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Sample records for community medicine

  1. Family Medicine in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Michael; Wootton, J.S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Recruitment of physicians for rural communities is a continuing problem in Canada. Medical schools can be involved through preferential admission policies. Departments of family medicine across the country are including on-site training in rural communities and are seeking to improve their rural program curriculum. The McGill rural program is described from its origins to its present state. A rural coordinator oversees 12 sites at which both residents and students are trained. One site at Shawville, Que, is described from a rural physician's point of view. Imagesp2011-ap2012-ap2014-a PMID:21233945

  2. Is there a discipline of community medicine?

    PubMed

    Brickner, P W

    1976-06-01

    Community Medicine is a distinct and definable discipline. Through Community Medicine Departments of medical schools and hospitals, patient care, teaching and research programs are conducted in an integrated fashion, concerned with a broad definition of health which is beyond the range of other clinical departments. Because Community Medicine is a developing field, and Departments of Community Medicine are not rigidly tied to traditional approaches, there exist unusual opportunities for new design and fresh insight. Community Medicine is in the fore of Medicine's ability to evolve with the society around us. Community Medicine both identifies the need for change, and acts as an agent for the change. There are obstacles. The most difficult challenges we face are obtaining curriculum time for a new discipline which, to those caught in "the vice-like irrational grip of tradition" (18), may not appear worthy; and ridding ourselves of the sterotype that the hospital can be the single unified source of health care for all community people. These problems are being resolved, however, and the inherent value of community medicine as a new body of theory and practice becomes increasingly clear.

  3. Bringing Precision Medicine to Community Oncologists.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    Quest Diagnostics has teamed up with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and IBM Watson Health to offer IBM Watson Genomics to its network of community cancer centers and hospitals. This new service aims to advance precision medicine by combining genomic tumor sequencing with the power of cognitive computing.

  4. Teaching Community Medicine to Undergraduates: The Role of Student Projects

    PubMed Central

    Kaufert, J. M.; Fish, D. G.; Hildes, J.; Krause, R.

    1981-01-01

    The community medicine primary care clerkship at the University of Manitoba integrates didactic elements, clinical placements and student projects in teaching community medicine. The clinical clerkship is undertaken in a variety of community settings and emphasizes ambulatory care. The rotation for each student is eight weeks, six of which are spent in the clinical clerkship, bracketed by two weeks of community medicine. Student research projects allow medical students to become familiar with the principles of population-based and community-oriented medicine as applied in clinical practice. Evaluation of 156 projects completed during the first two years of the program indicates that a wide range of community-based health problems were identified and a variety of methodological approaches applied. PMID:21289697

  5. Preventive and Community Medicine in Primary Care. Teaching of Preventive Medicine Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, William H., Ed.

    This monograph is the result of a conference on the role of preventive and community medicine in primary medical care and education. The following six papers were presented at the conference: (1) Roles of Departments of Preventive Medicine; (2) Competency-Based Objectives in Preventive Medicine for the Family Physician; (3) Preventive Medicine…

  6. Community Medicine in India — Which Way Forward?

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Today, the Community Medicine professionals in India feel both “confused” and “threatened” by the mushrooming of schools of public health and departments of family medicine. The phenomenon of identity crisis and low-self esteem is not a recent one, nor is it restricted to India. The disciplines of community medicine and public health have evolved differently and despite some overlaps have differences especially in the need for clinical training. The core of the issue is that while the community medicine fraternity is keen to retain its clinical tag, what differentiates it from clinicians is the use of public health approach. I believe the strength of community medicine is that it bridges the gap between traditional fields of public health and clinical medicine and brings community perspective into health. The perceived threat from non-medical persons led public health is largely a result of us undervaluing our strength and our inability to foster partnership on equal footing with non-clinicians. While departments of community medicine have a fully functional rural or urban field practice area used for training at primary level care, these can serve as an excellent platform for training in secondary level care required for family medicine. National needs dictate that all three disciplines are required for improvement of population health, whether these are housed together or separately can be left to individual institutions to decide as long as they enable collaborations between them. We need to strengthen community medicine and market it appropriately to ministries of health. PMID:26917866

  7. Opportunities for the Cardiovascular Community in the Precision Medicine Initiative.

    PubMed

    Shah, Svati H; Arnett, Donna; Houser, Steven R; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; MacRae, Calum; Mital, Seema; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hall, Jennifer L

    2016-01-12

    The Precision Medicine Initiative recently announced by President Barack Obama seeks to move the field of precision medicine more rapidly into clinical care. Precision medicine revolves around the concept of integrating individual-level data including genomics, biomarkers, lifestyle and other environmental factors, wearable device physiological data, and information from electronic health records to ultimately provide better clinical care to individual patients. The Precision Medicine Initiative as currently structured will primarily fund efforts in cancer genomics with longer-term goals of advancing precision medicine to all areas of health, and will be supported through creation of a 1 million person cohort study across the United States. This focused effort on precision medicine provides scientists, clinicians, and patients within the cardiovascular community an opportunity to work together boldly to advance clinical care; the community needs to be aware and engaged in the process as it progresses. This article provides a framework for potential involvement of the cardiovascular community in the Precision Medicine Initiative, while highlighting significant challenges for its successful implementation.

  8. Community medicine teaching and evaluation: scope of betterment.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S; Kumar, P Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    There have been rapid and extensive changes in the way assessment is conducted in medical education. Assessment brings about standardization of the manner in which the syllabus is to be implemented and also gives guidelines regarding the teaching pattern, especially when the student is going to rotate through various departments in a medical college. Community Medicine is an important branch of medicine concerned with the health of populations. Existing forms of assessment of community medicine education mainly consists of internal [formative] assessment and final (summative) examination. Advantages of the present system is the similarity of the methods used for internal assessments and final examinations and is relatively easily done since only the knowledge application and recall ability of the student in theory and practical are assessed. Disadvantages in the current evaluation system are neglecting the assessment of psychomotor, affective and communication skills. Evaluation systems can be improved by implementing techniques to assess psychomotor skills, presentation and communication skills, organizational skills and the student's ability to work in a team. Regular feedback from students should be taken periodically for the betterment of Community Medicine education. This article is meant to sensitise the academic experts in medical education to plan better need based methods of assessment in the subject of Community Medicine, in relation to the new MCI 2012 Regulations, in order to make it a better learning experience for the students.

  9. [Pharmacists in community medicine: especially in cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    It is important for clinics and hospitals to cooperate in treating cancer patients in the community health. We are treating cancer patients in cooperation with five general hospitals in Shizuoka and about 100 clinics in the same community. In this system, it is required that pharmacists in the community should have knowledge about beneficial effects and adverse events of anticancer drugs as do hospital pharmacists, and furthermore they should have good communication with cancer patients. The expectation for pharmacists is great in community medicine especially in the treatment of cancer patients.

  10. Reading Communities and Hippocratism in Hellenistic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Berrey, Marquis

    2015-09-01

    The sect of ancient Greek physicians who believed that medical knowledge came from personal experience also read the Hippocratic Corpus intensively. While previous scholarship has concentrated on the contributions of individual physicians to ancient scholarship on Hippocrates, this article seeks to identify those characteristics of Empiricist reading methodology that drove an entire medical community to credit Hippocrates with medical authority. To explain why these physicians appealed to Hippocrates' authority, I deploy surviving testimonia and fragments to describe the skills, practices, and ideologies of the reading community of ancient Empiricist physicians over the one-hundred year period 175 to 75 BCE. The Empiricist conception of testimony taken on trust operative within that reading community elided the modern distinction between personal and institutional targets of trust by treating Hippocratic writings as revelatory of the moral character of Hippocrates as an author. Hippocrates' moral character as an honest witness who accurately observed empirical phenomena aligned with the epistemic virtues of an empirical medical community who believed that medical knowledge came from personal experience. So I argue that Empiricist reading culture constructed a moral authority of honesty and accuracy from Hippocratic writings, enlarged the personal authority of Hippocrates among medical readers, and contributed to the development of Hippocratism.

  11. Emergency medicine systems advancement through community-based development.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings.

  12. The Role of the Black Church in Community Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Jeffrey S.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the black church has been the preserver and the perpetuator of the black ethos, the radix from which its defining values and norms have been generated, and the autonomous social institution that has provided order and meaning to the black experience in the United States. The traditional ethic of community-oriented service in the black ethos is highly compatible with the communitarian ethic of community medicine. Given this congruence and the much-documented fact that black Americans are an at-risk and under-served group regarding health status indicators and the provision of preventive health care, respectively, the black church is an extremely relevant locus for the practice of community medicine. A number of health programs based in or affiliated with the black church have operated throughout the United States, and these programs, along with the corpus of literature comprising conceptual articles favorable toward such a role for the black church, are reviewed within four areas of community medicine: primary care delivery, community mental health, health promotion and disease prevention, and health policy. PMID:6737505

  13. [Family and community medicine and the university. SESPAS report 2010].

    PubMed

    Casado Vicente, Verónica; Bonal Pitz, Pablo; Cucalón Arenal, José Manuel; Serrano Ferrández, Elena; Suárez Gonzalez, Félix

    2012-03-01

    Family and community medicine is an academic subject, a medical specialty and a health profession with distinct dimensions: healthcare, teaching, research and management. In this discipline, the object of knowledge is the person, understood as a whole. Family medicine, as an academic subject, and primary care, as a health education setting, should be incorporated into the core graduate and postgraduate curricula. The absence of these elements leads to training bias and has major repercussions on quality, coordination and patient safety. The development of the Health Professions Act and the construction of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) have created a favorable climate for the presence of this discipline in the university. Since the 1960s, family medicine has been consolidated as an academic subject with its own departments in almost all European universities, and a significant number of family physicians are teachers. A balance has been achieved between the hospital-based system (based on theory, disease, and the biological model) and the patient-centred model (based on problem solving, community-oriented and the bio-psycho-social model). The introduction of family and community medicine as a specific subject, and as a transverse subject and as an option in practicals, represents the adaptation of the educational system to social needs. This adaptation also represents a convergence with other European countries and the various legal requirements protecting this convergence. However, this new situation requires a new structure (departments) and faculty (professors and associate and assistant professors).

  14. Community case management of malaria: exploring support, capacity and motivation of community medicine distributors in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Banek, Kristin; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Catherine; DiLiberto, Deborah; Taaka, Lilian; Chandler, Clare I R; Staedke, Sarah G

    2015-01-01

    Background In Uganda, community services for febrile children are expanding from presumptive treatment of fever with anti-malarials through the home-based management of fever (HBMF) programme, to include treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia through Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM). To understand the level of support available, and the capacity and motivation of community health workers to deliver these expanded services, we interviewed community medicine distributors (CMDs), who had been involved in the HBMF programme in Tororo district, shortly before ICCM was adopted. Methods Between October 2009 and April 2010, 100 CMDs were recruited to participate by convenience sampling. The survey included questionnaires to gather information about the CMDs’ work experience and to assess knowledge of fever case management, and in-depth interviews to discuss experiences as CMDs including motivation, supervision and relationships with the community. All questionnaires and knowledge assessments were analysed. Summary contact sheets were made for each of the 100 interviews and 35 were chosen for full transcription and analysis. Results CMDs faced multiple challenges including high patient load, limited knowledge and supervision, lack of compensation, limited drugs and supplies, and unrealistic expectations of community members. CMDs described being motivated to volunteer for altruistic reasons; however, the main benefits of their work appeared related to ‘becoming someone important’, with the potential for social mobility for self and family, including building relationships with health workers. At the time of the survey, over half of CMDs felt demotivated due to limited support from communities and the health system. Conclusions Community health worker programmes rely on the support of communities and health systems to operate sustainably. When this support falls short, motivation of volunteers can wane. If community interventions, in increasingly

  15. Anaphylaxis challenges on the front line: perspectives from community medicine.

    PubMed

    Bennett, John R; Fromer, Leonard; Hayden, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    This report reflects a discussion from the multidisciplinary Partnership for Anaphylaxis Round Table meeting, held in November 2012, in Dallas, Texas. Community medicine participants included John R. Bennett, MD, an internist who practiced in Cumming, Georgia, and whose patients were adults; Leonard Fromer, MD, a family practitioner in Los Angeles, California, who was the medical director of a network of 600 medical groups, including pediatricians, internists, and family physicians, and who in his previous practice treated children and adults, many of them with severe allergies; and Mary Lou Hayden, MS, RN, FNP-BC, AE-C, a nurse practitioner who treated adults in a university employee health clinic and in an allergy clinic in Charlottesville, Virginia, and whose prior practice focused on allergy and immunology in children and adults. This discussion was moderated by Dr Bennett. Participants provided their perspectives as primary care providers (PCPs) concerning anaphylaxis, which has become a major public health concern. The rising prevalence of severe allergies and incidence of anaphylaxis and other severe allergic reactions among children and adults is shifting more care to PCPs. This discussion provides insights into challenges faced by PCPs in treating patients at risk for anaphylaxis in the community setting and provides potential solutions to those challenges.

  16. The Future of Family Medicine: A Collaborative Project of the Family Medicine Community

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    . Family medicine education must continue to include training in maternity care, the care of hospitalized patients, community and population health, and culturally effective and proficient care. A comprehensive lifelong learning program for each family physician will support continuous personal, professional, and clinical practice assessment and improvement. Ultimately, systemwide changes will be needed to ensure high-quality health care for all Americans. Such changes include taking steps to ensure that every American has a personal medical home, promoting the use and reporting of quality measures to improve performance and service, advocating that every American have health care coverage for basic services and protection against extraordinary health care costs, advancing research that supports the clinical decision making of family physicians and other primary care clinicians, and developing reimbursement models to sustain family medicine and primary care practices. CONCLUSIONS The leadership of US family medicine organizations is committed to a transformative process. In partnership with others, this process has the potential to integrate health care to improve the health of all Americans. PMID:15080220

  17. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  18. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in

  19. Knowledge of and attitudes to medicines in the Southampton community.

    PubMed Central

    Ridout, S; Waters, W E; George, C F

    1986-01-01

    A 1 in 200 sample of the Southampton electorate was sent a postal questionnaire in January, 1984. Of the 740 adults surveyed, 443 (59.9%) returned completed questionnaires. One hundred and eighty-eight (42.4%) of those replying had been prescribed a medicine within the previous month. Two hundred and seventy-five respondents (62%) felt that not enough was explained about medicines by doctors or pharmacists. Consistent with this, was the fact that 37% were unaware of safe methods of disposal of leftover medicines. In addition, 112 of 154 (72.7%) people currently taking a prescribed medicine knew of no side-effects which could result from this. Eighty-three per cent of respondents thought an information leaflet would be helpful. Of nine items which previous authors had suggested should be included, seven were thought to be important by more than 75% of those replying. Although 54% of people wanted detailed information, 43% stated a preference for short, summarized points. We conclude that most patients need to have more information about prescribed medicines and they would welcome written leaflets. However, further work is necessary to determine the best format for such leaflets. PMID:3741718

  20. WORKSAFE IOWA Occupational Medicine Associates Network: a university--community partnership in occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J A; Walkner, L; Mikulski, M

    2001-01-01

    The WORKSAFE IOWA Occupational Medicine Associates Network is a unique health care model for dispensing regional occupational medicine services in the state of Iowa, USA. WORKSAFE IOWA is an educational, informational, and consultation service of the College of Public Health at The University of Iowa. WORKSAFE IOWA includes a fee-for-service industrial hygiene program, the Occupational Medicine Associates Network, and educational and informational services. The Associates Network provides education, information, and consultation in exchange for an annual fee paid by each Associate to the university-based network. The Associates clinics provide comprehensive occupational medicine services to up to 1,500 clients through 66,000 annual clinic visits in their respective communities. The Associates Network has been financially self-sustaining over a period of 10 years, and has proven to provide valuable services to the community-based Associates, and to provide excellent training opportunities for the University students in several occupational safety and health disciplines.

  1. How can departments of community medicine shape the future of public health education in India?

    PubMed

    Negandhi, Himanshu; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2010-01-01

    In order to effectively respond to a changing public health paradigm, it is imperative that the medical education and overall public health education (PHE) parallel the public health challenges faced by countries. Community medicine departments play a crucial role in PHE. This review analyzes the current situation of community medicine departments in the context of PHE, using a framework that outlines academic activities undertaken by these departments. This framework includes the syllabus of academic programs, internship, and infrastructure and faculty strength in the community medicine departments. The review also discusses how skill building of existing faculty members can help us in addressing emerging public health issues, and the role of partnerships and collaborative activities in advancing the PHE agenda, thereby continuing to shape the role played by these departments toward shaping the future of PHE in India.

  2. Medicine shortages in Australia: causes, impact and management strategies in the community setting.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee Xi; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-10-01

    Background Medicine shortages are an ongoing global problem. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) dedicated a website for monitoring of medicine shortages in Australia in May 2014, as part of the Medicine Shortage Information Initiative. This study aimed to explore the views of pharmacists regarding medicine shortages in the community setting and the impact of the TGA website in Australia. Setting Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. Method Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists. Data collected were analysed thematically utilising the framework analysis method. Main outcome measure Qualitative analysis conducted using the framework approach. Results Findings clearly indicated that medicine shortages were experienced on a regular basis, but most participants were unaware of the TGA website. Medicine shortages reportedly impacted both pharmacists and consumers; and various workarounds were undertaken to manage the issue. The "price disclosure policy" was found to be a prominent contributing factor in emerging shortages. Suggestions were made for ways to improve the growing occurrence of shortages. Conclusion Overall, the study found that there was a lack of familiarity with the TGA website, despite experiencing regular shortages of medicines in practice. Also highlighted, was the importance of pharmacists prioritising patient care over business decisions. To reduce prescribing of out-of-stock medicines notifying doctors about shortages was also considered important, to allow for early action to be taken at higher levels of the supply chain. Findings of this study may help direct future policy-making around the world, as medicine shortages is a problem shared by healthcare providers in most countries around the world.

  3. Changing the culture of a medical school by orienting students and faculty toward community medicine.

    PubMed

    Duffy, F Daniel; Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Clancy, Gerard P; Van De Wiele, C Justin; Teague, T Kent; Crow, Sheila; Kollaja, Elizabeth A; Fox, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Oklahoma's health status has been ranked among the worst in the country. In 1972, the University of Oklahoma established the Tulsa branch of its College of Medicine (COM) to expand the physician workforce for northeastern Oklahoma and to provide care for the uninsured patients of the area. In 2008, the Tulsa branch launched a distinct educational track, the University of Oklahoma COM's School of Community Medicine (SCM), to prepare providers equipped and committed to addressing prevalent health disparities.The authors describe the Tulsa branch's Summer Institute (SI), a signature program of the SCM, and how it is part of SCM's process of institutional transformation to align its education, service, and research missions toward improving the health status of the entire region. The SI is a weeklong, prematriculation immersion experience in community medicine. It brings entering medical and physician assistant students together with students and faculty from other disciplines to develop a shared culture of community medicine. The SI uses an unconventional curriculum, based on Scharmer's Theory U, which emphasizes appreciative inquiry, critical thinking, and collaborative problem solving. Also, the curriculum includes Professional Meaning conversations, small-group sessions to facilitate the integration of students' observations into their professional identities and commitments. Development of prototypes of a better health care system enables participants to learn by doing and to bring community medicine to life.The authors describe these and other curricular elements of the SI, present early evaluation data, and discuss the curriculum's incremental evolution. A longitudinal outcomes evaluation is under way.

  4. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n = 74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (≤ 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and

  5. Herbal medicines supplied by community pharmacies in Lagos, Nigeria: pharmacists’ knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Oreagba, Ibrahim A.; Ogunleye, Olayinka O.; Oluwa, Rashidat; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Olayemi, Sunday O.

    Background The use of herbal medicines is on the increase globally and they are usually supplied in pharmacies as non-prescription medicines. Pharmacists are, therefore, responsible for educating and informing the consumers about rational use of herbal medicines. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria with regards to the herbal medicines they supplied by their pharmacies. Methods Pharmacists in charge of randomly selected 140 community pharmacies from 20 Local Government Areas in Lagos were required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. We gathered information on their knowledge of the indications, adverse effects, potential drug-herb interactions and contraindications of the herbal medicines they supply in their pharmacies. Results Of the 140 questionnaires distributed, 103 (72.9%) participants completed the questionnaire appropriately. The majority (74; 71.8%) of the participants were males and 36-50 years (56; 54.4%). The pharmacies supplied mostly Yoyo cleanser bitters® (101; 98.5%), ginseng (97; 98.5%), Jobelyn® (91; 88.3%), Ciklavit® (68; 66.6%), gingko (66; 64.1%), herbal tea (66; 64.1%), and Aloe vera (57; 55.3%). The pharmacists self-rated their knowledge of herbal medicines mostly as fair (39%) and good (42%), but they exhibited poor knowledge with regards to the indications, contraindications and safety profiles. Seventy participants consulted reference materials such as leaflet insert in the herbal medicines (56%) and internet (20%) before supplying herbal medicines. The information most frequently sought was herb-drug interactions (85%), contraindications (75%) and adverse effects (70%). Conclusions Community pharmacists need to be informed about the indications and safety profiles of herbal medicines. PMID:24367462

  6. Traditional healing practice and folk medicines used by Mishing community of North East India

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Lavekar, G. S.; Deb, S.; Sharma, B. K.

    2012-01-01

    Assam and Arunachal Pradesh have very rich tradition of herbal medicines used in the treatment of various ailments. Tribal communities practice different types of traditional healing practices. Enough documentation is available on the healing practices in other tribal communities except Mishing community of Assam and foot hill of East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh hence the attempt was made for the same. A survey on folk medicinal plants and folk healers of Mishing tribe was conducted in few places of Lakhimpur and Dhemaji district of Assam and East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, where this ethnic group is living since time immemorial. All information was collected based on interview and field studies with local healers within the community. The identification of medicinal plants collected with help of indigenous healers was done. Such medicines have been shown to have significant healing power, either in their natural state or as the source of new products processed by them. This study is mainly concentrated with plants used to cure diseases and to enquire about different healing systems. Detail note on the method of preparation of precise dose, the part/parts of plants used and method of application is given. PMID:23125508

  7. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  8. Health and disease in context: a community-based social medicine curriculum.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Jessica; Solotaroff, Rachel; Amann, Ted; Michael, Yvonne; Bowen, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention paid to the role of social forces in determining health, most physicians finish their training ill-prepared to address these issues. The authors describe their efforts to fill that training gap for internal medicine residents at Oregon Health and Science University through a community-based social medicine curriculum, designed in 2006 in conjunction with community partners at Central City Concern (CCC), an organization addressing homelessness, poverty, and addiction in downtown Portland, Oregon. The challenge was to develop a curriculum that would (1) fit within the scheduling constraints of an established categorical internal medicine residency program, (2) give all internal medicine residents a chance to better understand how social forces affect health, and (3) help show how they, as health professionals, might intervene to improve health and health care. The authors maintain that by developing this curriculum with community partners--who took the lead in deciding what residents should learn about their community and how they should learn it--the residency program is providing a relatively brief but extremely rich opportunity for residents to engage the personal, social, and health-related issues experienced by clients served by CCC. The authors first provide a brief overview of the curriculum and describe how the principles and practices of community-based participatory research were used in its development. They then discuss the challenges involved in teaching medical residents about social determinants of health, how their academic-community partnership approaches those challenges, and the recently established methods of evaluating the curriculum.

  9. Creation of medicinal chemistry learning communities through enhanced technology and interdisciplinary collaboration.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Brian; Roche, Victoria

    2012-10-12

    Objectives. To build an integrated medicinal chemistry learning community of campus and distance pharmacy students though the use of innovative technology and interdisciplinary teaching.Design. Mechanisms were implemented to bring distance students into campus-based medicinal chemistry classrooms in real time, stimulate interaction between instructors and various student cohorts, and promote group work during class. Also, pharmacy clinician colleagues were recruited to contribute to the teaching of the 3 medicinal chemistry courses.Assessment. Student perceptions on the value of technology to build community and advance learning were gleaned from course evaluations, in class feedback, and conversations with class officers and student groups. Responses on a survey of second-year students confirmed the benefits of interdisciplinary content integration on engagement and awareness of the connection between drug chemistry and pharmacy practice. A survey of clinician colleagues who contributed to teaching the 3 medicinal chemistry courses found their views were similar to those of students.Conclusions. The purposeful use of technology united learners, fostered communication, and advanced content comprehension in 3 medicinal chemistry courses taught to campus and distance students. Teaching collaboration with pharmacy clinicians enhanced learner interest in course content and provided insight into the integrated nature of the profession of pharmacy.

  10. The perceptions of one department of preventive medicine about its obligations to the larger community.

    PubMed

    Louria, D B

    1989-01-01

    We believe that Department of Preventive Medicine must be actively involved in important societal issues. We have attempted to meet our commitments by: (I) developing position papers for distribution to our state legislators and Congressional delegation; (2) a focus on problems plaguing the community (cancer care, drug abuse, lead poisoning); (3) developing and implementing a health promotion program that is inexpensive, adequately documented, and effective; (4) being involved in various international medicine activities; and (5) starting a chapter of the World Future Society as part of an attempt to introduce futurism into universities, colleges and high schools in New Jersey.

  11. A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet Community in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The medicinal plants used by herbalists in Kenya have not been well documented, despite their widespread use. The threat of complete disappearance of the knowledge on herbal medicine from factors such as deforestation, lack of proper regulation, overexploitation and sociocultural issues warrants an urgent need to document the information. The purpose of the study was to document information on medicinal plants used by herbalists in Marakwet District towards the utilization of indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge for the advancement of biomedical research and development. Methods Semi- structured oral interviews were conducted with 112 practicing herbalists. The types of plants used were identified and the conditions treated recorded. Results Herbal practice is still common in the district, and 111 plants were identified to have medicinal or related uses. Different herbal preparations including fruits and healing vegetables are employed in the treatment of various medical conditions. Veterinary uses and pesticides were also recorded. Conclusion The study provides comprehensive ethnobotanical information about herbal medicine and healing methods among the Marakwet community. The identification of the active ingredients of the plants used by the herbalists may provide some useful leads for the development of new drugs. PMID:24555424

  12. A Black Theological Response to Race-Based Medicine: Reconciliation in Minority Communities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kirk A

    2017-06-01

    The harm race-based medicine inflicts on minority bodies through race-based experimentation and the false solutions a race-based drug ensues within minority communities provokes concern. Such areas analyze the minority patient in a physical proxy. Though the mind and body are important entities, we cannot forget about the spirit. Healing is not just a physical practice; it includes spiritual practice. Efficient medicine includes the holistic elements of the mind, body, and spirit. Therefore, the spiritual discipline of black theology can be used as a tool to mend the harms of race-based medicine. It can be an avenue of research to further particular concerns for justice in medical care . Such theology contributes to the discussion of race-based medicine indicating the need for the voice, participation, and interdependence of minorities. Black theology can be used as a tool of healing and empowerment for health equity and awareness by exploring black theology's response to race-based medicine, analyzing race in biblical literature, using biblical literature as a tool for minority patient empowerment, building on past and current black church health advocacy with personal leadership in health advocacy.

  13. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia – the “Riozinho do Anfrísio” Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. Methods We used the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, applied to 25 informants. We employed the combined properties of two indices to measure the medicinal importance of each cited species to the studied community, as well as their versatility in the treatment of diseases: the well known Use Value (UV) and the Medicinal Applications Value (MAV) that we developed. Results We recorded 31 species of medicinal animals from six taxonomic categories, seven of which are new to science. The species are used for the treatment of 28 diseases and one species is used as an amulet against snakebites. The five species with the highest UV indices are the most popular and valued by the studied community. Their contrasting MAV indices indicate that they have different therapeutic properties: specific (used for the treatment of few diseases; low versatility) and all-purpose (several diseases; high versatility). Similarly, the most cited diseases were also those that could be treated with a larger number of animal species. Ten species are listed in the CITES appendices and 21 are present in the IUCN Red List. The knowledge about the medicinal use of the local fauna is distributed evenly among the different age groups of the informants. Conclusions This study shows that the local fauna represents an important medicinal resource for the inhabitants of the protected area. The combined use of the UV and MAV indices allowed identifying the species with the highest therapeutic potential. This type of information about a species may be of

  14. Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural African Communities: An Overview of Measures to Maximise the Medicinal Potentials of Indigenous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Njume, Collise; Goduka, Nomalungelo I.

    2012-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities. PMID:23202823

  15. An assessment of implementation of Community-Oriented Primary Care in Kenyan family medicine postgraduate medical education programmes

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Jacob; Taché, Stephanie; Mohamoud, Gulnaz; Mahoney, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya are examining the benefits of Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC) curriculum, as a method to train residents in population-based approaches to health care delivery. Whilst COPC is an established part of family medicine training in the United States, little is known about its application in Kenya. We sought to conduct a qualitative study to explore the development and implementation of COPC curriculum in the first two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Method Semi-structured interviews of COPC educators, practitioners, and academic stakeholders and focus groups of postgraduate students were conducted with COPC educators, practitioners and academic stakeholders in two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Discussions were transcribed, inductively coded and thematically analysed. Results Two focus groups with eight family medicine postgraduate students and interviews with five faculty members at two universities were conducted. Two broad themes emerged from the analysis: expected learning outcomes and important community-based enablers. Three learning outcomes were (1) making a community diagnosis, (2) understanding social determinants of health and (3) training in participatory research. Three community-based enablers for sustainability of COPC were (1) partnerships with community health workers, (2) community empowerment and engagement and (3) institutional financial support. Conclusions Our findings illustrate the expected learning outcomes and important community-based enablers associated with the successful implementation of COPC projects in Kenya and will help to inform future curriculum development in Kenya. PMID:28155322

  16. Application of teledentistry in oral medicine in a community dental service, N. Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M; Black, P; Noble, S; Thompson, R; Lamey, P J

    2010-10-23

    Currently, patients with oral medicine conditions from all areas of Northern Ireland are referred by dentists and doctors to a small number of specialist services: predominantly, the Regional Oral Medicine Consultant at the School of Dentistry, Belfast. On receipt of the referral the consultant makes an assessment of the urgency of the case and the patient is placed on a waiting list. Until the recent implementation of waiting list initiatives (Elective Access Protocol, Department of Health, N. Ireland, 2006), patients remained on the waiting list for long periods of time. Analysis of these patient profiles highlights that many need both multiple treatment and review appointments of their chronic conditions, and consequently remain in the hospital system for significant periods of time. This increases the waiting time for these services. The idea of using teledentistry to triage referrals, and its potential as a tool to support locally based treatment, poses an alternative approach to the management of oral medicine referrals. It may be of particular interest to practitioners in rural locations where distance from the regional centre is significant. In 2005, to test this theory, a prototype teledentistry system was set up as part of a service improvement scheme by the Community Dental Service of the Homefirst Legacy Trust (now Northern Trust) in partnership with the Oral Medicine Department at the School of Dentistry, Royal Group of Hospitals Legacy Trust (now Belfast Trust). This paper describes the feasibility study.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A RURAL COMMUNITY HEALTH CARE MODEL BASED ON INDIAN INDIGENOUS SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Hyma, B.; Ramesh, A.; Subhadra, N.L.

    1988-01-01

    Based on the principles of primary health care as outlined by WHO at the Alma Ata Conference in 1978, many voluntary organizations in India have been formulating, organizing and experimenting with the comprehensive rural community health Schemes. The goal is to indentify the felt needs at both individual and community levels and facilitate direct participation in decision making, develop suitable alternative, ecologically Sound indigenous models for socioeconomic well-being. In this context the Indian system of medicine has a useful and complementary role to play in the preventive and curative aspects of primary health care programmes. With the above objectives in mind the investigators undertook a brief survey of a “comprehensive rural health” project. The primary aim of this project is to develop a community health care model using innovative alternative methods using Indian indigenous system of medicine and participatory research techniques to improve rural health services of the surrounding under privileged villages. Many gaps exist in the assessment, however, a birds eye-view is presented here. PMID:22557645

  18. Medicinal plants used by the Tamang community in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Materials and methods This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation. Results A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies. Conclusions The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use. PMID:24410808

  19. Community-based clinical education increases motivation of medical students to medicine of remote area: comparison between lecture and practice.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students' attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sense of fulfillment and passion in medicine of remote area was significantly increased after the community-based practice. On the other hand, the level of understanding in medicine in remote area was increased by the lecture not by the practice. The intensity of desire both to become a generalist and a specialist was significantly increased when the grade went up. Most of sixth-year students desired to have abilities of a generalist and a specialist simultaneously. This study shows that the community-based practice is more meaningful in increasing motivation in medicine in remote area than the lecture, and suggests that it is important to prepare more courses to experience community medicine to increase the number of physicians who desire to work in remote area.

  20. Implementing Community Engagement as a Mission at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Brown, Arleen; Moreno, Gerardo; Cuen, Pattie; Uy, Visith; Vangala, Sitaram; Bell, Douglas; Washington, A. Eugene; Norris, Keith C.; Mangione, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Summary This manuscript describes the development and implementation of community engagement as a mission at UCLA’s David Geffen School of Medicine (DGSOM) and UCLA Health System, and summarizes survey results documenting existing community-engaged projects and interest between 2010 to 2013. PMID:27158216

  1. Implementing Community Engagement as a Mission at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Brown, Arleen; Moreno, Gerardo; Cuen, Pattie; Uy, Visith; Vangala, Sitaram; Bell, Douglas; Washington, A Eugene; Norris, Keith C; Mangione, Carol

    2016-02-01

    This manuscript describes the development and implementation of community engagement as a mission at UCLA's David Geffen School of Medicine (DGSOM) and UCLA Health System, and summarizes survey results documenting existing community-engaged projects and interest between 2010 to 2013.

