed also the existing practices of community participation in Spain and offers are realized for its impulse and development.

  3. A Transdiagnostic Community-Based Mental Health Treatment for Comorbid Disorders: Development and Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial among Burmese Refugees in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Paul; Lee, Catherine; Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura; Dorsey, Shannon; Robinson, Courtland; Ugueto, Ana M.; Bass, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing studies of mental health interventions in low-resource settings have employed highly structured interventions delivered by non-professionals that typically do not vary by client. Given high comorbidity among mental health problems and implementation challenges with scaling up multiple structured evidence-based treatments (EBTs), a transdiagnostic treatment could provide an additional option for approaching community-based treatment of mental health problems. Our objective was to test such an approach specifically designed for flexible treatments of varying and comorbid disorders among trauma survivors in a low-resource setting. Methods and Findings We conducted a single-blinded, wait-list randomized controlled trial of a newly developed transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA), for low-resource settings, compared with wait-list control (WLC). CETA was delivered by lay workers to Burmese survivors of imprisonment, torture, and related traumas, with flexibility based on client presentation. Eligible participants reported trauma exposure and met severity criteria for depression and/or posttraumatic stress (PTS). Participants were randomly assigned to CETA (n = 182) or WLC (n = 165). Outcomes were assessed by interviewers blinded to participant allocation using locally adapted standard measures of depression and PTS (primary outcomes) and functional impairment, anxiety symptoms, aggression, and alcohol use (secondary outcomes). Primary analysis was intent-to-treat (n = 347), including 73 participants lost to follow-up. CETA participants experienced significantly greater reductions of baseline symptoms across all outcomes with the exception of alcohol use (alcohol use analysis was confined to problem drinkers). The difference in mean change from pre-intervention to post-intervention between intervention and control groups was −0.49 (95% CI: −0.59, −0.40) for depression, −0.43 (95% CI: −0.51, −0

  4. Guidelines for the Development and Utilization of Home Health Aide Services in the Community; A Supplement to A Guide for the Utilization of Personnel Supportive of Public Health Nursing Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Nurses' Association, New York, NY.

    This analysis is intended to assist public health nurses and others to apply the principles and standards of professional nursing conduct and practice to the development and utilization of home health aide services. Part I, "Development of a Home Health Aide Service" covers (1) agency organization and policies, including such topics as legal…

  5. Applying Community Organizing Principles to Assess Health Needs in New Haven, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Alycia; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act added requirements for nonprofit hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments. Guidelines are minimal; however, they require input and representation from the broader community. This call echoes 2 decades of literature on the importance of including community members in all aspects of research design, a tenet of community organizing. We describe a community-engaged research approach to a community health needs assessment in New Haven, Connecticut. We demonstrate that a robust community organizing approach provided unique research benefits: access to residents for data collection, reliable data, leverage for community-driven interventions, and modest improvements in behavioral risk. We make recommendations for future community-engaged efforts and workforce development, which are important for responding to increasing calls for community health needs assessments. PMID:26985599

  6. Applying Community Organizing Principles to Assess Health Needs in New Haven, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Alycia; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act added requirements for nonprofit hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments. Guidelines are minimal; however, they require input and representation from the broader community. This call echoes 2 decades of literature on the importance of including community members in all aspects of research design, a tenet of community organizing. We describe a community-engaged research approach to a community health needs assessment in New Haven, Connecticut. We demonstrate that a robust community organizing approach provided unique research benefits: access to residents for data collection, reliable data, leverage for community-driven interventions, and modest improvements in behavioral risk. We make recommendations for future community-engaged efforts and workforce development, which are important for responding to increasing calls for community health needs assessments.

  7. A grassroots movement in bioethics: Community Health Decisions.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    The author reports on projects funded by the Prudential Foundation for the Community Health Decisions program, which sponsors open community meetings conducted by volunteers trained in bioethics and in group discussion techniques, with the objectives of reaching social consensus on principles that should govern the future of the health care system and of fostering citizen participation in the political arena. The lessons of community organizing that emerge from this movement are analyzed, along with its accomplishments and strengths in creating a neutral and flexible forum in which contrasting views are given a respectful hearing and its weaknesses in lacking a secure institutional base, remaining too dependent on the energy of one or two key leaders, and failing to develop fundraising machinery for long-term viability. A summary of what has been learned, addresses of the projects, and next steps to be taken conclude the report.

  8. Body perceptions and health behaviors in an online bodybuilding community.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron C T; Stewart, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In this article we explore the social constructions, body perceptions, and health experiences of a serious recreational and competitive bodybuilder and powerlifter community. Data were obtained from a discussion forum appearing within an online community dedicated to muscular development. Forum postings for a period of 36 months were transposed to QSR NVivo, in which a narrative-based analytical method employing Gee's coding approach was employed. We used a priori codes based on Bourdieu's multipronged conceptual categories of social field, habitus, and capital accumulation as a theoretical frame. Our results expose an extreme social reality held by a devoted muscle-building community with a fanatical obsession with muscular hypertrophy and any accouterment helpful in its acquisition, from nutrition and supplements to training regimes and anabolic androgenic substances. Few health costs were considered too severe in this muscular meritocracy, where the strong commanded deference and the massive dominated the social field.

  9. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  10. The ADVANCE network: accelerating data value across a national community health center network

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740

  11. VisOHC: Designing Visual Analytics for Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bum Chul; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sukwon; Choo, Jaegul; Huh, Jina; Yi, Ji Soo

    2015-01-01

    Through online health communities (OHCs), patients and caregivers exchange their illness experiences and strategies for overcoming the illness, and provide emotional support. To facilitate healthy and lively conversations in these communities, their members should be continuously monitored and nurtured by OHC administrators. The main challenge of OHC administrators' tasks lies in understanding the diverse dimensions of conversation threads that lead to productive discussions in their communities. In this paper, we present a design study in which three domain expert groups participated, an OHC researcher and two OHC administrators of online health communities, which was conducted to find with a visual analytic solution. Through our design study, we characterized the domain goals of OHC administrators and derived tasks to achieve these goals. As a result of this study, we propose a system called VisOHC, which visualizes individual OHC conversation threads as collapsed boxes–a visual metaphor of conversation threads. In addition, we augmented the posters' reply authorship network with marks and/or beams to show conversation dynamics within threads. We also developed unique measures tailored to the characteristics of OHCs, which can be encoded for thread visualizations at the users' requests. Our observation of the two administrators while using VisOHC showed that it supports their tasks and reveals interesting insights into online health communities. Finally, we share our methodological lessons on probing visual designs together with domain experts by allowing them to freely encode measurements into visual variables. PMID:26529688

  12. VisOHC: Designing Visual Analytics for Online Health Communities.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Chul; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sukwon; Choo, Jaegul; Huh, Jina; Yi, Ji Soo

    2016-01-01

    Through online health communities (OHCs), patients and caregivers exchange their illness experiences and strategies for overcoming the illness, and provide emotional support. To facilitate healthy and lively conversations in these communities, their members should be continuously monitored and nurtured by OHC administrators. The main challenge of OHC administrators' tasks lies in understanding the diverse dimensions of conversation threads that lead to productive discussions in their communities. In this paper, we present a design study in which three domain expert groups participated, an OHC researcher and two OHC administrators of online health communities, which was conducted to find with a visual analytic solution. Through our design study, we characterized the domain goals of OHC administrators and derived tasks to achieve these goals. As a result of this study, we propose a system called VisOHC, which visualizes individual OHC conversation threads as collapsed boxes-a visual metaphor of conversation threads. In addition, we augmented the posters' reply authorship network with marks and/or beams to show conversation dynamics within threads. We also developed unique measures tailored to the characteristics of OHCs, which can be encoded for thread visualizations at the users' requests. Our observation of the two administrators while using VisOHC showed that it supports their tasks and reveals interesting insights into online health communities. Finally, we share our methodological lessons on probing visual designs together with domain experts by allowing them to freely encode measurements into visual variables.

  13. Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, A; Van Audenhove, C

    2005-08-01

    Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care is the focus of this article. The dilemmas are derived from a discussion of the results of a qualitative research project that took place in five countries of the European Union. The different stakeholders are confronted with the following dilemmas: community care versus hospital care (clients); a life with care versus a life without care (informal carers); stimulation of the client toward greater responsibility versus protection against such responsibility (professionals); budgetary control versus financial incentives (policy makers), and respect for the client versus particular private needs (neighbourhood residents). These dilemmas are interpreted against the background of a value based ethical model. This model offers an integral approach to the dilemmas and can be used to determine policy. The dilemmas are discussed here as the result of conflicting values-namely autonomy and privacy, support and safety, justice and participation, and trust and solidarity.

  14. Community Health Workers and Mobile Technology: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Rebecca; Catalani, Caricia; Wimbush, Julian; Israelski, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In low-resource settings, community health workers are frontline providers who shoulder the health service delivery burden. Increasingly, mobile technologies are developed, tested, and deployed with community health workers to facilitate tasks and improve outcomes. We reviewed the evidence for the use of mobile technology by community health workers to identify opportunities and challenges for strengthening health systems in resource-constrained settings. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from health, medical, social science, and engineering databases, using PRISMA guidelines. We identified a total of 25 unique full-text research articles on community health workers and their use of mobile technology for the delivery of health services. Results Community health workers have used mobile tools to advance a broad range of health aims throughout the globe, particularly maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, and sexual and reproductive health. Most commonly, community health workers use mobile technology to collect field-based health data, receive alerts and reminders, facilitate health education sessions, and conduct person-to-person communication. Programmatic efforts to strengthen health service delivery focus on improving adherence to standards and guidelines, community education and training, and programmatic leadership and management practices. Those studies that evaluated program outcomes provided some evidence that mobile tools help community health workers to improve the quality of care provided, efficiency of services, and capacity for program monitoring. Discussion Evidence suggests mobile technology presents promising opportunities to improve the range and quality of services provided by community health workers. Small-scale efforts, pilot projects, and preliminary descriptive studies are increasing, and there is a trend toward using feasible and acceptable interventions that lead to positive program outcomes

  15. Partnering to enhance mental health care capacity in communities

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrea L.; Gardner, David M.; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Naylor, Ted; Kutcher, Stan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Community pharmacists care for and support people with lived experience of mental illness in their communities. We developed a program called More Than Meds to facilitate enhancing capacity of community pharmacists’ roles in mental health care. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study and used a directed content analysis with application of the Theoretical Domains Framework as part of our underlying theory of behaviour change and our analytic framework. Results: Ten interviews (n = 6 pharmacists, n = 4 community members) were conducted with participants from the More Than Meds program. Three key themes were identified from the experiences of More Than Meds participants: networking and bridging, stigma, and expectations and permissions. The most frequently coded domains in the data from the Theoretical Domains Framework were social/professional role, skills, beliefs about capabilities, knowledge and environmental context and resources. Conclusions: The More than Meds Program enabled community pharmacists to increase their capabilities, opportunities and motivation in providing mental health care and support. Involving community pharmacists together with people with lived experience of mental illness was identified as an innovative component of the program. PMID:26600823

  16. Community Commons Program Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Kieta Osteen

    Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

  17. Community Health Workers as Agents of Health Promotion: Analyzing Thailand's Village Health Volunteer Program.

    PubMed

    Kowitt, S D; Emmerling, D; Fisher, E B; Tanasugarn, C

    2015-08-01

    The village health volunteers (VHVs) have been a regular part of Thailand's health system since the 1960s. Despite widespread recognition, little research has been conducted to describe VHV activities, the settings in which VHVs provide help, how the program is administered, and how changing politics and health problems in Thailand have influenced the program. In order to understand the roles and practices of the VHVs, we conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups with VHVs, community leaders and members, and public health officials in three semi-urban communities in central Thailand. Using the Social Ecological Framework, we mapped factors that influenced how the VHVs provided support, including governmental oversight, collaboration with public health officials, and community trust. These influences are discussed as "points of consideration," which help to identify the strengths and tensions within the VHV program and best practices in supporting and assessing community health worker efforts.