  2. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  3. Environmental and occupational medicine and injury prevention: education and impact, classroom and community.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar

    2002-01-01

    The core value guiding the work of physicians and health workers, including those in Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology and Medicine and Injury Prevention, is to protect the health of the public, especially its most vulnerable individuals. In these fields, we emphasize teaching the use of epidemiology, the core discipline of public health, as a tool for early detection and prevention of disease and injury, as well as an instrument for hypothesis testing. The classic core topics are toxic and physical exposures and their effects, and strategies for their prevention; emerging issues are child labor, mass violence, and democide. In environmental health, students need to be prepared for the reality that the most important and severe problems are often the most difficult to investigate, solve, and evaluate. The following are some recommendations for producing graduates who are effective in protecting communities from environmental hazards and risks: (1) Teach the precautionary principle and its application; (2) Evaluate programs for teaching environmental and occupational health, medicine and epidemiology in schools of public health by their impact on the WHO health indicators and their impact on measures of ecosystem sustainability; (3) Develop problem-oriented projects and give academic credit for projects with definable public health impact and redefine the role of the health officer as the chief resident for Schools of Public Health and Community Medicine; (4) Teach the abuses of child labor and working conditions of women in the workplace and how to prevent the hazards and risks from the more common types of child work; (5) Upgrade teaching of injury prevention and prevention of deaths from external causes; (6) Teach students to recognize the insensitivity of epidemiology as a tool for early detection of true risk; (7) Teach the importance of context in the use of tests of statistical significance; (8) Teach the epidemiologic importance of short latency

  4. [Marketing of medicinal products in the European Community. The Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The Mutual Recognition Procedure (MRP) and the Decentralised Procedure (DCP), which were first established in late 2005, can be regarded as the backbone for marketing authorisation of medicinal products in the European Community (EC) and the European Economic Area (EEA). Both procedures are compared and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. However, the focus is more related to current developments than the detailed comparison of both procedures. The role of the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMD(h)) and the decision making process in relation to the MRP and DCP is also discussed.

  5. Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS) in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to address the gaps in attitudes

  6. Scientific validation of medicinal plants used by Yakkha community of Chanuwa VDC, Dhankuta, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Subba, Bimala; Srivastav, Chitranjan; Kandel, Ram Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is important among tribal people, but much of the information is empirical due to the lack of scientific validation. The purpose of this study was to document the medicinal plants used by an ethnic group (Yakkha) at Chanuwa VDC of Dhankuta district in Nepal and to validate scientifically in the use of plants based on results of phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant property analyses and available literature reports. Data were collected through interviews of the Yakkha people with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field walk method. A total of 30 different medicinal plants were recorded along with their vernacular names (for few plants) used by the Yakkha community's people. Literature review reveals that most of the plant species described herein have also been used in other countries, too. Among 30 plants selected for this study methanol extract of five ethno-medicinal plants viz., Dendrocnide sinuata, Solanum anguivi, Pogostemon cablin, Boehmeria platyphylla and Clerodendrum trichotomum and ethanol extract of C. trichotomum were subjected for antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The antimicrobial activities were measured using the paper disc diffusion method. The antioxidant properties of plants were measured by DPPH and FRAP reduction assay. Among all extracts, ethanol extract of C. trichotomum and methanol extract of B. platyphylla displayed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activities, respectively.

  7. Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.

  8. [A model of occupational, environmental and community medicine. History and evolution of the Hospital Unit of Occupational Medicine (UOOML) in Lombardia].

    PubMed

    Cirla, A M; Feltrin, G

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe the historical evolution of the prevention in Lombardia, and the role of the Hospital Units for Occupational Medicine, not only on the clinical oriented fields, but also on the areas of formation and training. Hospital Units for Occupational Medicine are today the best synthesis of "occupational-environmental-community health". There development is based on adequate standards of human and instrumental resources, as so as a real financial budget. At last, it's important that these Units are allocated in a so-called "bipolar department", open to the hospital and also open to the territorial structures for prevention and safety (department of occupational health).

  9. Building learning communities: evolution of the colleges at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Amy; Cutrer, William; Moutsios, Sandi; Heavrin, Benjamin; Pilla, Michael; Eichbaum, Quentin; Rodgers, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Learning communities, which are an emerging trend in medical education, create a foundation for professional and academic development through the establishment of longitudinal relationships between students and faculty. In this article, the authors describe the robust learning community system at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, which encompasses wellness, career planning, professional development, and academics.The Vanderbilt Advisory Colleges Program introduced in 2006 initially focused on two goals: promoting wellness and providing career advising. In the 2011-2012 academic year, the focus of the colleges expanded to incorporate an enhanced level of personal career advising and an academic component. In the four-year College Colloquium course, faculty selected as college mentors teach the medical humanities and lead sessions dedicated to student professional development in the areas of leadership, research, and service-learning. This academic and professional development program builds on the existing strengths of the colleges and has transformed the colleges into learning communities.The authors reflect on lessons learned and discuss future plans. They report that internal data and data from the Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire support consistently high and increasing satisfaction among Vanderbilt medical students, across the metrics of personal counseling, faculty mentoring, and career planning.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine in the management of hypertension in an urban Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a common non communicable condition worldwide. In developing countries (including Nigeria), the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common. This study investigated the frequency and factors associated with use of CAM among hypertensive subjects in an urban Nigerian community. Perspectives about the management of hypertension were obtained from CAM practitioners in the community. Methods Four hundred and forty hypertensive subjects in Idikan community, Ibadan, were interviewed using a semi-structured survey instrument. Association between categorical variables was tested using the chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify independent predictor variables of CAM use, with CAM use as the outcome variable and the demographic and belief items as predictor variables. In-depth interviews were conducted with all known CAM practitioners in the community on issues relating to their beliefs, knowledge, practice and experiences in managing patients with hypertension in the community. Results In the study sample, 29% used CAM in the management of their hypertension. Among those using CAM, the most common forms used were herbs (63%) and garlic (21%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that four variables were independent predictors of CAM use: being male (OR 2.58, p < 0.0001), belief in supernatural causes of hypertension (OR 2.11, p = 0.012), lack of belief that hypertension is preventable (OR 0.57, p = 0.014) and having a family history of hypertension (OR1.78, p = 0.042). Other factors such as age, educational level and occupation were not independent predictors of CAM use. Interviews with CAM practitioners revealed that they believed hypertension was caused by evil forces, stress or "too much blood in the body". They also thought they could cure hypertension but that reduced costs (compared to hospitals) was one of the reasons most of their clients consult them. Conclusions The use of CAM is common

  11. Professional status in a changing world: The case of medicines use reviews in English community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ruth; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Sanders, Caroline; Ashcroft, Darren

    2010-08-01

    The health professions are engaged in an ongoing and dynamic process involving reflection and adaptation, with factors such as socio-economic and cultural developments and technological innovations compelling professions to respond to changed circumstances. This paper concerns English community pharmacy, where recent reforms provide financial incentives to deliver interventions, which have the potential for pharmacists to promote their knowledge and skills, as part of a professionalising strategy. The paper, drawing on interviews with 49 pharmacists, describes how responses to reforms are not necessarily in accordance with either national policy goals or enhancement of professional status. Debates about professional status and role extension have often focused on health professions' subordination to medicine. This paper highlights the importance and interplay of other factors which help explain the inability to capitalise fully on the potential contribution to professional status, which reforms to extend professional roles afford.

  12. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community.

    PubMed

    Desai, Tejas; Patwardhan, Manish; Coore, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets). We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions) comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p < 0.0001). Faculty authored 49% of all 867 tweets (p < 0.0001). Their tweets were the most likely to be amplified (52%, p < 0.01). Faculty had the greatest influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p < 0.0001). Being a faculty member had no predictive effect on influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6). The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank) were the number of tweets authored (p < 0.0001) and number of tweets amplified (p < 0.0001) The status of "faculty member" did not confer a greater influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority.

  13. [South-South cooperation to strengthen the medicines control laboratories of the Caribbean community (CARICOM)].

    PubMed

    Parisi, José María; Castro, José Luis; Luque, María Celina; Spinetto, Marta; Saidón, Patricia; Fitzgerald, James

    2016-05-01

    Objective To describe the benefits obtained through South-South and triangular cooperation as a potential tool for strengthening medicine quality control in official medicines control laboratories (OMCLs) of the Region of the Americas. Methods Descriptive study of the project for strengthening drug quality control in OMCLs of the Caribbean community (CARICOM). Results Staff members of Argentina's National Administration for Drugs, Food, and Medical Technology (ANMAT) provided training to professionals from Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. The project was funded by the Argentine Fund for South-South and Triangular Cooperation (FO.AR) and coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Documents on good laboratory practice (GLP) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Network for Drug Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH) were reviewed, and the area of physical and chemical controls was strengthened, primarily for drugs to treat tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS, all of which are strategically important to those countries. Conclusion This type of collaboration makes it possible to share experiences, optimize resources, harmonize procedures and regulations, and strengthen human resource capacities. In addition, it is a valuable tool for reducing asymmetries in various areas among the different countries of our Region.

  14. [Effects of intercropping peanut with medicinal plants on soil microbial community].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Xing-Xiang; Dai, Chuan-Chao; Chen, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Tao-Lin

    2007-03-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the quantitative variations of bacteria, actinomyces, mould and yeast in soils of peanut intercropped with medicinal plants, aimed to test if such an intercropping pattern could remove the obstacles of peanut's continuous cropping. The results showed that Atractylodes lancea and Euphorbia pekinensis had the strongest inhibitory effect on mould. Compared with CK (mono-cropping peanut), the CFU of mould in the treatments intercropped with A. lancea and E. pekinensis was decreased by 53.87% and 29.59%, respectively during flowering-pegging stage of peanut, but increased after harvesting, which was in favor of substance circulation and nutrient returning. The CFU of bacteria in treatments intercropped with A. lancea, E. pekinensis and Pinellia ternate was all increased, and that of yeast in all five intercropping treatments was increased during the flowering-pegging stage of peanut. No familiar pathogens were found in the treatments intercropped with A. lancea, E. pekinensis and Diosoren zingiberebsis. Peanut intercropped with medicinal plants could regulate soil microbial community effectively.

  15. Use of medicines and adherence to standard treatment guidelines in rural community health centers, Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Michiyo; Okumura, Junko; Aoyama, Atsuko; Suryawati, Sri; Porter, John

    2015-03-01

    The use of medicines and nurses'/midwives' adherence to standard treatment guidelines (STGs) were examined in Timor-Leste during the early stage of the nation's new health system development. A cross-sectional study was conducted as the quantitative element of mixed methods research. Retrospective samples from patient registration books and prospective observations were obtained in 20 randomly selected rural community health centers. The medicines use indicators, in particular the level of injection use, in Timor-Leste did not suggest overprescription. Prescribers with clinical nurse training prescribed significantly fewer antibiotics than those without such training (P < .01). The adjusted odds ratio of prescribing adherence for clinical nurse training, after accounting for confounders and prescriber clustering, was 6.6 (P < .01). STGs for nonphysician health professionals at the primary health care level have potential value in basic health care delivery, including appropriate use of medicines, in resource-limited communities when strategically developed and introduced.

  16. The cultivation of wild food and medicinal plants for improving community livelihood: The case of the Buhozi site, DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Karhagomba, Innocent Balagizi; Mirindi T, Adhama; Mushagalusa, Timothée B.; Nabino, Victor B.; Koh, Kwangoh

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of farming technology on introducing medicinal plants (MP) and wild food plants (WFP) into a traditional agricultural system within peri-urban zones. Field investigations and semi-structured focus group interviews conducted in the Buhozi community showed that 27 health and nutrition problems dominated in the community, and could be treated with 86 domestic plant species. The selected domestic MP and WFP species were collected in the broad neighboring areas of the Buhozi site, and introduced to the experimental field of beans and maize crops in Buhozi. Among the 86 plants introduced, 37 species are confirmed as having both medicinal and nutritional properties, 47 species with medicinal, and 2 species with nutritional properties. The field is arranged in a way that living hedges made from Tithonia diversifolia provide bio-fertilizers to the plants growing along the hedges. The harvest of farming crops does not disturb the MP or WFP, and vice-versa. After harvesting the integrated plants, the community could gain about 40 times higher income, than from harvesting farming crops only. This kind of field may be used throughout the year, to provide both natural medicines and foods. It may therefore contribute to increasing small-scale crop producers' livelihood, while promoting biodiversity conservation. This model needs to be deeply documented, for further pharmaceutical and nutritional use. PMID:24353838

  17. Use of Traditional and Complementary Medicine as Self-Care Strategies in Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C.H.; Wong, Samuel Y.S.; Wang, Harry H.X.; Wong, Martin C.S.; Wei, Xiaolin; Wang, Jiaji; Liu, Siya; Ho, Robin S.T.; Yu, Ellen L.M.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In China, Community Health Centers (CHCs) are major providers of primary care services, but their potential in empowering patients’ self-management capacity has not been assessed. This study aims to describe self-care practice patterns amongst CHC attendees in urban China. In this cross-sectional quantitative study, 3360 CHC patients from 6 cities within the Pearl Delta Region were sampled using multistage cluster sampling. Thirty-seven per cent had used with over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines (OTC CHMs) in the past year and majority of respondents found OTC CHMs effective. OTC CHMs were more popular amongst those who needed to pay out of pocket for CHC services. Less than 10% used vitamins and minerals, and those with a lower socioeconomic background have a higher propensity to consume. Although doubts on their usefulness are expressed, their use by the vulnerable population may reflect barriers to access to conventional health care, cultural affinity, or a defense against negative consequences of illnesses. About 25% performed physical exercise, but the prevalence is lower amongst women and older people. Taiji seems to be an alternative for these populations with promising effectiveness, but overall only 6% of CHC attendees participated. These results suggest that CHCs should start initiatives in fostering appropriate use of OTC CHM, vitamins, and minerals. Engaging community pharmacists in guiding safe and effective use of OTC CHM amongst the uninsured is essential given their low accessibility to CHC services. Prescription of Taiji instead of physical exercises to women and older people could be more culturally appropriate, and the possibility of including this as part of the CHC services worth further exploration. PMID:27281074

  18. Popularity and customer preferences for over-the-counter Chinese medicines perceived by community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou: a questionnaire survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study interviewed community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou for their perception of the popular categories of over-the-counter (OTC) Chinese medicines and the factors affecting customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six main administrative districts in Guangzhou and eight main administrative districts in Shanghai, China. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted in this study. Results OTC Chinese medicines contributed 21–50% among all the pharmaceutical sales by the community pharmacies. The prevalent categories of OTC Chinese medicines were common cold medicines, respiratory system medicines, digestive system agents, gynecological medicines, health tonic medicines, and qing re (heat-clearing) and qu du (detoxifying) medicines. Customers were more concerned about medical factors of OTC Chinese medicines than business factors. Among the medical factors, the most important was drug safety, followed by efficacy, contraindications, indications, and side effects. Among the business factors, the most important were brand and price. Conclusions This study identified the top sales categories of OTC Chinese medicines in Shanghai and Guangzhou and the important factors such as drug safety, efficacy, period of validity, contraindications, and indications that are affecting the customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. PMID:25243017

  19. Pastoral power in the community pharmacy: A Foucauldian analysis of services to promote patient adherence to new medicine use.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin; Latif, Asam; Boyd, Matthew; Barber, Nick; Elliott, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a growing role in the delivery of primary healthcare. This has led many to consider the changing power of the pharmacy profession in relation to other professions and patient groups. This paper contributes to these debates through developing a Foucauldian analysis of the changing dynamics of power brought about by extended roles in medicines management and patient education. Examining the New Medicine Service, the study considers how both patient and pharmacist subjectivities are transformed as pharmacists seek to survey patient's medicine use, diagnose non-adherence to prescribed medicines, and provide education to promote behaviour change. These extended roles in medicines management and patient education expand the 'pharmacy gaze' to further aspects of patient health and lifestyle, and more significantly, established a form of 'pastoral power' as pharmacists become responsible for shaping patients' self-regulating subjectivities. In concert, pharmacists are themselves enrolled within a new governing regime where their identities are conditioned by corporate and policy rationalities for the modernisation of primary care.

  20. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Theodora A; Uzochukwu, Benjamin SC; Okafor, Henrietta U

    2006-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended. PMID:17078875

  1. Comparison of Medical Students' Satisfaction with Family Medicine Clerkships between University Hospitals and Community Hospitals or Clinics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare students' awareness of and satisfaction with clerkships in family medicine between a university hospital and a community hospital or clinic. Methods Thirty-eight 4th year medical students who were undergoing a clerkship in family medicine in the 1st semester of 2012 were surveyed via questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered both before and after the clerkship. Results External clerkships were completed in eight family medicine clinics and two regional hospitals. At preclerkship, participants showed strong expectation for understanding primary care and recognition of the need for community clerkship, mean scores of 4.3±0.5 and 4.1±0.7, respectively. At post-clerkship, participants showed a significant increase in recognition of the need for community clerkship (4.7±0.5, P<0.001). The pre-clerkship recognition of differences in patient characteristics between university hospitals and community hospitals or clinics was 4.1±0.7; at post-clerkship, it was 3.9±0.7. Students' confidence in their ability to see a first-visit patient and their expectation of improved interviewing skills both significantly increased at post-clerkship (P<0.01). Satisfaction with feedback from preceptors and overall satisfaction with the clerkship also significantly increased, but only for the university hospital clerkship (P<0.01). Conclusion Students' post-clerkship satisfaction was uniformly high for both clerkships. At pre-clerkship, students were aware of the differences in patient characteristics between university hospitals and community hospitals or clinics, and this awareness did not change by the end of the clerkship. PMID:27900072

  2. Chronicity of Voice-Related Health Care Utilization in the General Medicine Community.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Seth M; Lee, Hui-Jie; Roy, Nelson; Misono, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To examine voice-related health care utilization of patients in the general medical community without otolaryngology evaluation and explore factors associated with prolonged voice-related health care. Study Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Large, national administrative US claims database. Subjects and Methods Patients with voice disorders per International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification ( ICD-9-CM) codes from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, seen by a general medical physician, and who did not see an otolaryngologist in the subsequent year were included. Voice-related health care utilization, patient demographics, comorbid conditions, and index laryngeal diagnosis were collected. Logistic regression with variable selection was performed to evaluate the association between predictors and ≥30 days of voice-related health care use. Results In total, 46,205 unique voice-disordered patients met inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 8.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% had voice-related health care use of ≥90, ≥60, and ≥30 days, respectively. Of the ≥30-day subset, 80.3% and 68.5%, respectively, had ≥60 and ≥90 days of voice-related health care utilization. The ≥30-day subset had more general medicine and nonotolaryngology specialty physician visits, more prescriptions and procedures, and 4 times the voice-related health care costs compared with those in the <30-day subset. Age, sex, employment status, initial voice disorder diagnosis, and comorbid conditions were related to ≥30 days of voice-related health care utilization. Conclusions Thirty days of nonotolaryngology-based care for a voice disorder may represent a threshold beyond which patients are more likely to experience prolonged voice-related health care utilization. Specific factors were associated with extended voice-related health care.

  3. [N. I. Teziakov's contribution to the development of community medicine and sanitation in the Saratov Province (on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of his birth)].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Lutsevich, I N; Zav'ialov, A I; Miasnikov, I V

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides N. I. Tezyakov's concise biographical and historical data pertaining to a sanitary service in the Saratov Province. It shows his scientific contribution to the development of community medicine and sanitation in Russia.

  4. The revised 'Early Learning in Medicine' curriculum at the University of Otago--focusing on students, patients, and community.

    PubMed

    Perez, David; Rudland, Joy R; Wilson, Hamish; Roberton, Gayle; Gerrard, David; Wheatley, Antony

    2009-04-03

    This article describes recent changes to years 2 and 3 of undergraduate medical education at the University of Otago, now termed 'Early Learning in Medicine'. These changes focus on learning that is contextually relevant, student centred, horizontally and vertically integrated, and community based. Three new programmes have been introduced to the course; Integrated Cases, Clinical Skills, and Healthcare in the Community. Innovative teaching and learning activities have been implemented to prepare students for a greater level of interaction with patients, carers, health professionals, and community organisations. This curriculum also aims to increase the relevance of their theoretical learning within and across years, and foster an early appreciation of professional responsibilities. Challenges to facilitating this direction are described and framed by an evolutionary approach that builds upon the strong features of the previous course.

  5. Experience with using second life for medical education in a family and community medicine education unit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application of new technologies to the education of health professionals is both a challenge and a necessity. Virtual worlds are increasingly being explored as a support for education. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the suitability of Second Life (SL) as an educational tool for primary healthcare professionals. Methods Design: Qualitative study of accredited clinical sessions in SL included in a continuing professional development (CPD) programme for primary healthcare professionals. Location: Zaragoza I Zone Family and Community Medicine Education Unit (EU) and 9 health centres operated by the Aragonese Health Service, Aragon, Spain. Method: The EU held two training workshops in SL for 16 healthcare professionals from 9 health centres by means of two workshops, and requested them to facilitate clinical sessions in SL. Attendance was open to all personnel from the EU and the 9 health centres. After a trail period of clinical sessions held at 5 health centres between May and November 2010, the CPD-accredited clinical sessions were held at 9 health centres between February and April 2011. Participants: 76 healthcare professionals attended the CPD-accredited clinical sessions in SL. Main measurements: Questionnaire on completion of the clinical sessions. Results Response rate: 42-100%. Questionnaire completed by each health centre on completion of the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Access to SL: 2 centres were unable to gain access. Sound problems: 0% (0/9). Image problems: 0% (0/9). Voice/text chat: used in 100% (10/9); 0 incidents. Questionnaire completed by participants in the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Preference for SL as a tool: 100% (76/76). Strengths of this method: 74% (56/76) considered it eliminated the need to travel; 68% (52/76) believed it made more effective use of educational resources; and 47% (36/76) considered it improved accessibility. Weaknesses: 91% (69/76) experienced technical problems, while; 9% (7/76) thought

  6. Comparison of pharmacist and public views and experiences of community pharmacy medicines-related services in England

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Ruth M; Gammie, Shivaun M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR) and New Medicines Service (NMS). Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. Objective To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services. Methods Two parallel surveys were conducted in one area of England: one involved the general public and was administered using a street survey, and the other was a postal survey of community pharmacists. Similar questionnaires were used, seeking views of services, awareness, reasons for using services, and perceived benefits. Results Response rates were 47.2% (1,000/2,012 approached) for the public and 40.8% (341/836) for pharmacists. Few people had experienced a discussion in a private consultation room or were aware of the two formal services, although their willingness to use them was high. Pharmacists estimated time spent on service provision as 10 minutes for MUR and 12 minutes for NMS, which aligned with acceptability to both pharmacists and the public. Pharmacists underestimated the willingness of the public to wait for an informal discussion or to make appointments for formal services. Both pharmacists and the public had high expectations that services would be beneficial in terms of increasing knowledge and understanding, but public expectations and experiences of services helping to sort out problems fell well below pharmacists’ perceptions. People who had experienced a pharmacy service had different perceptions of pharmacists. Conclusion Views differed regarding why people use services and key aspects of service delivery. For services to improve, the pharmacy profession needs a

  7. Medicine-related services in community pharmacy: public preferences for pharmacy attributes and promotional methods and comparison with pharmacists’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Shivaun M; Rodgers, Ruth M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Public awareness of pharmacy services designed to support the use of medicines is low, yet little is known about how the public view promotion of these services, or their preferences for the attributes of pharmacies from which they would like to receive them. Objective To compare the public’s preferred attributes of pharmacies and methods for promoting medicine-related services with community pharmacists’ perceptions of their customers’ views. Methods Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community pharmacists. Results Response rates were as follows: public 47.2% (1,000/2,012) and pharmacists 40.8% (341/836). Pharmacists’ perceptions of customer preferences for using the same pharmacy, independent ownership, and personal knowledge of the pharmacist were higher than actual public preferences. More pharmacists than public respondents also believed that approachability and previous good service would be important. The public’s desires for long opening hours and for a pharmacy with a good relationship with their doctor’s surgery were higher than pharmacists believed. The majority of the public prefer not to interrupt a pharmacist who is busy in the dispensary, which was not perceived by pharmacists as a factor. Pharmacists’ perceptions aligned more with the preferences of regular medicine users and frequent pharmacy users. Both groups viewed direct recommendation as the most effective approach for promoting pharmacy services, particularly by doctors and pharmacy staff. Pharmacists’ expectations of the effectiveness of posters and mass media methods were much higher than those of the public. Conclusion Pharmacists and pharmacy owners must ensure good relationships with local medical practices to enable them to maximize opportunities for using the promotional methods judged most effective in encouraging the use of medicine-related services. Staff must be

  8. Do pharmaceuticals displace local knowledge and use of medicinal plants? Estimates from a cross-sectional study in a rural indigenous community, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Peter; Reyes-García, Victoria; Waldstein, Anna; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Researchers examining the relationships between traditional medicine and biomedicine have observed two conflicting tendencies. Some suggest that the use of biomedicine and biomedical concepts displaces the use of traditional medicine and medical beliefs. Other scholars have found that traditional medicine and biomedicine can co-exist, complement, and blend with each other. In this paper we use an econometric model and quantitative data to test the association between individual knowledge of pharmaceuticals and individual knowledge of medicinal plants. We use data from a survey among 136 household heads living in a rural indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico. Data were collected as a part of long term fieldwork conducted between April 2005 and August 2006 and between December 2006 and April 2007. We found a significant positive association between an individual's knowledge of medicinal plants and the same individual's knowledge of pharmaceuticals, as well as between her use of medicinal plants and her use of pharmaceuticals. We also found a negative association between the use of medicinal plants and schooling. Our results suggest that, in the study site, individual knowledge of medicinal plants and individual knowledge of pharmaceuticals co-exist in a way which might be interpreted as complementary. We conclude that social organization involved in the use of medicines from both traditional medicine and biomedicine is of particular significance, as our findings suggest that the use of pharmaceuticals alone is not associated with a decline in knowledge/use of medicinal plants.

  9. Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of healing practices towards a

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Rural Communities: Current Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Jon; Lui, Chi-Wai; Adams, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Contexts: The consumption of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in rural areas is a significant contemporary health care issue. An understanding of CAM use in rural health can provide a new perspective on health beliefs and practice as well as on some of the core service delivery issues facing rural health care generally. Purpose: This…

  11. Knowledge, behaviors and practices of community and hospital pharmacists towards biosimilar medicines: Results of a French web-based survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, Morgane; Michel, Bruno; Rybarczyk-Vigouret, Marie-Christine; Levêque, Dominique; Sordet, Christelle; Sibilia, Jean; Velten, Michel

    This study's aims were: 1) to extract a comprehensive overview of the knowledge, experience and opinions of both community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists regarding biosimilar medicines in France; and 2) to identify the perceived problems and solutions to promoting their prescription. A 2015 web-based survey was conducted by the Observatoire des Médicaments, des Dispositifs Médicaux et de l'Innovation Thérapeutique of Alsace. A total of 802 pharmacists responded to the survey. Many (536, 66.8%, [95% confidence interval (CI) 63.6-70.1]) indicated that they were not familiar with biosimilars. Half of community pharmacists (95% CI 42.7-57.3) stated that they were not at all informed about biosimilar drugs, compared with 15.7% (95% CI 12.9-18.6) of hospital pharmacists. Almost all respondents (781, 97.4%, [95% CI 96.3-98.5]) had at least one pending question on biosimilars. Most of the questions were related to the manufacturing process, safety, substitution rules and the international non-proprietary name prescription. At the time of the study, 467 pharmacists (58.2%, [95% CI 54.8-61.6]) had already validated a prescription for a biosimilar drug, mainly for filgrastim. These latter were more comfortable in explaining the benefit of biosimilar medicines to the patient. Pharmacists were rather favorable to biosimilar drugs, and about 9 of 10 quoted healthcare cost savings as incentives to their prescription. However, many did not agree with allowing biosimilar substitution. "Patients' wishes to be treated with the originator" and "indication extrapolation" were the two main constraints identified. The survey highlighted the need to provide French pharmacists with accurate and comprehensive information regarding biosimilar medicines.

  12. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district) of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH) of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8%) and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia, is valued as a remedy

  13. A commitment to high-value care education from the internal medicine community.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cynthia D; Levinson, Wendy S

    2015-05-05

    The Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM), ABIM Foundation, and American College of Physicians are collaborating to enhance the education of physicians in high-value care (HVC) and make its practice an essential competency in undergraduate and postgraduate education by 2017. This article serves as the organizations' formal commitment to providing a foundation of HVC education on which others may build. The 5 key targets for HVC education are experiential learning and curriculum, environment and culture, clinical support, regulatory requirements, and sustainability. The goal is to train future health care professionals for whom HVC is part of normal practice, thus providing patients with improved clinical outcomes at a lower cost.

  14. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, KN; Jamwal, Pankaj; Lal, Brij

    2006-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to illicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 35 plant species are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (45%) under ground part of the plant was used. New medicinal uses of Ranunculus hirtellus and Anemone rupicola are reported from this area. Similarly, preparation of "sik" a traditional recipe served as a nutritious diet to pregnant women is also not documented elsewhere. Implication of developmental activities and changing socio-economic conditions on the traditional knowledge are also discussed. PMID:16545146

  15. Health care professionals' perceptions of a community based 'virtual ward' medicines management service: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, Andrew; Jack, Barbara A; Cope, Louise C

    2017-02-03

    This article describes a qualitative research study using focus groups to explore the views and experiences of a medicines management team (MMT) on the service they deliver within a 'Virtual Ward' (VW); and those of the wider multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals on the service provided by the MMT. Several themes emerged from the focus groups, including impact on patients and carers, team working and issues and challenges. A dedicated MMT was seen as a positive contribution to the VW, which potentially increased the quality of patient care, and appeared to be a positive experience for both the MM and wider multidisciplinary team.

  16. Comprehensive dataset of the medicinal plants used by a Tashelhit speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Teixidor-Toneu, Irene; Martin, Gary J; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Puri, Rajindra K; Hawkins, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    This dataset describes medicinal plants used in a poorly studied area of Morocco: the High Atlas mountains, inhabited by Ishelhin people, the southern Moroccan Amazigh (Berber) ethnic group, "An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco" (Teixidor-Toneu et al., 2016) [1]. It includes a comprehensive list of the plants used in the commune, as well as details on the plant voucher specimens collected and a glossary of Tashelhit terminology relevant to the study. To collect the data, semi-structured and structured interviews were carried out, as well as focus group discussions. Free prior informed consent was obtained for all interactions. A hundred and six adults were interviewed and 2084 use reports were collected; a hundred fifty-one vernacular names corresponding to 159 botanical species were found.

  17. Friends Can Be Good Medicine: Educating the Community about Social Support and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lisa; Lloyd-Kolkin, Donna

    Traditionally, the medical field has researched the physical components of health but neglected interpersonal, social factors such as the quality of supportive relationships. To communicate the critical importance of social support to health maintenance, and to stimulate community activities which connect people and provide opportunities to…

  18. Receiving money for medicine: some tensions and resolutions for community-based private complementary therapists.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Peter, Elizabeth; Hammond, Robin

    2003-03-01

    During recent years, private complementary medicine has grown as a significant provider of healthcare in the UK and much of this provision is through small private businesses financed by out-of-pocket payments made by privately paying clients. Using a combined questionnaire (n = 426) and interview survey (n = 49), the present paper considers the potential tensions and dilemmas which therapists face and the resolutions which they come to in being carers, but in market terms, also profit makers. Therapists generally identified with being carers first and business people second, and this was reflected in their caring decisions. Indeed, under circumstances where the roles potentially conflicted (e.g. when clients could no longer afford to pay for their treatments), most therapists claimed that they continued to provide care, either by providing their services free-of-charge, at a reduced rate, by deferring payment or by accepting alternative forms of compensation. There is a relative lack of dedicated research literature on complementary therapists, their attitudes and actions, and this paper provides some important data on their specific management and caring decisions. At the same time, the evidence also provides some initial food-for-thought and indicates some potential research directions for exploring ethical issues in the private practice of complementary medicine.

  19. Evolving from reactive to proactive medicine: community lead (Pb) and clinical disparities in pre- and post-Katrina New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher; Powell, Eric; Mielke, Paul W

    2014-07-21

    In 2012 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) set the blood Pb reference value at ≥5 µg/dL. Clinical analysis of children's blood Pb levels is the common way to diagnose environmental Pb contamination, and intervention ensues with education and household dust cleanup. Recent review indicates that education and household dust cleanup are not effective at reducing children's Pb exposure. Here we review mapping environmental Pb and children's blood Pb response as an alternative approach for proactive Pb dust intervention. New Orleans was divided into a high (≥100 mg/kg) and low (<100 mg/kg) soil Pb communities. The children's blood Pb prevalence ≥5 µg/dL for the high and low Pb domains were 58.5% and 24.8% respectively pre-Katrina vs. 29.6% and 7.5% post-Katrina. Elevated soil Pb (mg/kg) and consequently Pb loading (µg/square area) permeates the high Pb domain and outdoor locations lack Pb dust safe play areas. The U.S. EPA 400 mg/kg soil Pb standard poses an outside Pb dust loading burden >37 times larger than allowed on interior residential floor environments. Environmental Pb dust is decreasing because of the transfer of large quantities of low Pb soil into selected communities. City-scale soil Pb mapping is an alternative diagnostic tool that provides information for planning proactive medicine to prevent clinical Pb exposure in the first place.

  20. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  1. Emergency supply of prescription-only medicines to patients by community pharmacists: a mixed methods evaluation incorporating patient, pharmacist and GP perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Morecroft, Charles W; Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J; Wilson, Sarah E; Ashcroft, Darren M; Mensah, Noah; Pickup, Graham B

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and inform emergency supply of prescription-only medicines by community pharmacists (CPs), including how the service could form an integral component of established healthcare provision to maximise adherence. Design Mixed methods. 4 phases: prospective audit of emergency supply requests for prescribed medicines (October–November 2012 and April 2013); interviews with CPs (February–April 2013); follow-up interviews with patients (April–May 2013); interactive feedback sessions with general practice teams (October–November 2013). Setting 22 community pharmacies and 6 general practices in Northwest England. Participants 27 CPs with experience of dealing with requests for emergency supplies; 25 patients who received an emergency supply of a prescribed medicine; 58 staff at 6 general practices. Results Clinical audit in 22 pharmacies over two 4-week periods reported that 526 medicines were requested by 450 patients. Requests peaked over a bank holiday and around weekends. A significant number of supplies were made during practice opening hours. Most requests were for older patients and for medicines used in long-term conditions. Difficulty in renewing repeat medication (forgetting to order, or prescription delays) was the major reason for requests. The majority of medicines were ‘loaned’ in advance of a National Health Service (NHS) prescription. Interviews with CPs and patients indicated that continuous supply had a positive impact on medicines adherence, removing the need to access urgent care. General practice staff were surprised and concerned by the extent of emergency supply episodes. Conclusions CPs regularly provide emergency supplies to patients who run out of their repeat medication, including during practice opening hours. This may aid adherence. There is currently no feedback loop, however, to general practice. Patient care and interprofessional communication may be better served by the introduction of a formally structured

  2. Supporting underserved patients with their medicines: a study protocol for a patient/professional coproduced education intervention for community pharmacy staff to improve the provision and delivery of Medicine Use Reviews (MURs)

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Asam; Pollock, Kristian; Anderson, Claire; Waring, Justin; Solomon, Josie; Chen, Li-Chia; Anderson, Emma; Gulzar, Sulma; Abbasi, Nasa; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Community pharmacy increasingly features in global strategies to modernise the delivery of primary healthcare. Medicine Use Reviews (MURs) form part of the English Government's medicines management strategy to improve adherence and reduce medicine waste. MURs provide space for patient–pharmacist dialogue to discuss the well-known problems patients experience with medicine taking. However, ‘underserved’ communities (eg, black and minority ethnic communities, people with mental illness), who may benefit the most, may not receive this support. This study aims to develop, implement and evaluate an e-learning education intervention which is coproduced between patients from underserved communities and pharmacy teams to improve MUR provision. Methods and analysis This mixed-methods evaluative study will involve a 2-stage design. Stage 1 involves coproduction of an e-learning resource through mixed patient–professional development (n=2) and review (n=2) workshops, alongside informative semistructured interviews with patients (n=10) and pharmacy staff (n=10). Stage 2 involves the implementation and evaluation of the intervention with community pharmacy staff within all community pharmacies within the Nottinghamshire geographical area (n=237). Online questionnaires will be completed at baseline and postintervention (3 months) to assess changes in engagement with underserved communities and changes in self-reported attitudes and behaviour. To triangulate findings, 10 pharmacies will record at baseline and postintervention, details of actual numbers of MURs performed and the proportion that are from underserved communities. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyse the data. The evaluation will also include a thematic analysis of one-to-one interviews with pharmacy teams to explore the impact on clinical practice (n=20). Interviews with patients belonging to underserved communities, and who received an MUR, will also be conducted (n

  3. Feasibility of Energy Medicine in a Community Teaching Hospital: An Exploratory Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Francois; Simmons, Bonnie; Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J.; Fleischner, Zachary; Joudeh, Ramsey; Blakeway, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Energy medicine (EM) derives from the theory that a subtle biologic energy can be influenced for therapeutic effect. EM practitioners may be trained within a specific tradition or work solo. Few studies have investigated the feasibility of solo-practitioner EM in hospitals. Objective: This study investigated the feasibility of EM as provided by a solo practitioner in inpatient and emergent settings. Design: Feasibility study, including a prospective case series. Settings: Inpatient units and emergency department. Outcome measures: To investigate the feasibility of EM, acceptability, demand, implementation, and practicality were assessed. Short-term clinical changes were documented by treating physicians. Participants: Patients, employees, and family members were enrolled in the study only if study physicians expected no or slow improvement in specific symptoms. Those with secondary gains or who could not communicate perception of symptom change were excluded. Results: EM was found to have acceptability and demand, and implementation was smooth because study procedures dovetailed with conventional clinical practice. Practicality was acceptable within the study but was low upon further application of EM because of cost of program administration. Twenty-four of 32 patients requested relief from pain. Of 50 reports of pain, 5 (10%) showed no improvement; 4 (8%), slight improvement; 3 (6%), moderate improvement; and 38 (76%), marked improvement. Twenty-one patients had issues other than pain. Of 29 non–pain-related problems, 3 (10%) showed no, 2 (7%) showed slight, 1 (4%) showed moderate, and 23 (79%) showed marked improvement. Changes during EM sessions were usually immediate. Conclusions: This study successfully implemented EM provided by a solo practitioner in inpatient and emergent hospital settings and found that acceptability and demand justified its presence. Most patients experienced marked, immediate improvement of symptoms associated

  4. The Use of Traditional Vietnamese Medicine Among Vietnamese Immigrants Attending an Urban Community Health Center in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Davis, Roger B.; Nguyen, Giac; Pham, Van; Tringale, Stephen M.; Loh, Yen Lin; Gardiner, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Little is known about Traditional Vietnamese Medicine (TVM) and its use among Vietnamese immigrants in the United States. This study aimed to characterize TVM and improve understanding of its use among Vietnamese outpatients attending an urban clinic. Methods: This cross-sectional observation study was performed by mailing bilingual surveys to a stratified random sample of 400 Vietnamese adult patients (≥18 years of age) who had visited a community health center in Boston, Massachusetts, at least once in the prior 12 months. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and multivariable regression statistics. The use of TVM and the factors influencing their use were reported. Results: Among the 216 respondents, 68% reported using TVM. Of those users, the median age was 56 years and 68% were female, 51% had lived in the United States for less than 13 years, and 91% spoke English “not well or not at all.” Among the 89% who reported using TVM of indigenous origin, 62% used “wind scraping,” 35% used herbal pills/products, and 30% used “wind snatching.” Sixty-one percent used therapies of foreign origin; of those, 51% used Asian-originated TVM (herbs, 25%; Eastern massage, 23%) and 38% used Western-influenced TVM (diet supplements, 28%; Western massage, 8%). TVM was mostly used for pain conditions (57%), “staying well” (38%), and cough/colds (27%). Forty-five percent ignored the question on revealing TVM use to providers; of those who answered, 57% said “no.” Fifty-one percent of TVM users reported using Western medicine for the same problem, while 46% used TVM and Western medicine within 2 days of each other. Self-rated health (odds ratio [OR], 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–5.06), household size (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.04–4.22), and education (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.03–6.80) were associated with TVM use. Conclusion: TVM is an important component of the healthcare of urban Vietnamese and needs to be further

  5. Family medicine education in rural communities as a health service intervention supporting recruitment and retention of physicians

    PubMed Central

    Soles, Trina Larsen; Ruth Wilson, C.; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a pan-Canadian rural education road map to advance the recruitment and retention of family physicians in rural, remote, and isolated regions of Canada in order to improve access and health care outcomes for these populations. Composition of the task force Members of the task force were chosen from key stakeholder groups including educators, practitioners, the College of Family Physicians of Canada education committee chairs, deans, chairs of family medicine, experts in rural education, and key decision makers. The task force members were purposefully selected to represent a mix of key perspectives needed to ensure the work produced was rigorous and of high quality. Observers from the Canadian Medical Association and Health Canada’s Council on Health Workforce, and representatives from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, were also invited to provide their perspectives and to encourage and coordinate multiorganization action. Methods The task force commissioned a focused literature review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature to examine the status of rural medical education, training, and practice in relation to the health needs of rural and remote communities in Canada, and also completed an environmental scan. Report The environmental scan included interviews with more than 100 policy makers, government representatives, providers, educators, learners, and community leaders; 17 interviews with practising rural physicians; and 2 surveys administered to all 17 faculties of medicine. The gaps identified from the focused literature review and the results of the environmental scan will be used to develop the task force’s recommendations for action, highlighting the role of key partners in implementation and needed action. Conclusion The work of the task force provides an opportunity to bring the various partners together in a coordinated way. By understanding who is responsible and the actions each stakeholder

  6. Peer-support writing group in a community family medicine teaching unit

    PubMed Central

    Al-Imari, Lina; Yang, Jaisy; Pimlott, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Aspiring physician writers need an environment that promotes self-reflection and can help them improve their skills and confidence in writing. Objective of program To create a peer-support writing group for physicians in the Markham-Stouffville community in Ontario to promote professional development by encouraging self-reflection and fostering the concept of physician as writer. Program description The program, designed based on a literature review and a needs assessment, was conducted in 3 sessions over 6 months. Participants included an emergency physician, 4 family physicians, and 3 residents. Four to 8 participants per session shared their projects with guest physician authors. Eight pieces of written work were brought to the sessions, 3 of which were edited. A mixed quantitative and qualitative evaluation model was used with preprogram and postprogram questionnaires and a focus group. Conclusion This program promoted professional development by increasing participants’ frequency of self-reflection and improving their proficiency in writing. Successful elements of this program include creating a supportive group environment and having a physician-writer expert facilitate the peer-feedback sessions. Similar programs can be useful in postgraduate education or continuing professional development. PMID:27965348

  7. Intracultural Variation in the Knowledge of Medicinal Plants in an Urban-Rural Community in the Atlantic Forest from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cecília de Fátima Castelo Branco Rangel; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Araújo, Thiago Antonio de Sousa; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the intracultural knowledge of the use of medicinal plants in an urban-rural community in an Atlantic forest fragment in northeastern Brazil. We examined the importance of native and exotic species and the effects of gender and age on that knowledge. We also compared data obtained from different groups of informants (local experts and general community). We conducted 194 interviews between June 2007 and January 2008, using the freelist technique and semistructured forms to collect ethnobotanical data. Information obtained from the community was compared with that from six local experts who participated in a survey in 2003. From a total of 209 ethnospecies, exotic and herbaceous plants presented higher richness. With respect to the number of citations, women and older informants were shown to know a higher number of medicinal plants. Comparing knowledge of local experts with that of the general community, we noted that experts know a similar wealth of plant families and therapeutic indications, but the community knows a greater species richness. These results indicate that local experts may provide useful information for studies that search for a quick diagnosis of the knowledge of a given community. PMID:22110546

  8. [Development of an advanced education program for community medicine by Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium].

    PubMed

    Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; Hatakeyama, Susumi

    2012-01-01

    The Nagasaki University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences has conducted a project concerning "development of an advanced education program for community medicine" for its students in collaboration with the University's School of Nursing Sciences, the University of Nagasaki School of Nursing Sciences, and the Nagasaki International University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The project was named "formation of a strategic base for the integrated education of pharmacy and nursing science specially focused on home-healthcare and welfare", that has been adopted at "Strategic University Cooperative Support Program for Improving Graduate" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan from the 2009 academic year to the 2011 academic year. Our project is a novel education program about team medical care in collaboration with pharmacist and nurse. In order to perform this program smoothly, we established "Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium (Nagasaki University, The University of Nagasaki, Nagasaki International University, Nagasaki Pharmaceutical Association, Nagasaki Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Nagasaki Nursing Association, Nagasaki Medical Association, Nagasaki Prefectural Government)". In this symposium, we introduce contents about university education program and life learning program of the project.

  9. The European Bioanalysis Forum community's evaluation, interpretation and implementation of the European Medicines Agency guideline on Bioanalytical Method Validation.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Peter; Companjen, Arjen; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Golob, Michaela; Luedtke, Silke; Timmerman, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The European Medicines Agency's (EMA) 2011 guideline on bioanalytical method validation (BMV) was evaluated and subsequently intensely discussed by the European Bioanalysis Forum (EBF) during a 2-day workshop (EBF Workshop on the implementation of the EMA guideline on BMV, Château de Limelette, Limelette, Belgium, 15-16 March 2012). The goal of the evaluation and discussions was to come to a uniform interpretation of the guideline and thus to help facilitate a smooth implementation at our laboratories. Up front preparations for the workshop by dedicated teams concentrated on challenges on implementation: ambiguities, technical or operational challenges and issues in general. In addition, common understandings were identified as well as main differences to the 2011 US FDA guideline. The guideline was perceived as being well written with a clear structure, separating method validation from sample analysis and treating all relevant aspects one-by-one in a logical order. It is the first BMV guideline clearly addressing the specifics for ligand binding assays and it shows a good match with current scientific thinking. The EBF community considers the EMA BMV guideline an excellent basis for countries that are in the process of developing or updating their own BMV guideline.

  10. Psycho-Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Selected Rural Communities in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Rajendran, Anantha Kumar; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a source of cure has gained much spectrum worldwide, despite skeptics and advocates of evidence-based practice conceptualized such therapies as human nostrum. Objective This study aimed to explore the factors affecting CAM use among rural communities in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on 288 occupants across four rural villages within the District of Selama, Perak, Malaysia. A survey that consisted of socio-economic characteristics, history of CAM use and the validated Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) were used. Results The prevalence of self-reported CAM use over the past one year was 53.1%. Multiple logistic regression analyses yielded three significant predictors of CAM use: monthly household income of less than MYR 2500, higher education level, and positive attitude towards CAM. Conclusion Psycho-socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with CAM use among rural communities in Malaysia. PMID:25375256

  11. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  12. [The physician manager--building a clinical leadership in community medicine--the Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) model].

    PubMed

    Kokia, Ehud; Siegal, Neomi; Shemer, Joshua

    2008-05-01

    Community medicine around the world is facing constant trends of changes. The need to overcome the huge burden of chronic diseases, the need to prioritize and adapt new technologies, and above all, the fact that all these must be done within a given, restricted budget, calls for advanced medical management. In this review we focused on the development of the role of the physician manager in Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) over the last 60 years. From what was once a reactive, utilization control-oriented administrative physician role, there has emerged a proactive, formally educated, health quality leader who is expected to lead his clinical colleagues towards achieving the organization's goals. Every organization should answer 4 basic questions in order to encourage/develop the new generation of physician managers. 1. Who am I?--What is the profile and what are the tasks of the physician manager's role? 2. What is the time allocation allotted to the physician manager by the organization to enable him to do his job? 3. What are the educational and managerial tools provided for the 'new" physician manager? 4. What are the rewards that the organization grants to its best people? By addressing the above questions MHS has successfully developed new generations of young clinical leaders who can help MHS management conduct a real dialogue with its clinical physicians in order to maximize the services that our beneficiaries are receiving from the HMO. Our conclusion is that choosing the right people, providing them with the right tools and positioning the physician manager appropriately in the organization's hierarchy will enable the medical care delivery system in Israel to achieve the level of clinical leadership that can lead us towards a better future.

  13. Rehabilitation for the management of knee osteoarthritis using comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine in community health centers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is becoming increasingly necessary for community health centers to make rehabilitation services available to patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. However, for a number of reasons, including a lack of expertise, the small size of community health centers and the availability of only simple medical equipment, conventional rehabilitation therapy has not been widely used in China. Consequently, most patients with knee osteoarthritis seek treatment in high-grade hospitals. However, many patients cannot manage the techniques that they were taught in the hospital. Methods such as acupuncture, tuina, Chinese medical herb fumigation-washing and t’ai chi are easy to do and have been reported to have curative effects in those with knee osteoarthritis. To date, there have been no randomized controlled trials validating comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine for the rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis in a community health center. Furthermore, there is no standard rehabilitation protocol using traditional Chinese medicine for knee osteoarthritis. The aim of the current study is to develop a comprehensive rehabilitation protocol using traditional Chinese medicine for the management of knee osteoarthritis in a community health center. Method/design This will be a randomized controlled clinical trial with blinded assessment. There will be a 4-week intervention utilizing rehabilitation protocols from traditional Chinese medicine and conventional therapy. Follow-up will be conducted for a period of 12 weeks. A total of 722 participants with knee osteoarthritis will be recruited. Participants will be randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control. Primary outcomes will include range of motion, girth measurement, the visual analogue scale, and results from the manual muscle, six-minute walking and stair-climbing tests. Secondary outcomes will include average daily consumption of pain medication, ability to perform daily tasks and health

  14. Health, healthcare access, and use of traditional versus modern medicine in remote Peruvian Amazon communities: a descriptive study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making.

  15. Health, Healthcare Access, and Use of Traditional Versus Modern Medicine in Remote Peruvian Amazon Communities: A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

  16. The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Wieland

    2014-12-02

    The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far.

  17. Problem-Based Learning as an Effective Learning Tool in Community Medicine: Initiative in a Private Medical College of a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nitin; Rai, Sharada; Madi, Deepak; Bhat, Kamalakshi; Kotian, Shashidhar M; Kantharaju, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of community medicine is essential for health care professionals to function as efficient primary health care physicians. Medical students learning Community Medicine as a subject are expected to be competent in critical thinking and generic skills so as to analyze community health problems better. However, current teaching by didactic lectures fails to develop these essential skills. Problem-based learning (PBL) could be an effective strategy in this respect. This study was hence done to compare the academic performance of students who were taught Community Medicine by the PBL method with that of students taught by traditional methods, to assess the generic skills of students taught in a PBL environment and to assess the perception of students toward PBL methodology. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among seventh-semester final-year medical students between June and November 2014. PBL was introduced to a randomly chosen group of students, and their performance in an assessment exam at the end of postings was compared with that of the remaining students. Generic skills and perception toward PBL were also assessed using standardized questionnaires. Results: A total of 77 students took part in the brainstorming session of PBL. The correlation between self-assigned scores of the participants and those assigned by the tutor in the brainstorming session of PBL was significant (r = 0.266, P = 0.05). Out of 54 students who took part in the presentation session, almost all 53 (98.1%) had good perception toward PBL. Demotivational scores were found to be significantly higher among males (P = 0.024). The academic performance of students (P < 0.001) and success rates (P = 0.05) in the examination were higher among students who took part in PBL compared to controls. Conclusion: PBL helped improve knowledge of students in comparison to those exposed only to didactic lectures. As PBL enabled students to identify the gaps in their knowledge

  18. Medicinal plants used in a Totonac community of the Sierra Norte de Puebla: Tuzamapan de Galeana, Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martinez Alfaro, M A

    1984-07-01

    Totonac Indians, like other aboriginal peoples, use many plants, animals and minerals in treating illness. We collected our information among mountain dwelling Totonacs (totonacos de la Sierra). These Totonacs from the mountain areas are only beginning to be studied from an ethnobotanical viewpoint. Here we report on their herbal remedies and briefly discuss their traditional medicine. Finally, the role of Western medicine in Totonac life is analyzed.

  19. [Clinical and therapeutic management of respiratory tract infections. Consensus document of the Andalusian Infectious Diseases Society and the Andalusian Family and Community Medicine Society].

    PubMed

    Cordero Matía, Elisa; de Dios Alcántara Bellón, Juan; Caballero Granado, Javier; de la Torre Lima, Javier; Girón González, José Antonio; Lama Herrera, Carmen; Morán Rodríguez, Ana; Zapata López, Angel

    2007-04-01

    Respiratory tract infections are frequent and they are one of the commonest causes of antibiotic prescription. However, there are few clinical guidelines that consider this group of infections. This document has been written by the Andalusian Infectious Diseases Society and the Andalusian Family and Community Medicine Society. The primary objective has been to define the recommendations for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections apart from pneumonia. The clinical syndromes evaluated have been: a) pharyngitis; b) sinusitis; c) acute otitis media and otitis externa; d) acute bronchitis, laryngitis, epiglottitis; e) acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis; and f) respiratory infectious in patients with bronchiectasis. This document has focused on immunocompetent patients.

  20. Establishing a minority-based community clinical oncology program: the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School-university Hospital Cancer Center experience.

    PubMed

    Wieder, Robert; Teal, Randall; Saunders, Tracie; Weiner, Bryan J

    2013-03-01

    The Minority-Based Community Clinical Oncology Program (MB-CCOP) at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School-University Hospital Cancer Center was established to serve an unmet need in a medically, educationally, and socioeconomically underserved community of primarily African American and Latino patients in Newark and Essex County, New Jersey. The MB-CCOP was built on an existing infrastructure of multidisciplinary teams of cancer specialists who collaborated in patient care and an existing clinical research program, which included multilingual staff and a breast cancer navigator. This article highlights some of the unique opportunities and challenges involved in the startup of an MB-CCOP specifically relevant to an academic setting. We present a guide to the necessary infrastructure and institutional support that must be in place before considering such a program and some of the steps an institution can take to overcome barriers preventing successful enrollment of patients onto clinical trials.

  1. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  2. Protecting participants in family medicine research: a consensus statement on improving research integrity and participants' safety in educational research, community-based participatory research, and practice network research.

    PubMed

    Hueston, William J; Mainous, Arch G; Weiss, Barry D; Macaulay, Ann C; Hickner, John; Sherwood, Roger A

    2006-02-01

    Recent events that include the deaths of research subjects and the falsification of data have drawn greater scrutiny on assuring research data integrity and protecting participants. Several organizations have created guidelines to help guide researchers working in the area of clinical trials and ensure that their research is safe and valid. However, family medicine researchers often engage in research that differs from a typical clinical trial. Investigators working in the areas of educational research, community-based participatory research, and practice-based network research would benefit from similar recommendations to guide their own research. With funding from the US Office of Research Integrity and the Association of American Medical Colleges, we convened a panel to review issues of data integrity and participant protection in educational research, community-based participatory research, and research conducted by practice-based networks. The panel generated 11 recommendations for researchers working in these areas. Three key recommendations include the need for (1) all educational research to undergo review and approval by an institutional review board (IRB), (2) community-based participatory research to be approved not just by an IRB but also by appropriate community representatives, and (3) practice-based researchers to undertake only valid and meaningful studies that can be reviewed by a central IRB, rather than separate IRBs for each participating practice.

  3. Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The taste and smell of medicinal plants and their relation to the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in the Patagonian steppe was investigated. We assume that the landscapes as a source of therapeutic resources is perceived, classified and named according to different symbolic, ecological and utilitarian criteria which are influenced by chemosensorial appearance of medicinal plants which are valued by inhabitants. Methods Information relating to the cultural landscape experienced by 18 inhabitants, all representing 85% of the families, in terms of medicinal plants, knowledge of species and their organoleptic perception was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using cualitative and quantitative approach, including discourse analysis and non-parametric statistics. Results Informants use 121 medicinal species, obtained from both wild and non-wild environments, most of which (66%) present aroma and/or taste. It was found that the plants with highest use consensus used for digestive, respiratory, cardio-vascular, analgesic-anti-inflammatory, obstetric-gynaecological and genito-unrinary complaints, have the highest frequencies of cites reporting flavor; and those with the highest frequencies relating to digestive, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and cultural syndromes present the highest frequencies of aroma. Flavor and/or aroma are interpreted as strong or soft, and the strongest are associated with treatment of supernatural ailments. Also, taste is a distinctive trait for the most of the species collected in all natural units of the landscape, while aroma is more closely associated with species growing at higher altitudes. The local pharmacopeia is also enriched with plants that come from more distant phytogeographical environments, such as the Andean forest and the Patagonian Monte, which are obtained through barter with neighboring populations. Herbal products are also obtained in

  4. Health Beliefs, Treatment Preferences and Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Asthma, Smoking and Lung Cancer Self-Management in Diverse Black Communities

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this literature review is to characterize unconventional health beliefs and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for asthma, smoking and lung cancer as those that are likely safe and those that likely increase risk in diverse Black communities. These findings should provide the impetus for enhanced patient-provider communication that elicits patients’ beliefs and self-management preferences so that they may be accommodated, or when necessary, reconciled through discussion and partnership. Methods Original research articles relevant to this topic were obtained by conducting a literature search of the PubMed Plus, PsychINFO and SCOPUS databases using combinations of the following search terms: asthma, lung cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), smoking, beliefs, complementary medicine, alternative medicine, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), explanatory models, African American, and Black. Results Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 51 original research papers were retained. Taken together, they provide evidence that patients hold unconventional beliefs about the origins of asthma and lung cancer and the health risks of smoking, have negative opinions of standard medical and surgical treatments, and have favorable attitudes about using CAM. All but a small number of CAM and health behaviors were considered safe. Conclusions When patients’ unconventional beliefs and preferences are not identified and discussed, there is an increased risk that standard approaches to self-management of lung disease will be sub-optimal, that potentially dangerous CAM practices might be used and that timely medical interventions may be delayed. Practice implications Providers need effective communication skills as the medical dialogue forms the basis of patients’ understanding of disease and self-management options. The preferred endpoint of such discussions should be agreement around an

  5. Data Accuracy of the Bubble Sheet Ambulatory Data System and the KG-Ambulatory Data System in the Internal Medicine Clinic, Bayne-Jones Army Community Hospital, Fort Polk, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    in the Ambulatory Data System (ADS) for the Internal Medicine Clinic at Bayne-Jones Army Community Hospital, Fort Polk, Louisiana. A secondary purpose...Analysis of the financial data indicated that the hospital was minimally at risk for either fraudulent billing or loss of revenue. However, as the Internal ... Medicine Clinic only accounts for 6.3% of outpatient workload, coding behaviors similar to those observed practiced in other high volume clinics would

  6. Is old medicine new medicine?

    PubMed

    Montaocean, K

    1991-07-01

    By the year 2000, over 90% of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are expected in Third World countries where Western medicine is often unavailable, unaffordable, or culturally unacceptable. Thus, there is a need for greater attention to the potential role of traditional medicine and healers in the prevention and treatment of AIDS. A US-based nongovernmental organization, Green Cross Inc, is examining cross-cultural healing traditions and seeking areas of convergence between scientific bio-medicine and indigenous traditional healing systems. At a street clinic operated by Green Cross in Washington DC, both Western medicine and traditional Chinese practices such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and meditation are offered to AIDS patients at those at risk of infection. Although the individualized nature of Chinese medicine makes it difficult to evaluate through use of Western research methods, there is anecdotal evidence that it reduces the stress, anxiety, depression, and fatigue that accompany AIDS. Health care systems in all parts of the world could benefit from the concept that illness cannot be treated in isolation from individuals and communities.

  7. Factors affecting availability of essential medicines among community health workers in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda: solving the last mile puzzle.

    PubMed

    Chandani, Yasmin; Noel, Megan; Pomeroy, Amanda; Andersson, Sarah; Pahl, Michelle K; Williams, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    To understand how supply chain factors affect product availability at the community level, the Improving Supply Chains for Community Case Management of Pneumonia and Other Common Diseases of Childhood Project developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for gathering, organizing, and interpreting evidence about supply constraints to community case management (CCM). Baseline assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda conducted in 2010 provided information on the strengths and weaknesses of existing CCM supply chains for five main products: antibiotics for pneumonia, oral rehydration solution, ready to use therapeutic food, zinc, and artemether/lumefantrine. The assessments tested the strength and validity of causal pathways identified in the TOC that were believed to influence availability of CCM products among community health workers (CHWs) for treating common childhood illnesses. Results of the assessments showed product availability to be weak in each country, with more than half of CHWs stocked out of at least one tracer product on the day of the assessment. This report will focus on the findings related to three key preconditions of the TOC and how these were used to inform the design of the CCM supply chain improvement strategy in each country. The three key preconditions include product availability at CHW resupply points, supply chain knowledge and capacity among CHWs and their supervisors, and availability of appropriate transportation.

  8. Implementing the ASAM Criteria in community treatment centers in Illinois: opportunities and challenges. American Society of Addiction Medicine.

    PubMed

    Heatherton, B

    2000-01-01

    The incorporation of the ASAM Criteria into addiction treatment centers procedure has afforded us an enormous opportunity to add credibility to our treatment. Herein lies perhaps the strongest argument for these criteria. The ASAM Criteria encourage addiction treatment centers to establish themselves as healthcare providers in their own right. The task is now for Illinois addiction treatment providers; particularly community based providers, to prove our credibility through the legitimate use of the criteria. Since most, if not all, of our patients are without means and without knowledge on quality treatment, they become easy targets for substandard or at least unimaginative and uninspired treatment. It is not that community based treatment centers are, by nature, unprincipled treatment warehouses. But it certainly can be said that our centers are frequently the last to change our treatment practices. Certainly we have become "the last resort" for the courts, overburdened mental health centers and overpopulated homeless shelters with little emphasis on clinical quality of care. Overcoming such programmed ways of viewing treatment was difficult specifically for Triangle Center and generally for community treatment providers throughout Illinois. In fact, I dare say that this transition has not occurred in total as many still passively resist this opportunity. Yet others have viewed this change as the breath of fresh air that our profession has long sought. Such variance in opinion ultimately proves that implementation of the ASAM Criteria, in a community based system, is dependent on the clinician and administrators willingness to understand, recognize and apply the Criteria.

  9. “This is the Medicine:” A Kenyan community responds to a sexual concurrency reduction intervention

    PubMed Central

    Knopf, Amelia; Agot, Kawango; Sidle, John; Naanyu, Violet; Morris, Martina

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of the first study designed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV prevention intervention focused on concurrent sexual partnerships. Mathematical models and longitudinal studies of stable couples indicate concurrency plays a critical role in sustaining generalized HIV epidemics in heterosexual populations, and East and Southern African nations identified concurrency reduction as a priority for HIV prevention. "Know Your Network" (KYN) is a single-session community-level concurrency awareness intervention designed to address this need. It is rooted in traditional social network research, but takes advantage of new network methodology and years of participatory action research with communities living in a region of Kenya with the highest HIV prevalence nationally. KYN combines didactic presentation, interactive exercises, high-impact graphics, and a network survey with immediate visualization of the results, to prompt a community conversation about sexual norms. We combined focus group discussions and the traditional east African baraza to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of KYN for use with adults living in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya. We were able to implement KYN with fidelity to its components. Participants understood the intervention's messages about concurrency and its role in HIV transmission through sexual networks. They agreed to provide anonymous egocentric data on their sexual partnerships, and in return we successfully simulated a representation of their local network for them to view and discuss. This launched a dynamic conversation about concurrency and sexual norms that persisted after the intervention. The concurrency message was novel, but resonant to participants, who reported sharing it with their children, friends, and sexual partners. With clear evidence of KYN's feasibility and acceptability, it would be appropriate to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention using a community

  10. A review of antimalarial plants used in traditional medicine in communities in Portuguese-speaking countries: Brazil, Mozambique, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A; Ramos, Aline de S; Machado, Marta; de Moura, Dominique F; Neto, Zoraima; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene M; Figueiredo, Paula; do Rosário, Virgilio E; Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Lopes, Dinora

    2011-08-01

    The isolation of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants, based on traditional use or ethnomedical data, is a highly promising potential approach for identifying new and effective antimalarial drug candidates. The purpose of this review was to create a compilation of the phytochemical studies on medicinal plants used to treat malaria in traditional medicine from the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPSC): Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe. In addition, this review aimed to show that there are several medicinal plants popularly used in these countries for which few scientific studies are available. The primary approach compared the antimalarial activity of native species used in each country with its extracts, fractions and isolated substances. In this context, data shown here could be a tool to help researchers from these regions establish a scientific and technical network on the subject for the CPSC where malaria is a public health problem.

  11. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Insulin, Medicines, & Other Diabetes Treatments Taking insulin or other diabetes medicines is ... also available. What medicines might I take for diabetes? The medicine you take will vary by your ...