  18. Strategies To Empower Communities To Reduce Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Beti; Molina, Yamile; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warnecke, Richard; Prelip, Michael L

    2016-08-01

    Community-based participatory research is a promising approach to reducing health disparities. It empowers individuals and communities to become the major players in solving their own health problems. We discuss the use of community-based participatory research and other strategies to enhance empowerment. We also discuss projects from the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities that have empowered communities to achieve positive health outcomes aimed at reducing disparities. We offer recommendations to policy makers for involving residents in efforts to achieve health equity. PMID:27503967

  19. Partnerships for health in the African American community: moving toward community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Parrill, Rachel; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2011-01-01

    Health disparities related to ethnicity are attributed to the complex interaction of social and physical environments, which influence minority health. The prevalence of health problems such as cardiovascular disease, strokes, diabetes, and maternal and child health outcomes exist among African Americans contributing to health disparities. Extensive support systems within the African American community, however, serve to resist disparities in healthcare and improve the health and well-being of community members. This article is an analytical review of current research addressing key factors of the home, the church, the community, and the healthcare system for creating partnerships to enhance community- based research in the African American community. The results of this literature review provide culturally appropriate approaches to eliminating health disparities by building upon the strengths and resources within the African American community. Best practices involve recognizing the pastor as the entry into the community, utilizing a Community-Based Participatory Research process, and establishing trust through open communication and relationship building.

  20. Psychology in the community: a community psychologist looks at 30 years in community mental health.

    PubMed

    Morgan, John R

    2008-01-01

    I review my 30 years in the community mental health field, emphasizing the personal and historical context that shaped this career. I especially highlight the origins of the values that guided significant career decisions, including family, neighborhood, religious and educational influences. The core guiding value was the belief that public service is both a privilege and an obligation, and that righting social injustice through such service is a noble calling. I trace the evolution of my thoughts and actions reflecting this value, from an early desire to "help children," through preparation to become a child psychologist, and ultimately to practice in a public community mental health setting and a career dedicated first to primary prevention and then to broader safety net services for those in need. I highlight a corresponding intellectual evolution as well, a progressive change in identity from "clinical psychologist in the community" to community psychologist.

  1. Psychology in the community: a community psychologist looks at 30 years in community mental health.

    PubMed

    Morgan, John R

    2008-01-01

    I review my 30 years in the community mental health field, emphasizing the personal and historical context that shaped this career. I especially highlight the origins of the values that guided significant career decisions, including family, neighborhood, religious and educational influences. The core guiding value was the belief that public service is both a privilege and an obligation, and that righting social injustice through such service is a noble calling. I trace the evolution of my thoughts and actions reflecting this value, from an early desire to "help children," through preparation to become a child psychologist, and ultimately to practice in a public community mental health setting and a career dedicated first to primary prevention and then to broader safety net services for those in need. I highlight a corresponding intellectual evolution as well, a progressive change in identity from "clinical psychologist in the community" to community psychologist. PMID:18227052

  2. The Environmental Crisis, Greens and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannan, Crescy

    2000-01-01

    Thought and practice from the green movement should be used to widen understanding of the environment and development of community projects for a sustainable economy and convivial communities. In turn, community development's expertise in democratic processes could inform environmental action. (SK)

  3. Community Development in the School Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Patricia; Brekelmans, Mieke; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore whether and to what degree community development of teacher teams takes place and how community development comes about, that is, what community-building efforts teacher teams undertake. Design/methodology/approach: Using a multi method approach, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from…

  4. Exploring Social Quality and Community Health Outcomes: An Ecological Model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life is widely used as a measure of individual well-being in developed countries. Social quality (SQ), however, describes how favorable the socioenvironmental components are that impact the life chance of an individual. Despite the associations between SQ, including institutional capacity and citizen capacity, and other community indicators, the impact of SQ on community health status has not been fully examined. This study investigated the interrelationships among institutional capacity, citizen capacity, and their associations with community-level health indicators such as mortality and suicide among 230 local governments in South Korea. Under the principles of conceptual suitability, clarity, reliability, consistency, changeability, and comparability, a total of 81 SQ indicators were collected, and 19 indicators of the 81 indicators were selected. The 19 indicators were transformed by the imputation of missing values, standardization, and geographic information system transformation. It was found that the health outcome of local government was superior as social welfare, political participation, and education were higher. According to the result of the regression analysis based on the regional type, social welfare had the most influence on the health level of local government in both metropolises and small-/medium-sized cities. In addition, education and political participation had a positive effect on the health indicator of local metropolis government. However, SQ indicators did not have any meaningful influence at the county level. Therefore, small- and medium-sized cities need to promote the collective health of the local government through improving social welfare, and metropolises need to consider the complex relationship among other indicators while increasing the level of social welfare and education. Meanwhile, counties need to develop health indicators that reflect aged population characteristics and social environment of rural areas

  5. Evaluation of Water Sanitation Health Education Programme: Working with the Knowledge of the Basic Sanitation Services in a Developing Community in Rural Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, VE; Calderón-Alicea, W; Castillo, R; Cintrón-García, JJ; Cintrón-García, JJ; Cruz, L Colón; Hernández-Muñoz, A; Irizarry-Pérez, I; Lockward, I; Neste-Laboy, C; Ortíz-León, M; Peréz-Homar, A; Pérez, J; Ramírez-López, W; Rivera, L; Scholz, D; Soto-Ortíz, M; Torres-García, A

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to measure the knowledge regarding the new sanitation water system being implemented in Dessources, a rural community in the municipality of Croix-des-Bouquets in Haiti after a two-year intervention programme. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiologic design was used to measure the knowledge of the people in the community using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data collection followed a face-to-face interview process in all houses of the community. The instrument content validity was performed by a panel of experts followed by Cronbach's alpha test to establish the reliability of knowledge scale. In addition, association measures were done using Stata 11.0 statistical package. Results: Content validity tests were performed with minimum changes and an alpha of 0.74 was obtained for the scale. Response rate was 65.57% (41/60 houses); non-participants were only those who did not meet the inclusion criteria. Most of the participants (77.5%) were 21–49 years old and 85% had been living in the community for more than 20 years. Bivariate analysis showed that the people of Dessources had adequate knowledge. Significant differences, however, were found among the zones that are not in use of the new sanitary systems and among families with more than seven members per house. Conclusions: Differences found can be explained based on the Rogers theoretical diffusion of innovation model. The evaluation shows that people of Dessources in Haiti have a high knowledge regarding the new water sanitation system and provides evidence of an adequate health education programme intervention. PMID:26237369

  6. Unhealthy cities: corporate medicine, community economic underdevelopment, and public health.

    PubMed

    Whiteis, D G

    1997-01-01

    The growing corporate dominance in U.S. medical care has been a major factor in the increasingly inequitable distribution of health care resources and the declining public health conditions in poor and minority urban communities. Alongside this trend has been a parallel phenomenon of economic disinvestment and political neglect in these same at-risk neighborhoods. This article analyzes these trends as related components of austerity, retrenchment, and capital consolidation policies that have characterized the U.S. political economy for several decades. Emphasized are the relationships among corporatization, capital consolidation, deindustrialization of the workforce, and medical indigence; the resulting economic stress placed upon community hospitals and other caregivers in poor and minority communities; and the marked discrepancy between conditions of development and underdevelopment in American cities. It is argued that the effects of these policies are pathogenic in nature: they place populations at risk for disease and social dysfunction, they reduce access to necessary preventive and curative services, and they weaken coping mechanisms. Community economic development, empowerment, and a direct challenge to the growing concentration of wealth and power in the corporate class are proposed as essential elements of public health policy.

  7. Primary health care provision in terms of community need in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Spencer, I W

    1983-08-01

    In South Africa, early lessons in primary health care were lost to sight and have been rediscovered only recently. Priorities need to be reassessed in order to better allocate resources to community needs. Developing and developed communities require different primary care services. Simple and effective epidemiological methods should be used to gather information required for planning and evaluation of services. In developing communities, where there is a shortage of doctors, trained nurses operate local clinics with the help of community workers. Community participation and the cooperation of the traditional healers are necessary. Appropriate training of personnel for an effective role in public health care is essential. PMID:6885359

  8. A unique strategy for pediatric community health nursing for ADN students.

    PubMed

    Janvier, K A

    1999-01-01

    Students were overwhelmingly positive when given the opportunity to evaluate the pilot project and the model of pediatric community health nursing. According to the students, the strong points of the model were the orientation before the community experience, the presence of faculty of the community, the ability to contact faculty when needed, and the postclinical conference. The students' comments confirmed the faculty's belief that a clinical experience in community health nursing must place more emphasis on the specialty of community health nursing to be meaningful for students. To do the of job of educating tomorrow's nurses, ADN faculty should develop new strategies for teaching the pediatric clinical component of community health nursing. Clearly, hospitals are no longer the exclusive sites where students learn about patient and family needs and nursing care delivery. Community-based and community-focused experiences will continue to be required so that nursing students are prepared to practice in a dynamic and changing healthcare environment.

  9. Community Development in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Raises issues related to incorporation of a global dimension in community development in the following areas: definition of community, globalization of economic power, hegemony of free markets, intercommunal conflicts, realignment of political power, and rapid global communication. (SK)

  10. Policy paradox and political neglect in community health services.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Bob

    2014-09-01

    Community health services (CHSs) have never had a settled organisational existence but the turmoil has intensified since the publication of Transforming Community Services in 2009. CHSs are now beset by three dilemmas: ongoing organisational fragmentation; the extension of competition law and the spread of privatisation; inadequate workforce development and lack of clarity on the nature of CHS activity. This has left the services in a position of policy and political vulnerability. The solution may be for the service to be part of horizontal integration models such as the accountable care organisation, with a focus on locality and multi-professional teams wrapped around patient pathways.

  11. Creating community-academic partnerships for cancer disparities research and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Meade, Cathy D; Menard, Janelle M; Luque, John S; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah; Gwede, Clement K

    2011-05-01

    To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community-academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers, local media, and adult literacy and education organizations. TBCCN activities and research efforts are geared toward addressing critical information and access issues related to cancer control and prevention in diverse communities in the Tampa Bay area. Such efforts include cross-cultural health promotion, screening, and awareness activities in addition to applied research projects that are rooted in communities and guided by CBPR methods. This article describes these activities as examples of partnership building to positively affect cancer disparities, promote community health, and set the stage for community-based research partnerships. PMID:19822724

  12. Building Capacity in a Rural North Carolina Community to Address Prostate Health Using a Lay Health Advisor Model.

    PubMed

    Vines, Anissa I; Hunter, Jaimie C; White, Brandolyn S; Richmond, Alan N

    2016-05-01

    Background Prostate cancer is a critical concern for African Americans in North Carolina (NC), and innovative strategies are needed to help rural African American men maximize their prostate health. Engaging the community in research affords opportunities to build capacity for teaching and raising awareness. Approach and Strategies A community steering committee of academicians, community partners, religious leaders, and other stakeholders modified a curriculum on prostate health and screening to include interactive knowledge- and skill-building activities. This curriculum was then used to train 15 African American lay health advisors, dubbed Prostate Cancer Ambassadors, in a rural NC community. Over the 2-day training, Ambassadors achieved statistically significant improvements in knowledge of prostate health and maintained confidence in teaching. The Ambassadors, in turn, used their personal networks to share their knowledge with over 1,000 individuals in their community. Finally, the Ambassadors became researchers, implementing a prostate health survey in local churches. Discussion and Conclusions It is feasible to use community engagement models for raising awareness of prostate health in NC African American communities. Mobilizing community coalitions to develop curricula ensures that the curricula meet the communities' needs, and training lay health advisors to deliver curricula helps secure community buy-in for the information.

  13. Ethical issues in community health care.

    PubMed

    Sivayogan, S

    1992-06-01

    Health care professionals are expected to base their practice on a set of ethical principles, including truthfulness, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and confidentiality. Dilemmas can arise, however, when a medical professional is called upon to act in opposition to personal values or in cases where the values of patient, health care worker, and sponsoring institution conflict. The author outlines several of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen in community medicine in Sri Lanka. Since preventive medicine is based on the assumption that protection of public health is primary, individual rights and freedom of choice may be overruled, as, for example, in the case of mandatory testing and isolation for communicable diseases. Numerous ethical dilemmas arise in family planning, including whether physicians are mandated to refuse women a permanent method of fertility control when the required spousal consent has not been obtained. In these cases, the physician must weigh the administrative requirement for spousal consent against the principle of physician-patient confidentiality. Physicians are also placed in a difficult situation when patients request Depo-Provera--a contraceptive method that has been banned in the US due to its side effects but remains available in Sri Lanka--or postcoital contraception given the illegality of abortion in the country. Throughout the Third World, physicians constantly encounter challenges to the ethical principle of just, equitable distribution of health care resources.