  12. The War on Poverty’s Experiment in Public Medicine: Community Health Centers and the Mortality of Older Americans†

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Martha J.; Goodman-Bacon, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses the rollout of the first Community Health Centers (CHCs) to study the longer-term health effects of increasing access to primary care. Within ten years, CHCs are associated with a reduction in age-adjusted mortality rates of 2 percent among those 50 and older. The implied 7 to 13 percent decrease in one-year mortality risk among beneficiaries amounts to 20 to 40 percent of the 1966 poor/non-poor mortality gap for this age group. Large effects for those 65 and older suggest that increased access to primary care has longer-term benefits, even for populations with near universal health insurance. (JEL H75, I12, I13, I18, I32, I38, J14) PMID:25999599

  13. Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is commonly assumed that indigenous medical systems remain strong in developing countries because biomedicine is physically inaccessible or financially not affordable. This paper compares the health-seeking behavior of households from rural Andean communities at a Peruvian and a Bolivian study site. The main research question was whether the increased presence of biomedicine led to a displacement of Andean indigenous medical practices or to coexistence of the two healing traditions. Methodology Open-ended interviews and free listing exercises were conducted between June 2006 and December 2008 with 18 households at each study site. Qualitative identification of households’ therapeutic strategies and use of remedies was carried out by means of content analysis of interview transcriptions and inductive interference. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of the incidence of culture-bound illnesses in local ethnobiological inventories was performed. Results Our findings indicate that the health-seeking behavior of the Andean households in this study is independent of the degree of availability of biomedical facilities in terms of quality of services provided, physical accessibility, and financial affordability, except for specific practices such as childbirth. Preference for natural remedies over pharmaceuticals coexists with biomedical healthcare that is both accessible and affordable. Furthermore, our results show that greater access to biomedicine does not lead to less prevalence of Andean indigenous medical knowledge, as represented by the levels of knowledge about culture-bound illnesses. Conclusions The take-home lesson for health policy-makers from this study is that the main obstacle to use of biomedicine in resource-poor rural areas might not be infrastructural or economic alone. Rather, it may lie in lack of sufficient recognition by biomedical practitioners of the value and importance of indigenous medical systems. We propose that the

  14. Use of Traditional and Complementary Medicine as Self-Care Strategies in Community Health Centers: Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Pearl River Delta Region of China.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wang, Harry H X; Wong, Martin C S; Wei, Xiaolin; Wang, Jiaji; Liu, Siya; Ho, Robin S T; Yu, Ellen L M; Griffiths, Sian M

    2016-06-01

    In China, Community Health Centers (CHCs) are major providers of primary care services, but their potential in empowering patients' self-management capacity has not been assessed. This study aims to describe self-care practice patterns amongst CHC attendees in urban China.In this cross-sectional quantitative study, 3360 CHC patients from 6 cities within the Pearl Delta Region were sampled using multistage cluster sampling.Thirty-seven per cent had used with over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines (OTC CHMs) in the past year and majority of respondents found OTC CHMs effective. OTC CHMs were more popular amongst those who needed to pay out of pocket for CHC services. Less than 10% used vitamins and minerals, and those with a lower socioeconomic background have a higher propensity to consume. Although doubts on their usefulness are expressed, their use by the vulnerable population may reflect barriers to access to conventional health care, cultural affinity, or a defense against negative consequences of illnesses. About 25% performed physical exercise, but the prevalence is lower amongst women and older people. Taiji seems to be an alternative for these populations with promising effectiveness, but overall only 6% of CHC attendees participated.These results suggest that CHCs should start initiatives in fostering appropriate use of OTC CHM, vitamins, and minerals. Engaging community pharmacists in guiding safe and effective use of OTC CHM amongst the uninsured is essential given their low accessibility to CHC services. Prescription of Taiji instead of physical exercises to women and older people could be more culturally appropriate, and the possibility of including this as part of the CHC services worth further exploration.

  15. Patterns of prescription drugs use among pregnant women at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital Family and Community Medicine Clinic, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamimi, J. Z.; Al Balushi, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the patterns of prescription drugs use among women attending antenatal clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and SQUH Family and Community Medicine clinic (FAMCO), Oman. Methods: The study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study on pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic at SQUH and FAMCO from February to April 2014 and received a prescription containing at least one drug. Patients’ information was extracted from SQUH electronic records. Results: A total of 105 pregnant women were included in the study. Among the recruited pregnant women, 35 (33.3%) had at least one chronic disease. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient per prescription during the period of pregnancy was 2.33 ± 1.43. Vitamins and minerals were the most frequently prescribed class of drugs (30.60%) followed by analgesics (11.19%) and antidiabetic drugs (10.13%). According to the Food and Drug Administration risk classification, most of the prescribed drugs were from category B (30.0%) and C (27.14%). No drug was prescribed from category X. There was a significant decrease in prescribing category A drugs over the three trimesters (20.7%, 12.7%, and 9.3%, respectively) (P < 0.047). Conclusion: The study gives an overview of the extent of drug prescription during pregnancy and increases the awareness of health-care providers and women about the potential risks of drug use during pregnancy. PMID:28216955

  16. Do not let precision medicine be kidnapped.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    Obama’s precision medicine initiative made the medical community boil over after the initiative’s release. Precision medicine has been advocated by the majority of scientists and doctors. However, some experts have questioned this concept. This article does not oppose precision medicine. However, the incentive of vigorously promoting precision medicine at present is a concern.

  17. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians

  18. Medicinal cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-01-01

    Summary A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  19. Medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  20. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  1. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  2. Biomarkers in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G

    2017-02-08

    This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.

  3. Individualized medicine, health medicine, and constitutional theory in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of modern science and changes in the medical model can result in the transformation of the current state of individualized and health medicines into being the primary trend in medical development. Chinese and Western medical systems are dissimilar in terms of value orientations, thinking style, and research directions because of their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Individualized treatment in modern medicine is mainly established based on individual genome information and the differences in mononucleotide polymorphisms. However, such treatment method is expensive, creates an uncertain genetic marker, and leads to different result interpretations, among other problems. The Chinese constitutional theory developed in the 1970s expresses the principle behind Chinese health medicine and individual treatment and provides the corresponding methods. The Chinese constitutional theory divides the constitution of the Chinese population into nine categories based on established classification criteria. It promotes the study of the relationship of each constitution to diseases and Chinese medicine preparation toward adjusting the constitution and preventing diseases. The theory also provides methods and tools for individualized treatment. Constitution identification shows the direction and provides the core technology for the evaluation of the health status. By combining the developments in modern biotechnology, new diagnostic techniques and treatment models of constitution-differentiation, disease-differentiation, and syndrome-differentiation can be established for the development of individualized Chinese medicine treatment and health medicine for the international medical community.

  4. Genetics and genomic medicine.

    PubMed

    Bogaard, Kali; Johnson, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Genetics is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, and the expansion of genetics into health care has generated the field of genomic medicine. Health care delivery is shifting away from general diagnostic evaluation toward a generation of therapeutics based on a patient's genetic makeup. Meanwhile, the scientific community debates how best to incorporate genetics and genomic medicine into practice. While obstacles remain, the ultimate goal is to use information generated from the study of human genetics to improve disease treatment, cure and prevention. As the use of genetics in medical diagnosis and treatment increases, health care workers will require an understanding of genetics and genomic medicine.

  5. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Services Use in Low-Income African Americans and Whites: A Report from the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Liu, Jianguo; Kenerson, Donna M.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study aimed to examine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of practitioner-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services use according to race in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population. Design Included in this cross-sectional analysis were 50,176 African Americans (AAs) and 19,038 whites enrolled into the Southern Community Cohort Study from March 2002 through September 2009. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CAM services use associated with participant characteristics. Outcome measures Outcomes include the prevalence of and trends in use of CAM services during 2002–2009 and correlates of use by race. Results CAM services use during 2002–2009 was greater among whites (11.7%) than among AAs (8.5%), but no significant temporal trends within the 8-year period were observed. The significant associations were observed for CAM services use with higher educational attainment (OR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.61–1.96 for college versus less than high school), household income (OR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.44–1.81 for ≥$50,000 versus <$15,000), and having a history of a chronic disease (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.21–1.47) among both AAs and whites. Significant differences in findings between AAs and whites were seen for age (with a sharp decline in use with older age among AAs but not whites), sex (with the excess of female users more striking among whites), employment (with the unemployed among AAs but not whites more likely to be users), alcohol consumption (with white but not AA drinkers more likely to report CAM services use), and cigarette smoking status (with negative association of use with current smokers more striking among whites). Conclusions CAM services use is associated with sociodemographic and health-related factors, and racial differences in such use exist. The descriptive findings of this study help supplement the limited information on CAM use among low

  7. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  8. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  9. Medicine organizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.

  10. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  11. Occupational and environmental medicine in a family medicine residency.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, T E; Teitelbaum, H S

    2001-05-01

    Well-rounded instruction in occupational medicine as part of family medicine residency training is feasible through a program that balances a longitudinal curriculum of monthly occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) lectures, community-based OEM patient care, and worksite assessment. Such training would help equip family medicine residents to integrate occupational medicine into their practices, which, in light of a shortage of board-certified practitioners in OEM, would help fill community needs. The Intern-Resident Training Committee of Carson City Hospital in rural Michigan established both learner and institutional goals and objectives for such a program of instruction. A learner-needs assessment found appreciable interest among the residents for occupational medicine training. In addition, results of a survey of the occupational health community suggested there is inadequate coverage of OEM in medical schools and residencies. Furthermore, a focus group of occupational health managers revealed that clarity of communication and standardization of reporting were paramount concerns. Instruments for standardized OEM history and for OEM case management were developed for use within the residency continuity clinic. The curriculum was implemented with a variety of teaching strategies, including worksite assessment. Practice-based, case-oriented instruction was subsequently phased into the program as residents assumed responsibility for managing cases under the supervision of family medicine preceptors knowledgeable in OEM. An occupational medicine rotation was developed that included focused clinical exposure to OEM patients and studies that would lead to eligibility for a certificate of additional qualification in occupational medicine. Learner evaluations included chart reviews and patient satisfaction surveys. Program evaluations included interviews with occupational health managers. The residents were judged by their preceptors to have performed well. The

  12. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed.

  13. Precision medicine in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Antman, Elliott M; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    The cardiovascular research and clinical communities are ideally positioned to address the epidemic of noncommunicable causes of death, as well as advance our understanding of human health and disease, through the development and implementation of precision medicine. New tools will be needed for describing the cardiovascular health status of individuals and populations, including 'omic' data, exposome and social determinants of health, the microbiome, behaviours and motivations, patient-generated data, and the array of data in electronic medical records. Cardiovascular specialists can build on their experience and use precision medicine to facilitate discovery science and improve the efficiency of clinical research, with the goal of providing more precise information to improve the health of individuals and populations. Overcoming the barriers to implementing precision medicine will require addressing a range of technical and sociopolitical issues. Health care under precision medicine will become a more integrated, dynamic system, in which patients are no longer a passive entity on whom measurements are made, but instead are central stakeholders who contribute data and participate actively in shared decision-making. Many traditionally defined diseases have common mechanisms; therefore, elimination of a siloed approach to medicine will ultimately pave the path to the creation of a universal precision medicine environment.

  14. Design, implementation and evaluation of a community health training program in an integrated problem-based medical curriculum: a fifteen-year experience at the University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chastonay, Philippe; Vu, Nu Viet; Humair, Jean-Paul; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Bernheim, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Background In the literature the need for relevance in medical education and training has been stressed. In the last 40 years medical schools have been challenged to train doctors competent to respond to community health needs. In the mid-90s the University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine introduced an integrated medical curriculum. In this initiative a particular emphasis was put in introducing a 6-year longitudinal and multidisciplinary Community Health Program (CHP). Objectives The aims of the present article are to describe the conception, elaboration and implementation of the CHP as well as its evolution over 15 years and the evaluation of its outcomes. Methods The CHP was at its origin elaborated by a small group of highly motivated teachers and later on developed by a multi-disciplinary group of primary care physicians, epidemiologists, public health and bio-ethics specialists, occupational health professionals, lawyers and historians. Evaluation of the program outcomes included educational innovations, new developments of the curriculum and interactions between students and the community. Results The CHP learning objectives and teaching modalities were defined by the multi-disciplinary group in consensus meetings which triggered a collaborative spirit among teachers and facilitated further developments. The evaluation procedures allowed the monitoring of students’ satisfaction which remained high over the years, students’ active participation which decreased over time and success at certifying exams which was globally as good as in basic life sciences. The evaluation also assessed outcomes such as educational innovations, new developments of the curriculum and interactions between students and the community. Conclusion As suggested in the literature, our experience shows that the students’ direct exposure and practice in the community health environment is an effective training approach to broaden students’ education by offering them a community

  15. ‘SASA! is the medicine that treats violence’. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M.; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Methods Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. Results SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals’ skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. Discussion This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the

  16. The shifting architectonics of pain medicine: toward ethical realignment of scientific, medical and market values for the emerging global community--groundwork for policy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, James; Benedikter, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Following the Second Industrial Revolution, Western medicine has become an interwoven enterprise of humanitarian and technologic values. In this essay, we posited that rather than being seen as a means toward achieving the ends of providing technically right and morally sound pain care, the resources and goods of pain medicine have been subordinated to a market-based values system that regards these tools as ends unto themselves. We argued that this approach is 1) pragmatically inapt, in that it fails to acknowledge and provide those tools as rightly necessary for the "good" of pain medicine to be enacted; and is therefore 2) morally unsound, in that the good, while recognized, is not afforded, thereby disserving the fiduciary of science/technology, medicine, and economics. We framed these issues within 1) the context(s) and effects of postmodernism and 2) the increasing call for a globally relevant and applicable system of pain care. Toward this latter end, we addressed how policies can be created that accommodate differing social values, and still enable the execution of care in ways that are morally sound, yet economically viable. We posited that such policies need to be finely grained so as to 1) sustain research in pain diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and management; 2) translate research efforts into clinically relevant resources; 3) enable availability and just distribution of both low- and high-tech resources; and 4) prompt fiscal programs that support, allow, and reinforce responsible choice (of such resources) as socioculturally required, valued, and valid.

  17. [Expedition medicine].

    PubMed

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  18. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  19. [Phronesis: Medicine's indispensable virtue].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Facing those who defend that Medicine is not but an applied science, Pellegrino argues that the ultimate goal of Medicine is facing to a human being in his illness condition. Thus, it is not sufficient to have scientific knowledge but proximity to man kindness. Cure is not the only goal -achievable in only a few cases- but healing, caring with a person as an ill person and as a person. For this reason, professional competence is not enough; the physician needs to have the necessary dispositions to be a good person, a good professional. To get the goals of Medicine, the physician has to achieve those qualities who allow him to do the good he is intended to, that is, he needs to be virtuous. Prudence -phronesis- is the virtue that allows him to apply a general rule to a particular case and, furthermore, addresses his actions to be not only technically correct, but excellent. Prudence is, then, the link between intellectual virtues and moral virtues. Pellegrino's main objective has been to elaborate a Philosophy of Medicine, different from the Philosophy of Science, useful for clinical practice and used by clinical practitioners. By nurturing prudence, a small bit of the final goal is reached: the healing, the goodness for the sick. This should be possible if we are embedded in a moral community, and for Pellegrino, sharing knowledge and ethical values is the way of being part of a moral community.

  20. Increasing US health plan coverage for exercise programming in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness: a position statement from the Society of Behavior Medicine and the American College of Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Sarah I; Jerome, Gerald J; Schneider, Kristin L; Craft, Lynette L; Buman, Matthew P; Stoutenberg, Mark; Daumit, Gail L; Bartels, Stephen J; Goodrich, David E

    2016-09-01

    Adults with serious mental illness die more than 10 years earlier than the average American. Premature mortality is due to the high prevalence of preventable diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Poor lifestyle behaviors including lack of exercise and physical inactivity contribute to the epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease observed among adults with serious mental illness. Not surprisingly, people with serious mental illness are among the most costly consumers of health services due to increased visits for poorly managed mental and physical health. Recent studies have demonstrated that exercise interventions based on community mental health settings can significantly improve physical and mental health in people with serious mental illness. However, current funding regulations limit the ability of community mental health settings to offer exercise programming services to people with serious mental illness. Policy efforts are needed to improve the dissemination and sustainability of exercise programs for people with serious mental illness.

  1. Vulnerable Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  2. Behavioral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…

  3. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  4. [Sport medicine].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  5. Wilderness medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sward, Douglas G.; Bennett, Brad L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human activity in wilderness areas has increased globally in recent decades, leading to increased risk of injury and illness. Wilderness medicine has developed in response to both need and interest. METHODS: The field of wilderness medicine encompasses many areas of interest. Some focus on special circumstances (such as avalanches) while others have a broader scope (such as trauma care). Several core areas of key interest within wilderness medicine are discussed in this study. RESULTS: Wilderness medicine is characterized by remote and improvised care of patients with routine or exotic illnesses or trauma, limited resources and manpower, and delayed evacuation to definitive care. Wilderness medicine is developing rapidly and draws from the breadth of medical and surgical subspecialties as well as the technical fields of mountaineering, climbing, and diving. Research, epidemiology, and evidence-based guidelines are evolving. A hallmark of this field is injury prevention and risk mitigation. The range of topics encompasses high-altitude cerebral edema, decompression sickness, snake envenomation, lightning injury, extremity trauma, and gastroenteritis. Several professional societies, academic fellowships, and training organizations offer education and resources for laypeople and health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The future of wilderness medicine is unfolding on multiple fronts: education, research, training, technology, communications, and environment. Although wilderness medicine research is technically difficult to perform, it is essential to deepening our understanding of the contribution of specific techniques in achieving improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:25215140

  6. The p-medicine portal—a collaboration platform for research in personalised medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schera, Fatima; Weiler, Gabriele; Neri, Elias; Kiefer, Stephan; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The European project p-medicine creates an information technology infrastructure that facilitates the development from current medical practice to personalised medicine. The main access point to this infrastructure is the p-medicine portal that provides clinicians, patients, and researchers a platform to collaborate, share data and expertise, and use tools and services to improve personalised treatments of patients. In this document, we describe the community-based structure of the p-medicine portal and provide information about the p-medicine security framework implemented in the portal. Finally, we show the user interface and describe the p-medicine tools and services integrated in the portal. PMID:24567755

  7. The p-medicine portal-a collaboration platform for research in personalised medicine.

    PubMed

    Schera, Fatima; Weiler, Gabriele; Neri, Elias; Kiefer, Stephan; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The European project p-medicine creates an information technology infrastructure that facilitates the development from current medical practice to personalised medicine. The main access point to this infrastructure is the p-medicine portal that provides clinicians, patients, and researchers a platform to collaborate, share data and expertise, and use tools and services to improve personalised treatments of patients. In this document, we describe the community-based structure of the p-medicine portal and provide information about the p-medicine security framework implemented in the portal. Finally, we show the user interface and describe the p-medicine tools and services integrated in the portal.

  8. Family Medicine Specialty in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Santosh Lional

    2013-01-01

    Family Medicine in Singapore has its roots in a generalist ethos and found its origin as a counter culture movement to the increasing sub-specialisation of medicine which resulted in a complex healthcare system where that patients are often cared for by multiple specialists potentially resulting in fragmentation of care. The aim of the discipline of Family Medicine was to train and develop more generalist physicians so as to promote holistic care. Family physicians are the largest pool of generalists who are trained to provide general medical care to patients in the context of the person, the family and the community that they live in. PMID:24479066

  9. Medicines management.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-04-15

    All newly registered graduate nurses are required to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding to perform the skills required for patient care, specifically the competencies identified in the Nursing and Midwifery Council's essential skills clusters. This article focuses on the fifth essential skills cluster – medicines management. Nursing students should work to attain the knowledge and skills required for effective medicines management throughout their pre-registration education. The roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse in the area of medicines management are discussed in this the final article of the essential skills cluster series.

  10. Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cholerton, Brenna; Larson, Eric B.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Mata, Ignacio F.; Keene, C. Dirk; Flanagan, Margaret; Crane, Paul K.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Three key elements to precision medicine are stratification by risk, detection of pathophysiological processes as early as possible (even before clinical presentation), and alignment of mechanism of action of intervention(s) with an individual's molecular driver(s) of disease. Used for decades in the management of some rare diseases and now gaining broad currency in cancer care, a precision medicine approach is beginning to be adapted to cognitive impairment and dementia. This review focuses on the application of precision medicine to address the clinical and biological complexity of two common neurodegenerative causes of dementia: Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:26724389

  11. Inquiry-Based Learning for a Virtual Learning Community to Enhance Problem-Solving Ability of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanprasitchai, Ong-art; Khlaisang, Jintavee

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth in collaborative and interactive virtual learning communities integrating innovative digital technologies and contemporary learning frameworks is contributing enormously to the use of e-learning in higher education in the twenty-first century. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of a virtual learning…

  12. A Rural Community's Involvement in the Design and Usability Testing of a Computer-Based Informed Consent Process for the Personalized Medicine Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Mahnke, Andrea N; Plasek, Joseph M; Hoffman, David G; Partridge, Nathan S; Foth, Wendy S; Waudby, Carol J; Rasmussen, Luke V; McManus, Valerie D; McCarty, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Many informed consent studies demonstrate that research subjects poorly retain and understand information in written consent documents. Previous research in multimedia consent is mixed in terms of success for improving participants’ understanding, satisfaction, and retention. This failure may be due to a lack of a community-centered design approach to building the interventions. The goal of this study was to gather information from the community to determine the best way to undertake the consent process. Community perceptions regarding different computer-based consenting approaches were evaluated, and a computer-based consent was developed and tested. A second goal was to evaluate whether participants make truly informed decisions to participate in research. Simulations of an informed consent process were videotaped to document the process. Focus groups were conducted to determine community attitudes towards a computer-based informed consent process. Hybrid focus groups were conducted to determine the most acceptable hardware device. Usability testing was conducted on a computer-based consent prototype using a touch-screen kiosk. Based on feedback, a computer-based consent was developed. Representative study participants were able to easily complete the consent, and all were able to correctly answer the comprehension check questions. Community involvement in developing a computer-based consent proved valuable for a population-based genetic study. These findings may translate to other types of informed consents, such as genetic clinical trials consents. A computer-based consent may serve to better communicate consistent, clear, accurate, and complete information regarding the risks and benefits of study participation. Additional analysis is necessary to measure the level of comprehension of the check-question answers by larger numbers of participants. The next step will involve contacting participants to measure whether understanding of what they consented to is

  13. Medicinal attributes of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit consumed by several tribal communities as food: an in vitro antioxidant, anticancer and anti HIV perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) has been used for treatment of many infectious and degenerative diseases in traditional medicine. Present study reports the medicinal efficacy of S. xanthocarpum fruit as antioxidant, anticancer and anti HIV agents. Methods Extracts were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus and partially characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. Reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays were used for measurement of antioxidant potential. Cytotoxic (SRB assay) and anti-HIV RT inhibition (RT assay kit, Roche) activities were determined using ELISA. Results TLC revealed the diversity of phytoconstituents in various sequential extracts of S. xanthocarpum fruit. Total flavonoid contents in extracts ranged between 10.22–162.49 μg quercetin equivalent/mg. Spectroscopic scanning of water soluble phenolics showed maximum absorbance at 250 and 280 nm. Polar extracts displayed potent radical scavenging activity (>80%). Several sub-fractions (spots) of extracts separated on TLC plates also exhibited powerful radical scavenging activity. Considerable reducing power was observed in extracts. Hexane fraction provided 55% lipoprotection in rat kidney homogenate. Non-polar extracts exhibited appreciable cytotoxic activity (70-91%) against leukemia (THP-1) and lung cancer (HOP-62) cell lines. Lower inhibitory activity was observed in extracts against HIV Reverse Transcriptase enzyme. Conclusion The study demonstrated considerable antioxidant and anticancer activities in S. xanthocarpum fruit. PMID:24678980

  14. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for ... administered by inhalation, by oral ingestion, or by direct injection into an organ. The mode of tracer ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  16. Mesopotamian medicine.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots.

  17. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  18. Differences in soil properties and bacterial communities between the rhizosphere and bulk soil and among different production areas of the medicinal plant Fritillaria thunbergii.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Feng; Lin, Hui-Rong; Yang, Yuan-Qiang; Li, Zong-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    To explore rhizosphere effects, geographical differences and their effects on the bacterial community associated with the geoherb Fritillaria thunbergii, some physicochemical properties of soil samples (3 sampling sites × 2 habitats (rhizosphere and bulk soil)) were measured and the soil bacterial community detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the three regions, soil pH varied between 4.48 and 7.73 indicating that F. thunbergii could grow both in acid and slightly alkaline soil. As the authentic Dao-di producing area, Ningbo showed the highest soil quality with the highest content of organic matter (OM) (2.46%), phosphatase (268 mg kg(-1) 24 h(-1)) and urease activity (1481 mg kg(-1) 24 h(-1)). In comparison with the bulk soil, pH, organic carbon content, and phosphatase and urease activities were all lower in the rhizosphere, suggesting that the roots may secrete some unique metabolites in root exudates. Statistical analyses showed that soil properties of Ningbo and Panan in Zhejiang province were more similar to each other than those in Nantong in Jiangsu province. In addition, PCR-DGGE analysis showed that main bacterial population identified in F. thunbergii was proteobacteria (18 bands, 55%), acidobacteria (4, 12%), actinobacteria (4, 12%) and bacterioidetes (6, 18%). Overall, soil properties and microbial communities varied not only between the rhizosphere and bulk soil but also among the three regions. We suggest that the plant, together with the soil properties, cooperatively shape the structure of the rhizosphere bacteria, and that the soil properties have a close relationship with the geoherbalism of F. thunbergii.

  19. Rebuilding Native American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyhis, Don; Simonelli, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Wellbriety Movement in Native American communities draws on the wisdom and participation of traditional elders. Beginning with a basic community teaching called the Four Laws of Change and the Healing Forest Model, the Wellbriety Movement blends Medicine Wheel knowledge with the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous to provide culture-specific…

  20. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  1. Wilderness Medicine.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Whitney; Bright, Steven; Burns, Patrick; Townes, David

    2016-03-01

    Wilderness medicine encompasses prevention and treatment of illness and injury, education and training, emergency medical services, and search and rescue in the wilderness. Although traumatic injuries, including minor injuries, outnumber medical illness as the cause of morbidity in the wilderness, basic understanding of the prevention and management of injury and illness, including recognition, identification, treatment, initial management, and stabilization, is essential, in addition to the ability to facilitate evacuation of affected patients. An important theme throughout wilderness medicine is planning and preparation for the best- and worst-case scenarios, and being ready for the unexpected.

  2. Teaching Cost-Conscious Medicine: Impact of a Simple Educational Intervention on Appropriate Abdominal Imaging at a Community-Based Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Matthew F.; Agan, Donna L.; Liu, Yang; Johnson, John O.; Shaw, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rising costs pose a major threat to US health care. Residency programs are being asked to teach residents how to provide cost-conscious medical care. Methods An educational intervention incorporating the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria with lectures on cost-consciousness and on the actual hospital charges for abdominal imaging was implemented for residents at Scripps Mercy Hospital in San Diego, CA. We hypothesized that residents would order fewer abdominal imaging examinations for patients with complaints of abdominal pain after the intervention. We analyzed the type and number of abdominal imaging studies completed for patients admitted to the inpatient teaching service with primary abdominal complaints for 18 months before (738 patients) and 12 months following the intervention (632 patients). Results There was a significant reduction in mean abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans per patient (1.7–1.4 studies per patient, P < .001) and total abdominal radiology studies per patient (3.1–2.7 studies per patient, P  =  .02) following the intervention. The avoidance of charges solely due to the reduction in abdominal CT scans following the intervention was $129 per patient or $81,528 in total. Conclusions A simple educational intervention appeared to change the radiologic test-ordering behavior of internal medicine residents. Widespread adoption of similar interventions by residency programs could result in significant savings for the health care system. PMID:24404274

  3. Community-applied research of a traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation scheme on Broca’s aphasia after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aphasia is a common and severely disabling complication in stroke patients. It usually brings about lower rates of functional recovery, longer rehabilitation length of stay (LOS), and significantly poorer LOS efficiency (LOS-Eff), resulting in higher rehabilitation costs compared to patients without aphasia. It also decreases the quality of life and increases the mortality of stroke patients. The evidence currently available suggests that the effect of acupuncture combined with language training for apoplectic aphasia is statistically better than speech and language therapy (SLT) alone, but there remains a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Acupuncture combined with language training is relatively low-cost and especially suitable for community-based rehabilitation for aphasia patients after stroke, taking its medical and health facilities which are always deficient in manpower and material resources into account. The aim of the present study is to develop an effective standard therapeutic program for apoplectic aphasia in communities. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled clinical trial with blinded assessment, 290 eligible patients with aphasia due to stroke will be randomly allocated into a control group or an experimental group. The course of this trial will comprise a 4-week intervention and a 12-week follow-up period. Five assessment points, including baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, 6 and 12 weeks after follow-up, are set to dynamically observe the changes of curative effects. Primary outcome measures are the differences in the score on both the China rehabilitation research center aphasia examination (CRRCAE) and Boston diagnostic aphasia examination - Chinese version (BDAE-C) after intervention and follow-up. The Modified Barthel Index (MBI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and results of blood oxygen level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) examination are considered as the

  4. Community and Virtual Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Oldridge, Rachel; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to virtual communities: (1) information and virtual community; (2) virtual communities and communities of practice; (3) virtual communities and virtual arenas, including virtual community networks; and (4) networked virtual communities. (Contains 175 references.) (MES)

  5. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  6. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills contain antihistamines. These medicines are commonly used to treat allergies. While these ...

  7. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  8. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of medicine are presented, along with requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a physician. State statutory provisions cover: duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession, supervision by the Board…

  9. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern medical practice in New York State is presented. After an overview of professional regulation in the state, licensing requirements/procedures for medicine are described including education and postgraduate training requirements, state licensing examinations, and application…

  10. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  11. Use and Perceived Effectiveness of Complementary and Alternative Medicine to Treat and Manage the Symptoms of Autism in Children: A Survey of Parents in a Community Population

    PubMed Central

    Madren, Eric; Santianni, Kirsten A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often try a variety of treatments for their children, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the frequency of CAM use by parents for their children with autism and to quantify the parents' perceived effectiveness of various CAM therapies in mitigating the health and functioning problems associated with autism. Methods: Parents in southeastern Virginia were recruited for study participation from local autism organizations and a clinical practice where a large proportion of the patients are children with autism. Parents completed an online survey and answered questions about CAM use for their children with autism, and they rated the perceived effectiveness of each therapy. Results: Of 194 parents surveyed, 80.9% reported that they had tried some form of CAM for their child with autism. Among CAM users, the most frequently used therapies were multivitamins (58.6%), the gluten-free casein-free diet (54.8%), and methyl B-12 injections (54.1%). The CAM therapies that received the highest average rating of effectiveness were sensory integration therapy, melatonin, and off-label use of prescription antifungal medications. Conclusion: CAM therapies were frequently used in this population, and many were perceived to be effective in helping to ease some of the health challenges associated with autism. CAM therapies for the autism population should be further studied in well-controlled clinical research settings to provide safety and efficacy data on treatments, as well as validated treatment options for those with ASD. PMID:26654976

  12. Effect of location on family medicine residents' training.

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, D.; Hogg, W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of family medicine residents trained at community-based or hospital-based centres suggested differences in experience and in career plans. Community-based residents saw more patients in the same family, believed they knew the community better, made more housecalls, expected to use allied health professionals more frequently, and were more likely to choose a small community practice. PMID:8499787

  13. Community-Oriented Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…

  14. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines A A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  15. Transfusion medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  16. Behavior medicine specialist.

    PubMed

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Total Health is a vision for the future and a strategy to prevent preventable disease, save lives, and make health care more affordable. Total Health means health of mind (behavior health) and health of body (physical health). To achieve Total Health we need healthy people in healthy communities. A behavior medicine specialist is a psychologist who works in the medical home with the primary care physician instead of in the Mental Health Department with a psychiatrist. The key to achieving Total Health will be to transform our current health care system from a focus on treating disease to a focus on preventing disease. This transformation will require complex behavior change interventions and services not usually provided in the medical home. The behavior medicine specialist will bring the knowledge and experience used to treat mental illness into the medical home to help the primary care physician improve the care of all patients in the medical home. The behavior medicine specialist will help improve outcomes in synergy with the primary care physician by universal screening of high-risk diseases, stepped care protocols, and efficient use of all resources available to care for patients in the medical home (health education classes, wellness coaches, and online social networking lifestyle management programs). These interventions should increase patient satisfaction, increase access to specialty care (psychiatry), and help us achieve Total Health.

  17. Informal medicine: ethical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, F; Peleg, R; Peleg, A

    2005-01-01

    Context: Doctors have been known to treat or give consultation to patients informally, with none of the usual record keeping or follow up. They may wish to know whether this practice is ethical. Objective: To determine whether this practice meets criteria of medical ethics. Design: Informal medicine is analysed according to standard ethical principles: autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence, distributive and procedural justice, and caring. Setting: Hospital, medical school, and other settings where patients may turn to physicians for informal help. Conclusion: No generalisation can be made to the effect that informal medicine is or is not ethical. Each request for informal consultation must be considered on its own merits. Guidelines: Informal medicine may be ethical if no payment is involved, and when the patient is fully aware of the benefits and risks of a lack of record keeping. When an informal consultation does not entail any danger to the patient or others, the physician may agree to the request. If, however, any danger to the patient or others is foreseen, then the physician must insist on professional autonomy, and consider refusing the request and persuading the patient to accept formal consultation. If a reportable infectious disease, or other serious danger to the community, is involved, the physician should refuse informal consultation or treatment, or at least make a proper report even if the consultation was informal. If agreeing to the request will result in an unfair drain on the physician's time or energy, he or she should refuse politely. PMID:16319228

  18. [Travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  19. Optimizing health care delivery by integrating workplaces, homes, and communities: how occupational and environmental medicine can serve as a vital connecting link between accountable care organizations and the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Robert K; Sherman, Bruce; Loeppke, Ronald R; McKenzie, Judith; Mueller, Kathryn L; Yarborough, Charles M; Grundy, Paul; Allen, Harris; Larson, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    momentum and evolving among physicians. But, the potential exists for implementation of both of these concepts across a much broader community of patients. By extending the well-conceived integrative concepts of the PCMH model and ACOs into the workforce via occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) physicians, the power of these concepts would be significantly enhanced. Occupational and environmental medicine provides a well-established infrastructure and parallel strategies that could serve as a force multiplier in achieving the fundamental goals of the PCMH model and ACOs. In this paradigm, the workplace-where millions of Americans spend a major portion of their daily lives-becomes an essential element, next to communities and homes, in an integrated system of health anchored by the PCMH and ACO concepts. To be successful, OEM physicians will need to think and work innovatively about how they can provide today's employer health services-ranging from primary care and preventive care to workers' compensation and disability management-within tomorrow's PCMH and ACO models.

  20. [Psychiatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Ibañez Dominguez, J

    1984-06-01

    The author, after a short historical introduction which shows the Medicine, especially the Neurology, as the predecessor of the Psychiatry, intents to relate in a theorico-practical way the anxiety and the depression within a bio-chemical and endocrinological frame. He presents the hipo and hipercalcemia signals and symptoms demonstrating with a casuistic from his clinical practice the similitude between anxiety and depression respectively. Finally he realizes a theorical analysis about the investigations published over the AMP-ciclic and infers about the hormonal interference and the clinical data linked with the manic-depressive disease.

  1. Field medicine: a new paradigm of geriatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Kozo; Okumiya, Kiyohito

    2012-01-01

    It is only during the last half century that aging came to be truly thought of as a societal issue rather than simply a personal one, as well as a challenge to be tackled by science and medicine. Diseases used to be studied only in hospitals and laboratories, centering on patients treated there. However, caring for elderly people in hospitals provides only a small glimpse into their world. With an advancing aged population, the reality of old age and age-related chronic illnesses takes place in homes and communities. To truly understand the health issues of the elderly, we ventured into communities and visited elderly persons in their homes and cultural environments in Kochi prefecture. The Department of Geriatric Medicine, Kochi Medical School, was the first in Japan to incorporate the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in preventive intervention and evaluation of the medical problems of elderly people in field settings, which could not be completely resolved in the hospital. Geriatric findings in field settings in Kochi before (1990-2000) and after (2000-2010) the introduction of the nationwide long-term care insurance system throughout Japan were reviewed. Field medicine also enables us to explore the aging of people living not only in Japan but also in several Asian communities and, further, into those living in atypical environments such as the Himalayan highlands. Based on the geriatric findings of field medicine carried out in sites with different ecology and cultures, we reconsidered the optimal aging situation based on the activities of daily living and quality of life, as well as chronic diseases of elderly people throughout the world. In this review article, we would like to highlight the importance of field medicine as a new paradigm of geriatric medical research.

  2. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  3. Diving medicine.

    PubMed

    Benton, P J; Glover, M A

    2006-01-01

    Recreational diving developed in the late 1940s when self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) first became available for civilian use. At the same time the development of the commercial airliner, in particular the jet airliner, made possible the concept of international travel for pleasure as opposed to business. Over the past 50 years the number of international tourists has increased by over 2500% from a mere 25 million in 1950 to over 700 million in 2002 (Treadwell TL. Trends in travel. In: Zuckerman JN, editor. Principles and practice of travel medicine, 2001; p. 2-6). The popularity of recreational diving has also increased over the same period from an activity experienced by a small number of individuals in the early 1950s to an activity today enjoyed by many millions. The combination of increased international travel and the means by which to enter and explore the underwater world has led to diving becoming increasingly popular as a tourist activity.

  4. [Approach to Teaching Kampo Medicine at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    An approach to educating our pharmaceutical students about Kampo medicine in the six-year system of undergraduate pharmacy education at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University is introduced, including the author's opinions. Curriculum revisions have been made in our university for students entering after 2012. In teaching Kampo medicine at present, a medical doctor and an on-site pharmacist share information difficult to give in a lecture with the teaching staff in my laboratory. For example, before the curriculum revision, we conferred with a pharmacist and a doctor in the course "Kampo Medicine A, B" for 4th year students, in which students were presented a basic knowledge of Kampo medicine, the application of important Kampo medicines, combinations of crude drugs, etc. Further, in our "Introduction to Kampo Medicine" for 6th year students, presented after they have practiced in hospitals and community pharmacies, we again lecture on the pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicines, on "pattern (Sho)", and on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research studies of important Kampo medicines. After our curriculum revision, "Kampo Medicine A, B" was rearranged into the courses "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" and "Clinical Kampo Medicine". "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" is now provided in the second semester of the 3rd year, and in this course we lecture on the basic knowledge of Kampo medicine. An advanced lecture will be given on "Clinical Kampo Medicine" in the 6th year. We are searching for the best way to interest students in Kampo medicine, and to counteract any misunderstandings about Kampo medicine.

  5. Community Pharmacy Practice in India: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Subal Chandra; Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

    2009-01-01

    Today, community pharmacists play an important role in any country as they take responsibility for patient’s medicine related needs for access to healthcare. However, in India only the supply of medicines remains the core activity of the community pharmacist. Most community pharmacists in the country still hardly offer patient‐oriented service. The role of the pharmacists in the community, and with it their medicine management, may change in the wake of the rapid growth of domestic medicine output and national healthcare expenditure. This article seeks to discuss the genesis of Indian community pharmacy, the majority of which are privately owned, and sketches its education, training and future prospects. PMID:23093872

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... use practices like acupuncture in medicine. But until recently, most Western hospitals didn't provide any alternative ... medicine is often used instead of conventional medical techniques. Complementary medicine is used in addition to conventional ...

  7. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why you may Need More Than one Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  8. Managing Your Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Your Medicines Updated:Oct 27,2016 If you have heart ... Weight • Tools & Resources Heart Insight Supplement: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

  9. Storing your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000534.htm Storing your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... child latch or lock. Do not use Damaged Medicine Damaged medicine may make you sick. DO NOT ...

  10. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  11. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  12. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  13. Medicines for osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... Your doctor may prescribe certain medicines to help lower your ... make the bones in your hips, spine, and other areas less likely ...

  14. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  15. Lasers in veterinary medicine: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1994-09-01

    As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.

  16. Bridging Systems Medicine and Patient Needs

    PubMed Central

    Boissel, J-P; Auffray, C; Noble, D; Hood, L; Boissel, F-H

    2015-01-01

    While there is widespread consensus on the need both to change the prevailing research and development (R&D) paradigm and provide the community with an efficient way to personalize medicine, ecosystem stakeholders grapple with divergent conceptions about which quantitative approach should be preferred. The primary purpose of this position paper is to contrast these approaches. The second objective is to introduce a framework to bridge simulation outputs and patient outcomes, thus empowering the implementation of systems medicine. PMID:26225243

  17. Global obstetric medicine: Collaborating towards global progress in maternal health

    PubMed Central

    Ateka-Barrutia, Oier; Rojas-Suarez, Jose Antonio; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Castillo, Eliana; Lombaard, Hennie; Magee, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the nature of maternal mortality and morbidity is shifting from direct obstetric causes to an increasing proportion of indirect causes due to chronic conditions and ageing of the maternal population. Obstetric medicine can address an important gap in the care of women by broadening its scope to include colleagues, communities and countries that do not yet have established obstetric medicine training, education and resources. We present the concept of global obstetric medicine by highlighting three low- and middle-income country experiences as well as an example of successful collaboration. The article also discusses ideas and initiatives to build future partnerships within the global obstetric medicine community. PMID:27512469

  18. Moral imperatives for academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J N

    1997-12-01

    As the health care system becomes dominated by managed care, academic medicine must do more than simply learn how to continue to offer the same level of care with ever-tightening resources and in new practice environments. Three moral imperatives must guide how medicine is practiced and taught: (1) patients' health and well-being must always be foremost, centered in quality of care and respect for life; (2) the emotional and spiritual needs of patients must be considered, not just the physical needs; (3) academic medicine must instill in its trainees discipline, passion, and skills to meet their obligation to be lifelong learners. These imperatives make it more important than ever for medical educators to tackle two crucial questions: What kind of person makes the best possible physician? And what constitutes the best possible training for that person? Taking these questions seriously in the new era of health care may mean that medical educators need to rethink the teaching of medicine. One example of how this might be done is the Curriculum for 2002 Committee recently formed at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine. It is becoming clear that medical educators can do a better and more comprehensive job of helping future physicians uncover and strengthen their own morality and, in the face of managed care's pressures, renew their loyalty to medicine as a service rather than a business. Morally sensitized physicians can better deal with the hard issues of medicine, such as euthanasia and abortion, and can help their students examine these issues. Most important, they can show their students that physicians are members of a moral community dedicated to something other than its own self-interest.

  19. The forthcoming era of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Gamulin, Stjepan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients' groups). Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism ("big data"), development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care.

  20. [Disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  1. Tapping the potential of alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    La Puma, J; Eiler, G

    1998-04-01

    Interest in alternative medicine is growing among healthcare consumers. Health plans and healthcare organizations may be able to improve clinical outcomes and benefit financially by providing patients with access to alternative services. Organizations that can assess their communities' particular needs, draw on interested professional staff to help develop alternative medicine programs and protocols, and study quality outcomes will stand a better chance of making such programs successful. Educating medical staff, designing a credible program, and forging strategic alliances with respected partners can help organizations create a sharply focused brand identity in the community.

  2. [Theory and practice of bionic cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dahui; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Lanping; Shao, Aijuan; Chen, Meilan

    2009-03-01

    The bionic cultivation of medicinal plant is an ecological cultivation pattern, which is adopting ecological engineering and modern agricultural techniques to simulate the natural ecosystem of wild medicinal plant community, and has been given greater attention on the agriculture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is also the cross subject that combines Chinese traditional medicine, agronomy, horticulture, ecology, agricultural engineering and management. Moreover, it has significant technology advantages of promoting the sustainable utilization of medicinal plant resources, improving the ecological environment and harmonizing man and nature. So it's important to develop the bionic cultivation of TCM.

  3. Nanomedicine, nanotechnology in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells. Operating at nanoscale allows to exploit physical properties different from those observed at microscale such as the volume/surface ratio. The investigated diagnostic applications can be considered for in vitro as well as for in vivo diagnosis. In vitro, the synthesised particles and manipulation or detection devices allow for the recognition, capture, and concentration of biomolecules. In vivo, the synthetic molecular assemblies are mainly designed as a contrast agent for imaging. A second area exhibiting a strong development is "nanodrugs" where nanoparticles are designed for targeted drug delivery. The use of such carriers improves the drug biodistribution, targeting active molecules to diseased tissues while protecting healthy tissue. A third area of application is regenerative medicine where nanotechnology allows developing biocompatible materials which support growth of cells used in cell therapy. The application of nanotechnology to medicine raises new issues because of new uses they allow, for instance: Is the power of these new diagnostics manageable by the medical profession? What means treating a patient without any clinical signs? Nanomedicine can contribute to the development of a personalised medicine both for diagnosis and therapy. There exists in many countries existing regulatory frameworks addressing the basic rules of safety and effectiveness of nanotechnology based medicine, whether molecular assemblies or medical devices. However, there is a need to clarify or to

  4. Validation of an instrument to measure patients’ experiences of medicine use: the Living with Medicines Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Krska, Janet; Katusiime, Barbra; Corlett, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Background Medicine-related burden is an increasingly recognized concept, stemming from the rising tide of polypharmacy, which may impact on patient behaviors, including nonadherence. No instruments currently exist which specifically measure medicine-related burden. The Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) was developed for this purpose. Objective This study validated the LMQ in a sample of adults using regular prescription medicines in the UK. Methods Questionnaires were distributed in community pharmacies and public places in southeast England or online through UK health websites and social media. A total of 1,177 were returned: 507 (43.1%) from pharmacy distribution and 670 (56.9%) online. Construct validity was assessed by principal components analysis and item reduction undertaken on the original 60-item pool. Known-groups analysis assessed differences in mean total scores between participants using different numbers of medicines and between those who did or did not require assistance with medicine use. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. Free-text comments were analyzed thematically to substantiate underlying dimensions. Results A 42-item, eight-factor structure comprising intercorrelated dimensions (patient–doctor relationships and communication about medicines, patient–pharmacist communication about medicines, interferences with daily life, practical difficulties, effectiveness, acceptance of medicine use, autonomy/control over medicines and concerns about medicine use) was derived, which explained 57.4% of the total variation. Six of the eight subscales had acceptable internal consistency (α>0.7). More positive experiences were observed among patients using eight or fewer medicines compared to nine or more, and those independent with managing/using their medicines versus those requiring assistance. Free-text comments, provided by almost a third of the respondents, supported the domains identified. Conclusion The resultant LMQ

  5. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out

    PubMed Central

    Pfenning, Michael A.; Gores, Gregory J.; Harper, C. Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Significance Regenerative medicine is at the

  6. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines ... of medicines for treating asthma: 1. Quick-relief Medicines Quick-relief medicines (also called rescue or fast- ...

  7. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines ... of medicines for treating asthma: 1. Quick-relief Medicines Quick-relief medicines (also called rescue or fast- ...

  8. [Internal medicine and public health].

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    A special Committee on Internal Medicine and Public Health was established by Sociedad Médica de Santiago (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine) in April 2007 with the duty to write a Consensus Paper on the interaction between both branches of medical profession. The main objective was to find the common grounds on which to construct a positive approach to regain space for Internal Medicine, based on prevalent epidemiológical features related to adult health issues. The authors describe the reasons to explain the gap between clinical medicine and population health and identify the nature and evolution of chronic diseases as the point of encounter between both. With Chilean health surveys data, they state that chronic diseases explain the high proportion of burden of disease, mortality and disability, and stress that by the year 2025 one in every five inhabitants will be over 65 years of age, with ageing as another main problem for the health care sector. Population with multiple risks and multimorbidity is the most important challenge for the Chilean Health Care System. A new model of care is needed to tackle this scenario with new skills regarding psychosocial determinants of health. The leading role of internists and ideally geriatricians, will be crucial in this process and will help the implementation of sound population based interventions. Both individual and community level interventions will help to improve quality of life of Chilean families.

  9. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  10. The Wounded Bear: A Modern Day Medicine Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleheart, Shianne

    2002-01-01

    In Native American culture, medicine stories are used to teach important lessons that have healing effects on the listener. Following is an excerpt from "The Wounded Bear", a modern day medicine story. The story offers a blueprint for healing the heartbreak and violence in our communities. (Author)

  11. A Review of the Clinical Education in Podiatric Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baerg, Richard H.

    1979-01-01

    Contemporary clinical educational programs at five colleges of podiatric medicine are reviewed. Both classroom contact hours and clinical experience are examined and compared among institutions. Course offerings in podiatric medicine, radiology, surgery, othopedics, community health, etc., are listed by college. (MLW)

  12. Chemical bases for medicinal plant use in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Montellano, B R; Browner, C H

    1985-03-01

    Fifty-eight medicinal plants used for the management of reproduction and the treatment of women's reproductive health problems in an indigenous community in southern Mexico are described. The efficacy of these plants is assessed according to both community members' understandings of the therapeutic effects they seek and the standards of conventional Western medicine. The majority of the plants contain chemicals which would appear to enable them to accomplish their intended effects in either or both the popular and the conventional medical systems.

  13. Occupational medicine in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Only the remarkable organisation of Egyptian society, based on an economy of redistribution and allocation of tasks, enabled the erection of the pyramids and the construction of the great temples. Medicine naturally found its place in this organisation as illness was part of the afflictions the pharaoh had to fight against. This particular task was delegated to doctors. The organisation of a medical group could be witnessed on the banks of the Nile almost 5000 years ago and Hesy-Re "the greatest of doctors" (1750 BC), doctor to pharaoh Djoser, is one of the oldest known to mankind. Some doctors were assigned by Egyptian administration to deal with the health problems of communities of workers carrying out the same duties. We consider these doctors to be the pioneers of medicine in the workplace.

  14. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in

  15. Southeast Asian tropical medicine and parasitology network.

    PubMed

    Waikagul, Jitra

    2006-01-01

    The SEAMEO TROPMED Network is a regional cooperative network established in 1967 for education, training and research in tropical medicine and public health under the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization. The Network operates through four Regional Centers with respective areas of specialization and host institutions: Community Nutrition/Tropmed Indonesia; Microbiology, Parasitology and Entomology/Tropmed Malaysia; Public Health/Tropmed Philippines; and Tropical Medicine/Tropmed Thailand. To train health workers, to support research on endemic and newly emerging diseases, and to advocate relevant health policies are the main functions of these centers. SEAMEO TROPMED Network in collaboration with the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University and other institutions has regularly organized the Seminar on Food-borne Parasitic Zoonoses every 3-5 years over the past 15 years. The Faculty of Tropical Medicine has organized the annual Joint International Tropical Medicine Meeting since 1996. Full papers of the presentations at these two meetings have been published as supplementary issues to the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, an in-house journal of SEAMEO TROPMED Network. Recently, the Parasitology Association of ASEAN Countries has rotated the hosting of the ASEAN Congress of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. These institutional and conference networks will enable closer links, to promote the health of people in the Southeast Asian region.

  16. Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Katherine; Janakiram, Praseedha; Nicolle, Eileen; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Pakes, Barry N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Despite the rapid emergence of global health training across North American universities, there remains a gap in educational programs focusing on the unique role of family medicine and primary care in global health. Objective of program The objective of the Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer, developed in 2013 by the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario, is to strengthen global health competencies among family medicine residents and faculty. Program description The course covers the meaning of global health; global health ethics; the place of family medicine, primary care, and primary health care in the global health context; epidemiology; infectious diseases; the social determinants of health; and care of vulnerable populations locally and globally. The course is delivered in an intensive 5-day format with didactic lectures, group discussions, interactive workshops, and lived-experience panels. Conclusion The Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer has proven to be a successful educational initiative and provides valuable lessons learned for other academic science centres in developing global health training programs for family medicine residents and faculty. PMID:26380854

  17. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2017-03-11

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  18. Sports Medicine Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  19. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative & Integrative Medicine Clinical Trials GBM AGILE TTFields – Optune™ Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side Effects & their ... Alternative & Integrative Medicine Clinical Trials GBM AGILE TTFields – Optune™ Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side Effects & their ...

  20. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certification with this new online course from the Society for Vascular Medicine. Learn more. Looking for a ... jobs are listed right now. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  2. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana as Medicine Marijuana as Medicine Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2017 What is medical marijuana? Photo by ©Shutterstock.com/ Atomazul The term medical ...

  3. Medicine safety and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  4. Using Medicines Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Use Medicines Wisely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... or foods should I avoid? 2. Keep a Medicine List Write down the important facts about each ...

  5. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-04-05

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  6. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  7. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-08-02

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  8. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  9. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-09-06

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK, and on other relevant issues.

  10. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... Getting an X-ray ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A A What's in ...

  11. Medicines for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007592.htm Medicines for ADHD To use the sharing features on ... that the treatment plan is successful. TYPES OF MEDICINES Stimulants are the most commonly used type of ...

  12. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the-counter or prescription drugs, herbs, and supplements. Always speak with your health ...

  13. HIV/AIDS Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

  14. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  15. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal Scientific Sessions Website FAQ Copyright © 2017 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved. Phone: +1- ... page Videos Training Programs Journal Access the Journal Society Communications Patient Information Pages Vascular Medicine Journal CME ...

  16. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... means taking a trip. To be sure that you can stay healthy on your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you always carry a list of all the medicines ...

  17. Essential Medicines for Children.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Hoppu

    2017-02-09

    WHO defines Essential medicines as those that satisfy the priority health-care needs of the population (1). The right to Essential medicines has been considered an important component of the right to health. In the name of equity children should also have access to appropriate, available, affordable, and quality essential medicines they need, but children's essential medicines are too often missing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Project ASPIRE: Incorporating Integrative Medicine Into Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Haq; Via, Christina M.; Ali, Ather; Rosenberger, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    Griffin Hospital, a community hospital affiliated with Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Medicine, received Health Resources and Services Administration funding to strengthen and improve its combined internal medicine and general preventive medicine residency program by incorporating an integrative medicine curriculum. The purpose of project ASPIRE (Advancing Skills of Preventive medicine residents through Integrative medicine Education, Research and Evaluation) was to create, implement, and evaluate a needs-based, innovative training curriculum in integrative medicine. Through this robust new training, the authors aimed to produce preventive medicine-trained physicians with competencies in integrative medicine to collaboratively work with other integrative medicine practitioners in interdisciplinary teams to provide holistic, patient-centered care. The multifaceted collaborative curriculum was composed of didactics, grand rounds, journal club, objective structured clinical examinations, and two new practicum rotations in integrative medicine. The new practicum rotations included block rotations at the Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital and the Yale Stress Center. Between 2012 and 2014, three cohorts participated in the curriculum; two of these cohorts included three advanced preventive medicine residents each and the fourth included four residents. Project faculty conducted 14 lectures and journal clubs, and two grand rounds. Six of the ten participating residents (60%) completed integrative medicine clinical rotations. Residents’ attitudes toward integrative medicine were evaluated through self-assessment using the Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire; data were analyzed in 2015. This article describes the results of this prospective observational study based on single-institution experience over the course of the 2-year project period. PMID:26477907

  19. Performing Narrative Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  20. Medicines By Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This publication discusses the many different ways medicines work in the body and how this information guides the hunt for drugs of the future. The science of pharmacology--understanding the basics of how our bodies react to medicines and how medicines affect our bodies--is already a vital part of 21st-century research. Pharmacology is a broad…

  1. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  2. Team Physicians, Sports Medicine, and the Law: An Update.

    PubMed

    Koller, Dionne L

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of sports medicine and promulgation of practice guidelines for team physicians will push general medical malpractice standards to evolve into a more specialized standard of care for those who practice in this area. To the extent that practicing medicine in the sports context involves calculations that do not arise in typical medical practice, the sports medicine community can help elucidate those issues and create appropriate guidelines that can serve to inform athlete-patients and educate courts. Doing so will help best set the terms by which those who practice sports medicine are judged.

  3. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. Sometimes HIV medicines can also cause side effects. Most side effects from HIV medicines are manageable, ...

  4. Blackfeet Community Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030643, the Blackfeet Tribe is authorized to discharge from its Blackfoot Community Water Treatment Plant in Glacier County, Montana, to an unnamed intermittent stream which flows to Two Medicine River.

  5. Dance medicine: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Dance medicine has grown exponentially over the past 10 to 15 years and continues to grow every year as more former professional dancers and students of dance enter into the field of medicine. Dance medicine is part of the field of performing arts medicine, which specializes in evaluating and treating performing artists such as musicians, dancers, actors/actresses, and vocalists. This article reviews the literature on dance medicine for various health-related medical issues, for the types of injuries commonly found, for the common surgical and rehabilitation interventions, and for injury prevention used in this unique group of patients.

  6. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  7. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  8. Essential medicines for children.

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Sri Ranganathan, Shalini

    2015-02-01

    Millions of children die every year before they reach the age of 5 years, of conditions largely treatable with existing medicines. The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was launched in 1977 to make the most necessary drugs available to populations whose basic health needs could not be met by the existing supply system. During the first 30 years of the Model List of Essential Medicines, children's needs were not systematically considered. After adoption of the 'Better medicines for children' resolution by the World Health Assembly, things changed. The first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children was drawn up by a Paediatric Expert Subcommittee and adopted in October 2007. The most recent, 4th Model List of Essential Medicines for Children was adopted in 2013. Data from country surveys show that access to essential medicines for children is still generally poor; much more work is needed.

  9. [Assertive medicine: a proposal against defensive medicine].

    PubMed

    Tena Tamayo, Carlos; Sánchez González, Jorge Manuel

    2005-10-01

    More than ever the physician-patient relationship is deteriorated by diverse factors, among these liability complaints stand out, and have propitiated the practice of defensive medicine, an attitude considered in many countries as inappropriate, expensive and unethical. Defensive medicine widens the distance between a physician and his patient. To revert this vice and its noxious effects which corrupt the patient-physician relationship in our country, we propose that physicians put to practice actions which permit the renewal of the essence of humanistic medicine in their daily practice and the restoration of the relationship. These changes in attitude sum up to a proposition of professional practice which we have denominated assertive medicine. This offer is resumed in four points: 1) Maintain a proper verbal and non verbal communication with each patient, 2) Keep continuously up to date skills, knowledge and abilities, 3) Respect the patient's rights and 4) Defend their own rights as physicians.

  10. [Contribution of occupational medicine to social medicine].

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Occupational medicine has always been part of social medicine, but focuses on the part of the population in paid employment. Investigations of occupational diseases have identified several toxic chemicals that can affect other sectors of society: examples include cancers due to sawdust, asbestos, benzene, as well as carcinogens, mutagens and reproductive toxins. Better knowledge of the risks posed by epoxy resins, cements, formaldehyde, lead, toluene and other chemical agents has helped to understand certain diseases in the population. Knowledge of musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive work has been of help in other areas; gradual resumption of appropriate activity seems to be the best basic treatment. Studies of mental overload and its consequences in the workplace (suicide, depression, etc.) have implications for human relations in society as a whole. Multidisciplinary networking helps to regularly take stock of findings in occupational medicine that may be applicable to social medicine.

  11. Pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E

    2015-12-19

    Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care.

  12. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  13. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  14. Extended family medicine training

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  15. Complementary medicines in medicine: Conceptualising terminology among Australian medical students using a constructivist grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    Terminology around the use of complementary medicines (CM) within medical discourse is ambiguous. Clear collective discourse within the medical context is required. This study reports the findings of a Constructivist Grounded Theory Method study used to explore medical students' conceptualisation of terminology and associated value components around CMs as evidenced within their discourse community. The results show that terminology surrounding CMs within medicine is politically charged and fraught with value judgements. Terms used to describe CMs were considered, many of which were deemed problematic. Categorisation of specific medicines was also deemed inappropriate in certain contexts. Conceptualisation of CM terminology, categorisation and value implications, discriminated between levels of evidence for CMs and provided insights into the social change of medicine towards emergence of an evidence-based integrative approach. The results show that terminology surrounding CM is a social construct consistent with fluid conceptualisation and operationalisation in different social contexts.

  16. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  17. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  18. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through

  19. A Model Longitudinal Observation Medicine Curriculum for an Emergency Medicine Residency.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Matthew; Baugh, Christopher; Osborne, Anwar; Clark, Carol; Shayne, Philip; Ross, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The role of observation services for emergency department patients has increased in recent years. Driven by changing health care practices and evolving payer policies, many hospitals in the United States currently have or are developing an observation unit (OU) and emergency physicians are most often expected to manage patients in this setting. Yet, few residency programs dedicate a portion of their clinical curriculum to observation medicine. This knowledge set should be integrated into the core training curriculum of emergency physicians. Presented here is a model observation medicine longitudinal training curriculum, which can be integrated into an emergency medicine (EM) residency. It was developed by a consensus of content experts representing the observation medicine interest group and observation medicine section, respectively, from EM's two major specialty societies: the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). The curriculum consists of didactic, clinical, and self-directed elements. It is longitudinal, with learning objectives for each year of training, focusing initially on the basic principles of observation medicine and appropriate observation patient selection; moving to the management of various observation appropriate conditions; and then incorporating further concepts of OU management, billing, and administration. This curriculum is flexible and designed to be used in both academic and community EM training programs within the United States. Additionally, scholarly opportunities, such as elective rotations and fellowship training, are explored.

  20. [Precision and personalized medicine].

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor

    2016-10-01

    The author describes the concept of "personalized medicine" and the newly introduced "precision medicine". "Precision medicine" applies the terms of "phenotype", "endotype" and "biomarker" in order to characterize more precisely the various diseases. Using "biomarkers" the homogeneous type of a disease (a "phenotype") can be divided into subgroups called "endotypes" requiring different forms of treatment and financing. The good results of "precision medicine" have become especially apparent in relation with allergic and autoimmune diseases. The application of this new way of thinking is going to be necessary in Hungary, too, in the near future for participants, controllers and financing boards of healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(44), 1739-1741.

  1. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  2. [Military medicine and medicine of accidents].

    PubMed

    Chizh, I M

    2010-09-01

    The article presents an observe of such parts of military medicine as intensive aid and operative treatment on the place of case, contestation against infectious diseases, preservation of psychic health, medical and social rehabilitation. Were lighted successful activity of military physicians during liquidation of Chernobyl accident (1986), earthquakes in Armenia (1988), railway accident in Bashkiria (1989) and other accidents. Experience of military medicine (particularly using medical units of special purposes) was used in proving of conception of medicine of accidents, and in organization of medical supply of troops in armed conflicts of restricted scale--in effectuating of antiterrorist operations in Northern Caucasus (1994-1996, 1999-2002), in effectuating of peacemaking operation in Kosovo (1999-2003), natural disasters.

  3. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  4. The Roles of U.S. Institutions of Higher Education in Community Health Care. Proceedings of an Invitational Workshop of the Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC, March 4-6, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    Proceedings of a 1984 workshop on the roles of U.S. colleges in community health care are presented. The objective was to identify common aspects of the experiences of a sample of U.S. colleges that might be relevant to providing health service programs that are in accord with the World Health Organization (WHO) initiative of Health for All by the…

  5. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Y.C.; Prabhu, V.V.; Pal, R.S.; Mishra, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556743

  6. Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Holly, Ed.; Thompson, Ken, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the six issues of the "Wilderness Medicine Newsletter" issued during 1995. The newsletter addresses issues related to the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness. Issues typically include feature articles, interviews with doctors in the field of wilderness medicine, product reviews,…

  7. Children's Knowledge about Medicines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almarsdottir, Anna B.; Zimmer, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Examined knowledge about medicines and perceived benefit among 101 children, ages 7 and 10. Found that medicine knowledge was explained using age, educational environment, and degree of internal locus of control as significant predictors. The negative effect of internal locus of control predicted perceived benefit. Retention of drug advertising…

  8. Prehistoric Iroquois Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosbach, Richard E.; Doyle, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Study of pre-1750 medicine reveals that Iroquois diagnosis and treatment of disease was more advanced than the medicine of their European counterparts. The Iroquois developed a cure for scurvy, treated hypertension, and head lice, and even designed sauna baths. Indian psychiatry also included modern day techniques such as dream analysis. (MR)

  9. Indians into Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N.

    Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

  10. Medicines and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... studies also show that drinking a lot of alcohol might weaken bones. Questions to ask your doctor • Do any of my medicines cause bone loss? • Are there different medicines I can take? • Do I need a bone density test? • What should I do to protect my ...

  11. Medicines from Marine Invertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies-Coleman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

  12. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis.

  13. Personalized Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, Babak; Goodarzi, Parisa; Mohamadi-Jahani, Fereshteh; Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-03-01

    Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from "personalized medicine" towards "precision medicine". Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.

  14. Maimonides’ Appreciation for Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gesundheit, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides’ motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A) The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for with his knowledge and experience the physician can restore good health to his sick fellow human being; (B) medicine provides a unique opportunity to practice imitatio dei, as it reflects the religious duty to maintain a healthy life-style; (C) as an important natural science, medicine offers tools to recognize, love, and fear God. These three aspects address man’s relationship and obligation towards his fellow-man, himself and God. Biographical insights supported by additional sources from Maimonides’ writings are discussed. PMID:23908790

  15. Maimonides' appreciation for medicine.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides' motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A) The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for with his knowledge and experience the physician can restore good health to his sick fellow human being; (B) medicine provides a unique opportunity to practice imitatio dei, as it reflects the religious duty to maintain a healthy life-style; (C) as an important natural science, medicine offers tools to recognize, love, and fear God. These three aspects address man's relationship and obligation towards his fellow-man, himself and God. Biographical insights supported by additional sources from Maimonides' writings are discussed.

  16. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Chinese Medicine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    plant, widely grown in China, probably of hybrid origin. The plant is a source for high-grade mint oil and menthol which are exported. In the world...1.8-2$ while the menthol content is 86-92$. Plants Used as Anodynes Some alkaloid plants have found wide use in Chinese medicine as anodynes. Fang

  17. Working in Canada's subarctic: circumpolar medicine.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Medical practice in Churchill is a challenging and rewarding form of wilderness medicine. If any reader is interested in learning more about Churchill or would like to consider visiting or even taking a health care position here, the following resources and contacts are available: The website for Churchill Independent Travel (www.creighton.edu/hutchens/church_travel.html) gives a complete list of options for those wishing to plan their own trip. The Arctic Medicine Conference is a medical conference with talks in Zoonoses, Dentistry, Entomology, and Travel Medicine hosted by Wilderness Medicine in Manitoba (www.skylarkmedicalclinic.com). The JA Hildes Northern Medical Unit is responsible for providing qualified physicians and nurse practitioners to staff northern Manitoba. For those who are interested, please contact Michelle Vandenbroeck at 1(204)789-3711 for information in working in Churchill or other parts of the Hudson Bay Inuit communities (www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/medicine/units/ northern_medical_unit). 1,000 Places to See Before You Die, by Patricia Schultz, is a recent bestseller that gives information about polar bear safaris.

  18. TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR

    PubMed Central

    Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A.; Mrdula, V.

    1997-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556807

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  1. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  2. The use of the R language for medicinal chemistry applications.

    PubMed

    Mente, Scot; Kuhn, Max

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript serves as a review of how the R language has been used in the last decade to address problems related to medicinal chemistry design. This includes the use of the R language for chemoinformatics applications and interfaces, as well as statistical modeling for ADMET and potency endpoints. Additionally, a few examples of R code are provided to demonstrate the ability of this language to make available cutting-edge statistical analysis to the medicinal chemistry design community.

  3. One world of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    King, L J

    2009-08-01

    The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.

  4. Population medicine in a curricular revision at Case Western Reserve.

    PubMed

    Ornt, Daniel B; Aron, David C; King, Nicholas B; Clementz, Laura M; Frank, Scott; Wolpaw, Terry; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy; Wolpaw, Daniel; Allan, Terrence M; Carroll, Matthew; Thompson-Shaheen, Karen; Altose, Murray D; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2008-04-01

    Inclusion of population medicine in a medical school curriculum has received growing attention. Recently, the Association of American Medical Colleges has highlighted this issue through support of the Regional Medicine and Public Health Education Centers initiative. The Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine joined this consortium while implementing a new curriculum in which population medicine would be an underlying theme woven with the classic science elements of disease. The organization for the first two years of the new curriculum, which was implemented in 2006, is a six-block structure during which the basic sciences are learned with key concepts of population medicine woven throughout. The focus for this article is Block One, in which population medicine is the major emphasis of the introduction to medicine. The first week, students learn social determinants, impact on communities, and social aspects of diabetes mellitus, even before addressing a patient's clinical presentation. Emphasis on student-centered learning is undertaken as part of the new curriculum, using a series of weekly, case-based, small-group sessions. This type of group learning is used throughout Block One as students encounter key components of population medicine. A thesis requirement was also introduced as a mechanism to emphasize research with opportunities for research in population medicine as well as other medical sciences. A variety of mechanisms are described to measure the outcomes of Block One.