  14. Learning and change in a community mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Michael A; Miner, Craig S

    2013-10-01

    This article offers methodological reflections and lessons learned from a three-year university-community partnership that used participatory action research methods to develop and evaluate a model for learning and change. Communities of practice were used to facilitate the translation of recovery-oriented and evidence-based programs into everyday practice at a community mental health agency. Four lessons were drawn from this project. First, the processes of learning and organizational change are complex, slow, and multifaceted. Second, development of leaders and champions is vital to sustained implementation in an era of restricted resources. Third, it is important to have the agency's values, mission, policies, and procedures align with the principles and practices of recovery and integrated treatment. And fourth, effective learning of evidence-based practices is influenced by organizational culture and climate. These four lessons are expanded upon and situated within the broader literature and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24066638

  15. Community-based health insurance and social capital: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) is an emerging concept for providing financial protection against the cost of illness and improving access to quality health services for low-income rural households who are excluded from formal insurance. CBHI is currently being provided in some rural areas in developing countries and there is ongoing research about its impact on the well-being of the poor in these areas. However, the success of CBHI revolves around the existence of social capital in the community. This has led researchers to explore the impact of CBHI on the well-being of the poor in rural areas, especially as it relates to social capital. The overall objective of this paper is to review recent developments that address the link between CBHI and social capital. Policy implications are also discussed. JEL Classification C10, I15 PMID:22828204

  16. Using an academic-community partnership model and blended learning to advance community health nursing pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Ezeonwu, Mabel; Berkowitz, Bobbie; Vlasses, Frances R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a model of teaching community health nursing that evolved from a long-term partnership with a community with limited existing health programs. The partnership supported RN-BSN students' integration in the community and resulted in reciprocal gains for faculty, students and community members. Community clients accessed public health services as a result of the partnership. A blended learning approach that combines face-to-face interactions, service learning and online activities was utilized to enhance students' learning. Following classroom sessions, students actively participated in community-based educational process through comprehensive health needs assessments, planning and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion activities for community clients. Such active involvement in an underserved community deepened students' awareness of the fundamentals of community health practice. Students were challenged to view public health from a broader perspective while analyzing the impacts of social determinants of health on underserved populations. Through asynchronous online interactions, students synthesized classroom and community activities through critical thinking. This paper describes a model for teaching community health nursing that informs students' learning through blended learning, and meets the demands for community health nursing services delivery.

  17. Community health workers as drivers of a successful community-based disease management initiative.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Patricia J; Matiz, Luz Adriana; Findley, Sally; Lizardo, Maria; Evans, David; McCord, Mary

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, local leaders in New York City developed the Washington Heights/Inwood Network for Asthma Program to address the burden of asthma in their community. Bilingual community health workers based in community organizations and the local hospital provided culturally appropriate education and support to families who needed help managing asthma. Families participating in the yearlong care coordination program received comprehensive asthma education, home environmental assessments, trigger reduction strategies, and clinical and social referrals. Since 2006, 472 families have enrolled in the yearlong program. After 12 months, hospitalizations and emergency department visits decreased by more than 50%, and caregiver confidence in controlling the child's asthma increased to nearly 100%. Key to the program's success was the commitment and involvement of community partners from program inception to date.

  18. Community College Finance Resource Development. UCLA Community College Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Rozana

    2006-01-01

    The references in this bibliography provide an overview of recent scholarship on community college finance and resource development. In addition to documents that present a national portrait and comparative analysis of community college funding models and resource management practices, this bibliography also includes recent publications that…

  19. Community Re-Development and Community Re-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the Moss Side District Centre (MSCD), a community development project in the inner city of Manchester, England, the problems and struggles associated with it, the social consequences of the MSDC, options for social change, and the need for community action. (MF)

  20. Schools and Black Community Development: A Reassessment of Community Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Barbara R.

    1977-01-01

    Reassesses the role of the school in the black community, concluding that the devaluation of the power of the school to politically, economically and culturally develop the community has hidden "the profound and pervasive influence of the school in shaping the lives of black Americans." (Author/JM)

  1. Learning Communities and Community Development: Describing the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B.; Brooks, Rusty

    2000-01-01

    Describes features of learning communities: they transform themselves, share wisdom and recognition, bring others in, and share results. Provides the case example of the Upper Savannah River Economic Coalition. Discusses actions of learning communities, barriers to their development, and future potential. (SK)

  2. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  3. Management behaviour of one community health nurse supervisor.

    PubMed

    Field, P A; Larsen, J

    1989-03-01

    Mintzberg's theoretical framework of management, which examines the roles and functions of a manager in relation to effective communication, is used to analyse observational data of managerial conflict within a community health setting. In this setting the manager failed to establish sound interpersonal relations with her peers or with the clinic nurses. This led to a poor information base from which she could make decisions. The result was that the group became stressed and developed signs of disintegration.

  4. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  5. An Audit of Adults with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities within a West Midlands Community Health Trust--Implications for Service Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittins, Deborah; Rose, Nikki

    2008-01-01

    An audit was carried out to gain an overview of the profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) population in a local health trust to inform current and future service provision. An overview of the issues faced in developing clear defining criteria is presented. Published definitions of PMLD were used to identify clients from data held on…

  6. Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, Environmental and Public Health, Grades 7, 8, and 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Development of proper attitudes, personal commitment, and direct involvement regarding the health of the community are the goals of this prototype curriculum for grades 7-9. Since man continues to change his natural environment, increasing awareness of the possible consequences of these changes to human life is stressed. Specific curriculum…

  7. Community organizing practices in a globalizing era: building power for health equity at the community level.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paul W; Tesdahl, Eric A; Ayers, Jeanne F

    2014-01-01

    In the postindustrial era, global economic processes have constrained the ability of local agencies, service providers, and civic groups to respond to systemic challenges in public health. Community health psychology can benefit by focusing on interventions through mediating structures that develop innovative methods of leveraging power in the context of globalizing economic forces. Promising methods include careful analysis of power within targeted policy domains and developing strategic alliances with others, so as to exercise social power to affect policy change. The case of ISAIAH, an organizing group based in Minnesota, illustrates innovative avenues for intervention in the context of globalization. PMID:24058111

  8. National Study on Community College Health. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    This is a report on a national survey of community colleges conducted by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) in 2000. The survey was designed to identify various community health programs, centers, classes, and services related to HIV/AIDS that community colleges administered, partnered, or sponsored. The study surveyed 1,100…

  9. "Race" and Community Care. "Race," Health and Social Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Waqar I. U., Ed.; Atkin, Karl, Ed.

    This collection offers a wide-ranging introduction to contemporary issues surrounding the health care needs of members of minority ethnic communities within the framework of community care in Britain. The following chapters consider state welfare, minority communities, family structures, and social change: (1) "'Race' and Community Care: An…

  10. Involving Research Stakeholders in Developing Policy on Sharing Public Health Research Data in Kenya: Views on Fair Process for Informed Consent, Access Oversight, and Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-07-01

    Increased global sharing of public health research data has potential to advance scientific progress but may present challenges to the interests of research stakeholders, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. Policies for data sharing should be responsive to public views, but there is little evidence of the systematic study of these from low-income countries. This qualitative study explored views on fair data-sharing processes among 60 stakeholders in Kenya with varying research experience, using a deliberative approach. Stakeholders' attitudes were informed by perceptions of benefit and concerns for research data sharing, including risks of stigmatization, loss of privacy, and undermining scientific careers and validity, reported in detail elsewhere. In this article, we discuss institutional trust-building processes seen as central to perceptions of fairness in sharing research data in this setting, including forms of community involvement, individual prior awareness and agreement to data sharing, independence and accountability of governance mechanisms, and operating under a national framework.

  11. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-01-01

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports. PMID:25153472

  12. Deaf Community Development: Legislative Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Glenn T., Ed.

    Presented are eight papers given at a conference in 1973 to increase effective participation of the deaf community in the legislative process. Elmer Smith traces factionalism in governmental history to encourage the deaf in actively asserting their rights and responsibilities. Boyce Williams commends the deaf community for recent advocacy action…

  13. Health journalists' perceptions of their communities and implications for the delivery of health information in the news.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Tanner, Andrea; Rose, India D

    2014-04-01

    Journalists have a unique opportunity to educate the community about public health and health care. In order for health communication messages to be effective, characteristics of the intended audience must be considered. Limited attention has been given to health journalists' perceptions of their target communities and little is known about how journalists' perceptions may impact the delivery of health information in the news. Fifteen in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with health journalists from varying geographic regions and media market sizes. Interview questions examined health journalists' perceptions of their target communities, the content and delivery of their health-related stories, and the current state of health journalism. Interviews were audio-recorded for transcription and thematic analysis. Health journalists perceived their audiences to be primarily mothers and adults with limited education. Participants reported they often used personal stories and strong headlines to engage their communities. They also stated that their news stories were quite technical and may not have been written at an appropriate reading level for their audience. When asked about the current state of health journalism, participants reported that there were areas for improvement. Journalists stated that increased collaborations with public health practitioners would improve their own understanding of health and medical information and allow them to develop health news content that was more appropriate for their target communities.

  14. Achieving a shared vision for girls' health in a low-income community.

    PubMed

    Miller, M Elizabeth; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    In response to a lack of information related to girls' health in a low-income community, an initiative was developed to create a community-wide vision for girls' health. A forum was conducted following a photovoice project to generate sustainable action steps. Forty-four participants attended the forum. Key action steps included decreasing barriers to participation in girls' programs, offering leadership roles and interpersonal communication skills for girls in the community, and engaging girls in community organizations. Integral to the forum's success were the initial photos, which provided a bridge from understanding the issues of girls' health to the development of the action steps.

  15. Identifying Value Indicators and Social Capital in Community Health Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Alice J.; Becker, Julie; Brawer, Rickie

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, public health practice is turning to the application of community collaborative models to improve population health status. Despite the growth of these activities, however, evaluations of the national demonstrations have indicated that community health partnerships fail to achieve measurable results and struggle to maintain integrity…

  16. Appalachian Women's Perceptions of Their Community's Health Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Decades of behavioral research suggest that awareness of health threats is a necessary precursor to engage in health promotion and disease prevention, findings that can be extended to the community level. Purpose: We sought to better understand local perspectives on the main health concerns of rural Appalachian communities in order to…

  17. Professional Learning Communities: Assessment--Development--Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Kristine Kiefer; Huffman, Jane Bumpers

    This presentation addresses three topics: (1) the assessment of professional learning communities in schools; (2) the design and development of professional learning communities in schools; and (3) the effects of professional learning communities in schools. The purpose of this brief document is to share descriptions, processes, and materials…

  18. Deterrents to Information Service for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhegbu, A. N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impediments to rural information services for community development in Nigeria, including skepticism towards information, poor roads, nonchalance of government officials, and rivalries. Highlights the nature and characteristics of a community and community information needs and services; identifies four components of community…

  19. Connecting Rural School Improvement and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benefits2, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This is the first of a series of issue papers that discuss ways in which rural communities and schools can work together to guarantee their students the best education possible. By working together, rural schools and communities can not only improve education, but revitalize the entire community. The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory is…

  20. The Jeffrey Town Model for Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ivy Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The Jeffrey Town model for community development has been effectively applied to the rural community of Jeffrey Town in Jamaica with Information and Computer Technology (ICT) as a key element. The farmer's association is the vehicle that has driven the change. Included is a brief outline of the community plus highlights of the tangible and…

  1. Consortia and Institutional Partnerships for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mitchell R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how higher education consortia can be instrumental in developing community leaders to address social, economic, and environmental issues that face most communities and regions. Offers the example of the Leadership Jackson program involving Western Carolina University and Southwestern Community College. (EV)

  2. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  3. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  4. Creating an Early Childhood Mental Health System: A Success Story Focused on Community and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a rural community in Colorado developed the infrastructure to provide a family-centered, culturally competent array of early childhood mental health services that are integrated into existing community-based programs. The Early Childhood Health/Education Outreach (ECHO) and Family Center Early Childhood Council's…

  5. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is

  6. The impact of participation in a study abroad programme on students' conceptual understanding of community health nursing in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Inglis, A; Rolls, C; Kristy, S

    1998-10-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to ascertain the changes in conceptual understanding that resulted from participation in a study abroad programme in Chiang Mai in Thailand of a small group of Australian final year nursing students. Students' conceptual understandings were measured by means of open-ended interviews based on a case study scenario describing health conditions in a hypothetical Thai village. Students were asked to imagine that they had been appointed to work as a community health nurse in the village and describe how they would undertake the task. Shifts in understanding were detected by interviewing the participants before, during and after their participation in the programme and comparing their responses. The results of this limited study indicated that the impact of participation in the programme was less than expected. Furthermore, the factors of which students tended to show greatest awareness were those about which they had been briefed prior to departure. Nevertheless participants reported they had learnt much from their experiences. It is suggested that the discrepancy between the evidence provided by interview data and students' self-reports may be explained by participation having resulted primarily in the acquisition of the tacit rather than conceptual knowledge.