  5. The situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), i.e. a group of 15 countries lying east of the Oder river-Trieste line and west of the present/planned EU eastern border. Together these countries have 106.6 million inhabitants, i.e. about a quarter of the population of the "European economic space". Its nuclear medicine, however, represents less than 10% of European nuclear medicine manpower and equipment. In these countries there are at least 245 nuclear medicine departments with 661 nuclear medicine specialists and at least 376 gamma cameras. There are six dedicated PET units and three PET/SPECT centres, as well as one manufacturer of gamma cameras, six radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and two nuclear medicine scientific journals. The biggest nuclear medicine communities are in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The scientific input of the CEE countries to European science is moderate-about 10% when measured by EANM congress abstracts, and 5% when measured by the number of papers in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Mean European bibliometric parameters are approached only by Hungary and-to some extent-the Czech Republic. This survey indicates the need for international cooperation to improve the level of nuclear medicine in the CEE countries so that it reaches European standards. The potential of these countries could also be better used to the benefit of European nuclear medicine.

  6. [Evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Saad, E D; Grunspun, H

    1996-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine has been described as a new approach to teaching and practicing clinical medicine. Although the search for evidence is an established practice among physicians, what is being proposed is the systematic gathering and critical interpretation of data, which can then be used in the appropriate context. The main objective is to provide better care for patients. This is accomplished by transforming clinical problems in specific questions to be answered by searching the literature for the levels of evidence favoring the possible interventions for one particular case. This has to be done in a systematic and conscientious fashion. Through its method, evidence-based medicine places less value on clinical experience, the study understanding of pathophysiology, and common sense; instead, it emphasizes observation, levels of evidence, and critical interpretation of original literature. In this manner, evidence-based medicine may be seen by the authoritarian physician as a threat. Other obstacles to the acceptance of the method include lack of time and lack of familiarity with computers. One important limitation of evidence-based medicine is the incomplete or contradictory evidence available in many areas of clinical medicine, or the so-called "grey zones". We outline the main aspects of evidence-based medicine, expecting a growing interest among brazilian physicians for this useful clinical tool.

  7. Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

  8. Medicine use of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants and attitudes to home medicines review.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research into the perceptions of elderly Australian ethnic minorities towards public health services related to quality use of medicines. Among the six fastest growing ethnic groups in Australia, the Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Vietnamese constitute the largest elderly populations with poor English skills. This paper investigates the relationships of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese migrants with medicines, general practitioners and pharmacists, and how these relationships influence their awareness and attitudes of the home medicines review (HMR) program. Two semi-structured focus groups were held with a total of 17 HMR-eligible patients who have never received a HMR, one with Chinese and one with Vietnamese respondents, each in the respective community language. Confusion about medications and an intention to have a HMR were pronounced among all participants although none of them had heard of the program before participating in the focus groups. Respondents reported difficulties locating a pharmacist who spoke their native language, which contributed to an increased unmet need for medicine information. The Chinese group additionally complained about a lack of support from their general practitioners in relation to their medicine concerns and was adamant that they would prefer to have a HMR without the involvement of their general practitioner. Our results indicate a distinct HMR need but not use among elderly Chinese and Vietnamese eligible patients with poor English skills. Home medicines review service use and perceived medication problems are likely to improve with an increasing availability of bilingual and culturally sensitive health care providers.

  9. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane’ Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people’s location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners’ centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity. PMID:27668001

  10. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  11. [Medicinal products for human use in veterinary prescription].

    PubMed

    Kolář, Jozef; Vargová, Lucia; Ambrus, Tünde

    2015-09-01

    The paper deals with the problem of prescription and use of the medicinal products for human use in veterinary medicine. Using partial model analysis describes volume and structure of the prescription of medicinal products for human use in the veterinary practice in the years 2007-2011. Prescriptions included to the study were dispensed in a community pharmacy located in a county town in the Slovak Republic. Data were obtained from the basic collection of 845 veterinary prescriptions that included 1178 prescribed items in a total of 2954 packages.

  12. Use of complementary veterinary medicine in the geriatric horse.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Ed

    2002-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine continues to grow within the veterinary community. As more clients seek out complementary and alternative medicine for their own health care, they begin to seek out these forms of therapy for their animals. For the equine practitioner, this includes those clients with geriatric animals. It is hoped that this article provides some insight into what conditions may be helped with CVM (complementary veterinary medicine) and when an equine practitioner may want to consider CVM as a form of therapy for the geriatric horse.

  13. Genetics and molecular biology in laboratory medicine, 1963-2013.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, John B

    2013-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen many changes in laboratory medicine, either as causes or consequences of increases in productivity and expansion of the range of information which can be provided. The drivers and facilitators of change in relation to clinical applications of molecular biology included the need for diagnostic tools for genetic diseases and technical advances such as PCR and sequencing. However, molecular biology techniques have proved to have far wider applications, from detection of infectious agents to molecular characterization of tumors. Journals such as Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine play an important role in communication of these advances to the laboratory medicine community and in publishing evaluations of their practical value.

  14. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  15. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, G.

    2003-10-01

    As of today, a total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This book presents in a readable text the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardiovascular, bone and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination

  16. Humanism in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, S

    1993-09-01

    Emergency medicine has not yet appropriated "humanism" as a term of its own. Medical humanism needs to be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the practical goals of emergency medicine. In this essay, humanism in emergency medicine is defined by identifying the dehumanizing aspects of sudden illness and exploring of ways for sustaining the humanity of emergency department patients. Excerpts from Dr Oliver Sacks' autobiographical work A Leg to Stand On give voice to the human needs created by sudden illness and its treatment.

  17. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  18. Family medicine 360°: Global exchanges in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Ana N.; Rigon, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The global world of the 21st century has created communities and cultures that are interconnected, thanks to the development both in the field of transportation and technology. In this global intercultural community, future physicians, and even more so future general practitioners (GPs)/family physicians (FPs), need to be clinically competent and culturally sensitive and flexible in order to adapt to different social settings while delivering holistic care in multiethnic teams and environments with professionalism. As such, exchange programs are exceptional opportunities for international collaboration and the development of personal and professional competencies of these health care professionals. Materials and Methods: This article presents a review of the literature on the value of exchanges as well as the results of exchange programs with educational content that are aimed at junior GPs/FPs. Results: Exchange programs have been growing in popularity, especially among junior GPs/FPs. Since its launch in 2013, The “Family Medicine 360° (FM360°) program has been receiving up to 163 inquires till date, promoting global cooperation among the World Organization of family Doctors (WONCA)'s Young Doctors’ Movementd (YDMs). Conclusions: By participating in an exchange program, future GPs/FPs are given the chance to experience intercultural communication and peer collaboration. They also develop personal and professional skills and thus, actively contribute to the growth and development of primary care all over the world. PMID:26288763

  19. Medicines optimisation: priorities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Gerri

    2016-03-23

    Medicines optimisation is promoted in a guideline published in 2015 by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Four guiding principles underpin medicines optimisation: aim to understand the patient's experience; ensure evidence-based choice of medicines; ensure medicines use is as safe as possible; and make medicines optimisation part of routine practice. Understanding the patient experience is important to improve adherence to medication regimens. This involves communication, shared decision making and respect for patient preferences. Evidence-based choice of medicines is important for clinical and cost effectiveness. Systems and processes for the reporting of medicines-related safety incidents have to be improved if medicines use is to be as safe as possible. Ensuring safe practice in medicines use when patients are transferred between organisations, and managing the complexities of polypharmacy are imperative. A medicines use review can help to ensure that medicines optimisation forms part of routine practice.

  20. [Historical outline of forensic medicine in Poland and its connections with forensic medicine in German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Raszeja, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The author briefly presented development of forensic medicine as a separate branch of medical sciences in Poland from the end of the Middle Ages to date. He comments on conditions in which forensic medicine developed after partitions of Poland and its restoration of independence. He emphasized the merits of Prof. Wachholz and his pupils, as well as the great publishing effort of forensic scientists during the interwar period and after World War II. He did not fail to highlight links between Polish and German forensic medicine and quotes numerous examples of very close contacts between both communities in this field.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer in your child’s body will lose its radioactivity over time. In many cases, the radioactivity will ...

  2. [Market oriented occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Rurik, Imre; Cseh, Károly

    2012-09-09

    The history and the recent state of occupational medicine in Hungary, and its relation with governmental labor organizations are analyzed. In the past 20 years, large "socialist" factories were replaced by smaller companies employing fewer workers. They have been forced to establish contract with occupational health providers. Many of them offer primary care services, whereas family physicians having a board examination in occupational medicine are allowed to work in this field as well. The market of occupational medicine is less regulated, and ethical rules are not always considered. Undercutting prices is a common practice. The recent system could be improved by some regulations which should be respected. There is no reason to make rough changes establishing a new market for profit oriented insurance companies, and to allow employees and employers to work without specification neglecting international agreements. Occupational medicine should be supervised again by the health authorities instead of economists who have quite different, short-term priorities.

  3. Chronic Pain Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of their therapy. If your doctor prescribes narcotics for your pain, be sure to carefully follow ... when taking these medicines.When you're taking narcotics, it's important to remember that there is a ...

  4. Emergency medicine in space.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight.

  5. Marketing herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, M

    1999-01-01

    HIV-positive support groups, together with hospital pharmacists in Thailand are fighting the high cost and lack of access to pharmaceuticals by producing and distributing herbal medicines. In Theung district, Chiang Rai province, members of the local support group for people with HIV produce their own, low-cost, herbal medicines. Although the herbal medicines they produce do not provide a cure for HIV/AIDS, they do offer relief for some of the symptoms of opportunistic infections. The herbs are prepared by the group members under the supervision of the pharmacy department at the district hospital. Local people judge their effectiveness by hearing testimonials from people who have witnessed improvement in symptoms. In response to the popularity and effectiveness of herbal medicines, the Ministry of Public Health has approved plans to sell products derived from local herbs in the pharmacies of government hospitals.

  6. Alternative Medicine for Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be part of mainstream medicine. CAM includes herbs and other plant-based treatments (botanicals), non-botanical ... warfarin, a blood thinner May include other untested herbs Evening primrose No effect on menopausal symptoms May ...

  7. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers. OTC medicines Did you know? Things like caffeine, vitamins, and herbal remedies can affect the growing ... Talk with your doctor about cutting down on caffeine and ask which type of vitamin you should ...

  8. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  9. Occupational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  10. Medicines for Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... kid stay healthy and feel good. All About Insulin The most common diabetes medicine is insulin, which ... lower blood sugar how long they last continue Insulin Table The table below shows the types of ...

  11. Medicines by Design

    MedlinePlus

    ... of each chapter. » more Chapter 1: ABCs of Pharmacology ADME, pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, dose-response curve, agonists/antagonists, ... more Medicines for the Future Career options in pharmacology » more Glossary Defines scientific terms used in the ...

  12. [Homeopathic medicine and magic].

    PubMed

    Angutek, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    The article compares homeopathic medicine and primitive magic. The author realises formal similarities beetwen these two fields of knowledge. The primitive homeopathic magic characterised by J. G. Frazer in his The Golden Bought announces that "similar courses similar". M. Mauss and H. Hubert added to this "low" an another formula: "similar acts on similar that courses a contrary phenomenon". The last formula is an identic one with the "low" of homeopathic medicine. Moreover there is a similarity between pantheistic religion of Hahnemann and magician beliefs in the power named mana in Melanesia and Polinesia or orenda, wakan, manitou and so on, by the Indians from The North America. The amazing thing is that homeopathic chemists belive that kinetic power transforms itself into esoteric one, during preparation of homeopathic medicines.In the end of this article the author ascertains that homeopathic medicine and magic has certain paradigm in common what is opposit to racionalism of official European paradigm of thinking.

  13. 3-D Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine that links the print library of functional-physiological knowledge with the image library of structural-anatomical knowledge into one unified resource. (JOW)

  14. Personalized Medicine and Pharmacogenomics

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Pharmacogenomics holds the promise that drugs might one day be tailored to your genetic ... 05, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/personalized-medicine/art-20044300 . ...

  15. [Medicine of Liao Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Huang, Z

    1995-01-01

    The Taizhu Emperor of Liao Dynasty forced the popularization of medical knowledge by imitating that of the Tang Dynasty. After entering the Capital Bian, Taizong Emperor, seized the medical men of Jin to the North, while Jingzong Emperor treasured medicine. All the above had pushed the development of Liao's medicine in Northern China to its mature stage. Special administration institutions for medicine were established. Autopsy and anatomy were advocated. Therapeutic modalities were mainly TCM, traditional materia medica and acu-moxibustion. Zhilugu and Yeludilu were among the famous physicians. However, viewing from an overall standpoints, Liao medicin was rather backward. Due to its small territory, religious superstition and special humanities and geographical conditions, the development was rather limited.

  16. [Plato and medicine].

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2004-01-01

    Medicine and philosophy are branches of knowledge that had decisive influence on each other in the time of Ancient Greece, shaping the development of both. A landmark of this interrelationship was the thought of the philosopher Plato (427-347 A. C.), considered the greatest thinker in Western tradition. The text discusses how Platonic reflection reached into the most varied aspects of medicine in the philosopher's days.

  17. What is medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Bly, Jared

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED Family medicine is a vital part of health care in Canada. The decline in numbers of new family physicians being trained bodes ill for a sustainable and efficacious health care system. We need to recruit young people more effectively into careers in primary care. Early outreach to high-school students is one approach that holds promise. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To provide high-school students with exposure to and appreciation for careers in medicine, particularly family medicine. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Family medicine residents in the University of Alberta’s Rural Alberta North Program initiated an outreach project that was implemented in rural and regional high schools in northern Alberta. The program consisted of visits to high schools by residents who gave interactive presentations introducing medicine as a career. The regional hospital subsequently hosted a career day involving medical and paramedical professionals, such as physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and physical and occupational therapists. CONCLUSION Physicians’ visits to high-school students could be an effective way to increase interest in careers in rural family medicine. PMID:16572578

  18. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  19. Biobanking for Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Angen; Pollard, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A biobank is an entity that collects, processes, stores, and distributes biospecimens and relevant data for use in basic, translational, and clinical research. Biobanking of high-quality human biospecimens such as tissue, blood and other bodily fluids along with associated patient clinical information provides a fundamental scientific infrastructure for personalized medicine. Identification of biomarkers that are specifically associated with particular medical conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurological disorders are useful for early detection, prevention, and treatment of the diseases. The ability to determine individual tumor biomarkers and to use those biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy is having a very significant impact on personalized medicine and is rapidly changing the way clinical care is conducted. As a critical requirement for personalized medicine is the availability of a large collection of patient samples with well annotated patient clinical and pathological data, biobanks thus play an important role in personalized medicine advancement. The goal of this chapter is to explore the role of biobanks in personalized medicine and discuss specific needs regarding biobank development for translational and clinical research, especially for personalized medicine advancement.

  20. Community indicators

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  1. Chinese medicine and integrative medicine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Brent A

    2015-08-01

    Health wellness is a state of the homeostasis. Chinese medicine incorporate many concept including holistic medicine and individualized medicine to promote health wellness. Different domains of Chinese medicine were exclusively adopted after the first introduction of acupuncture to USA. Mayo as one of the best USA hospital created a foundation for the more widespread introduction of Chinese medicine into the US especially on the health wellness promotion.

  2. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative

  3. Taking medicines - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicine you take. Know what medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements you take. Make a list of your medicines ... Will this medicine change how any of my herbal or dietary supplements work? Ask if your new medicine interferes with ...

  4. The Priority of Intersectionality in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Eliason, Jennifer; St Cloud, Tiffani; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Recent societal events highlight inequities experienced by underrepresented and marginalized communities. These inequities are the impetus for ongoing efforts in academic medicine to create inclusive educational and patient care environments for diverse stakeholders. Frequently, approaches focus on singular populations or broad macroscopic concepts and do not always elucidate the complexities that arise at the intersection between multiple identities and life experiences. Intersectionality acknowledges multidimensional aspects of identity inclusive of historical, structural, and cultural factors. Understanding how multiple identity experiences impact different individuals, from patients to trainees to providers, is critical for improving health care education and delivery. Building on existing work within academic medicine, this Commentary outlines six key recommendations to advance intersectionality in academic medicine: embrace personal and collective loci of responsibility; examine and rectify unbalanced power dynamics; celebrate visibility and intersectional innovation; engage all stakeholders in the process of change; select and analyze meaningful metrics; and sustain the commitment to achieving health equity over time. Members of the academic medical community committed to advancing health equity can use these recommendations to promote and maintain meaningful changes that recognize and respond to the multidimensional voices and expressed needs of all individuals engaged in providing and receiving health care.

  5. Community perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    General aviation is considered from the perspective of the local community's decision-making process in determining its needs for access to general aviation services. The decision-making model, preliminary decision, community characteristics, and planning processes are discussed.

  6. Community Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Health Resources for Community Members site provides tools and information to help local leaders and members of the community protect public health by understanding and addressing environmental conditions.

  7. Career prospects for graduating nuclear medicine residents: survey of nuclear medicine program directors.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A; Guiberteau, Milton J; Metter, Darlene F; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    There has been much consternation in the nuclear medicine (NM) community in recent years regarding the difficulty many NM graduates experience in securing initial employment. A survey designed to determine the extent and root causes behind the paucity of career opportunities was sent to all 2010-2011 NM residency program directors. The results of that survey and its implications for NM trainees and the profession are presented and discussed in this article.

  8. Mengele medicus: medicine's Nazi heritage.

    PubMed

    Seidelman, W E

    1988-01-01

    Nazi medicine is commonly considered to be an aberration that began and ended with the horrors of the Hitler regime. But its beginnings were more gradual and its legacy is more pernicious. Data derived from research conducted on unknowing and unwilling subjects in death camps continue to be cited in authoritative contemporary medical literature. Nazi medicine has become a part of the professional genotype of modern medicine. This continuing influence of Nazi medicine raises profound questions for the epistemology and morality of medicine.

  9. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm.

  10. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  11. Chasing Mendel: five questions for personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J; Prendergast, Franklyn G

    2014-01-01

    Ideas about personalized medicine are underpinned in part by evolutionary biology's Modern Synthesis. In this essay we link personalized medicine to the efforts of the early statistical investigators who quantified the heritability of human phenotype and then attempted to reconcile their observations with Mendelian genetics. As information about the heritability of common diseases was obtained, similar efforts were directed at understanding the genetic basis of disease phenotypes. These ideas were part of the rationale driving the Human Genome Project and subsequently the personalized medicine movement. In this context, we discuss: (1) the current state of the genotype–phenotype relationship in humans, (2) the common-disease–common-variant hypothesis, (3) the current ability of ‘omic’ information to inform clinical decision making, (4) emerging ideas about the therapeutic insight available from rare genetic variants, and (5) the social and behavioural barriers to the wider potential success of personalized medicine. There are significant gaps in knowledge as well as conceptual, intellectual, and philosophical limitations in each of these five areas. We then provide specific recommendations to mitigate these limitations and close by asking if it is time for the biomedical research community to ‘stop chasing Mendel?’ PMID:24882820

  12. Five Weekend National Family Medicine Fellowship

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves; Batty, Helen; Rosser, Walter W.

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED Many faculty development programs are thought time-consuming and inaccessible to academic family physicians or physicians wanting to move into academic positions. This is largely due to difficulty in leaving their practices for extended periods. Canadian family medicine needs trained leaders who can work in teams and are well grounded in the principles of their discipline as they relate to education, management, research, and policy making. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To develop a team of leaders in family medicine. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM The Five Weekend National Family Medicine Fellowship Program focuses on the essentials of education, management, communication, critical appraisal skills, and the principles of family medicine to develop leadership and team-building skills for faculty and community-based family physicians entering academic careers. This unique 1-year program combines intensive weekend seminars with small-group projects between weekends. It emphasizes a broader set of skills than just teaching, has regional representation, and focuses on leadership and teamwork using a time-efficient format. CONCLUSION The program has graduated 34 Fellows over the last 3 years. More than 90% of the 35 projects developed through course work have been presented in national or provincial peer-reviewed settings. Quantitative ratings of program structure, course content, and course outcomes have been positive. PMID:9426934

  13. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  14. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  15. How to perform a preplanned process evaluation for complex interventions in geriatric medicine: exemplified with the process evaluation of a complex falls-prevention program for community-dwelling frail older fallers.

    PubMed

    Reelick, Miriam F; Faes, Miriam C; Esselink, Rianne A J; Kessels, Roy P C; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2011-06-01

    Complex interventions are difficult to develop, document, evaluate, and reproduce. Process evaluations aid the interpretation of outcome results by documenting and evaluating each process step in detail. Despite its importance, process evaluations are not embedded in all evaluations of complex interventions. Based on literature, we structured the process evaluation for trials on complex interventions into 3 main components: (1) the success rate of recruitment and quality of the study population, (2) the quality of execution of the complex intervention, and (3) the process of acquisition of the evaluation data. To clarify these process evaluation components and measures, we exemplified them with the preplanned process evaluation of a complex falls-prevention program for community-dwelling frail older fallers and their informal caregivers. The 3 process evaluation components are operationalized, results are presented, and implications discussed. This process evaluation identified several limitations of the intervention and effect study, and resulted in multiple recommendations for improvement of both the intervention as well as the trial. Thus, a good-quality process evaluation gives a detailed description of the most important components of a complex intervention, resulting in an in-depth insight in the actually performed intervention and effect analysis. This allows us to draw the appropriate conclusions on positive or negative trial results, and results in recommendations for implementation, or adjustment of the intervention or effect evaluation, respectively.

  16. Implementing the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine's Recommendations into the Undergraduate Medical School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altekruse, Joan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ideas for integrating preventive medicine into the undergraduate medical curriculum include options for curricula in quantitative skills, clinical preventive medicine, primary care rotation, community health services, and independent continuing education. Recommendations are based on a guide assessing the effectiveness of 169 types of preventive…

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals

    PubMed Central

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  18. The role of academic medicine in improving health care quality.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Ralph G; Spertus, John

    2006-09-01

    Academic medicine, often entrenched in biomedical and clinical research, has largely ignored the development and application of quality metrics to ensure the delivery of high-quality health care. Nevertheless, academic medicine has substantial opportunities to lead the charge in building a quality infrastructure with the goal of delivering high-quality and cost-efficient health care to all Americans. The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have worked jointly to measure and improve the quality of cardiovascular care. This effort has led to the development of clinical practice guidelines, performance measures, data standards, national registries, and appropriateness criteria for cardiovascular care. Academic medicine should actively embrace and promote the type of quality metrics and criteria developed by ACC and AHA and apply this model across the entire academic medicine community. Academic medicine, with its many resources, could lead the way in the expanding field of quality science by supporting fundamental research in quality improvement, supporting academicians to improve quality at their own institutions, developing educational models for quality assessment and improvement, creating and implementing data registries, and serving as a conduit for developing the emerging science of quality assessment. In this and many other ways, academic medicine must offer the health care community leadership for improving our nation's health care quality with the same fervor presently exhibited for the advancement of basic science, the development of specialized and experimental therapy, and as centers for tertiary and quaternary patient care.

  19. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  20. Functional realism: a defense of narrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, Seth; Vannatta, Jerry

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we (1) define and describe the practice of narrative medicine, (2) reveal the need for narrative medicine by exposing the presuppositions that give rise to its discounting, including a reductive empiricism and a strict dichotomy between scientific fact and narrative value, (3) show evidence of the effects of education in narrative competence in the medical clinic, and (4) present Peircean realism as the proper conceptual model for our argument that the medical school curriculum committees should give space to the employment of the scientific and literary knowledge in medical practice. On account of our argument, we contend that the medical community should tend to latitude and openness with regard to the tools we use to resolve medical problems. These tools include both biomedical and narrative knowledge.

  1. [Core values in family medicine revisited].

    PubMed

    Álvarez Montero, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Family medicine has to continually reinvent itself around a core of values that constitutes its navigation system. But accurate data on its impact on the health of people will account for how far the values are actually being implemented. Thus, we can say that family medicine is a specialty based on values and as well as evidence based. The absence of a clarification system of values or its implementation threatens its very existence. Some of the values that are reviewed have shown great recognition and survival over time. Others are presented because they seem sufficiently significant. These are: people, comprehensiveness, trust relationship, patient-centred method, accessibility, continuity, family unity and the community, teamwork, sustainability of the health system, and continuous improvement.

  2. Prevention, family, and community

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Daley, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The “Prevention, Family, and Community” session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on “Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: Science, Practice, Critical Issues, and Future Direction,” and Dr. Dennis Daley, who spoke on “Family and Social Aspects of Drug Abuse: Implications for Treatment and Recovery.” Dr. Rohrbach is associate professor of Preventive Medicine and director of the Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the University of Southern California (USC) Keck School of Medicine. Dr. Daley is professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania. PMID:25264416

  3. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  4. Polypharmacy in Zoological Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert P; Isaza, Ramiro

    2017-02-22

    Polypharmacy is a term that describes the inappropriate, concurrent use of multiple drugs in an individual patient. Zoological medicine practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species often with little species-specific pharmacological evidence to support their decisions. When considering polypharmacy, even less information exists concerning multi-drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or potential drug-drug interactions in non-domestic species. Unfortunately, captive, zoological species are susceptible, just like their domestic counterparts, to chronic diseases and co-morbidities that may lead to the usage of multiple drugs. Polypharmacy is a recognized and important issue in human medicine, as well as an emerging issue for veterinarians; thus, this paper will discuss the novel, potential risks of polypharmacy in zoological medicine. Hopefully, this discussion will help bring the attention of veterinarians to this issue and serve as an interesting discussion topic for pharmacologists in general.

  5. Traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Gary

    2002-01-01

    According to an article by Wald in the November 2000 issue of Strategic Healthcare Marketing, through physician education, integrated medicine shall continue to be adopted by conventional medical establishments in the United States. With many leading medical schools now adding courses on alternative medicine and hospital administrators recognizing this growing trend, responding to the patients' needs and demands remains paramount. According to a study of 3200 physicians conducted by Health Products Research, physicians expect to offer and embrace therapeutic alternatives outside of the traditional pharmaceutical realm. Greater than 50% will begin or increase using alternative medicine in the next 12 months. Physicians also believe that patient acceptance is greater for alternative therapies, resulting in therapeutic compliance. Most physicians continue to be skeptical about certain treatments, citing a lack of clinical information. With these factors understood, more clinical research to be completed in a teaching hospital environment becomes paramount.

  6. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  7. Regenerative medicine blueprint.

    PubMed

    Terzic, Andre; Harper, C Michel; Gores, Gregory J; Pfenning, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Regenerative medicine, a paragon of future healthcare, holds unprecedented potential in extending the reach of treatment modalities for individuals across diseases and lifespan. Emerging regenerative technologies, focused on structural repair and functional restoration, signal a radical transformation in medical and surgical practice. Regenerative medicine is poised to provide innovative solutions in addressing major unmet needs for patients, ranging from congenital disease and trauma to degenerative conditions. Realization of the regenerative model of care predicates a stringent interdisciplinary paradigm that will drive validated science into standardized clinical options. Designed as a catalyst in advancing rigorous new knowledge on disease causes and cures into informed delivery of quality care, the Mayo Clinic regenerative medicine blueprint offers a patient-centered, team-based strategy that optimizes the discovery-translation-application roadmap for the express purpose of science-supported practice advancement.

  8. Traceability in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Brian E.; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    Accurate, reproducible measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine applications is vital to ensure the safety and effectiveness of disease diagnosis and treatment using unsealed radioactive sources. The need to maintain a high degree of confidence in those measurements requires that they be carried out so as to be traceable to national and international standards. In addition, measurement traceability for radioactivity in medicine helps ensure international consistency in measurement at all levels of practice (national measurement laboratories, research institutions, isotope producers, radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and clinics). This paper explores the importance of radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine and demonstrates how traceability can be extended from international standards to the quantity of the drug administered to the patient.

  9. Polypharmacy in Zoological Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Robert P.; Isaza, Ramiro

    2017-01-01

    Polypharmacy is a term that describes the inappropriate, concurrent use of multiple drugs in an individual patient. Zoological medicine practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species often with little species-specific pharmacological evidence to support their decisions. When considering polypharmacy, even less information exists concerning multi-drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or potential drug-drug interactions in non-domestic species. Unfortunately, captive, zoological species are susceptible, just like their domestic counterparts, to chronic diseases and co-morbidities that may lead to the usage of multiple drugs. Polypharmacy is a recognized and important issue in human medicine, as well as an emerging issue for veterinarians; thus, this paper will discuss the novel, potential risks of polypharmacy in zoological medicine. Hopefully, this discussion will help bring the attention of veterinarians to this issue and serve as an interesting discussion topic for pharmacologists in general. PMID:28241435

  10. Cytomics in predictive medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnok, Attila; Valet, Guenther K.

    2004-07-01

    Predictive Medicine aims at the detection of changes in patient's disease state prior to the manifestation of deterioration or improvement of the current status. Patient-specific, disease-course predictions with >95% or >99% accuracy during therapy would be highly valuable for everyday medicine. If these predictors were available, disease aggravation or progression, frequently accompanied by irreversible tissue damage or therapeutic side effects, could then potentially be avoided by early preventive therapy. The molecular analysis of heterogeneous cellular systems (Cytomics) by cytometry in conjunction with pattern-oriented bioinformatic analysis of the multiparametric cytometric and other data provides a promising approach to individualized or personalized medical treatment or disease management. Predictive medicine is best implemented by cell oriented measurements e.g. by flow or image cytometry. Cell oriented gene or protein arrays as well as bead arrays for the capture of solute molecules form serum, plasma, urine or liquor are equally of high value. Clinical applications of predictive medicine by Cytomics will include multi organ failure in sepsis or non infectious posttraumatic shock in intensive care, or the pretherapeutic identification of high risk patients in cancer cytostatic. Early individualized therapy may provide better survival chances for individual patient at concomitant cost containment. Predictive medicine guided early reduction or stop of therapy may lower or abrogate potential therapeutic side effects. Further important aspects of predictive medicine concern the preoperative identification of patients with a tendency for postoperative complications or coronary artery disease patients with an increased tendency for restenosis. As a consequence, better patient care and new forms of inductive scientific hypothesis development based on the interpretation of predictive data patterns are at reach.

  11. Medicine at Michigan State (III): Conditioning for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the reasons why basic science courses are taught in all-university departments'' and the clinical experience is provided in cooperation with community health services, rather than a clinical teaching hospital, in the programs for Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Osteopathy. (AL)

  12. East meets West: current issues relevant to integrating Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the challenges that integration of Chinese medicine (CM) and biomedicine are likely to bring for improving safety, research, education, and cross-disciplinary communication. Potential strategies to meet these challenges are suggested, including the use of accessible language for the Western biomedical community, and further development of whole-system randomized controlled trials that support individualized treatment approaches. PMID:22943066

  13. Physical activity counselling in sports medicine: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth Liz; Blair, Steven N; McBride, Patrick; Sallis, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key component of healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. In contrast, physical inactivity accounts for a significant proportion of premature deaths worldwide. Physicians are in a critical position to help patients develop healthy lifestyles by actively counseling on PA. Sports medicine physicians, with their focus on sports and exercise medicine are uniquely trained to provide such expertise to patients, learners and colleagues. To succeed, physicians need clinical tools and processes that support PA assessment and counseling. Linking patients to community resources, and specifically to health and fitness professionals is a key strategy. Efforts should be made to expand provider education during medical school, residency and fellowship training, and continuing medical education. Lastly, physically active physicians are more likely to counsel patients to be active. A key message for the sports medicine community is the importance of serving as a positive PA role model.

  14. [Social networks and medicine].

    PubMed

    Bastardot, F; Vollenweider, P; Marques-Vidal, P

    2015-11-04

    Social networks (social media or #SoMe) have entered medical practice within the last few years. These new media--like Twitter or Skype--enrich interactions among physicians (telemedicine), among physicians and patients (virtual consultations) and change the way of teaching medicine. They also entail new ethical, deontological and legal issues: the extension of the consultation area beyond the medical office and the access of information by third parties were recently debated. We develop here a review of some social networks with their characteristics, applications for medicine and limitations, and we offer some recommendations of good practice.

  15. Personalized Medicine in Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Varricchi, Gilda; Bernardi, Stefano; Bragantini, Alice; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Allergic disease is among the most common pathologies worldwide and its prevalence has constantly increased up to the present days, even if according to the most recent data it seems to be slightly slowing down. Allergic disease has not only a high rate of misdiagnosis and therapeutic inefficacy, but represents an enormous, resource-absorbing black hole in respiratory and general medicine. The aim of this paper is to summarize principal therapeutic innovations in atopic disease management befallen in the recent years in terms of personalized/precision medicine. PMID:27826958

  16. Benjamin Franklin and medicine.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, J V

    2005-12-06

    Benjamin Franklin, called Dr. Franklin after receiving an honorary degree in 1759 for his contributions to understanding electricity, was not formally trained as a physician. Nevertheless, he had numerous interests in medicine, including experimentation, shrewd observations about health and disease in himself and others, civic activities, and inventions of medical devices. These achievements show his capacity for detailed, perceptive insights; his fastidiousness in recording his observations; and his thoughtful analyses of scientific phenomena and human conduct. In medicine, perhaps uniquely in his life, his major interests intersected: scientific pursuits, civic activities, amused scrutiny of human behavior, and the desire to improve the lot of his fellow man.

  17. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    PubMed

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia.

  18. Nuclear medicine annual, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide evaluation of brain death, bone imaging with SPECT, and lymphoscintigraphy are among the topics covered in Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1987. In addition, the book includes reviews of the role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Reports describe advances in radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland and assess the current status of diuretic renography. Also included are articles on changes in functional imaging with aging, on radionuclide evaluation of the lower genitourinary tract in children, and on cholescintigraphy in children.

  19. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

  20. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications.

  1. [Catastrophe medicine. General principles].

    PubMed

    Linde, H

    1980-10-17

    Catastrophe medicine is the organization of masses under difficult conditions. The present article is concerned with the competence and organization in the event of a catastrophe and describes the phasic course of a catastrophe situation. The most important element of effective first aid measures, screening for shock and pain treatment, and first surgical treatment and the principles of ballistic factors are dealt with. Particular attention is given to the evacuation of emergency patients from the scene of the catastrophe. A request is made for " Catastrophe medicine" to be included by the medical faculties and educational institutes in their course of study for paramedical personnel.

  2. Adventures in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    Human space flight experience has demonstrated a variety of hazards and risks to health and performance. In developing ways to help respond to these issues, the field of space medicine has developed a comprehensive program of space flight health risk management that has resulted in positive contributions to medicine and society in general. Examples include accelerated focus on critical health issues such as aging and osteoporosis, and development of new technologies such as non-invasive diagnostic testing for diabetics. The role of health care professionals in human space exploration represents a fulfillment of new adventures and expanding frontiers.

  3. Spirituality, healing and medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, D

    1991-01-01

    The natural science base of modern medicine influences the way in which medicine is delivered and may ignore the spiritual factors associated with illness. The history of spirituality in healing presented here reflects the growth of scientific knowledge, demands for religious renewal, and the shift in the understanding of the concept of health within a broader cultural context. General practitioners have been willing to entertain the idea of spiritual healing and include it in their daily practice, or referral network. Recognizing patients' beliefs in the face of suffering is an important factor in health care practice. PMID:1777299

  4. An evaluation of consumers' perceptions regarding "modern medicines" in penang, malaysia.

    PubMed

    Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Shyong, Tai Lee; Hin, Tan Keat; Cien, Chong Soon; Bin, Lim Soo; Anantham, Shamini Chanmal; Kirubakaran, Ranita; Ping, Sia Bee; Kirubakaran, Ranita; Chuen, Chiew Shoen; Singh, Jaswinder Kaur Sohan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate consumers' perceptions regarding "modern medicines" in Penang, Malaysia. To conduct this exploratory study, qualitative techniques were used. Consumers more than 19 years of age and could speak English, who had visited a pharmacy in the last 30 days, were included from the four major areas of Penang. Eighteen interviews were conducted until the point of saturation. The interviews were audio-taped and then transcribed verbatim for thematic content analysis. Many consumers correctly identified the major characteristics and properties of modern medicines; however, others raised doubts regarding the safety, quality and efficacy of "modern medicines". There were many misconceptions such as "all modern medicines can cause dependence", traditional medicines are completely "free of side-effects" and "Western medicines cure while Chinese medicines don't". Color was also considered a strong determinant of the safety and characteristics of a medicine. Regarding consumers' "medicine information seeking behavior", many consumers would seek information from doctors and pharmacists; however, there were others, who would look for books, or get it from the internet and friends. Of concern many consumers emphasized that while "self-searching for drug information" they would only look for side-effects. Misconceptions regarding medicine-taking behavior, medicine use and compliance were also identified. Though several consumers complied with the medicine-taking instructions, many reported that they would stop taking medicines, once they feel better. Though many consumers correctly identified the characteristics of "modern medicines", misconceptions regarding "medicine information sources and "medicine-taking behavior" were rampant. The situation demands corrective actions including community-oriented educational campaigns to improve "medicine use" in the society.

  5. [Causal inference in medicine: a reaction to the report, "incidence of Minamata disease in communities along the Agano River, Niigata, Japan--patterns of the exposure and official diagnosis of patients"].

    PubMed

    Tsuda, T; Mino, Y; Yamamoto, E; Matsuoka, H; Babazono, A; Shigemi, J; Miyai, M

    1997-07-01

    Kondo's "Incidence of Minamata Disease in Communities along the Agano River, Niigata, Japan (Jap. J. Hyg. 51:599-611;1996)" is critically reviewed. The data of the article were obtained from most of the residents living in the Agano river villages where Minamata disease was discovered in June, 1965. However, sampling proportions were much different between in the population base and in the cases. The method of identification of cases from the data and the reason for the difference were not clearly demonstrated. The citations of reference articles are insufficient despite the fact that other epidemiologic studies on methyl-mercury poisoning have been reported not only in Japan, but also around the world. His "analysis of the recognized patients" is erroneous. Both the sampling scheme of information of hair mercury and the modeling of the analysis are based on Kondo's arbitrary interpretation, not on epidemiologic theory. His "analysis of the rejected applicants" is also erroneous. His calculations of the attributable proportion are incorrect and self-induced in both the assignments of data and analysis of data. Kondo has failed to study the epidemiologic theories in light of changes in the field. Therefore, his article is lacking in epidemiologic theory, a logical base and scientific inference. In Japan, epidemiologic methodology has rarely been used in studies on Minamata Disease in either Kumamoto and Niigata. The government has used neurologically specific diagnosis based on combinations of symptoms to judge the causality between each of symptoms and methyl-mercury poisoning. Epidemiologic data obtained in Minamata, Kumamoto in 1971 indicate that the criteria set by the government in 1977 have produced much more false-negative patients than false-positive patients. As a result, a huge number of symptomatic patients, including those with peripheral neuropathy or with constriction of the visual field, did not receive any help or compensation until 1995. The authors

  6. Factors Affecting Students' Evaluation in a Community Service-Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kai-Kuen; Liu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Wei-Dan; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2007-01-01

    A community service-learning curriculum was established to give students opportunities to understand the interrelationship between family and community health, the differences between community and hospital medicine, and to be able to identify and solve community health problems. Students were divided into small groups to participate in community…

  7. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. PMID:26779539

  8. [The medicine in Mexico in the XX century].

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century constitute a breakthrough in medicine. The Industrial Revolution was soon followed by a revolution in medicine characterized by a similar pattern where novel technology was produced. This initiated the transformation of medicine as a science and the establishment of medical specialties as we know them to date. Mexicans physicians must be commended for quickly adapting to this new way of thinking and practicing medicine. Important changes in clinical practice and in the medical community took place and were associated with the creation of several medical institutions. The field of public health grew as a medical concept focused on the individual and the population.

  9. Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the six issues of "Wilderness Medicine Newsletter" published in 1992. This journal, subtitled "For the recognition, treatment, and prevention of wilderness emergencies," includes feature articles, book reviews, product reviews, letters to the editor, notices of upcoming wilderness conferences, and…

  10. Az-Tech Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rob

    2000-01-01

    Created in 1552 as a gift for Spain's king, the Badianus Manuscript is a repository of Aztec traditional medicinal knowledge and contains the earliest surviving illustrations of New World plants. At the College of Santa Cruz (Mexico City) for Aztec nobility, an Aztec healer who became the college physician compiled plant descriptions and medicinal…

  11. Space physiology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Parker J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The state of knowledge in space physiology and medicine are reviewed. Overviews of manned space flight, the space environment, spaceflight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crew members, and medical problems of space flight are presented.

  12. Managing Your Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... that should not be taken with this medicine, side effects, and other notes. American Diabetes Association   1– 800– DIABETES (342– 2383)   www. diabetes. org Inc. 2v/ 14 Provided By © 2009 by the American Diabetes Association,

  13. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

  14. Family medicine curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Douglas; Schipper, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED The Family Medicine Residency Program at the University of Alberta has used academic sessions and clinical-based teaching to prepare residents for private practice. Before the new curriculum, academic sessions were large group lectures given by specialists. These sessions lacked consistent quality, structured topics, and organization. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM The program was designed to improve the quality and consistency of academic sessions by creating a new curriculum. The goals for the new curriculum included improved organizational structure, improved satisfaction from the participants, improved resident knowledge and confidence in key areas of family medicine, and improved performance on licensing examinations. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The new curriculum is faculty guided but resident organized. Twenty-three core topics in family medicine are covered during a 2-year rotating curriculum. Several small group activities, including problem-based learning modules, journal club, and examination preparation sessions, complement larger didactic sessions. A multiple-source evaluation process is an essential component of this new program. CONCLUSION The new academic curriculum for family medicine residents is based on a variety of learning styles and is consistent with the principles of adult learning theory. This structured curriculum provides a good basis for further development. Other programs across the country might want to incorporate these ideas into their current programming. PMID:18272637

  15. Eskimo Medicine Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Otto

    "Eskimo Medicine Man" is a record of primitive Alaskan life in the 1930's. It records the experiences in Alaska's remote areas of Dr. Otto George, the last "traveling physician" for the Department of Interior's Indian Service, when in all the territory (an area one-fifth that of the contiguous United States) there were fewer…

  16. Photonics in cardiovascular medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Regar, Evelyn; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-10-01

    The use of photonics technology is bringing new capabilities and insights to cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging and sensing, laser ablation and optical pacing are just some of the functions being explored to help diagnose and treat conditions of the heart and arteries.

  17. Medicine Handbook. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    This handbook, developed as a reference guide, contains the text of laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing the practice of medicine in the state. An introductory section describes the professional regulation system of New York, addressing these topics: professional education; the role of professional…

  18. Tablet Use within Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  19. Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Holly A., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The six issues of Wilderness Medicine Newsletter published in 1999 provide medical and rescue information for the nonphysician in remote wilderness areas. Feature articles include: "Tendinitis: Overdoing a Good Thing" (Buck Tilton); "A Sport for the Season: Trail Running" (injuries and health problems common to trail runners)…

  20. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  1. 50 Years: Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narlesky, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…

  2. [Ultrasound in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, F; Deltour, S; Petrovic, T

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound has revolutionized the practice of emergency medicine, particularly in prehospital setting. About a patient with dyspnea, we present the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and emergency treatment. Echocardiography, but also hemodynamic ultrasound (vena cava) and lung exam are valuable tools. Achieving lung ultrasound and diagnostic value of B lines B are detailed.

  3. Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Holly A., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the six issues of the "Wilderness Medicine Newsletter" published during 1996. The newsletter addresses the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness and training resources. Issues typically include feature articles, interviews with doctors in the wilderness, conferences and training…

  4. Sports Medicine in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  5. [Human science and medicine].

    PubMed

    Caporale, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Objective of Human Science teaching is to develop Knowledge and ability for rational analysis of bio-medical problems. The relationship between doctor and patient must be founded on dialogue, cooperation, understanding, on respect of human rights: life, health, physical integrity, privacy, autonomy, freedom and liability to guide ethical choices in clinical experience and rediscover anthropological significance of Medicine.

  6. Cytomics in regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz

    2008-02-01

    Cytomics is the high-content analysis of cell-systems [6, 78]. The area of Cytomics and Systems Biology received great attention during the last years as it harbours the promise to substantially impact on various fields of biomedicine, drug discovery, predictive medicine [6] and may have major potential for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine Cytomics includes process control of cell preparation and culturing using non-invasive detection techniques, quality control and standardization for GMP and GLP conformity and even prediction of cell fate based on sophisticated data analysis. Cytomics requires quantitative and stoichiometric single cell analysis. In some areas the leading cytometric techniques represent the cutting edge today. Many different applications/variations of multicolour staining were developed for flow- or slide-based cytometry (SBC) analysis of suspensions and sections to whole animal analysis [78]. SBC has become an important analytical technology in drug discovery, diagnosis and research and is an emerging technology for systems analysis [78]. It enables high-content high-throughput measurement of cell suspensions, cell cultures and tissues. In the last years various commercial SBC instruments were launched principally enabling to perform similar tasks. Standardisation as well as comparability of different instruments is a major challenge. Hyperspectral optical imaging may be implemented in SBC analysis for label free cell detection based on cellular autofluorescence [3]. All of these developments push the systemic approach of the analysis of biological specimens to enhance the outcome of regenerative medicine.

  7. Science, Medicine, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosteson, Daniel C.

    1981-01-01

    The impact of the new biology on what, how, and why persons learn in medicine is discussed. The transformation of medical education is reflected in the radical changes in views of man as organism that are arising from new discoveries in molecular and cellular biology. (MLW)

  8. The future of medicine.

    PubMed

    Ray, Russ

    2012-03-01

    The recent innovation of prediction markets is examined, and their significant applications to the science of medicine are demonstrated. According to one comprehensive study, these markets make "uncannily accurate" predictions of every type of event. In the medical field, being able to predict cures, epidemics, medical discoveries, and myriad other medical variables can greatly further the advances of medical science and its clinical applications.

  9. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  10. The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jingcheng

    2013-01-01

    The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  11. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-04-29

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  12. [Research in tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Dumas, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-10-01

    In France, research in tropical medicine is carried out by the Institute for Research and Development (IRD), university-affiliated institutes, and other research organizations such as INSERM, CNRS and the Pasteur Institute. Currently, this research is highly fragmented and therefore inefficient. As a result, despite significant financial means, French research in this field is not sufficiently competitive. This research activity should be coordinated by creating a "federation ", that would 1) facilitate the sharing of material and human resources, thereby improving efficiency and resulting in cost savings; 2) valorize French research in tropical medicine and its expert know-how, thus favoring the nomination of French experts in large international research programs (French experts in tropical medicine are currently under-recognized); 3) attract young researchers from France and elsewhere; and 4) adapt to the ongoing demographic and economic evolution of tropical countries. The creation of a Federation of French researchers would also make research in tropical medicine more visible. The objectives to which it leads already must include 1) a better understanding of the priorities of countries in the southern hemisphere, taking into account the social, cultural and economic contexts and ensuring the consistency of current and future projects ; 2) strengthening of research networks in close and equal partnership with researchers in the southern hemisphere, with pooling of resources (scientific, human and material) to reach the critical mass required for major projects ; 3) promoting the emergence of centers of excellence for health research in tropical countries ; and 4) contributing more effectively to training, because there can be no training without research, and no research without training This consolidation will help to empower research in tropical medicine, as in other Western countries, and will allow France to recover the place it deserves. The specific

  13. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Medication > Other Treatments > Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Share: Print Page Text ... magazine: meds-other, In this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements ...

  14. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment FDA-Approved HIV Medicines (Last updated 2/27/2017; last reviewed 2/27/2017) Treatment with ... 2007 Pharmacokinetic Enhancers Pharmacokinetic enhancers are used in HIV treatment to increase the effectiveness of an HIV medicine ...

  15. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  16. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Kidney Disease A-Z Pain Medicine and Kidney Damage An analgesic is any medicine intended to ... of chronic kidney disease called analgesic nephropathy. Acute Kidney Failure Some patient case reports have attributed incidents ...

  17. Essential Medicines: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Bhatia, Vikas; Padhy, Biswa Mohan; Hota, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    The concept of defining essential medicines and establishing a list of them was aimed to improve the availability of affordable medicines for the world's poor. Access to essential medicines is a major determinant of health outcomes. Several countries have made substantial progress towards increasing access to essential medicines, but access to essential medicines in developing countries like India is not adequate. In this review we have tried to present the Indian scenario in respect to availability and accessibility of essential medicines over last one decade. To enhance the credibility of Indian healthcare system, procurement and delivery systems of essential medicines have to be strengthened through government commitment, careful selection, adequate public sector financing, efficient distribution systems, control on taxes and duties, and inculcating a culture of rational use of medicines in current and future prescribers. PMID:26435594

  18. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  19. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  20. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. Some prevent or cure ... the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. ...

  1. [Community Nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  2. Are patients who use alternative medicine dissatisfied with orthodox medicine?

    PubMed

    Donnelly, W J; Spykerboer, J E; Thong, Y H

    1985-05-13

    Approximately 45% of asthmatic families and 47% of non-asthmatic families had consulted an alternative-medicine practitioner at some time. The most popular form of alternative medicine was chiropractic (21.1% and 26.4%, respectively), followed by homoeopathy/naturopathy (18.8% and 12.7%, respectively), acupuncture (9.4% and 10.9%, respectively), and herbal medicine (4.7% and 6.4%, respectively), while the remainder (20.3% and 11.8% respectively) was distributed among iridology, osteopathy, hypnosis, faith healing and megavitamin therapy. More families were satisfied with orthodox medicine (87.1% and 93.6%, respectively) than with alternative medicine (84.2% and 75.1%, respectively). Crosstabulation analysis of pooled data both from asthma and from non-asthma groups showed that 76.4% were satisfied both with orthodox and with alternative medicine, and 16.4% were satisfied with orthodox, but not with alternative, medicine. In contrast, only 2.7% were dissatisfied with orthodox medicine and satisfied with alternative medicine (chi2 = 9.33; P less than 0.01). These findings do not support the view that patients who use alternative medicine are those who are disgruntled with orthodox medicine.

  3. [Problems in medicinal materials research of new traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Ting; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Medicinal materials research and development of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is the premise and foundation of new drug research and development, it throughout the whole process of new drug research. Medicinal materials research is one of the main content of the pharmaceutical research of new drug of TCM, and it is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. This article through the analysis of the present problems existing in the development of TCM research of new drug of TCM, from medicine research concept, quality stability, quality standard, etc are expounded, including medicine research idea value medicine study should focus on the important role and from the purpose for the top-level design of new drug research problem. Medicinal materials quality stability should pay attention to the original, medicinal part, origin, processing, storage, planting (breeding), and other aspects. Aspect of quality standard of medicinal materials should pay attention to establish the quality standards of conform to the characteristics of new drug of TCM. As the instruction of TCM new drug research and development and the scientific nature of the review, and provide the basis for medicinal material standards.

  4. Comparison of Leiomyoma of Modern Medicine and Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Tajadini, Haleh

    2016-04-01

    Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the pelvic that is associated with reproductive problems such as infertility, frequent abortions, and undesirable prenatal outcomes. High prevalence of leiomyoma and its relation with important gynecological complications, especially during reproductive ages, on the one hand, and high medical expenses and significant complications of common treatments, on the other, made us search traditional Persian medicine texts for a similar disease. In traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to leiomyoma (Oram-e-rahem). In this article, by collecting materials from traditional medicine texts on leiomyoma, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topic, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to leiomyoma. When modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment, reviewing of traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise.

  5. Serving Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Les, Ed.

    This book contains 15 articles about various aspects of community further education (FE) programs in Great Britain, including program rationales/benefits, administration, and delivery. The following articles are included: "Foreword" (Bradshaw); "Commitment to Community Is Good Business and Practical Politics" (Brook); "Can…

  6. Community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  7. Community History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  8. How to save money on medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... patientinstructions/000863.htm How to save money on medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... can help you pay for your medicines. Use Medicines Wisely Take all of your medicines as directed ...

  9. Geriatric Medicine Is Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Knight

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the present status of geriatrics in academic medicine and suggests that an understanding of academic medicine is needed in order to secure the institutionalization of geriatric medicine. Offers some predictions on the future of geriatric medicine. (JAC)

  10. Sustainable harvest of medicinal plants at Bulashbar Nullah, Astore (Northern Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Gilani, Syed Shahinshah

    2003-02-01

    Rapid decline of plant resources due to their conventional use needs ex-situ and in-situ conservation, training of the community regarding collection of medicinal plants and their marketing. In this regard, the Bulashbar valley, Astore, District Diamer was identified as a case study. The main objectives of this activity were to enlist economic, medicinal and aromatic plants including their occurrence, general distribution and abundance in the project areas; to determine traditional use and pharmaceutical values of each medicinal plant species found in the project area. Ethnobotanical studies of the area revealed that 33 plants were being used by the local communities for medicinal purposes. Two species, Bunium persicum and Ephedra gerardiana, are recommended for in vitro cultivation to obtain quick benefits. While Hippophae rhamnoides can be sustainably used for socio-economic uplift of the local communities.

  11. Darwinian medicine and psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Romaní de Gabriel, J

    2015-04-01

    Darwinian medicine, or evolutionary medicine, regards some pathological conditions as attempts by the organism to solve a problem or develop defense mechanisms. At certain stages of human evolution, some diseases may have conferred a selective advantage. Psoriasis is a high-penetrance multigenic disorder with prevalence among whites of up to 3%. Psoriatic lesions have been linked with enhanced wound-healing qualities and greater capacity to fight infection. Leprosy, tuberculosis, and infections caused by viruses similar to human immunodeficiency virus have been postulated as environmental stressors that may have selected for psoriasis-promoting genes in some human populations. The tendency of patients with severe psoriasis to develop metabolic syndrome may reflect the body's attempt to react to environmental stresses and warning signs by triggering insulin resistance and fat storage.

  12. [Palliativer medicine in surgery].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Samperio, César; Ruiz Canizales, Raúl; Arellano Rodríguez, Salvador; Romero Zepeda, Hilda; Hall, Robert T; García Camino, Bernardo

    The concepts and background of palliative medicine, the patient-health team relationship and the right of the patients to receive palliative care, its application in surgery, the criterion defining the terminally ill, proportionate and disproportionate measures, where it is applied and what this consists of, drugs and procedures used, who should administrate them and for how long, the requirements for advanc directives and avoidance of therapeutic obstinacy, were reviewed. It describes and reflects their ethical and legal bases. It describes the main changes to the law in México in 2009 and 2012. It concludes that palliative medicine is not against scientific and technological progress, but promotes its appropriate use with respect to the will and dignity of the patient. It should be applied by a multidisciplinary team, who accompany the patient throughout the progression of their condition, strengthening the doctor's and health team's relationship with the patients and their families.

  13. Confederate Navy medicine.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J S

    1999-11-01

    The Confederate Navy's Office of Medicine and Surgery was a small organization within the Confederate Navy Department. The physicians, surgeon's stewards, and nurses provided medical care to sick and injured sailors from both sides of the conflict. The provision of health care often took place under trying circumstances, including shortages of medicines, money, and food. Members of the medical department served in all major and many minor naval engagements and worked long hours treating the wounded after battle. Many of the physicians served in the U.S. Navy before the Civil War. Their sacrifices and achievements are lost in the maelstrom of the larger conflict on land. This article is an effort to call attention to their story.

  14. Aerospace Medicine Talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is next Sunday, May 10th. It will be to the Civil Aviation Medical Association, for 2 hours at Disney World in Orlando. It is a high level talk on space medicine, including history, the role of my office, human health risks of space flight, general aspects of space medicine practice, human health risk management (including integrated activities of medical operations and the Human Research Program, and thoughts concerning health risks for long duration exploration class space missions. No proprietary data or material will be used, all is readily available in the public sector. There is also a short (30 min) talk on Monday at the CAMA lunch. There we will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, with possible etiologies and plans for research (already selected studies). Again, nothing proprietary will be discussed.

  15. Herbal medicine in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pinn, Graham; Pallett, Linda

    2002-05-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the frequency of alternative medical usage in an antenatal population. A survey of alternative medicine usage was carried out among 305 consecutive patients over 2 months at their registration in mid-pregnancy at an Australian Antenatal Clinic. The study showed that something like 40% of patients used alternative medical therapy, including 12% herbal therapy. No specific study of pregnancy outcome was carried out, but it is of concern that some herbs taken had the potential to adversely affect pregnancy outcome. The herbal therapies commonly used in pregnancy are reviewed with their potential complications; examples of toxicity are also discussed. It is important to obtain a herbal medicine history at any time but particularly in pregnancy. Herbs may have unrecognised effects on pregnancy or labour, have interactions with prescribed medications and have potentially serious complications for the foetus.

  16. [Phototherapy in rehabilitation medicine].

    PubMed

    Okuni, Ikuko

    2012-07-01

    Rehabilitation can be classified into four types: medical, vocational, educational, and social rehabilitation. The goal of medical rehabilitation is to maintain and improve a patient's physical and mental capabilities. Phototherapy is an important means of treatment in rehabilitation medicine and is usually performed with ultraviolet, infrared, or laser light. Among them, laser light has been shown to have various biological effects, such as increasing blood flow, promoting wound healing, reducing inflammation, and improving immune function. Laser therapy is as important a treatment option as exercise therapy in rehabilitation medicine, and is considered to be worth evaluating as a therapeutic means to relieve pain in musculoskeletal disorders, promote healing in peripheral neuropathy, and alleviate muscle spasticity.

  17. Food systems veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H Scott

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this review are to suggest the use of the systems thinking framework to improve how veterinary medicine is applied to food production. It applies the eight essential skills of systems thinking to a few selected veterinary examples. Two of the skills determine how we approach or define a problem, and are (i) dynamic thinking (taking a longer term perspective) and (ii) the 30,000 foot view (expanding the boundary of analysis beyond the animal, farm, or even country). The other skills are (iii) system-as-cause, (iv) operational thinking, (v) closed-loop (feedback) thinking, (vi) non-linear thinking, (vii) scientific thinking and (viii) generic thinking. The challenge is to adopt and apply this systems framework to veterinary medicine and food production. The result will be a rigorous new approach to solving the complex food and health problems of the 21st century.

  18. [Nature medicine as intoxicant].

    PubMed

    Solbakken, A M; Rørbakken, G; Gundersen, T

    1997-03-20

    Documentation is often scarce about adverse effects of herbal products used in alternative medicine. Five patients were admitted to hospital with altered consciousness after taking the herbal product Relaxir, a remedy for insomnia and restlessness, produced mainly from the fruit from the passion flower (Passiflora incarnata). Relaxir is thought to have an intoxicating and sedative effect and may also potentiate the effect of other drugs. It is questionable that herbal products liable to cause intoxication are sold without restriction.

  19. Towards interactive narrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Marc; Charles, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Interactive Storytelling technologies have attracted significant interest in the field of simulation and serious gaming for their potential to provide a principled approach to improve user engagement in training scenarios. In this paper, we explore the use of Interactive Storytelling to support Narrative Medicine as a reflective practice. We describe a workflow for the generation of virtual narratives from high-level descriptions of patients' experiences as perceived by physicians, which can help to objectivize such perceptions and support various forms of analysis.

  20. Challenges for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, S

    1994-03-01

    Since April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin first orbited the earth about 270 astronauts (predominantly males) have lived in space. More than 90 percent of these astronauts were natives of the USA and the ex-USSR. In this commentary, the challenges confronting the discipline of space medicine are reviewed. These include, (1) space sickness, (2) wasting of the musculoskeletal system and (3) developing a longterm life support system.

  1. Complex medicines management.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ruth; Kilbey, Carol

    Patients with long-term conditions (LTCs) often take many prescribed drugs. A specialist nurse and pharmacist at a Milton Keynes practice identified the need for a more coordinated medication service for patients with LTCs who take multiple medicines. Adopting a holistic approach, they set up a joint medication management project. This article describes how the one-year project improved quality and safety, reduced out-of-hours presentations and hospital admissions, and cut costs.

  2. [Evidence based medicine].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Evidence based medicine is a systematic method employed to secure the best scientific available evidence when making clinical decisions. Several steps are taken in these process, describing a clinical scenario, formulating a specific clinical question, searching the literature for the pertinent studies, selecting the relevant articles using rules of evidence, understanding and calculating measures of effect, and finally incorporating the evidence and patients preferences in the clinical decision process.

  3. [Descartes and medicine].

    PubMed

    Jeune, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650) gave a high priority to medicine and dedicated a great deal of his life to medical studies. Nevertheless his relation to medicine has always been much discussed. However, a number of recent works have contributed to reassessing the earlier critique which nearly wrote him out from medical history. The recent biographical dismissal of a number of earlier allegations and the recent interpretations of the medical contents of his collected writings ought to result in Descartes' reinstatement in medical history. His novel anti-Aristotelian methodology had a crucial influence on the medicine of the subsequent decades. Also his early defense of Harvey's theory of blood circulation had great influence. Especially his thoughts about a mechanical physiology by means of which the functions of the body could be explained without involvement of "occult faculties" influenced that time. His empirical mistakes, including the central role which he ascribed to the corpus pineale, are offset, which already Steno noted, by his brilliant thoughts about the function and importance of the brain. Although he did not make any really new empirical discoveries within medicine, he advanced a number of concrete ideas which later lead to actual discoveries such as visual accommodation, the reflex concept and the reciprocal innervations of antagonistic muscles. Descartes' psychosomatic view of the importance of the interplay between sensations, "the passions of the soul", and the free will in the preservation of health shows in addition that his fundamental soul-body dualism was far more nuanced than is often claimed.

  4. Laser In Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.

    1982-12-01

    Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.

  5. Alopecia in general medicine.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Rajani; Harries, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Appreciation of different types of hair loss (alopecia) that may be encountered in hospital medicine is important to ensure accurate diagnosis and management, identify underlying medical conditions or treatments that may present with increased hair loss, recognise autoimmune alopecias and their associations, and understand the significant psychological impact of hair loss on an individual. This article discusses common causes of hair loss, as well as those conditions that may be associated with systemic disease, relevant to a general physician.

  6. Hypnosis: medicine's dirty word.

    PubMed

    Upshaw, William N

    2006-10-01

    This paper attempts to understand the relationship between the clinical efficacy of hypnosis and its negative perception among many medical educators, practitioners and the general public. By exploring the history of hypnosis, an attempt was made to point out several events that may have led to both the past and current misperception of hypnosis which the author believes have caused hypnosis to become "medicine's dirty word".

  7. Computers working for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Gillian

    1985-01-01

    1 A demonstration of the use of Viewdata Systems in clinical trials is presented. 2 The potential of these systems in several areas of medicine is shown and related to their speed of development in the last 2 years. 3 Particular reference is made to the use of computers in the assessment of patients with affective disorders. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:3994904

  8. Wittgenstein, medicine and neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Silva, Guilherme Ghizoni; Munhoz, Renato P

    2011-08-01

    A historical review is presented of the link between Ludwig Wittgenstein, considered the most important philosopher of the 20th century, and medicine, particularly neurology and psychiatry. Wittgenstein worked as a porter at Guy's Hospital in London, and then as a technician at the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle. He wrote about his important insights into language, and neuroscience. It has been suggested that he had Asperger syndrome and a possible movement disorder (mannerisms).

  9. [Interrelationship between folk plant medicine of Arhorchin Mongolian and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Khasbagan, Soyolt; Pei, Shengji

    2002-07-01

    Based on the results of investigation of Arhorchin Mongolian folk medicinal plants and related knowledge system, the present paper discussed the interrelationship between folk plant medicine and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine by the items of plant species, medicinal parts, treating disease and administering methods. The results show that there are some consistency between folk medicine and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine, and there are also some other inconsistency. Consistency between folk medicine and Mongolian medicine may be illustrated the fact that the Arhorchin Mongolian folk medicinal knowledge and Mongolian medicine are belongs to same system. Consistency between folk medicine and Chinese herbal medicine are illustrated the fact that knowledge exchange and cultural infiltration between Arhorchin Mongolians and Han nationality. Inconsistency may be illustrated richness and exploration value of folk medicinal knowledge.

  10. Personalized medicine: understanding probabilities and managing expectations.

    PubMed

    Laksman, Zachary; Detsky, Allan S

    2011-02-01

    Personalized medicine promises to represent a transformation in clinical care that will be ushered in by the unprecedented growth and development in the field of human genetics. Further examination of the scientific foundations of this new hope reveals a great number of challenges that lie ahead. While basic science research feverishly races to produce solutions, we continue to wait for the translation of deliverables. Products that have and will come to market may leave our clinical communities and systems exposed and unprepared. At each step, from basic science research to infrastructure development, a great deal of creativity and investment are required before the arsenal of more personalized tools can be assimilated into our current models of health care. This commentary seeks to share perspectives on the current status of personalized medicine from the vantage point of several potential investors, and integrate them into a common set of goals and understanding. We conclude that the stylized model of personalized medicine is more akin to a marketing tool than a literal prediction of the future.

  11. The management of pneumonia in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Giannella, M; Pinilla, B; Pujol, R; Capdevila, J A; Muñoz, P

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia generates a high workload for internal medicine departments. Management of this disease is challenging, because patients are usually elderly and have multiple comorbid conditions. Furthermore, the interpretation and adherence to guidelines are far from clear in this setting. We report the opinion of 43 internists especially interested in infectious diseases that were questioned at the 2011 XXXII National Conference of Spanish Society of Internal Medicine about the main issues involved in the management of pneumonia in the internal medicine departments, namely, classification, admission criteria, microbiological workup, therapeutic management, discharge policy, and prevention of future episodes. Participants were asked to choose between 2 options for each statement by 4 investigators. Consensus could not be reached in many cases. The most controversial issues concerned recognition and management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Most participants were aware of the differences in terms of underlying diseases, etiological distribution, and outcome of HCAP compared with community-acquired pneumonia, but only a minority agreed to manage HCAP as hospital-acquired pneumonia, as suggested by some guidelines. A clinical patient-to-patient approach proved to be the option preferred by internists in the management of HCAP.

  12. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  13. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  14. Integration of Chinese medicine with Western medicine could lead to future medicine: molecular module medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Ke-ji; Lu, Ai-ping

    2016-04-01

    The development of an effective classification method for human health conditions is essential for precise diagnosis and delivery of tailored therapy to individuals. Contemporary classification of disease systems has properties that limit its information content and usability. Chinese medicine pattern classification has been incorporated with disease classification, and this integrated classification method became more precise because of the increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms. However, we are still facing the complexity of diseases and patterns in the classification of health conditions. With continuing advances in omics methodologies and instrumentation, we are proposing a new classification approach: molecular module classification, which is applying molecular modules to classifying human health status. The initiative would be precisely defining the health status, providing accurate diagnoses, optimizing the therapeutics and improving new drug discovery strategy. Therefore, there would be no current disease diagnosis, no disease pattern classification, and in the future, a new medicine based on this classification, molecular module medicine, could redefine health statuses and reshape the clinical practice.