  7. Lessons Learned From a Community–Academic Initiative: The Development of a Core Competency–Based Training for Community–Academic Initiative Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Sergio; Kapadia, Smiti; Islam, Nadia; Cusack, Arthur; Kwong, Sylvia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Despite the importance of community health workers (CHWs) in strategies to reduce health disparities and the call to enhance their roles in research, little information exists on how to prepare CHWs involved in community–academic initiatives (CAIs). Therefore, the New York University Prevention Research Center piloted a CAI–CHW training program. Methods. We applied a core competency framework to an existing CHW curriculum and bolstered the curriculum to include research-specific sessions. We employed diverse training methods, guided by adult learning principles and popular education philosophy. Evaluation instruments assessed changes related to confidence, intention to use learned skills, usefulness of sessions, and satisfaction with the training. Results. Results demonstrated that a core competency–based training can successfully affect CHWs’ perceived confidence and intentions to apply learned content, and can provide a larger social justice context of their role and work. Conclusions. This program demonstrates that a core competency–based framework coupled with CAI-research–specific skill sessions (1) provides skills that CAI–CHWs intend to use, (2) builds confidence, and (3) provides participants with a more contextualized view of client needs and CHW roles. PMID:22594730

  8. The Development of the Bronx Community Research Review Board:

    PubMed Central

    Martin del Campo, Francisco; Casado, Joann; Spencer, Paulette; Strelnick, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bronx Community Research Review Board (BxCRRB) is a community–academic partnership (CAP) between the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and The Bronx Health Link (BHL). Rather than asking clinical investigators to create their own individual process de novo, we have developed an innovative, structural approach to achieve community consultation in research planning, implementation, and dissemination that involves and educates the public about research. Objectives: To collaboratively develop (1) an independent research review board of volunteer community residents and repre sentatives that tests a model of community consultation, dialogue, and “community-informed consent” by reviewing community-based research proposals; and (2) to increased understanding of and participation in clinical research in the Bronx. Methods: (1) Recruiting members from the Health and Human Services committees of community boards, focus groups, and community health events; (2) interviewing and selecting members based on community involvement, experiences, availability, and demographics of the Bronx; (3) training members in bioethics and research methods; and (4) facilitating meetings and discussions between clinical researchers and the BxCRRB for research review and consultation. Results: There is substantial interest among Bronx residents in participating in the BxCRRB. The BxCRRB provided feedback to researchers to ensure the protection of participants’ rights, to improve research design by promoting increased accountability to the community, and expanded its scope to include earlier stages of the research process. Conclusion: The BxCRRB is a viable model for community consultation in research, but more time for implementation and evolution is needed to improve its review practices and ensure community input at all stages of the research process. PMID:24056516

  9. Teaching community pediatrics to pediatric residents: strategic approaches and successful models for education in community health and child advocacy.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Laura Jean; Stelzner, Sarah M; Zenni, Elisa Alter; Hargunani, Dana; O'Keefe, Julie; Miller, Carleen; Alverson, Brian; Swigonski, Nancy

    2005-04-01

    To improve child health at a community level, pediatricians require knowledge and skills that have not been traditionally included in residency training. Recent policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics and requirements from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Residency Review committees emphasizing the importance of community pediatrics training have provided additional incentive for pediatric residency programs to actively explore methods of teaching the principles and promoting the practice of community pediatrics to resident trainees. With a growing number of diverse educational models in various stages of practice or development, common themes and approaches to promote successful teaching of community health and child advocacy can be described. This article defines strategies for 2 critical elements of community pediatrics training, engaging residents and building strong community partnerships, then highlights a number of educational models that illustrate key curricular components and methods. Published results from evaluations of some programs suggest that community pediatrics training of this caliber will cultivate a cadre of pediatricians (academic and community based, generalists and subspecialists, researchers and practitioners) who understand child health in the context of community and have the leadership and collaborative skills to improve the health of children in their communities.

  10. Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140

  11. Making health data maps: a case study of a community/university research collaboration.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, David L; Mason, Robin; Robertson, Ann; Frank, John; Glazier, Richard; Purdon, Lorraine; Amrhein, Carl G; Chaudhuri, Nita; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Gozdyra, Peter; Hulchanski, David; Moldofsky, Byron; Thompson, Maureen; Wright, Robert

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the main findings from a collaborative community/university research project in Canada. The goal of the project was to improve access to community health information, and in so doing, enhance our knowledge of the development of community health information resources and community/university collaboration. The project built on a rich history of community/university collaboration in Southeast Toronto (SETO), and employed an interdisciplinary applied research and action design. Specific project objectives were to: (1) develop via active community/university collaboration a geographic information system (GIS) for ready access to routinely collected health data, and to study logistical, conceptual and technical problems encountered during system development; and (2) to document and analyze issues that can emerge in the process of community/university research collaboration. System development involved iteration through community user assessment of need, development or refinement of the GIS, and assessment of the GIS by community users. Collaborative process assessment entailed analysis of archival material, interviews with investigators and participant observation. Over the course of the project, a system was successfully developed, and favorably assessed by users. System development problems fell into four main areas: maintaining user involvement in system development, understanding and integrating data, bringing disparate data sources together, and making use of assembled data. Major themes emerging from the community/university collaborative research process included separate community and university cultures, time as an important issue for all involved, and the impact of uncertainty and ambiguity on the collaborative process.

  12. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Benjamin J.; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G.; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Student Community Engaged Service Award. PMID:26839422

  13. VA Community Mental Health Service Providers' Utilization of and Attitudes toward Telemental Health Care: The Gatekeeper's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, John Paul; Farmer, Mary Sue; Head, Katharine J.; Fortney, John; Teal, Cayla R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Mental health (MH) providers in community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) are important stakeholders in the development of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) telemental health (TMH) system, but their perceptions of these technologies have not been systematically examined. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  14. Spatial Analysis in Support of Community Health Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; South, Andrew P.; Jones, David E.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Huo, Shuyan; Liu, Lin; Greenberg, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Using vital records and census data representing 165,136 singleton births from 2003–2006, geospatial filtering and density estimates enabled the calculation of preterm birth rates at each geographical point within three urban Ohio counties. Adjusted attributable risk calculations were used to identify risk factors associated with regions of high and low rates of preterm birth. Among the three counties, affected populations varied in size as well as in demographic composition. Variation in the risk factors from one region to another suggests that a single one size fits all intervention strategy would be unlikely to efficiently or effectively impact the complex preterm birth problem. Although more useful in areas with a heterogeneous distribution of preterm birth, application of the presented approach supports the development of efficient community-level health intervention strategies by identifying communities with the highest potential impact and allowing for the prioritization of efforts on specific risk factors within those communities. PMID:23304301

  15. General and health-related Internet use among an urban, community-based sample of HIV-positive women: implications for intervention development.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; Haughton, Lorlette J; Garner, Ruby Y; Horvath, Keith J; Norwood, Chris; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based HIV interventions are increasingly common, although little focus has been on HIV-positive women. To understand the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver behavioral interventions to HIV-positive women, we sought to describe patterns of Internet use for general and health-related purposes and to explore differences between Internet-using and non-using women. From February 2014 to April 2014, 103 women were recruited at six community-based organizations in the Bronx, NY that provide services to HIV-positive persons. Women completed a 30-minute interview and answered a brief survey of socio-demographic factors, risk behavior and clinical characteristics. We performed χ(2) and Kruskal-Wallis tests to compare Internet users and non-users. Sixty-one percent of participants were current Internet users, most of whom used a personal electronic device (e.g., cellphone/smartphone) to access the Internet. While higher proportions of Internet users were passively engaged (e.g., signed up to receive email updates [42.9%] or watched an online video [58.7%] for health-related purposes), smaller proportions (12.7-15.9%) were involved in more interactive activities such as posting comments, questions, or information about health-related issues in an online discussion or a blog. A majority of Internet non-users (60.0%) expressed interest in going online. Lack of computer or Internet access (37.5%) and Internet navigation skills (37.5%) were the primary reasons for non-use. Compared with non-users, Internet users were more likely to be younger, to have higher socioeconomic status, and to report low health-related social support. Despite having a lower proportion of Internet users in our study than the general population, Internet-using women in our study had relatively high levels of online engagement and went online for both general and health-related purposes. However, Internet-based interventions targeting HIV-positive women will likely need to include

  16. General and health-related Internet use among an urban, community-based sample of HIV-positive women: implications for intervention development

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Haughton, Lorlette J.; Garner, Ruby Y.; Horvath, Keith J.; Norwood, Chris; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based HIV interventions are increasingly common, although little focus has been on HIV-positive women. To understand the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver behavioral interventions to HIV-positive women, we sought to describe patterns of Internet use for general and health-related purposes and to explore differences between Internet-using and non-using women. From February 2014 to April 2014, 103 women were recruited at six community-based organizations in the Bronx, NY that provide services to HIV-positive persons. Women completed a 30-minute interview and answered a brief survey of socio-demographic factors, risk behavior and clinical characteristics. We performed χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests to compare Internet users and non-users. Sixty-one percent of participants were current Internet users, most of whom used a personal electronic device (e.g., cellphone/smartphone) to access the Internet. While higher proportions of Internet users were passively engaged (e.g., signed up to receive email updates [42.9%] or watched an online video [58.7%] for health-related purposes), smaller proportions (12.7–15.9%) were involved in more interactive activities such as posting comments, questions, or information about health-related issues in an online discussion or a blog. A majority of Internet non-users (60.0%) expressed interest in going online. Lack of computer or Internet access (37.5%) and Internet navigation skills (37.5%) were the primary reasons for non-use. Compared with non-users, Internet users were more likely to be younger, to have higher socioeconomic status, and to report low health-related social support. Despite having a lower proportion of Internet users in our study than the general population, Internet-using women in our study had relatively high levels of online engagement and went online for both general and health-related purposes. However, Internet-based interventions targeting HIV-positive women will likely need to include

  17. Measuring Health Information Dissemination and Identifying Target Interest Communities on Twitter: Methods Development and Case Study of the @SafetyMD Network

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the ability of individual stakeholder groups to achieve health information dissemination goals through Twitter. Objective This study aimed to develop and apply methods for the systematic evaluation and optimization of health information dissemination by stakeholders through Twitter. Methods Tweet content from 1790 followers of @SafetyMD (July-November 2012) was examined. User emphasis, a new indicator of Twitter information dissemination, was defined and applied to retweets across two levels of retweeters originating from @SafetyMD. User interest clusters were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of a random sample of 170 followers. Results User emphasis of keywords remained across levels but decreased by 9.5 percentage points. PCA and HCA identified 12 statistically unique clusters of followers within the @SafetyMD Twitter network. Conclusions This study is one of the first to develop methods for use by stakeholders to evaluate and optimize their use of Twitter to disseminate health information. Our new methods provide preliminary evidence that individual stakeholders can evaluate the effectiveness of health information dissemination and create content-specific clusters for more specific targeted messaging. PMID:27151100

  18. Promotores de salud and community health workers: an annotated bibliography.

    PubMed

    WestRasmus, Emma K; Pineda-Reyes, Fernando; Tamez, Montelle; Westfall, John M

    2012-01-01

    For underserved and disenfranchised communities in the United States, affordable, effective health care can be nearly inaccessible, which often leads to the exclusion of these communities from relevant medical information and care. Barriers to care are especially salient in minority communities, where language, traditions and customs, socioeconomics, and access to education can serve as additional roadblocks to accessing health care information and services. These factors have contributed to a national health disparity crisis that unnecessarily places some communities in a vulnerable position without adequate prevention and treatment opportunities. One solution to the exclusion some communities face in the health care system may be the promotores de salud (PdS)/community health worker (CHW), an approach to culturally competent health care delivery whose popularity in the mainstream health care system has been steadily growing in recent decades. Known by a wide variety of names and broad in the spectrum of health issues they address, the PdS/CHW serves as cultural brokers between their own community and the formal health care system and can play a crucial role in promoting health and wellness within their community. This annotated bibliography was created to educate the reader about the history, definition, key features, utility, outcomes, and broad potential of the CHW approach in a variety of populations. Intended to serve as a reference point to a vast body of information on the CHW/PdS approach, this document is a resource for those wishing to effect change in the disparities within the health care system, and to improve the access to, quality, and cost of health care for underserved patients and their communities. Promotores de Salud is a Spanish term that translates to Health Promoter. A female health worker may be referred to as a Promotora, a male as a Promotor, and the plural of both is Promotores. For the purposes of this bibliography, the terms community

  19. Training for Community Development Personnel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhija, H. R.

    The book traces the development of training schemes in India for community development workers. It is divided into four parts which deal with: origin and growth of the Community Development Training Programme; problems encountered and the process of solutions through trial and error; major reorganization of the initial program and the research…

  20. Economic Development Capacity amongst Small Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines indigenous capacity for local community development. Examines new economic development initiatives by communities, nature of relationships between local and larger economies, and how relationships affect local capacity for new economic activities. Discusses benefits of spatial framework in rural development and planning. (TES)

  1. Using CBPR for Health Research in American Muslim Mosque Communities: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Killawi, Amal; Heisler, Michele; Hamid, Hamada; Padela, Aasim I.

    2015-01-01

    Background American Muslims are understudied in health research, and there are few studies documenting community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts among American Muslim mosque communities. Objectives We highlight lessons learned from a CBPR partnership that explored the health care beliefs, behaviors, and challenges of American Muslims. Methods We established a collaboration between the University of Michigan and four Muslim-focused community organizations in Michigan. Our collaborative team designed and implemented a two-phase study involving interviews with community stakeholders and focus groups and surveys with mosque congregants. Lessons Learned Although we were successful in meeting our research goals, maintaining community partner involvement and sustaining the project partnership proved challenging. Conclusions CBPR initiatives within mosque communities have the potential for improving community health. Our experience suggests that successful research partnerships with American Muslims will utilize social networks and cultural insiders, culturally adapt research methods, and develop a research platform within the organizational infrastructures of the American Muslim community. PMID:25981426

  2. Growing urban health: community gardening in South-East Toronto.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Sarah; Yeudall, Fiona; Taron, Carolin; Reynolds, Jennifer; Skinner, Ana

    2007-06-01

    This article describes results from an investigation of the health impacts of community gardening, using Toronto, Ontario as a case study. According to community members and local service organizations, these gardens have a number of positive health benefits. However, few studies have explicitly focused on the health impacts of community gardens, and many of those did not ask community gardeners directly about their experiences in community gardening. This article sets out to fill this gap by describing the results of a community-based research project that collected data on the perceived health impacts of community gardening through participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Results suggest that community gardens were perceived by gardeners to provide numerous health benefits, including improved access to food, improved nutrition, increased physical activity and improved mental health. Community gardens were also seen to promote social health and community cohesion. These benefits were set against a backdrop of insecure land tenure and access, bureaucratic resistance, concerns about soil contamination and a lack of awareness and understanding by community members and decision-makers. Results also highlight the need for ongoing resources to support gardens in these many roles.

  3. Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure. PMID:12416314

  4. Identity Theft in Community Mental Health Patients

    PubMed Central

    Klopp, Jonathon; Konrad, Shane; Yanofski, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mental health center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented. PMID:20806029

  5. Boston's Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Schlaff, A L

    1991-01-01

    The Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion is a program designed to promote changes in individual behavior and community relationships to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the many problems affecting poor, minority communities in the United States. Problems of particular concern to be addressed by the program include violence, injuries, substance abuse, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), infant mortality, child abuse and neglect, and cardiovascular disease. The failure of traditional health promotion approaches to poor communities has created a literature supporting community-based action directed at broad social forces. The Codman Square Community Partnership for Health Promotion uses a variety of models--community participation, community organization, empowerment education, and community-oriented primary care--to encourage new coalitions that can ameliorate the social isolation and health-averse social norms linked to poverty and poor health. The program uses local residents trained as lay health workers to deliver home-based health services and to help create the necessary partnerships, linkages, and communication networks to foster the reorganization of the community to better address its health problems. PMID:1902312

  6. Developing health promoting practices: a transformative process.

    PubMed

    Hartrick, G

    1998-01-01

    For health care professionals to successfully make the transition from disease care to health promotion requires a reorientation of how such professionals think and behave in their practice. This paper describes a multidisciplinary team's transition from disease care to health promotion. The research was conducted to learn what is involved in developing health promotion practices and the major changes practitioners experience as they shift from disease care to health promotion. A large, acute care institution and public health agency collaborated to address the needs of families and children with asthma, allergies, and eczema, with the goal of changing the focus from inpatient care to ambulatory or community-based care. A team of 5 nurses, 1 physiotherapist, 1 respiratory technologist, and 1 nutritionist was formed to undertake the initiative. PMID:9805341

  7. Research collaboration in health management research communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

  8. Community-based Teaching about Health Disparities: Combining Education, Scholarship, and Community Service

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Monica E.; Jacobs, Elizabeth; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that clinicians receive training to better understand and address disparities. While disparities in health status are primarily due to inequities in social determinants of health, current curricula largely focus on how to teach about disparities within the health care setting. Learners may more fully understand and appreciate how social contextual factors contribute to disparities through instruction about disparities in community settings. Community-based teaching about health disparities may be advantageous for learners, medical institutions, and participating communities. This manuscript aims to guide medical educators in teaching students and residents about health disparities through community-based activities, including service learning and research. PMID:20352507

  9. Communities and health policy: a pathway for change.

    PubMed

    Bell, Judith; Standish, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Improving the health system can reduce the effects of health disparities, but it can do little to eliminate them. An upsurge in new research is documenting the impact of physical, social, and economic environmental factors: air quality, housing conditions, racism, relationship to community institutions, and neighborhood economic conditions, all of which affect health status over time. A combined focus on community and the policies that affect communities' environments presents opportunities for altering and ameliorating the underlying forces at the heart of the determinants of health. This Perspective presents examples of successful community involvement and policy change.

  10. Strengthening the capability of family health leaders for sustainable community-based health promotion.

    PubMed

    Chaoniyom, Wanasara; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Pacheun, Oranut

    2005-07-01

    The Family Health Leader (FHL) Project was initiated in 1997 to encourage self-care and health promotion. Since then, there has been no retraining. This study aimed to strengthen the FHLs' capability to sustain community-based health promotion and network establishment. The study, of a quasi-experimental design, was conducted in a village in Phan Thong district, Chon Buri Province, Thailand. The intervention emphasized enhancing the FHLs' knowledge, ability, leadership and motivation to advance health promotion activities. Before implementing the main intervention, 5 community health workers were trained as facilitators to strengthen 36 FHL capabilities. The curriculum and manual for training facilitators and FHLs were also developed. The intervention for strengthening FHLs' capabilities lasted for 7 months using participatory training. A within-subject repeated ANOVA was used to measure changes in the main outcome variables immediately, and at three and six months after the intervention. A qualitative methodology was utilized to assess network establishment. The results indicate that the FHLs' knowledge of self-care and health promotion, ability, leadership and motivation had increased significantly after the intervention (p < 0.001). The FHLs also sought to extend their network by involving both the community committee and the local authorities. The intervention appeared to be successful in strengthening the FHLs' capabilities to sustain health promotion within the community, and it established networks vertically and horizontally. The FHLs were the key persons to bring good health to family members. Periodical participatory learning and group empowerment are recommended for encouraging the FHLs to maximize their potential for family self-care and health promotion.

  11. The Lay Health Educator Program: Evaluating the Impact of this Community Health Initiative on the Medical Education of Resident Physicians.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Rios, Rebeca; Daniel Hale, W; Colburn, Jessica L; Christmas, Colleen

    2015-06-01

    Resident physicians receive little training designed to help them develop an understanding of the health literacy and health concerns of laypersons. The purpose of this study was to assess whether residents improve their understanding of health concerns of community members after participating in the Lay Health Educator Program, a health education program provided through a medical-religious community partnership. The impact was evaluated via pre-post surveys and open-ended responses. There was a statistically significant change in the residents' (n = 15) understanding of what the public values as important with respect to specific healthcare topics. Findings suggest participation in a brief, formal community engagement activity improved medical residents' confidence with community health education.

  12. Empowered women from rural areas of Bolivia promote community development.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Roxana; Olmedo, Catón; Fernández, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The United States Agency for Development in Bolivia (USAID/Bolivia) created in 2002 PROSALUD- Partners for Development Project (PfD) with the aim of improving the population's well-being. The project used three components: small grant scheme, technical assistance and database system management. Through the small grants scheme, the PfD supported a Community Participation Strategy (CPS) project over a three year period. The project involved the rural areas of six Bolivian departments and suburban areas of three Bolivian cities. The main objective was to increase health service utilization with a particular emphasis on empowerment of women, strengthening of local organizations and increasing the demand for health services. Women from both the urban and rural areas, and from different indigenous groups, were trained in project management, health promotion, reproductive health and family planning, advocacy and community participation. Participatory methodologies have allowed empowering women in decision making and capacity building throughout the entire project process. The experience shows that it is important to work with formally established grass-root community organizations and strengthen leadership within them. Additionally, the sub-projects demonstrated that interventions are more successful when promoters speak and write native languages, women are more motivated and empowered, projects are designed to be responsive to daily necessities identified by the communities and health services are culturally suitable. A preliminary evaluation, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, shows an overall improvement in health knowledge and practice, and utilization of health services.

  13. Community perceptions of health and chronic disease in South Indian rural transitional communities: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Arabella K. M.; Jeffery, Roger; Sharma, Chitra; Prost, Audrey; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are now the leading cause of death and disability worldwide; this epidemic has been linked to rapid economic growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Understanding how characteristics of the physical, social, and economic environment affect behaviour in the light of these changes is key to identifying successful interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk. Design We undertook a qualitative study consisting of nine focus group discussions (FGDs) (n=57) in five villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, to understand people's perceptions of community development and urbanisation in relation to chronic disease in rural transitional communities. Specifically, we sought to understand perceptions of change linked to diet, physical activity, and pollution (because these exposures are most relevant to chronic diseases), with the aim of defining future interventions. The transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Participants believed their communities were currently less healthy, more polluted, less physically active, and had poorer access to nutritious food and shorter life expectancies than previously. There were contradictory perceptions of the effects of urbanisation on health within and between individuals; several of the participants felt their quality of life had been reduced. Conclusions In the present study, residents viewed change and development within their villages as an inevitable and largely positive process but with some negative health consequences. Understanding how these changes are affecting populations in transitional rural areas and how people relate to their environment may be useful to guide community planning for health. Measures to educate and empower people to make healthy choices within their community may help reduce the spread of chronic disease risk factors in future years. PMID:25669238

  14. Aligning the Goals of Community-Engaged Research: Why and How Academic Health Centers Can Successfully Engage with Communities to Improve Health

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Lloyd; Cook, Jennifer; Ahmed, Syed M.; Yonas, Michael A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly viewed as the keystone to translational medicine and improving the health of the nation. In this article, the authors seek to assist academic health centers (AHCs) in learning how to better engage with their communities and build a CEnR agenda by suggesting five steps: defining community and identify partners; learning the etiquette of community engagement; building a sustainable network of CEnR researchers; recognizing that CEnR will require the development of new methodologies; and improving translation and dissemination plans. Health disparities that lead to uneven access to and quality of care as well as high costs will persist without a CEnR agenda that finds answers to both medical and public health questions. One of the biggest barriers toward a national CEnR agenda, however, are the historical structures and processes of an AHC – including the complexities of how institutional review boards operate, accounting practices and indirect funding policies, and tenure and promotion paths. Changing institutional culture starts with the leadership and commitment of top decision-makers in an institution. By aligning the motivations and goals of their researchers, clinicians, and community members into a vision of a healthier population, AHC leadership will not just improve their own institutions, but improve the health of the nation – starting with improving the health of their local communities, one community at a time. PMID:22373619

  15. Using health information technology to engage communities in health, education, and research

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Lisa K.; Nelson, David A.; Allen, Shauntice; Calhoun, Karen; Eldredge, Christina E.; Kimminau, Kim S.; Lucero, Robert J.; Pineda-Reyes, Fernando; Rumala, Bernice B.; Varanasi, Arti P.; Wasser, June S.; Shannon, Jackilen

    2012-01-01

    The August 2011 Clinical & Translational Science Awards (CTSA) conference Using IT to Improve Community Health: How Health Care Reform Supports Innovation, convened four “think tank” sessions. Thirty individuals, representing various perspectives on community engagement, attended the Health Information Technology (HIT) as a Resource to Improve Community Health and Education session, which focused on using HIT to improve patient health, education, and research involvement. Participants discussed a range of topics using a semi-structured format. This article describes themes and lessons that emerged from that session, with a particular focus on using HIT to engage communities in order to improve health and reduce health disparities in populations. PMID:22301550

  16. An Ethical Principle for Social Justice in Community Development Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabre, Ru Michael

    1980-01-01

    Defines community development and shows how community development as an educational process embodies an ethical principle which, when applied to the analysis of community practices, promotes justice. (JOW)

  17. Moving health promotion communities online: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Naomi; Beekhuyzen, Jenine; Kendall, Elizabeth; Wolski, Malcom

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to enhance the effectiveness and reach of complex health promotion initiatives by providing opportunities for diverse health promotion practitioners and others to interact in online settings. This paper reviews the existing literature on how to take health promotion communities and networks into online settings. A scoping review of relevant bodies of literature and empirical evidence was undertaken to provide an interpretive synthesis of existing knowledge on the topic. Sixteen studies were identified between 1986 and 2007. Relatively little research has been conducted on the process of taking existing offline communities and networks into online settings. However, more research has focused on offline (i.e. not mediated via computer networks); 'virtual' (purely online with no offline interpersonal contact); and 'multiplex' communities (i.e. those that interact across both online and offline settings). Results are summarised under three themes: characteristics of communities in online and offline settings; issues in moving offline communities online, and designing online communities to match community needs. Existing health promotion initiatives can benefit from online platforms that promote community building and knowledge sharing. Online e-health promotion settings and communities can successfully integrate with existing offline settings and communities to form 'multiplex' communities (i.e. communities that operate fluently across both online and offline settings).

  18. Community as classroom: teaching and learning public health in rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Florence, James; Behringer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Traditional models for public health professional education tend to be didactic, with brief, discrete practica appended. National reports of both practitioners and academicians have called for more competency-driven, interdisciplinary-focused, community-based, service-oriented, and experientially-guided learning for students across the curriculum. East Tennessee State University began its own curricular revisioning in health professions education nearly 2 decades ago with a grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, emphasizing competencies development through community-based learning in community-academic partnerships. This article describes 3 examples that grew from that initiative. In the first example, students in multiple classes delivered a longitudinal community-based employee wellness intervention for a rural county school district. BS public health students conducted needs assessments and prepared health education materials; MPH students conducted health assessments and worked with school wellness councils to deliver client-centered interventions; DrPH students supervised the project and provided feedback to the schools using participatory methods. In the second example, MPH students in a social-behavioral foundations course used experiential learning to investigate the region's elevated cancer mortality ranking. Following meetings with multiple community groups, students employed theoretical constructs to frame regional beliefs about cancer and presented findings to community leaders. One outcome was a 5-year community-based participatory research study of cancer in rural Appalachia. In the third example, MPH students in a health-consulting course assessed local African Americans' awareness of the university's health and education programs and perceptions of their community health issues. Students learned consultation methods by assisting at multiple regional African American community meetings to discover issues and interest that resulted in the

  19. Public health approaches to community-based needs. Boston's infant mortality crisis as a case study.

    PubMed

    Rorie, J A; Richardson, K A; Gardner, R

    1997-01-01

    In light of a 10-year infant mortality crisis in Boston, a comprehensive public health approach was undertaken in which an extensive community-based needs assessment was used to develop a citywide maternal and child health improvement agenda. On the basis of the needs assessment, recommendations were made calling for community-based perinatal initiatives and midwifery services as critical elements in care for underserved communities and enhancement of perinatal services. A case description of one perinatal initiative illustrates the challenges of public health practice and describes a practice setting in which midwives provided leadership and guidance by using an interdisciplinary team approach in the implementation of a community empowerment project.

  20. Helping members of a community-based health insurance scheme access quality inpatient care through development of a preferred provider system in rural Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    RANSON, M. KENT; SINHA, TARA; GANDHI, FENIL; JAYSWAL, RUPAL; MILLS, ANNE J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe and analyse the experience of piloting a preferred provider system (PPS) for rural members of Vimo SEWA, a fixed-indemnity, community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme run by the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA). The objectives of the PPS were (i) to facilitate access to hospitalization by providing financial benefits at the time of service utilization; (ii) to shift the burden of compiling a claim away from members and towards Vimo SEWA staff; and (iii) to direct members to inpatient facilities of acceptable quality. The PPS was launched between August and October 2004, in 8 subdistricts covering 15 000 insured. The impact of the scheme was analysed using data from a household survey of claimants and qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The PPS appears to have been successful in terms of two of the three primary objectives—it has transferred much of the burden of compiling a health insurance claim onto Vimo SEWA staff, and it has directed members to inpatient facilities with acceptable levels of technical quality (defined in terms of structural indicators). However, even under the PPS, user fees pose a financial barrier, as the insured have to mobilize funds to cover the costs of medicines, supplies, registration fee, etc. before receipt of cash payment from Vimo SEWA. Other barriers to the success of the PPS were the geographic inaccessibility of some of the selected hospitals, lack of awareness about the PPS among members and a variety of administrative problems. This pilot project provides useful lessons relating to strategic purchasing by CBHI schemes and, more broadly, managed care in India. In particular, the pragmatic approach taken to assessing hospitals and identifying preferred providers is likely to be useful elsewhere. PMID:17203684

  1. Multicounty Community Development: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Harsha N.

    1974-01-01

    The study analyzes the community development programs implemented in a 14-county rural complex of the Upper Cumberland region of Tennessee. Community development is conceptualized from an interactional or field perspective with emphasis on ecological, cultural, and social analysis. Available from: Editorial and Business Offices, Piazza Cavalieri…

  2. Adult Education and Community Development in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Edwin

    1984-01-01

    Describes and discusses adult education and community development in Nigeria, specifically in the Bendel State. Provides a brief history of adult education and community development and describes several programs, methods, and techniques. Highlights the Mass Literacy Campaign as the major priority. (CT)

  3. Improving Community Health While Satisfying a Critical Community Need: A Case Study for Nonprofit Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kephart, Donna K.; Dillon, Judith F.; McCullough, Jody R.; Blatt, Barbara J.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Background School-based student health screenings identify issues that may affect physical and intellectual development and are an important way to maintain student health. Nonprofit hospitals can provide a unique resource to school districts by assisting in the timely completion of school-based screenings and meet requirements of the Affordable Care Act. This case study describes the collaboration between an academic medical center and a local school district to conduct school-based health screenings. Community Context Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center and Penn State Hershey PRO Wellness Center collaborated with Lebanon School District to facilitate student health screenings, a need identified in part by a community health needs assessment. Methods From June 2012 through February 2013, district-wide student health screenings were planned and implemented by teams of hospital nursing leadership, school district leadership, and school nurses. In fall 2013, students were screened through standardized procedures for height, weight, scoliosis, vision, and hearing. Outcomes In 2 days, 3,105 students (67% of all students in the district) were screened. Letters explaining screening results were mailed to parents of all students screened. Debriefing meetings and follow-up surveys for the participating nurses provided feedback for future screenings. Interpretation The 2-day collaborative screening event decreased the amount of time spent by school nurses in screening students throughout the year and allowed them more time in their role as school wellness champion. Additionally, parents found out early in the school year whether their child needed physician follow-up. Partnerships between school districts and hospitals to conduct student health screenings are a practical option for increasing outreach while satisfying community needs. PMID:26513441

  4. Community Based Participatory Research to Reduce Oral Health Disparities in American Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, T; Sharma, T; Harper, M; Zacher, T; Roan, R; George, C; Swyers, E; Toledo, N; Batliner, T; Braun, PA; Albino, J

    2015-01-01

    Community based participatory research is an approach aimed to equitably involve community members, representatives, and academic researchers in all aspects of the research process. Using this methodology can help integrate cultural knowledge into interventions, supporting researchers to effectively partner with communities in addressing health disparities. The Center for Native Oral Health Research (CNOHR) collaborates with two American Indian (AI) tribes to advance oral health knowledge and practice, including the conduct of randomized controlled clinical trials of culturally sensitive behavioral interventions for primary prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). This manuscript describes the development of researcher–community partnership, and the development and implementation of the two clinical trial in the community. It also gives a detailed account of the strategies developed through the community input in recruitment and retention of the study participants and finally the lessons learnt during the study implementation. PMID:26090520

  5. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J; Baehni, Pierre C; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-10-01

    countries, the human, financial and material resources are still insufficient to meet the need for oral health care services and to provide universal access, especially in disadvantaged communities, in both developing and developed countries. Moreover, even though the most widespread illnesses are avoidable, not all population groups are well informed about or able to take advantage of the proper measures for oral health promotion. In addition, in many countries, oral health care needs to be fully integrated into national or community health programmes. Improving oral health is a very challenging objective in developing countries, but also in developed countries, especially with the accelerated aging of the population now underway and intensifying over the coming years.

  6. Promoting community participation in priority setting in district health systems: experiences from Mbarali district, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kamuzora, Peter; Maluka, Stephen; Ndawi, Benedict; Byskov, Jens; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation in priority setting in health systems has gained importance all over the world, particularly in resource-poor settings where governments have often failed to provide adequate public-sector services for their citizens. Incorporation of public views into priority setting is perceived as a means to restore trust, improve accountability, and secure cost-effective priorities within healthcare. However, few studies have reported empirical experiences of involving communities in priority setting in developing countries. The aim of this article is to provide the experience of implementing community participation and the challenges of promoting it in the context of resource-poor settings, weak organizations, and fragile democratic institutions. Design Key informant interviews were conducted with the Council Health Management Team (CHMT), community representatives, namely women, youth, elderly, disabled, and people living with HIV/AIDS, and other stakeholders who participated in the preparation of the district annual budget and health plans. Additionally, minutes from the Action Research Team and planning and priority-setting meeting reports were analyzed. Results A number of benefits were reported: better identification of community needs and priorities, increased knowledge of the community representatives about priority setting, increased transparency and accountability, promoted trust among health systems and communities, and perceived improved quality and accessibility of health services. However, lack of funds to support the work of the selected community representatives, limited time for deliberations, short notice for the meetings, and lack of feedback on the approved priorities constrained the performance of the community representatives. Furthermore, the findings show the importance of external facilitation and support in enabling health professionals and community representatives to arrive at effective working arrangement

  7. Involving Research Stakeholders in Developing Policy on Sharing Public Health Research Data in Kenya: Views on Fair Process for Informed Consent, Access Oversight, and Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-07-01

    Increased global sharing of public health research data has potential to advance scientific progress but may present challenges to the interests of research stakeholders, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. Policies for data sharing should be responsive to public views, but there is little evidence of the systematic study of these from low-income countries. This qualitative study explored views on fair data-sharing processes among 60 stakeholders in Kenya with varying research experience, using a deliberative approach. Stakeholders' attitudes were informed by perceptions of benefit and concerns for research data sharing, including risks of stigmatization, loss of privacy, and undermining scientific careers and validity, reported in detail elsewhere. In this article, we discuss institutional trust-building processes seen as central to perceptions of fairness in sharing research data in this setting, including forms of community involvement, individual prior awareness and agreement to data sharing, independence and accountability of governance mechanisms, and operating under a national framework. PMID:26297748

  8. Rural Libraries and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of rural public libraries in the information age. Characteristics of rural communities that library planners should consider are conservatism, the lack of professionally trained librarians, library trustee involvement, the need for marketing, and gender balance. Suggestions for recreating rural libraries and providing…

  9. Community Management That Works: How to Build and Sustain a Thriving Online Health Community

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals, patients, caregivers, family, friends, and other supporters are increasingly joining online health communities to share information and find support. But social Web (Web 2.0) technology alone does not create a successful online community. Building and sustaining a successful community requires an enabler and strategic community management. Community management is more than moderation. The developmental life cycle of a community has four stages: inception, establishment, maturity, and mitosis. Each stage presents distinct characteristics and management needs. This paper describes the community management strategies, resources, and expertise needed to build and maintain a thriving online health community; introduces some of the challenges; and provides a guide for health organizations considering this undertaking. The paper draws on insights from an ongoing study and observation of online communities as well as experience managing and consulting a variety of online health communities. Discussion includes effective community building practices relevant to each stage, such as outreach and relationship building, data collection, content creation, and other proven techniques that ensure the survival and steady growth of an online health community. PMID:23759312

  10. Investigating community-based health and health promotion for homeless people: a mixed methods review.

    PubMed

    Coles, E; Themessl-Huber, M; Freeman, R

    2012-08-01

    Homeless people are susceptible to a range of health problems, yet in terms of health promotion, tend to be a hard-to-reach, marginalized group. Robust evidence regarding the ability to engage with this population via effective health promotion programmes is essential if policy and practice are to be informed to improve the health of homeless people. A structured review was conducted with the aim of examining what is known about community-based health promotion for homeless people. Six databases were searched and 8435 records screened. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A mixed-methods 'combined separate synthesis' approach was used to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative evidence within one review. Three themes emerged: (i) incorporating homelessness, (ii) health improving and (iii) health engaging. The review has implications for health promotion design, with evidence suggesting that as part of a tailored approach, homeless people must be actively involved in intervention development, ensuring that appropriate, acceptable and potentially effective individual elements are incorporated into community-based interventions.

  11. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  12. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices. PMID:18353906

  13. Social capital and community development: practitioner emptor.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R

    1999-08-01

    Social capital has become the latest 'flavour of the month'. There is considerable disagreement over what the term means, and calls for theorising and measurement of the construct. Health promoters, among others, are being challenged to re-construct their efforts around this still contested idea. Social capital doesn't exist, but is being created by those aspects of social relations particular theorists or researchers choose to study in its name. The choice of these relations is directed by ideology. To those aligned more with neoliberal, market-driven ideology, social capital is a means to the end of economic growth, something that can pick up the slack of privatised or reduced public services. To those aligned more with social justice and communitarian ideology, social capital is an end in itself, requiring the defence of strong, egalitarian state intervention into market practices that create inequalities. Community development is one of many state interventions used to buffer market-generated inequalities. Social capital may be a useful concept for practitioners, researchers and policy makers in bring the missing 'social' into economic and fiscal policy debates. But its use should be approached cautiously as a construct of potential strategic value. It should not confuse all of the previous 'good' work undertaken in the name of empowerment and community capacity. PMID:10462871

  14. Developing national health information in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moss, E A

    1995-01-01

    National Health Data Dictionary (NHDD) as the authoritative set of national definitions and is a significant initiative aimed at improving Australia's health information. The dictionary is the repository of the agreed common language, use of the definitions facilities the description and comparison of health and health services nationally [2]. The National Health Data Dictionary currently covers institutionally provided health care, the national health labor force, and is expanding to cover other major areas, including outpatient services, community care, and mental health. The NHDD is reviewed and maintained by the National Health Data Committee and the overall coordination of definition development projects and publication is undertaken by the Institute. The placement of an agreed definition in the NHDD does not automatically mean that it has a place in a national data collection. The use of the dictionary definition will allow comparison by and between service providers. In order for a data item to be eligible for inclusion in a national minimum data set, the definition of that item must be contained in the NHDD. During the first three months of 1995, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare will conduct a national project to develop a model for the health system in Australia. The model will provide a common vocabulary and information architecture in order to facilitate better quality health information, and consequently better health for Australians. It is expected that the development of the model will bring several benefits including facilitating the more rapid and accurate assembly of appropriate clinical information to support improved customer service and outcomes, provide a mechanism for achieving better quality information, reduce the costs of data collection; provide enabling mechanisms for the integration of systems via data standards and reduce the costs of acquiring information systems through reduced development and tailoring costs for suppliers

  15. Arthropod community organization and development in pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Larry J.; Liss, W. J.; Westigard, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Arthropod communities in pear are conceptualized as hierarchically organized systems in which several levels of organization or subsystems can be recognized between the population level and the community as a whole. An individual pear tree is taken to be the community habitat with arthropod subcommunities developing on leaf, fruit, and wood subcommunity habitats. Each subcommunity is composed of trophically organized systems of populations. Each system of populations is comprised of a functional group or guild of phytophagous arthropods that use the habitat primarily for feeding but also for overwintering or egg deposition, and associated groups of specialized predators, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. Several species move from one subcommunity to another during the course of community development and thus integrate community subsystems. Community development or change in organization through time is conceptualized as being jointly determined by the development of the habitat and the organization of the species pool. The influence of habitat development on community development within a species pool is emphasized in this research. Seasonal habitat development is expressed as change in the kinds and biomasses of developmental states of wood, leaf, and fruit subcommunity habitats. These changes are accompanied by changes in the kinds, biomasses, and distributions of associated community subsystems.

  16. Where Is "Community"?: Engineering Education and Sustainable Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, J.; Leydens, J. A.; Lucena, J.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development initiatives are proliferating in the US and Europe as engineering educators seek to provide students with knowledge and skills to design technologies that are environmentally sustainable. Many such initiatives involve students from the "North," or "developed" world building projects for villages or communities in the…

  17. Faculty Development in Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes results from a national study of community college faculty development programs. Findings highlight how the challenges faced by rural colleges differ from those at urban institutions, which often have dedicated faculty development centers.

  18. Assessing Readiness for Establishing a Farmers’ Market at a Community Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Y. Omar; Brandt, Heather M.; Young, Vicki; Friedman, Daniela B.; Hébert, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Farmers’ markets are community health promotion interventions that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. As farmers’ markets continue to develop, it is important to strategically locate them in settings that are accessible to populations disparately affected by health disparities. One potential setting is a community health center. The goal of this analysis is to extend existing research on community readiness to identify indicators of preparedness among community health centers for establishing onsite farmers’ markets. The sampling frame for the readiness assessment included all community health centers in South Carolina (N = 20) representing 163 practice sites. Data collection included two brief online surveys, in-depth key informant interviews, and secondary analysis of contextual data. Five themes related to readiness for establishing a farmers market at a community health center were identified: capacity, social capital, awareness of health problems and solutions, logistical factors, and sustainability. Findings from this study provide guidance to researchers and community health center staff as they explore the development of environmental interventions focused on reducing diet-related health conditions by improving access to healthy foods. PMID:21643822

  19. Developing a community multiple sclerosis nursing service.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Debbie; Adams, John

    2014-05-20

    Reforms to the NHS following the passing of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 have created new purchaser organisations with responsibility for planning the configuration of healthcare services in their geographic areas. If a community multiple sclerosis (MS) nursing service is to survive in this environment, it must demonstrate its ability to contribute to achieving the purchaser organisations' objectives. Evaluation data, such as hospital admission avoidance and patient satisfaction, will be crucial in demonstrating the community MS nursing service's clinical and economic effectiveness. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis of the issues facing a community MS service in this environment is provided. PMID:24823591

  20. Using Community-Based Participatory Research as a Guiding Framework for Health Disparities Research Centers

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia; Tandon, S. Darius; Abesamis, Noilyn; Hoe-Asjoe, Heniretta; Rey, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in conducting community-based health research using a participatory approach that involves the active collaboration of academic and community partners to address community-level health concerns. Project EXPORT (Excellence in Partnerships, Outreach, Research, and Training) is a National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) initiative focused on understanding and eliminating health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) is 1 of 76 Project EXPORT sites. This paper describes how CSAAH developed partnerships with varied Asian American community stakeholders as a first step in establishing itself as a Project EXPORT center that uses community-based participatory research (CBPR) as its orienting framework. Three guiding principles were followed to develop community–academic partnerships: (1) creating and sustaining multiple partnerships; (2) promoting equity in partnerships; and (3) commitment to action and research. We discuss strategies and action steps taken to put each principle into practice, as well as the successes and challenges we faced in doing so. Developing community–academic partnerships has been essential in our ability to conduct health disparities research in Asian American communities. Approaches and lessons learned from our experience can be applied to other communities conducing health disparities research. PMID:19081761

  1. Nursing students' preconceptions of the community health clinical experience: implications for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Leh, Sandra Kundrik

    2011-11-01

    It is essential that nurse educators identify and attempt to understand students' preconceptions related to upcoming clinical experiences to develop strategies that are effective in preparing the students for entry into new and unique settings. This qualitative study described nursing students' preconceptions as they entered the community health clinical rotation. Six major themes emerged: feeling insecure and unprepared for the community health clinical experience; contemplating risks to personal and client safety in the community; anticipating a change of pace; sensing a loss of control; envisioning isolation; and interpreting the value of community health nursing. Findings from this study provide nurse educators and preceptors with insight into understanding students' needs as they enter the community setting. Facilitating a positive transition for students supports efforts to improve the image of and create favorable attitudes toward community health nursing practice. PMID:21790102

  2. The relative influence of the community and the health system on work performance: a case study of community health workers in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S A; Larsen, D E

    1990-01-01

    A central component of the primary health care approach in developing countries has been the development and utilization of community-based health workers (CHWs) within the national health system. While the use of these front line workers has the potential to positively influence health behavior and health status in rural communities, there continues to be challenges to effective implementation of CHW programs. Reports of high turnover rates, absenteeism, poor quality of work, and low morale among CHWs have often been associated with weak organizational and managerial capacity of government health systems. However, no systematic research has examined the contribution of work-related factors to CHW job performance. The research reported in this paper examines the relative influence of reward and feedback factors associated with the community compared to those associated with the health system on the performance of CHWs. The data are drawn from a broader study of health promoters (CHWs) conducted in two departments (provinces) in Colombia in 1986. The research was based on a theoretical model of worker performance that focuses on job related sources of rewards and feedback. A survey research design was employed to obtain information from a random sample of rural health promoters (N = 179) and their auxiliary nurse supervisors about CHW performance and contributing factors. The findings indicate that feedback and rewards from the community have a greater influence on work performance (defined as degree of perceived goal attainment on job tasks) than do those stemming from the health system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Building community disaster resilience: perspectives from a large urban county department of public health.

    PubMed

    Plough, Alonzo; Fielding, Jonathan E; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Eisenman, David; Wells, Kenneth B; Law, Grace Y; Fogleman, Stella; Magaña, Aizita

    2013-07-01

    An emerging approach to public health emergency preparedness and response, community resilience encompasses individual preparedness as well as establishing a supportive social context in communities to withstand and recover from disasters. We examine why building community resilience has become a key component of national policy across multiple federal agencies and discuss the core principles embodied in community resilience theory-specifically, the focus on incorporating equity and social justice considerations in preparedness planning and response. We also examine the challenges of integrating community resilience with traditional public health practices and the importance of developing metrics for evaluation and strategic planning purposes. Using the example of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project, we discuss our experience and perspective from a large urban county to better understand how to implement a community resilience framework in public health practice. PMID:23678937

  4. Building Community Disaster Resilience: Perspectives From a Large Urban County Department of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Jonathan E.; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Eisenman, David; Wells, Kenneth B.; Law, Grace Y.; Fogleman, Stella; Magaña, Aizita

    2013-01-01

    An emerging approach to public health emergency preparedness and response, community resilience encompasses individual preparedness as well as establishing a supportive social context in communities to withstand and recover from disasters. We examine why building community resilience has become a key component of national policy across multiple federal agencies and discuss the core principles embodied in community resilience theory—specifically, the focus on incorporating equity and social justice considerations in preparedness planning and response. We also examine the challenges of integrating community resilience with traditional public health practices and the importance of developing metrics for evaluation and strategic planning purposes. Using the example of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project, we discuss our experience and perspective from a large urban county to better understand how to implement a community resilience framework in public health practice. PMID:23678937

  5. Building community disaster resilience: perspectives from a large urban county department of public health.

    PubMed

    Plough, Alonzo; Fielding, Jonathan E; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Eisenman, David; Wells, Kenneth B; Law, Grace Y; Fogleman, Stella; Magaña, Aizita

    2013-07-01

    An emerging approach to public health emergency preparedness and response, community resilience encompasses individual preparedness as well as establishing a supportive social context in communities to withstand and recover from disasters. We examine why building community resilience has become a key component of national policy across multiple federal agencies and discuss the core principles embodied in community resilience theory-specifically, the focus on incorporating equity and social justice considerations in preparedness planning and response. We also examine the challenges of integrating community resilience with traditional public health practices and the importance of developing metrics for evaluation and strategic planning purposes. Using the example of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project, we discuss our experience and perspective from a large urban county to better understand how to implement a community resilience framework in public health practice.

  6. Identifying Rural Health Care Needs Using Community Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Patricia L.; Miller, Marlene E.; Offutt, Sue M.; Gibbens, Brad P.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Community input can lead to better-defined goals in an organization. With this in mind, the Center for Rural Health at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences embarked on a series of 13 meetings with representatives of organizations serving rural communities, including 5 Native American reservations. Purpose:…

  7. Service Learning and Community Health Nursing: A Natural Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn P.; Swanson, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Community health nursing students performed community assessments and proposed and implemented service learning projects that addressed adolescent smoking in middle schools, home safety for elderly persons, industrial worker health, and sexual abuse of teenaged girls. Students learned to apply epidemiological research methods, mobilize resources,…

  8. A Community Health Approach to Asthma in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss-Randall, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a leading cause of school absenteeism in the United States, especially in poor and minority communities, where prevalence and hospitalization rates are significantly higher than average. A community health approach can help poorer school districts hire full-time nurses and access other health resources.

  9. The Community Mental Health Center as a Matrix Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen L.

    1978-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the literature on matrix organizational designs and discusses the ways in which the matrix design might be applied to the special features of a community mental health center. The phases of one community mental health center's experience in adopting a matrix organizational structure are described. (Author)

  10. Evaluating community engagement as part of the public health system.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Phillips, Gemma

    2014-07-01

    Community participation and leadership is a central tenet of public health policy and practice. Community engagement approaches are used in a variety of ways to facilitate participation, ranging from the more utilitarian, involving lay delivery of established health programmes, to more empowerment-oriented approaches. Evaluation methods within public health, adapted from clinical medicine, are most suited to evaluating community engagement as an 'intervention', in the utilitarian sense, focusing on the health impacts of professionally determined programmes. However, as communities are empowered and professional control is relinquished, it is likely to be harder to capture the full effects of an intervention and so the current evidence base is skewed away from knowledge about the utility of these approaches. The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate on the evaluation of community engagement. Building on current understandings of evaluation within complex systems, the paper argues that what is needed is a paradigm shift from viewing the involvement of communities as an errant form of public health action, to seeing communities as an essential part of the public health system. This means moving from evaluation being exclusively focused on the linear causal chain between the intervention and the target population, to seeking to build understanding of whether and how the lay contribution has impacted on the social determinants of health, including the system through which the intervention is delivered. The paper proposes some alternative principles for the evaluation of community engagement that reflect a broader conceptualisation of the lay contribution to public health.

  11. Popular Participation in Development: Emerging Trends in Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    A first attempt is made to place in perspective the accumulated experience of nearly 20 years of community development activity in both developed and developing countries. The purpose of this study is to stimulate further inquiry into community development practice, process, and theory in order for it to become a more effective instrument in the…

  12. Learning from the community about barriers to health care.

    PubMed

    Leppert, P C; Partner, S F; Thompson, A

    1996-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing obstetrician-gynecologists, especially those serving populations that are diverse in culture and circumstances, is to identify and address the barriers that keep women from seeking timely preventive and prenatal health care. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Rochester General Hospital held a community focus groups to learn more about women's attitudes toward health care. In addition to economic issues, such as lack of insurance and an inability to pay, the organizers found that many of the factors that prevent or discourage women from seeking health care involve issues of communication and understanding. Many women wanted what they perceived to be additional services. In reality, many of the things desired involved changes in doctor-patient interactions rather than the addition of any new service, and could be addressed with relative ease and minimal cost. Providing staff members with training in cultural sensitivity and encouraging them to develop a real awareness of patient circumstances are first steps that can lead to better communication between provider and patient and to the development of mutual trust. Other factors, such as the fear of incarceration or of losing one's children if health care is sought, present more serious challenges. Providers of care to high-risk, impoverished populations need to develop strong links to mental health, substance abuse, and family preservation services that allow them to intervene with troubled women and their families with services that are alternatives to incarceration and punitive actions. PMID:8532251

  13. The role of community health advisors in community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Story, Lachel; Hinton, Agnes; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2010-01-01

    Mistrust and fear of research often exist in minority communities because of assumptions, preconceived ideas, and historical abuse and racism that continue to influence research participation. The research establishment is full of well-meaning 'outsider' investigators who recognize discrimination, health disparities, and insufficient health care providers in minority communities, but struggle in breaking through this history of mistrust. This article provides ethical insights from one such 'insider-outsider', community-based participatory research project implemented via community health advisors in the Mississippi Delta. Both community-based participatory research and community health advisors provide opportunities to address the ethical issues of trust, non-maleficence, and justice in minority communities. Implications for ethics-driven nursing research are discussed.

  14. Strand IV: Environmental and Community Health. Environmental and Public Health, Grades 4-6. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    This prototypic curriculum is designed to develop awareness of the challenges man faces in his crowded communities to insure clean water, pest control, waste removal, safe food handling and adequate community health facilities. It distinguishes between the prevention of future environmental abuse and compensation for past abuses. Both the gaining…

  15. Aligning the goals of community-engaged research: why and how academic health centers can successfully engage with communities to improve health.

    PubMed

    Michener, Lloyd; Cook, Jennifer; Ahmed, Syed M; Yonas, Michael A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2012-03-01

    Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly viewed as the keystone to translational medicine and improving the health of the nation. In this article, the authors seek to assist academic health centers (AHCs) in learning how to better engage with their communities and build a CEnR agenda by suggesting five steps: defining community and identifying partners, learning the etiquette of CE, building a sustainable network of CEnR researchers, recognizing that CEnR will require the development of new methodologies, and improving translation and dissemination plans. Health disparities that lead to uneven access to and quality of care as well as high costs will persist without a CEnR agenda that finds answers to both medical and public health questions. One of the biggest barriers toward a national CEnR agenda, however, are the historical structures and processes of an AHC-including the complexities of how institutional review boards operate, accounting practices and indirect funding policies, and tenure and promotion paths. Changing institutional culture starts with the leadership and commitment of top decision makers in an institution. By aligning the motivations and goals of their researchers, clinicians, and community members into a vision of a healthier population, AHC leadership will not just improve their own institutions but also improve the health of the nation-starting with improving the health of their local communities, one community at a time.

  16. National community health worker programs: how can they be strengthened?

    PubMed

    Gilson, L; Walt, G; Heggenhougen, K; Owuor-Omondi, L; Perera, M; Ross, D; Salazar, L

    1989-01-01

    This article is based on a collaborative research study of policy and practice in national community health worker (CHW) programs in developing countries. The study involved a review of the relevant literature, case studies in Botswana, Colombia and Sri Lanka, and an international workshop where the future of such programs was discussed. The findings of this research are discussed under four headings: unrealistic expectations, poor initial planning, problems of sustainability, and the difficulties of maintaining quality. It is clear that existing national community health worker programs have suffered from conceptual and implementation problems. However, given the interest and political will, governments can address these problems by adopting more flexible approaches within their CHW programs, by planning for them within the context of all health sector activities rather than as a separate activity, and by immediately addressing weaknesses in task allocation, training and supervision. CHWs represent an important health resource, whose potential in extending coverage and providing a reasonable level of care to otherwise underserved populations must be fully tapped.

  17. Community and occupational health concerns in pork production: a review.

    PubMed

    Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    Public concerns relative to adverse consequences of large-scale livestock production have been increasingly voiced since the late 1960s. Numerous regional, national, and international conferences have been held on the subject since 1994. This paper provides a review of the literature on the community and occupational health concerns of large-scale livestock production with a focus on pork production. The industry has recognized the concerns of the public, and the national and state pork producer groups are including these issues as an important component of their research and policy priorities. One reason large-scale livestock production has raised concern is that a significant component of the industry has separated from traditional family farming and has developed like other industries in management, structure, and concentration. The magnitude of the problem cited by environmental groups has often been criticized by the pork production industry for lack of science-based evidence to document environmental concerns. In addition to general environmental concerns, occupational health of workers has become more relevant because many operations now are employing more than 10 employees, which brings many operations in the United States under the scrutiny of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration. In this paper, the scientific literature is reviewed relative to the science basis of occupational and environmental impacts on community and worker health. Further, recommendations are made to help promote sustainability of the livestock industry within the context of maintaining good stewardship of our environmental and human capital. PMID:20154166

  18. Community health insurance schemes & patient satisfaction - evidence from India

    PubMed Central

    Devadasan, N.; Criel, Bart; Damme, Wim Van; Lefevre, Pierre; Manoharan, S.; der Stuyft, Patrick Van

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Quality of care is an important determinant for utilizing health services. In India, the quality of care in most health services is poor. The government recognizes this and has been working on both supply and demand aspects. In particular, it is promoting community health insurance (CHI) schemes, so that patients can access quality services. This observational study was undertaken to measure the level of satisfaction among insured and uninsured patients in two CHI schemes in India. Methods: Patient satisfaction was measured, which is an outcome of good quality care. Two CHI schemes, Action for Community Organisation, Rehabilitation and Development (ACCORD) and Kadamalai Kalanjiam Vattara Sangam (KKVS), were chosen. Randomly selected, insured and uninsured households were interviewed. The household where a patient was admitted to a hospital was interviewed in depth about the health seeking behaviour, the cost of treatment and the satisfaction levels. Results: It was found that at both ACCORD and KKVS, there was no significant difference in the levels of satisfaction between the insured and uninsured patients. The main reasons for satisfaction were the availability of doctors and medicines and the recovery by the patient. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed that insured hospitalized patients did not have significantly higher levels of satisfaction compared to uninsured hospitalized patients. If CHI schemes want to improve the quality of care for their clients, so that they adhere to the scheme, the scheme managers need to negotiate actively for better quality of care with empanelled providers. PMID:21321418

  19. [Violence against women in the perspective of community health agents].

    PubMed

    Hesler, Lilian Zielke; da Costa, Marta Cocco; Resta, Darielli Gindri; Colomé, Isabel Cristina dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    The current study has the objective of learning and understanding how Community Health Agents conceptualize, develop and perform strategies to counter violence against women attending the Family Health Strategies in a northeastern municipality of Rio Grande do Sul. It is an exploratory research, utilizing a descriptive and qualitative approach, carried out with 35 Community Health Agents. Semi-structured interviews were performed to collect the data, which were analyzed using the thematic model. Conceptions of violence against women are centered around violence as a social construction based on gender inequalities and on violence as having a multifactorial construction. Regarding care practices and interventions to counter violence, the following tools are highlighted construction of intervention strategies within the staff forming bonds, listening and dialogue with the women victims of violence; and directing victims to support services. We believe that this study contributes to the visibility of this theme as a need in health care, as well as for the construction of strategies to counter it.

  20. The challenge of measuring community values in ways appropriate for setting health care priorities.

    PubMed

    Ubel, Peter A

    1999-09-01

    The move from a notion that community values ought to play a role in health care decision making to the creation of health care policies that in some way reflect such values is a challenging one. No single method will adequately measure community values in a way appropriate for setting health care priorities. Consequently, multiple methods to measure community values should be employed, thereby allowing the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods to complement each other. A preliminary research agenda to bring together empirical research on community values with more traditional research on health care ethics is outlined, with the goal of identifying and measuring acceptable community values that are relatively consistent across measurement methods and, ultimately, developing ways to incorporate these values into health care priority decision making.