  15. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Gromek, Kamila; Drumond, Nélio; Simas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of herbal remedies in pharmacovigilance systems is becoming one of the primary tasks, due to the constantly ascending potential of herbal products and herbal medicines worldwide. Nowadays, the drug development is focused on finding new active compounds or combinations, but costs are simultaneously growing, which makes herbal medicines an attractive, harmless and cheaper alternative to synthetic drugs.Like all drugs, herbal are not free of risk and many studies suggest for potential adverse reactions and interactions. Available statistics show that some herbal products, used in traditional medication for generations, may possess carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic and other severe actions. Evaluation of the safety should include at least in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for >3 months or intermittently for >6 months), reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in some cases and examination of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes. Drug safety of herbal medicines should be developed, focusing on specific groups of patients.

  16. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.

  17. Ancient medicine--a review.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  18. Predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty members. Design A comprehensive Web-based survey of all faculty members in an academic department of family medicine. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with job satisfaction. Setting The Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario and its 15 affiliated community teaching hospitals and community-based teaching practices. Participants All 1029 faculty members in the Department of Family and Community Medicine were invited to complete the survey. Main outcome measures Faculty members’ demographic and practice information; teaching, clinical, administration, and research activities; leadership roles; training needs and preferences; mentorship experiences; health status; stress levels; burnout levels; and job satisfaction. Faculty members’ perceptions about supports provided, recognition, communication, retention, workload, teamwork, respect, resource distribution, remuneration, and infrastructure support. Faculty members’ job satisfaction, which was the main outcome variable, was obtained from the question, “Overall, how satisfied are you with your job?” Results Of the 1029 faculty members, 687 (66.8%) responded to the survey. Bivariate analyses revealed 26 predictors as being statistically significantly associated with job satisfaction, including faculty members’ ratings of their local department and main practice setting, their ratings of leadership and mentorship experiences, health status variables, and demographic variables. The multivariable analyses identified the following 5 predictors of job satisfaction: the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment; being born in Canada; the overall quality of mentorship that was received being rated as very good or excellent; and teamwork being rated as very

  19. Plasmas for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  20. Improving Academic Teaching by Involving Community Pathologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batata, Al

    1979-01-01

    Wright State University School of Medicine uses community pathologists as unpaid volunteers to team teach pathology courses, making possible a small-group approach in the laboratory. The organization of the course and faculty teams, student evaluation, and results of this approach are discussed. (JMD)

  1. Family medicine in the research revolution.

    PubMed

    Wender, Richard C

    2010-01-01

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding has contributed to improvements in the health of the nation, but the pace of progress, particularly in the war on cancer, has been frustratingly slow. Departments of family medicine receive less NIH funding than all other specialties. Although numerous factors contribute to low family medicine funding levels, persistent undervaluing of primary care plays a paramount role. Fueled by the harsh reality that our nation's health is unconscionably poor, we are entering a new era in our nation's research enterprise, a virtual research revolution. The 3 components of this revolution are the NIH roadmap, personalized medicine, and the Clinical and Translational Science Awards. Each of these elements will contribute to a growing emphasis on translational research. Translational research demands formation of innovative structures in academic health centers (AHCs) to enable them to address questions of vital relevance to improving public health. Service research, funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and foundations, defines a new approach to research with high potential to improve the health of communities. To be a part of the research revolution, departments must rely on senior researchers to secure funding and provide mentorship for junior investigators. Junior investigators must relentlessly pursue answers to questions of direct relevance to improving health. Finally, department chairs have the obligation to identify research mentors, find ways to fund research gaps, and create a culture of scholarship and investigation. Advocating for AHCs to commit to improving the health of the regions they serve can have a substantial impact on the types of questions that centers choose to study and, ultimately, on the health of the communities they serve.

  2. Scientific Research in Homeopathic Medicine: Validation, Methodology and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Verona's School of Homeopathic Medicine (www.omeopatia.org) organized a day of full immersion in the field of homeopathy, focusing on the validity of this much-debated discipline. There is widespread consensus in the medical community that evidence-based medicine is the best standard for assessing efficacy and safety of healthcare practices, and systematic reviews with strict protocols are essential to establish proof for various therapies. Students, homeopathic practitioners, academic and business representatives, who are interested in or curious about homeopathic practices attended the conference.

  3. The Defence Medical Library Service and military medicine.

    PubMed

    Walker, S B

    2005-01-01

    The Defence Medical Library Service (DMLS) supports the clinical practice and career development of military health professionals across the world. Clinical governance and the need for medical knowledge to be evidence-based means the DMLS has a central role to play in support of defence medicine. The DMLS is important for enabling health professionals to make sense of the evidence-based pyramid and the hierarchy of medical knowledge. The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine (RCDM) in Birmingham is recognised as an international centre of excellence. The information, knowledge and research requirements of the RCDM will provide opportunities for the DMLS to support and engage with the academic community.

  4. Sex/gender medicine. The biological basis for personalized care in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Arain, Faisal A; Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Abdalrhim, Ahmed D; Miller, Virginia M

    2009-10-01

    Sex differences in morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease have been recognized by the medical community for decades. Investigation into the underlying biological basis of these differences was largely neglected by the scientific community until a report released by the Institute of Medicine in the United States in 2001 "Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?" Recommendations from this report included the need for more accurate use of the terms "sex" and "gender", better tools and resources to study the biological basis of sex differences, integration of findings from different levels of biological organization and continued synergy between basic and clinical researchers. Ten years after the Institute's report, this review evaluates some of the sex differences in cardiovascular disease, reviews new approaches to study sex differences and emphasizes areas where further research is required. In the era of personalized medicine, the study of the biological basis of sex differences promises to optimize preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease in men and women, but will require diligence by the scientific and medical communities to remember that sex does matter.

  5. Education in long-term care for family medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Doug; Emili, Anna; Chan, David; Taniguchi, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residents require more exposure to all aspects of care of the elderly in the community, including care in long-term care (LTC) homes. Objective of program To provide a framework for the development of integrated LTC rotations in family medicine programs. Program description Clear objectives for residents and clinical preceptors provided the foundation for the program. Rotations of 4 half days per year in LTC homes were integrated into core family medicine blocks. Residents worked with family physician preceptors providing LTC in the community. Teaching was case based and aligned with the core competencies set out in the CanMEDS (Canadian Medical Directives for Specialists) framework for medical education. The program was strongly supported by the university’s administration, clinical preceptors in the community, and LTC homes. Conclusion All the residents rated their LTC rotations as useful or extremely useful in preparing them to provide LTC in their future practices. Long-term care homes realized that investing in training medical residents in LTC could help improve care of the elderly in the community. PMID:21841091

  6. Preventing Medicine mistakes in pediatric and neonatal patients

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanah, F; Haddad Kashani, H; Sharif, MR

    2015-01-01

    Medicine mistakes are significant issues that happen in clinic environments. Several portions make the pediatric community extra sensitive to medicine faults, and possible complexities are rising from medicine board. These involve the various dosage forms of the identical medication availability, inaccurate dosing, absence of regulated dosing regimen, and process development. Electric information like EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Pharmaceutical Abstracts, ASSIA, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, were sleeked among 1985 and December 2014. Study choice Inclusion and exclusion standard are used to specify the eligible publications though title investigation followed by abstract and then full text investigation. Medicine mistakes were most often reported in pediatric and neonatal patients. This was in consensus with literature information about the occurrences in other specialties. Fatal or life-threatening harm because of medicine mistakes was not often reported. However, most studies reported that the possible for the cases impairment as an outcome of a mistake is a significant problem. Investigation of types and level of medicine faults might results in steps towards the prevention of these faults and the improvement in the neonatal care quality and safety. PMID:28316659

  7. Community capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    Veterinary scientist Alexander Travis collaborated with economists and conservation biologists to assess how a new model promoting sustainable agriculture helps Zambian communities address climate change, protect biodiversity and increase income.

  8. Constructing Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demarest, David

    2001-01-01

    Reveals how today's college planners and architects are rethinking residence hall design to enhance a sense of community. Offers design ideas for creating living spaces that are more conducive to student social and academic interaction. (GR)

  9. Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-08-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline.

  10. Training of aerospace medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1985-03-01

    In the U. S. there are 23 recognized medical specialty boards. One of these is preventive medicine. Within preventive medicine there are three areas: Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Medicine, and Public Health/General Preventive Medicine. The preventive medicine specialties have a common core of required training including biostatistics, epidemiology, health services administration and environmental health. These, plus associated topics are covered during year one of training. Year two of training involves clinical rotations specifically tailored to the eye, ear, heart, lungs and brain, plus flight training to the private pilot level, and a Masters Degree research project for the required thesis. During year three the physicians in aerospace medicine practice full-time aerospace medicine in a NASA or other government laboratory or a private facility. To date, more than 40 physicians have received aerospace medicine training through the Wright State University School of Medicine program. Among these are physicians from Japan, Australia, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico. In addition to the civilian program at Wright State University, there are programs conducted by the U. S. Air Force and Navy. The Wright State program has been privileged to have officers from the U. S. Army, Navy and Air Force. A substantial supporter of the Wright State program is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and a strong space component is contained in the program.

  11. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required.

  12. Community concepts.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  13. Mobile learning in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  14. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  15. [Fundamentals of internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, C D A

    2006-04-08

    The most important diagnostic tools of the internist are the patient history and physical examination, after which a plan must be made for further diagnostic evaluation and treatment. For this the internist uses clinical reasoning based on his or her knowledge of evidence-based medicine and pathobiology. Pathobiology is primarily concerned with the question of how something works; evidence-based medicine is concerned with whether something works, and if so, how often or how much on average. Diseases do not exist in their own right and diagnostic criteria are based on consensus. A diagnosis of a 'disease' is based on our observation of patients as well as our opinions, whether right or wrong, regarding its cause. It is important to distinguish between 'partial causes' and a 'causative complement'. As a result of this concept, the biological relevance of a partial cause in the development of a disease cannot be derived from the strength of the link between it and the disease. Our opinions regarding the cause of disease appear to be based on induction. However, induction is not a good foundation from which to determine causation. Hypotheses on the cause of disease cannot be proved. They can, however, be disproved. Education, training, research and patient care all depend on effective communication. Communication is enhanced if the thesis is given first and thereafter the arguments. Hence, transfer of patient information such as during a morning report should begin with a working diagnosis (the 'thesis') and thereafter the findings of patient history, et cetera (the 'arguments'). At this time, too little attention is given to these branches of clinical reasoning and communication in education and continuing education in internal medicine.

  16. Magnetism in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenck, John

    2000-03-01

    For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing

  17. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  18. Emergency medicine ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Michael Y.; Nussbaum, Chris; Lee, A. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To survey program directors of family medicine–emergency medicine (CCFP[EM]) training programs regarding current and future emergency medicine ultrasonography (EMUS) training. DESIGN A Web-based survey using a modified Dillman method. Two academic emergency physicians reviewed the validity and reliability of the survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS Program directors of all 17 Canadian CCFP(EM) residency training programs in 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Characteristics of EMUS training currently offered and program directors’ perceptions of needs for future EMUS training. RESULTS The survey, performed in 2006, had a response rate of 100% (17/17), although not all respondents answered all questions. At the time of the study, 82.4% of respondents’ programs used EMUS. Although all program directors recommended that residents attend introductory EMUS courses, only 71.4% (10/14) of programs offered such courses; 60.0% (9/15) of those were mandatory. In one-third of the programs, more than 75% of the attending staff used EMUS. A total of 76.5% of program directors thought that introductory courses in EMUS should be mandatory; 62.5% (10/16) believed that residents were able to acquire sufficient experience to use EMUS independently to make practice decisions before completion of their residency; and 88.2% believed that EMUS should be a part of the scope of practice for emergency medicine physicians. Only 58.8% believed that there should be questions about EMUS on the CCFP(EM) Certification examination. Open responses indicated that funding, resources, and standardization were issues that needed to be addressed. CONCLUSION Formal EMUS training for CCFP(EM) programs is being introduced in Canada. Quality assurance needs to be strengthened. Most program directors thought that an introductory course in EMUS should be mandatory. Fewer directors, however, believed EMUS should be on the CCFP(EM) Certification examination until further funding, resources

  19. Medicine as a business.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Merrill

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing debate over whether medicine should function like a business, guided, as businesses are, by concerns such as profits and customer satisfaction. Of course, for-profit businesses already permeate medicine, and those businesses are not confused about their priorities: providing high quality goods and services people want, at affordable prices. These companies know that they must do well in order to continue doing good. Critics of the business model argue that the profit motive makes health care too expensive and that only by nationalizing the health care system can doctors provide high quality care at an affordable cost to society. However, a survey of journals and newspaper articles about the Canadian health care system, often cited as an anti-business model for U.S. reform, reveals that quality has suffered significantly under that system. Patients wait in long lines for health care, and sometimes cannot get help at all. This paper argues that incentives in the U.S. health care system are complicated, and that health care needs to work more like a business--not less. Doctors don't know whom they are serving--patients, insurers, employers or the government--because it is usually someone other than the patient who it paying the bill. The way to get the incentives structured properly is to allow patients to control more of their health care dollars--perhaps through a system of Medical Savings Accounts. Following the business model is the only way to ensure that medicine provides high quality services at affordable prices--just like every other sector of the economy.

  20. Current state and future prospects for psychosomatic medicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masato; Nakai, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    functioning at a high level, there remain areas that could be improved. Among the 81 medical schools in Japan, just eight university hospitals have an independent department of PSM and of 29 dental schools only three dental university hospitals have a department of psychosomatic dentistry. Further accumulation of evidence regarding the mind-body relationship in clinical and basic science that is based on the latest advanced technology is necessary. The psychosomatic medicine community needs to make an even greater contribution to meeting the needs of modern society. The possibilities for the future development of PSM in Japan must be widely discussed.

  1. Nuclear medicine annual

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

  2. [Neurorehabilitation, neurology, rehabilitation medicine].

    PubMed

    Urbán, Edina; Szél, István; Fáy, Veronika; Dénes, Zoltán; Lippai, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-05-30

    We have read several publications of great authority on the neurological profession in the last two years in which were expressed assessments of the current situation combined with opinions about neurology and the necessity to reorganize neurological patient care. These articles took up the question of neurorehabilitation too. The authors, who on a daily basis, deal with the rehabilitation of people with disabilities as a consequence of neurological conditions, summarize some important definitions of rehabilitation medicine and the present system of neurological rehabilitation, as it is defined by the rehabilitation profession.

  3. Pharmacogenetics: transforming clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Newman, W G

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics, the study of genetic variation relevant to drug metabolism, is a rapidly evolving area of medicine. This brief review will consider some of the recent advances where inherited genetic variants have been associated with either drug efficacy or toxicity. Examples of where pharmacogenetic testing has been adopted into clinical practice will be provided as well as a look at its likely development over the next decade. Finally, the large increase in genetic testing of tumour tissue samples to predict response to molecularly targeted treatments in cancer will be considered.

  4. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving.

  5. Developments in space medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S.

    1973-01-01

    The principal directions and results of space medicine studies are reviewed, starting with the early 1950s. The effects of prolonged inaction, a gravity-free environment, and isolation on the survival and functioning of man in space are examined. Quarantine and other measures developed to guard the health of astronauts during space missions are described. Space radiation hazards and means of overcoming them are discussed. The development of exobiology as a new field of science from our increasing knowledge of the universe is noted, together with some technological and medical advances resulting from space research.

  6. Ability of older people with dementia or cognitive impairment to manage medicine regimens: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Rohan A; Goeman, Dianne; Beanland, Christine; Koch, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cognition has a significant impact on a person's ability to manage their medicines. The aim of this paper is to provide a narrative review of contemporary literature on medicines management by people with dementia or cognitive impairment living in the community, methods for assessing their capacity to safely manage medicines, and strategies for supporting independent medicines management. Studies and reviews addressing medicines management by people with dementia or cognitive impairment published between 2003 and 2013 were identified via searches of Medline and other databases. The literature indicates that as cognitive impairment progresses, the ability to plan, organise, and execute medicine management tasks is impaired, leading to increased risk of unintentional non-adherence, medication errors, preventable medication-related hospital admissions and dependence on family carers or community nursing services to assist with medicines management. Impaired functional capacity may not be detected by health professionals in routine clinical encounters. Assessment of patients' (or carers') ability to safely manage medicines is not undertaken routinely, and when it is there is variability in the methods used. Self-report and informant report may be helpful, but can be unreliable or prone to bias. Measures of cognitive function are useful, but may lack sensitivity and specificity. Direct observation, using a structured, standardised performance-based tool, may help to determine whether a person is able to manage their medicines and identify barriers to adherence such as inability to open medicine packaging. A range of strategies have been used to support independent medicines management in people with cognitive impairment, but there is little high-quality research underpinning these strategies. Further studies are needed to develop and evaluate approaches to facilitate safe medicines management by older people with cognitive impairment and their carers.

  7. [Notes on ancient Islamic medicine].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    Arab medicine arose as a consequence of the assimilation and breeding of Hellenistic medicine, particularly of Galenic medicine. It reached its high point between the X and XII centuries and, after the XIII century, lost all creative capabilities. Nevertheless, it achieved the status of being an incentive for European medieval medicine. Some aspects of the medical teaching and publications of the most distinguished Moslem physicians, such as Rhazes (865-932), Avicenna (980-1037), and Averroës (1126-1198) are described. The main characteristics of Moslem medical institutions such as guilds, hospitals, and organizations of professional practice also are discussed. Although Arab medicine essentially constituted a transmission vehicle of master ideas of ancient medical thought, this medicine awoke the interest and initiative of the medieval physicians of western Europe, for example, those at the medical school of Salerno.

  8. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal–known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists’ perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists’ views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Results Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients. Discussion This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which

  9. Genetic barriers in transplantation medicine

    PubMed Central

    Edinur, Hisham A; Manaf, Siti M; Che Mat, Nor F

    2016-01-01

    The successful of transplantation is determined by the shared human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and ABO blood group antigens between donor and recipient. In recent years, killer cell receptor [i.e., killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)] and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene molecule (i.e., MICA) were also reported as important determinants of transplant compatibility. At present, several different genotyping techniques (e.g., sequence specific primer and sequence based typing) can be used to characterize blood group, HLA, MICA and KIR and loci. These molecular techniques have several advantages because they do not depend on the availability of anti-sera, cellular expression and have greater specificity and accuracy compared with the antibody-antigen based typing. Nonetheless, these molecular techniques have limited capability to capture increasing number of markers which have been demonstrated to determine donor and recipient compatibility. It is now possible to genotype multiple markers and to the extent of a complete sequencing of the human genome using next generation sequencer (NGS). This high throughput genotyping platform has been tested for HLA, and it is expected that NGS will be used to simultaneously genotype a large number of clinically relevant transplantation genes in near future. This is not far from reality due to the bioinformatics support given by the immunogenetics community and the rigorous improvement in NGS methodology. In addition, new developments in immune tolerance based therapy, donor recruitment strategies and bioengineering are expected to provide significant advances in the field of transplantation medicine. PMID:27683631

  10. [Implementation of modern rescue medicine].

    PubMed

    Hou, S K; Fan, H J; Ding, H; Dong, W L

    2016-01-01

    Catastrophic disasters occur frequently in recent years, resulting in a large number of casualties. Thus, more and more scholars begin to focus on a newly emerged displine-rescue medicine. This paper introduces the status quo of rescue medicine and expounds the practical experience related to rescue medicine as practiced by author's unit, in order to provide a reference for the establishment of the discipline and its future development.

  11. Evidence-Based Medicine: Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew K; Most, Sam P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine has become increasingly prominent in the climate of modern day healthcare. The practice of evidence-based medicine involves the integration of the best available evidence with clinical experience and expertise to help guide clinical decision-making. The essential tenets of evidence-based medicine can be applied to both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. Current outcome measures in functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty, including objective, subjective, and clinician-reported measures, is summarized and the current data is reviewed.

  12. [Personalized medicine: equity and access].

    PubMed

    Joly, Yann; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2014-11-01

    Personalized medicine has seen a recent increase in popularity amongst medical researchers and policymakers. Nevertheless, there are persistent legal, ethical, and social questions that need to be explored, particularly related to the criticism that personalized medicine constitutes an elitist model of healthcare. Investigating this critique the current manuscript argues that personalized medicine has the potential to become a positive force for equitable access to better healthcare at a national and international level.

  13. Leading beyond traditional boundaries: a community nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Michaels, C

    1997-01-01

    As a nursing leader, I frame my personal and professional life from the perspective of community. I place high value on health, relationship and the art of nursing. As Director of Community Outreach for an integrated delivery network, I use these values to strengthen nursing's contribution to an integrated delivery network and managed care contracts. Most recently, my personal and professional life has been shaped by traditional Indian medicine and my 10-year experience in Carondelet's community-focused nursing practices.

  14. The Trade in African Medicinal Plants in Matonge-Ixelles, Brussels (Belgium).

    PubMed

    van Andel, Tinde; Fundiko, Marie-Cakupewa C

    2016-01-01

    managed by Pakistanis. Almost all non-food herbal medicine was sold by Africans. Apart from informal shops, non-food herbal medicine was also sold from private homes and by ambulant vendors, probably to reduce costs and escape taxes and control by the authorities. We expect that in the future, increasing rent, strict regulations, and decreasing investments by the Congolese community will force the medicinal plant trade in Matonge to go even more underground.

  15. [Exploration of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by western medicine].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-jing

    2015-02-01

    "Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of

  16. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  17. Race, money and medicines.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  18. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  19. Medicine and the Public:

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The 1962 report of the Royal College of Physicians on smoking was a significant event in the history of smoking. Its significance was, however, more than smoking-specific: the RCP committee's appointment, its membership, its work, and the manner of its publication signified the changes within social medicine, and within the medical profession more generally, in postwar Britain. Doctors assumed the right to speak to the public and to government on matters of individual health, and a new risk-based public health was in the process of formation. A public health “policy community” formed, and governments began to assume responsibility for advising the public on health matters. The use of research in the report, and of social research in response to it, was important in the emergence of evidence-based medicine within public health. The paper argues for greater attention to the change in public health epitomized by the report in current debates on the concept of the 1960s “permissive society.” It was the harbinger of a new style of “coercive permissiveness” in health. PMID:17369672

  20. Performing arts medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ostwald, P F; Baron, B C; Byl, N M; Wilson, F R

    1994-01-01

    Arts medicine has come of age, resulting from 3 important developments over the past decade: improved methods of diagnosis and treatment, an awareness that artists suffer from special problems related to their occupation and lifestyle, and the establishment of health programs emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach to these patients. We focus on the patterns of illness afflicting performing artists, specifically dancers, singers, actors, and instrumental musicians, and explain some of the things a health care team can do in treating these patients. The conditions governing these patients' lives--early exposure to high expectations of excellence, incessant demands for perfection, long periods of intense practicing, fierce competition, high levels of anxiety associated with performance, and uncertain careers--need to be understood. Levels of disease and disability are remarkably high, but artists often ignore symptoms. We discuss the musculoskeletal, neurologic, vocal, psychological, and other syndromes found among performers and some of the difficulties in treating them. The prevention of injury, conservative management, collaboration with teachers, and a psychotherapeutic approach are desirable. Arts medicine programs for professional consultation exist in several major cities of the United States and abroad. Although research is needed regarding the effectiveness of health care services for performing artists, the scientific literature devoted to this field is growing. PMID:8128702

  1. [Theriac: medicine and antidote].

    PubMed

    Parojcic, Dusanka; Stupar, Dragan; Mirica, Milica

    2003-06-01

    Theriac was an ancient multi-ingredient preparation; originating as a cure for the bites of serpents, mad dogs and wild beasts, it later became an antidote to all known poisons. The name theriac (treacle), (Greek theriake, Latin theriaca, French thériaque) was derived from the Greek for wild beast - theriakos. The first formula was created by Mithridates Vl, King of Pontus, a skillful ruler but a monster of cruelty, who, living in such a fear of being poisoned, took a great interest in toxicology. In the 1st century AD, Nero's personal physician Andromachus improved the formula of Antidotum Mithridatium by adding flesh of vipers, which was commonly believed to be the best antidote against snakebite, and by increasing the proportion of opium. It became known as Theriac of Andromachus, and contained 64 ingredients including various minerals, herbals, poisons and animal flesh and blood, all combined with honey in the form of electuarium. Later it became the cure-all medicine which, accumulating all the simples into one form, was supposed to be a universal panacea against all diseases. In the Middle Ages this famous electuarium become a patent medicine and entered official dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. The most famous and expensive Theriac in Europe was that of Venice. It was not until the l8th century that it was excluded from medical use.

  2. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  3. Update in Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  4. Biomarkers in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-He; Huang, Shuwen; Kerr, David

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers have been used in clinical medicine for decades. With the rise of genomics and other advances in molecular biology, biomarker studies have entered a whole new era and hold promise for early diagnosis and effective treatment of many diseases. A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (1). They can be classified into five categories based on their application in different disease stages: 1) antecedent biomarkers to identify the risk of developing an illness, 2) screening biomarkers to screen for subclinical disease, 3) diagnostic biomarkers to recognize overt disease, 4) staging biomarkers to categorise disease severity, and 5) prognostic biomarkers to predict future disease course, including recurrence, response to therapy, and monitoring efficacy of therapy (1). Biomarkers can indicate a variety of health or disease characteristics, including the level or type of exposure to an environmental factor, genetic susceptibility, genetic responses to environmental exposures, markers of subclinical or clinical disease, or indicators of response to therapy. This chapter will focus on how these biomarkers have been used in preventive medicine, diagnostics, therapeutics and prognostics, as well as public health and their current status in clinical practice.

  5. [Nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Sopena Novales, P; Plancha Mansanet, M C; Martinez Carsi, C; Sopena Monforte, R

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that allows modern diagnostics and treatments using radiopharmaceuticals original radiotracers (drugs linked to a radioactive isotope). In Europe, radiopharmaceuticals are considered a special group of drugs and thus their preparation and use are regulated by a set of policies that have been adopted by individual member countries. The radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic examinations are administered in very small doses. So, in general, they have no pharmacological action, side effects or serious adverse reactions. The biggest problem associated with their use are the alterations in their biodistribution that may cause diagnostic errors. Nuclear Medicine is growing considerably influenced by the appearance and development of new radiopharmaceuticals in both the diagnostic and therapeutic fields and primarily to the impact of new multimodality imaging techniques (SPECT-CT, PET-CT, PET-MRI, etc.). It's mandatory to know the limitations of these techniques, distribution and eventual physiological alterations of radiopharmaceuticals, contraindications and adverse reactions of radiological contrasts, and the possible interference of both.

  6. [Teaching in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Ayuso, Fernando; Nogué, R; Coll Vinent, Begoña; Fernández Esáin, Begoña; Miró, O

    2010-01-01

    The appropriate care of patients in emergency services can reach a level of complexity as to make a sound training necessary, which should be based on a medical specialty, as happens in the majority of the countries in our context. In Spain at present there is no regulated and homogeneous training in urgency and emergency medicine (UEM), either during the period of undergraduate training (in the form of a universally compulsory subject in the faculties of medicine) or during the postgraduate period (in the form of a medical specialty). In this respect, the definitive approval of the specialty in UEM is currently pending within the framework of a reform of the residence program that will evolve towards a core training program of specialties. Until thus occurs, the reality in Spain is that professionals who work in this care setting possess a heterogeneous training. As a result of this vacuum and the training needs of these professionals, a wide range of specific training proposals has been developed over the years in order to optimise the skills and abilities of the professionals who provide initial emergency care to the patient. A new generation of courses has been set underway using the new didactic methodologies of training, into which didactic tools of e-learning and robotic simulation have been incorporated.

  7. [On Mexican medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

    2009-12-01

    During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country.

  8. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  9. Personalized medicine in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Personalized medicine is a novel medical model with all decisions and practices being tailored to individual patients in whatever ways possible. In the era of genomics, personalized medicine combines the genetic information for additional benefit in preventive and therapeutic strategies. Personalized medicine may allow the physician to provide a better therapy for patients in terms of efficiency, safety and treatment length to reduce the associated costs. There was a remarkable growth in scientific publication on personalized medicine within the past few years in the cardiovascular field. However, so far, only very few cardiologists in the USA are incorporating personalized medicine into clinical treatment. We review the concepts, strengths, limitations and challenges of personalized medicine with a particular focus on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There are many challenges from both scientific and policy perspectives to personalized medicine, which can overcome them by comprehensive concept and understanding, clinical application, and evidence based practices. Individualized medicine serves a pivotal role in the evolution of national and global healthcare reform, especially, in the CVDs fields. Ultimately, personalized medicine will affect the entire landscape of health care system in the near future.

  10. Core competencies in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Porcel, José Manuel; Casademont, Jordi; Conthe, Pedro; Pinilla, Blanca; Pujol, Ramón; García-Alegría, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The working group on Competencies of Internal Medicine from the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) proposes a series of core competencies that we consider should be common to all European internal medicine specialists. The competencies include aspects related to patient care, clinical knowledge, technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, cost-awareness in medical care and academic activities. The proposal could be used as a working document for the Internal Medicine core curriculum in the context of the educational framework of medical specialties in Europe.

  11. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.

  12. A strategic plan for disaster medicine in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Bradt, David A; Abraham, Ken; Franks, Rodney

    2003-06-01

    Disaster epidemiology reveals epidemic increases in incidence of disasters. Rare disasters with catastrophic consequences also threaten modern populations. This paper profiles natural disasters, transportation incidents, emerging infectious diseases, complex disasters and terrorism for their historical and future potential impact on Australasia. Emergency physicians are in a position to assume leadership roles within the disaster management community in Australasia. The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine is in a position to lead medical specialty advances in disaster medicine in Australasia. To optimize its impact in disaster medicine, the specialty and its College have opportunities for advances in key areas of College administration, intra and interinstitutional representation, disaster preparedness and planning, disaster relief operations, education and training programs, applied clinical research, and faculty development.

  13. Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine in Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Beuth, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Summary Complementary medicine is currently widely debated by the oncologic community, because the required scientific proof of safety and effectiveness for most of the therapeutic approaches ha s not yet been met with definite results. In the past years, basic research and clinical evaluation of defined complementary therapeutic concepts in oncology have been intensified in an attempt to integrate these procedures into evidence-based medicine. According to definition, scientifically-based therapies of complementary medicine cannot replace the well-studied conventional cancer-destructive therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or hormone therapy. Complementary approaches in oncology that are recommended as an addition to standard cancer-destructive therapies claim to optimize this therapy. A great body of data emerging from scientifically sound clinical trials prove that defined complementary procedures are beneficial for the patients. PMID:20877679

  14. No Denying It: Medicinal Chemistry Training Is in Big Trouble.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Michael F

    2016-12-22

    There has been little consensus between the pharmaceutical industry and academic communities concerning the best approach to train medicinal chemists for drug discovery. For decades the pharmaceutical industry has shown preference for synthetic organic graduates over candidates with degrees from medicinal chemistry programs on the assumption that medicinal chemistry expertise will be acquired on the job. However, ongoing changes to pharmaceutical drug discovery organizations and practices threaten to undermine this training model. There is a compelling argument to be made for establishment of a strong industry-academic partnership to train new candidates with sophisticated knowledge of contemporary drug design concepts and techniques to ensure that the future needs of both industry and academic drug discovery research can be served.

  15. MEDICINE SELLERS AND MALARIA TREATMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, CATHERINE; BRIEGER, WILLIAM; UNWIN, ALASDAIR; MILLS, ANNE; MEEK, SYLVIA; GREER, GEORGE

    2009-01-01

    Medicine sellers are widely used for fever and malaria treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, but concerns surround the appropriateness of drugs and information provided. There is increasing interest in improving their services, so we reviewed the literature on their characteristics, and interventions to improve their malaria-related practices. Sixteen interventions were identified, involving a mix of training/capacity building, demand generation, quality assurance and creating an enabling environment. Although evidence is insufficient to prove which approaches are superior, tentative conclusions were possible. Interventions increased rates of appropriate treatment, and medicine sellers were willing to participate. Features of successful interventions included a comprehensive situation analysis of the legal and market environment; “buy-in” from medicine sellers, community members and government; use of a combination of approaches; and maintenance of training and supervision. Interventions must be adapted to include artemisinin-based combination therapies, and their sustainability and potential to operate at national level should be further explored. PMID:18165494

  16. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  17. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p < 0.05) were reported by informants of higher institution (14.3 ± 34) and

  18. Bridging the gap between occupational medicine and family medicine.

    PubMed

    Sng, Judy; Lee, See Muah; Koh, David

    2008-02-01

    Family medicine and occupational medicine share close similarities in their focus on disease prevention and health promotion. The opportunities for mutual learning and collaboration in patient care abound, with far-reaching implications on the standard of patient care that can be offered. Unfortunately, a gap exists between family medicine and occupational medicine in dayto- day practice as well as in continuing medical education. It is important that we actively seek to bridge this gap. The workforce constitutes a significant part of the population and thus the patient load of a typical primary healthcare practice. Moreover, with an ageing population and rising retirement age, we can expect that there will be an increasing number of health issues to be addressed among older working people. Both occupational and non-occupational factors are important in determining an individual's health. Thus, family physicians need to adequately understand occupational medicine and vice versa.

  19. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  20. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth.