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Sample records for community peer counsellors

  1. Looking in from the Outside: Community Counsellors' Opinions and Attitudes to School Counselling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Poi Kee

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the movement towards the permanent presence of counsellors within schools has gathered pace in Singapore. As counsellors were introduced into more schools, there were opportunities for their community-based counterparts such as social workers, youth workers and other counselling practitioners to work with them. Through…

  2. A Peer Counselling Model: Social Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Mary Alice Julius

    1985-01-01

    Presents a peer counselling model emphasizing outreach social activities and school community liaison for adolescents. Evaluation of this model according to counsellors' self-reports, and student clients' evaluations indicated that peer counsellors were perceived as highly effective in social leadership, group discussion, and individual…

  3. A peer counselling program for the elderly with depression living in the community.

    PubMed

    Ho, Amy P Y

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a peer counselling program in Hong Kong for the elderly with depression living in the community, and its impact on the peer counsellors. Thirty depressed elderly subjects participated in the program, which was found to have improved their perceived health status and level of depression. As a result of their participation, subjects have also received more social support and adopted more positive coping strategies. As far as peer counsellors were concerned, they benefited in terms of personal growth through helping others, and helped to open a gateway to their own successful aging. Similar programs applied to wider populations and program evaluations utilizing both process and outcome measures are the key recommendations of this study.

  4. The Learning Community and Emotional Learning in a University-Based Training of Counsellors and Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Del; Snell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first stage in a larger international comparative project, coordinated through the International Association of Counselling, on policy determinants in the education of counsellors. It arose in part out of an interest in the cultural determinants of what is taken as evidence. As a first stage for the project, a case study approach…

  5. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  6. Not on Our Backs: Supporting Counsellors in Navigating the Ethics of Multiple Relationships within Queer, Two Spirit, and/or Trans Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Bethan; MacFarlane, Devon A.; Reynolds, Vikki A.; Anderson, Harlene D.

    2013-01-01

    Professional ethical guidelines commonly advise counsellors to avoid dual relationships wherever possible but generally have not provided guidance for situations where this is not feasible. This leaves queer, Two Spirit, and/or trans counsellors open to negative judgements, possible accusations of unprofessionalism, and practices of…

  7. Peer Learning Community Guide. CEELO FastFact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Diane; Brown, Kirsty Clarke; Gillaspy, Kathi

    2014-01-01

    States and technical assistance centers have asked the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) for guidance on establishing and maintaining a peer learning community (PLC). This document is designed to delineate the steps to establish and sustain a Peer Learning Community (PLC). It begins with a definition of a PLC and then presents…

  8. Community Engagement in Research: Frameworks for Education and Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Ann-Gel S.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement in research may enhance a community's ability to address its own health needs and health disparities issues while ensuring that researchers understand community priorities. However, there are researchers with limited understanding of and experience with effective methods of engaging communities. Furthermore, limited guidance is available for peer-review panels on evaluating proposals for research that engages communities. The National Institutes of Health Director's Council of Public Representatives developed a community engagement framework that includes values, strategies to operationalize each value, and potential outcomes of their use, as well as a peer-review framework for evaluating research that engages communities. Use of these frameworks for educating researchers to create and sustain authentic community–academic partnerships will increase accountability and equality between the partners. PMID:20558798

  9. Sequenced Peer Revision: Creating Competence and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ingrid K.; Robertson, John

    2013-01-01

    Mastering techniques of self- and peer revision is a valuable tool for all writers, especially US-educated Generation 1.5 students, whose near fluency enables them to dialogue successfully about their writing. Using action research, 2 academic writing instructors systematically trained students to more responsibly and effectively revise their…

  10. Behavioral health support and online peer communities: international experiences

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Online peer support communities play an important part in many people’s experience of healthcare. They can be particularly significant in behavioral health/mental health due to the difficulties that people may experience in accessing face to face care for these conditions. There is considerable diversity of practice in service management, target group, and moderation practices of online peer support communities. People using the communities also appear to have diverse aims and experiences. This heterogeneity contributes to a relative lack of data about the value and effectiveness of online peer support in behavioral health, although there is significant research into some aspects of these communities. The digital behavioral health service Big White Wall was launched in the UK in 2007, and in the US in 2015, and is focused on delivering moderated peer support. There are considerable differences in health systems between the two countries, and this has been reflected in different experiences of implementation. The value of online peer support could be maximized if systemic challenges to implementation and adoption were addressed more effectively. PMID:28293613

  11. Work of the School Counsellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, A. J. M.; Bolger, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty-five trained school counsellors co-operated in a study of their work carried out by the University of Keele Institute of Education. This article discusses the pattern of work that emerged. (Editor)

  12. Assisting Problem Gamblers in the Gaming Venue: A Counsellor Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hing, Nerilee; Nuske, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Governments now recognise gambling as a social and public health issue that invites a collaborative approach to responsible gambling and help-seeking involving the gambling industry, gambling help agencies and the wider community. In this paper, we report on findings from interviews with 23 counsellors working in Queensland Gambling Help agencies…

  13. The Group as Teacher: The Gestalt Peer-Learning Community as a Vehicle for Organisational Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paul

    The possibility of using a Gestalt-informed peer learning community to facilitate reflective learning and organizational change was explored. A peer learning community model exists that is based on two approaches to working with mental illness--therapeutic community practice (which is based on treating the community group rather than individuals…

  14. Online Peer-to-Peer Communities in the Daily Lives of People With Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kingod, Natasja; Cleal, Bryan; Wahlberg, Ayo; Husted, Gitte R

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative systematic review investigated how individuals with chronic illness experience online peer-to-peer support and how their experiences influence daily life with illness. Selected studies were appraised by quality criteria focused upon research questions and study design, participant selection, methods of data collection, and methods of analysis. Four themes were identified: (a) illness-associated identity work, (b) social support and connectivity, (c) experiential knowledge sharing, and (d) collective voice and mobilization. Findings indicate that online peer-to-peer communities provide a supportive space for daily self-care related to chronic illness. Online communities provided a valued space to strengthen social ties and exchange knowledge that supported offline ties and patient-doctor relationships. Individuals used online communities to exchange experiential knowledge about everyday life with illness. This type of knowledge was perceived as extending far beyond medical care. Online communities were also used to mobilize and raise collective awareness about illness-specific concerns.

  15. Consistency of Supervisor and Peer Ratings of Assessment Interviews Conducted by Psychology Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsalvez, Craig J.; Deane, Frank P.; Caputi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Observation of counsellor skills through a one-way mirror, video or audio recording followed by supervisors and peers feedback is common in counsellor training. The nature and extent of agreement between supervisor-peer dyads are unclear. Using a standard scale, supervisors and peers rated 32 interviews by psychology trainees observed through a…

  16. Violent Victimization in the Community and Children's Subsequent Peer Rejection: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a short-term longitudinal study of the relation between violent victimization in the community and peer rejection among 199 children (mean age = 9.02 years) attending two urban Los Angeles area elementary schools. We used a multi-informant approach to assess victimization by community violence, peer group victimization, peer…

  17. Ethical Considerations of Social Networking for Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, William Edgar Vernon

    2010-01-01

    The use of online social networking websites has increased among Canadians in recent years. There are many professional and ethical implications for counsellors who use these sites (Boyd, 2007). Although they offer advantages to counsellors, their use can also raise issues around ethical conduct. Because the counselling literature has not yet…

  18. Preservice Teacher Perceptions of School Counsellor Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Rhonda M.; Hesson, Jackie; Harris, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Teachers have tremendous impact on school counselling service utilization in terms of teacher-counsellor consultation and student referral. Thus, ensuring that teachers understand the roles and responsibilities of school counsellors is critical. As teachers' understanding of the school counselling role can be impacted during preservice teacher…

  19. Making Teaching Community Property: A Menu for Peer Collaboration and Peer Review. AAHE Teaching Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    A collection of program descriptions and case studies in college faculty peer collaboration and peer review includes: "Setting a Scholarly Tone: Teaching Circles in the History Department at Kent State University"; "Fostering Collective Responsibility for Student Learning: Teaching Seminars in the University of North Carolina at Charlotte…

  20. DigiPlace4all: an online peer support community for digital skills.

    PubMed

    Magennis, Mark; Murphy, Esther; Lazarov, Andrean; Van Isacker, Karel; Dumnicka, Kinga; Polak, Malgorzata; Meagher, Bernadette; Penny, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The DigiPlace4all online peer support community supports people with disabilities in developing digital literacy skills needed to transition from Vocational and Educational Training (VET) to mainstream education & employment. It facilitates the development of informal one-to-one peer support relationships between members who can post and respond to requests and offers of peer support and share information on a range of associated topics. It is active in Ireland, Belgium, Poland and Bulgaria and is being spread internationally.

  1. Utilizing Urban Women as Peer Trainers in Behavioral Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.

    Many more people are in need of rehabilitation, social services, and education than there are professionals available to provide help. This gap in service has led to the exploration and utilization of nonprofessionals to fill these roles. Many of these nonprofessionals are peers of the needy people. This adds the advantage of "peer relationships"…

  2. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  3. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

  4. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research.

  5. Psychological Counseling Processes of Prospective Psychological Counsellors: An Investigation of Client-Counsellor Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanberk, Ismail; Akbas, Turan

    2015-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to investigate the client-counsellor interaction in the psychological counseling process at the verbal behavior level. The study also aims to analyze the relationship between the behaviors observed in the process with both clients and counsellors' evaluations of sessions and whether changes were observed in…

  6. Building Social Capital Through a Peer-Led Community Health Workshop: A Pilot with the Bhutanese Refugee Community.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyojin; Rosenberg, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high health and mental health care needs, resettled refugees often face cultural and linguistic challenges that hinder the access to appropriate and timely interventions and services. Additionally, such concepts as preventive health or mental health treatment are foreign to this population, which creates additional burdens to the refugee community that already have difficulty navigating a complex health care system in the U.S. To address multiple and complex gaps in health and mental health support for the refugee community, requested is an innovative approach that can convey culturally responsive and effective interventions for health promotion, such as peer-based health education. Few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of peer-led community health interventions with refugee populations in the U.S. resettlement context. However, peer-led interventions have been shown to be effective when working with cultural minorities and interventions in an international context. Adopting a social capital framework, the current study conducted qualitative evaluation on the impact of a pilot peer-led community health workshop (CHW) in the Bhutanese refugee community. A hybrid thematic analysis of focus group discussion data revealed the improvement in health promotion outcomes and health practice, as well as perceived emotional health. The results also showed that the peer-led CHW provided a platform of community building and participation, while increasing a sense of community, sense of belonging and unity. The findings posit that a peer-led intervention model provides culturally responsive and effective tools for building social capital and promoting community health in the refugee community.

  7. Investigating a Peer-to-Peer Community Service Learning Model for LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Heather L.; Freund, Luanne; Jantzi, Leanna; Sinanan, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the professionalization of Library and Information Science (LIS) students who participated in a peer-tutoring service, "Research Rescue." Research Rescue was a collaboration of the Chapman Learning Commons and the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies (SLAIS) at the University of British Columbia. The…

  8. Counsellors Respond to the DSM-IV-TR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Gaete, Joaquin; Sametband, Ines N.; French, Jared; Eeson, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) is an administrative fact for many counsellors. This psychiatric approach to formulating client concerns runs counter to those used by counsellors of many approaches (e.g., systemic, feminist). Using an online survey of counsellors (N = 116), invited contributions to a website…

  9. Confidentiality and Informed Consent: School Counsellors' Perceptions of Ethical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Ron; Lehr, Andria; Sumarah, John

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of in-depth interviews with school counsellors in Nova Scotia on issues related to confidentiality and informed consent. Of the 224 school counsellors in the province, 43 counsellors, representing all school boards, agreed to a 45-minute semi-structured telephone interview focusing on their current practices…

  10. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  11. Peer Assisted Learning in Fleximode: Developing an Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijser, Henk; Kimmins, Lindy; Evans, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that peer-assisted learning schemes on campus help students establish social networks which can have a positive influence on their learning achievements. At the University of Southern Queensland (USQ), the majority of students are off campus, which raises the urgent question: how to harness the advantages of Meet-Up (formerly…

  12. Historical Trends in Counsellor Education Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Judith; Dykeman, Cass; Bender, Sara

    2016-01-01

    There exists a dearth of literature on the content, research method and research design trends of dissertations in education. Within one large subfield of education (i.e. counsellor education), an online and full-text archive of dissertations has become available. This archive contains over 200 dissertations produced in Oregon State University's…

  13. Spirituality in Counsellor Education: A New Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leseho, Johanna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a graduate course in spirituality in counselling with the hopes of encouraging and supporting other counsellor educators in preparing and offering their own courses in this area. Learning objectives, activities and assignments are outlined. Students' personal experiences of the course are shared through excerpts from their…

  14. Problematic Internet Use: Perceptions of Addiction Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acier, Didier; Kern, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing number of publications on problematic Internet use (PIU), there is no consensus on the nature of the phenomenon, its constituent criteria, and its clinical threshold. This qualitative study examines the perceptions of addiction counsellors who have managed individuals with PIU in Quebec (Canada). Four focus groups were conducted…

  15. Career Counsellors and Suicide Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Recent discussions suggest that career counsellors need to be trained in more holistic frameworks in order to deal with the career and psychological issues of their clients. In particular, research shows a strong connection between employment and suicidality, including changes in socioeconomic status, disruption in employment, sudden unemployment,…

  16. Small Peer-Led Collaborative Learning Groups in Developmental Math Classes at a Tribal Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Dianna

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author examines the use of small peer-led collaborative learning groups to change students' perceptions of mathematics and their success in developmental mathematics classes at a small tribal community college. The quasi-experimental study involved both quantitative and qualitative data. Rationale for, methods of, and outcomes…

  17. (Re)Defining Masculinity through Peer Interactions: Latino Men in Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáenz, Victor B.; Mayo, Jeff R.; Miller, Ryan A.; Rodriguez, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a phenomenological approach to examine how Latino male students at community colleges engage with their male peers. The analysis utilizes a male gender role conflict (MGRC) framework and employs cultural conceptions of masculinity, specifically machismo and caballerismo. Practitioners and researchers might leverage positive aspects…

  18. Critical Social Network Analysis in Community Colleges: Peer Effects and Credit Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Canché, Manuel S.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the importance of conducting critical social network analysis (CSNA) in higher education. To illustrate the benefits of CSNA, the authors use existing institutional data to examine peer effects in community colleges. The chapter ends with a discussion of the implications of using a CSNA approach to measure inequities in…

  19. Peer Apprenticeship Learning in Networked Learning Communities: The Diffusion of Epistemic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Shaari, Imran

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses peer apprenticeship learning (PAL) as situated within networked learning communities (NLCs). The context revolves around the diffusion of technologically-mediated learning in Singapore schools, where teachers begin to implement inquiry-oriented learning, consistent with 21st century learning, among students. As these schools…

  20. Six month outcomes of a peer-enhanced community reinforcement approach for emerging adults with substance misuse: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas C.; Davis, Jordan P.; Ureche, Daniel J.; Dumas, Tara M.

    2015-01-01

    Little substance use disorder (SUD) treatment research with emerging adults ages 18–25 has been done in community settings, and it is well-known that peers influence emerging adult substance use. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a peer-enhanced behavioral treatment for emerging adults with substance use problems. Emerging adults (n = 35) received a peer-enhanced version of the Community Reinforcement Approach (Peer-CRA), in which their peers (n = 34) were trained to provide alcohol-specific social support. Both identified clients and peers were interviewed at treatment intake, and again three and six months later. Six month outcomes included days of abstinence adjusted for controlled environment days, social costs due to substance use, and binge drinking days in the past 90 days. Treatments were delivered with high fidelity, and a high proportion of participants were retained in treatment and follow-up assessments. Growth curve analyses revealed that emerging adults and their peers significantly increased their days of abstinence and reduced their binge drinking over time. Larger randomized trials should a) test whether peer-enhanced treatments are efficacious relative to treatment as usual, b) investigate whether secondary benefits exist for non-treatment seeking peers supporting another’s treatment, and c) examine whether proposed mechanisms of change (i.e., peer support and peer reductions in substance use) account for any differences in outcomes. PMID:26482135

  1. Peer Influence and Nonsuicidal Self Injury: Longitudinal Results in Community and Clinically-Referred Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence processes. Study 1 included 377 adolescents from a community-based sample; Study 2 included 140 clinically-referred adolescents recruited from a psychiatric inpatient facility. In Study 1, adolescents' NSSI was examined at baseline and one year later. Adolescents' nominated best friend reported their own levels of NSSI. In Study 2, adolescents' NSSI was examined at baseline as well as 9 and 18-months post-baseline. Adolescents' perceptions of their friends' engagement in self-injurious behavior (including suicidality) and depressed mood also were examined at all three time points. Baseline depressive symptoms were measured in both studies; gender and age were examined as moderators of peer influence effects. Results from both studies supported longitudinal peer socialization effects of friends' self-injurious behavior on adolescents' own NSSI for girls, but not for boys, even after controlling for depressive symptoms as a predictor. Study 1 suggested socialization effects mostly for younger youth. Results from Study 2 also suggested longitudinal socialization effects, as well as peer selection effects; adolescents' NSSI was associated with increasing perceptions of their friends' engagement in depressive/self-injurious thoughts and behavior. Findings contribute to the nascent literature on longitudinal predictors of NSSI and to work on peer influence. PMID:20437255

  2. Peer bullying in seniors' subsidised apartment communities in Saskatoon, Canada: participatory research.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Donna; Heal-Salahub, Jennifer; PausJenssen, Elliot; James, George; Lidington, Joan

    2017-03-23

    Given that 'home' is the major physical-spatial environment of many older adults and that home, social and neighbourhood environments are well-recognised to impact both the ability to age in place and quality of life in this population, a better understanding of the nature of social interactions within seniors' communal living environments is critical for health promotion. This paper describes a two-phase participatory research study examining peer bullying by older adults conducted in April and May, 2016. Responding to needs expressed by tenants, the objectives of this study were to identify the nature, prevalence and consequences of peer bullying for tenants of two low-income senior apartment communities. In collaboration with the local Older Adult Abuse Task Force, a screening survey on bullying was distributed to all tenants. Findings (n = 49) indicated that 39% of tenants had witnessed peer bullying and 29% had experienced bullying by peers. An adapted version of a youth bullying survey was administered in follow-up face-to-face interviews with 13 tenants. The most common forms of peer bullying were deliberate social exclusion and hurtful comments. The majority of respondents indicated that bullying was a problem for seniors and that bullies hurt other people. Outcomes of bullying included feelings of dejection and difficulties conducting everyday activities.

  3. Peer Training of Community Health Workers to Improve Heart Health Among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Willock, Robina Josiah; Mayberry, Robert M.; Yan, Fengxia; Daniels, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Training community health workers (CHWs) builds a workforce that is essential to addressing the chronic disease crisis. This article describes a highly replicable CHW training program that targets heart disease risk among African American women. Background African American women suffer disproportionately from heart disease mortality and morbidity. Well-trained CHWs are uniquely positioned to close this disparity gap. Method We used a Learning Circle approach to train CHWs in heart health education. The curriculum blended web-based, self-directed learning and in-person peer coaching. CHWs learned through (a) peer-to-peer sharing, (b) problem solving and brainstorming, and (c) leadership and experiential activities. Training evaluation measures were CHWs' (a) self-confidence, (b) heart health knowledge, (c) satisfaction with training, (d) training retention, and (e) replication of training within 90 days after training. Results This training resulted in appreciable effects on four of five outcome measures. Heart health knowledge increased significantly among experienced CHWs (p = .011). CHWs were satisfied with training and retention was 100%. CHWs initiated and subsequently delivered 122 person hours of community heart health education and CHW training in their communities. Discussion/Conclusion CHW heart health training using Learning Circles is a practical and replicable method of training CHWs and holds significant potential for building capacity in resource-poor community organizations. PMID:24891525

  4. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  5. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most consistent…

  6. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B.; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We evaluated a peer leader–support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. METHODS Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. RESULTS Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P <0.05) for knowledge, self-efficacy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and both fasting and 2-hour post-prandial blood glucose. The Anhui Provincial Health Bureau has extended the PLSP model to other communities and to cardiovascular disease prevention and management. CONCLUSION The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. PMID:26304972

  7. Comparing alternative methods for composing community peer groups: a data warehouse application.

    PubMed

    Studnicki, J; Hevner, A R; Berndt, D J; Luther, S L

    2001-11-01

    A method for assessing the health status of communities has been under development for a decade at the University of South Florida. Known as CATCH (Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health), the method utilizes health status indicators from multiple data sources. With federal grant support, a unique data warehouse has been created to automate CATCH assessments and to enhance online analytical processing for efficient data browsing, knowledge discovery, and model testing. A comparison of two peer grouping methods (population size versus predicted age-adjusted mortality) is reviewed to demonstrate the warehouse capabilities.

  8. An examination of the integration of certified peer specialists into community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Grant, Emily A; Reinhart, Chrystal; Wituk, Scott; Meissen, Greg

    2012-08-01

    The formal role of Certified Peer Specialist (CPS) is a recent addition to the mental health field. CPSs are people in recovery employed within the mental health system, mostly by community mental health centers, to provide support through sharing life experiences with those working toward recovery from mental illness. This brief report examines participant's experiences being a CPS, responsibilities and activities as a CPS, and integration into community mental health centers. Findings suggest that CPSs demonstrate high levels of communal orientation, job satisfaction, workplace integration and organizational support and are well received in mental health centers.

  9. Peer Mentoring Communities of Practice for Early and Mid-Career Faculty: Broad Benefits from a Research-Oriented Female Peer Mentoring Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Amanda; Shaw, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In light of recent interest in the limitations of early and mid-career mentoring (Driscoll et al 2009; Trowers 2011), this case study of a women's scholarly activity and goal setting Community of Practice (CoP) indicates that such groups can offer extensive peer mentoring at one teaching-oriented state university in the United States. Using a…

  10. Turkish School Counsellors and Counselling Students' Knowledge of Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…

  11. Israeli Counsellors Facing Terrorism: Coping and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Hellman, Shoshana

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the characteristics and functioning of 12 Israeli school counsellors located at different stages of professional development who worked in schools affected by terrorist attacks. Semi-structured interviews explored the counsellors professional behaviour, activities, and coping with terror and its effects. Consensual…

  12. Counsellor Presence: Bridging the Gap between Wisdom and New Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannen, Tina; Daniels, M. Harry

    2010-01-01

    Presence is the counsellor's way of being with clients as distinguished from the application of technique and it involves a meeting between counsellor and client. Presence fits intuitively in the realm of the therapeutic relationship and master therapists from different therapeutic traditions have described how their presence with clients…

  13. Developing the Counsellor as Teacher: A Systematic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Judy H.; Ivey, Allen E.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of counsellor-as-teacher has gained popularity as a developmental approach to helping people achieve interpersonal competence. This article describes a systematic training program designed to help counsellors transfer their skills to the classroom and thus become teachers of interpersonal effectiveness. (Author)

  14. A Narrative Study of Counsellors' Understandings of Inuit Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah

    2005-01-01

    Eight non-Indigenous counsellors who temporarily lived in Nunavut to serve Inuit clients were interviewed regarding what they learned about Inuit spirituality during their cultural immersion experience. They were also asked about how they applied their understandings of the Inuit spiritual worldview in their professional practice. Counsellors'…

  15. Peer-support suicide prevention in a non-metropolitan U.S. community.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda L; Ashby, Judy; Hoskins, Olivia D; Greene, Farrah N

    2009-01-01

    Though suicide is a leading cause of death for high school age youth, the overall base rates for suicide deaths are relatively low. Consequently, very few evidence-based suicide prevention programs that address suicide death have emerged. Relative to urban areas, non-metropolitan and rural communities in particular tend to report higher suicide rates that are compounded by poor access to mental health care. In the current study, 63 high school youth participated in the three-day, LifeSavers peer-support suicide prevention training program. The goals of the program are to teach youth to engage in teamwork and listen to others without judgment in addition to recognizing the signs for youth who may be at risk for suicide. The overall aim of LifeSavers is to create a culture whereby primary prevention is active and crisis situations are preempted. Each participant in the current study completed pre-test and posttraining measures of suicide attitudes and knowledge, self-esteem, and also self-acceptance. Findings demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge and positive attitudes toward suicide prevention and also self-esteem, but not self-acceptance. Though more work is needed, these preliminary data reveal that youth in rural communities may benefit from programming such as LifeSavers that commit to advancing peer support and peer-gatekeeping efforts.

  16. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  17. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction.

  18. Communities, Classrooms, and Peers: Examining How Local Contexts Shape Female Students' STEM Intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite being the focus of decades of research as well as interventions, gender inequality in representation in many STEM fields, including physics, engineering, and computer science remains. Recent research indicates that high school is a particularly important time point to investigate regarding the roots of inequality, as this is when many young women decide that they are not interested in pursuing degrees in these STEM fields. This presentation will focus on the role of local contexts, including communities, classrooms, and peers, in contributing to such decisions. Specifically, sociological theories suggest that role models and peers within young people's immediate environment can send both implicit and explicit messages that contradict larger social stereotypes, and promote perceptions and experiences of inclusion. Alternatively, adults and peers can endorse and behave in a manner consistent with stereotypes, leading to overtly exclusionary messages and actions. Utilizing data from a large urban district in the Southwest, as well as a national sample of high school students, this presentation will examine how such factors within local contexts can work in both positive and negative ways to shape girls' interests and expectations in STEM fields.

  19. The Importance of PRI Therapy for the Pastoral Counsellor

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is not always easy for pastoral counsellors to help people change. Often people have become stuck in their ways. Recent developments in the field of brain research help explain why change is difficult. This article discusses Past Reality Integration Therapy (PRI), a psychotherapeutic method that integrates recent findings of brain research and offers an important addition to the work of (pastoral) counsellors and psychotherapists. The use of this approach with Dutch students in their pastoral training is presented. Furthermore the importance of this new method for counsellors themselves, their clients and their work is discussed and some overall conclusions about the method and its practical application are presented. PMID:20835380

  20. Uptake of Community-Based Peer Administered HIV Point-of-Care Testing: Findings from the PROUD Study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Lisa; Patel, Sheetal; Shaw, Ashley; Leblanc, Sean; Lalonde, Christine; Hladio, Manisha; Mandryk, Kira; Horvath, Cynthia; Petrcich, William; Kendall, Claire; Tyndall, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH), sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT. Methods PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa. From March-October 2013, 593 people who reported injecting drugs or smoking crack cocaine were enrolled through street-based recruitment. Trained peer or medical student researchers administered a quantitative survey and offered an HIV POCT (bioLytical INSTI test) to participants who did not self-report as HIV positive. Results 550 (92.7%) of the 593 participants were offered a POCT, of which 458 (83.3%) consented to testing. Of those participants, 74 (16.2%) had never been tested for HIV. There was no difference in uptake between testing offered by a peer versus a non-peer interviewer (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.67–1.66). Despite testing those at high risk for HIV, only one new reactive test was identified. Conclusion The findings from PROUD demonstrate high uptake of community-based HIV POCT. Peers were able to successfully provide HIV POCT and reach participants who had not previously been tested for HIV. Community-based and peer testing models provide important insights on ways to scale-up HIV prevention and testing among people who use drugs. PMID:27911908

  1. Conduits from community violence exposure to peer aggression and victimization: contributions of parental monitoring, impulsivity, and deviancy.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Espelage, Dorothy

    2014-04-01

    Community violence exposure results in heightened risk for engaging in and being a victim of interpersonal violence. Despite this robust literature, few studies have specifically examined how the relation between community violence exposure, peer aggression, and victimization is modified by individual, peer, and familial influences (considered jointly). In the current study, we used risk and resiliency theory to examine links between community violence exposure and peer aggression and victimization. Impulsivity and parental monitoring were examined as potential moderators of the link between community violence exposure and outcomes, both directly and indirectly via deviant behavior. Survey data on bullying involvement, fighting, deviancy, parental monitoring, and impulsivity were collected on 3 occasions over an 18-month period among a large cohort of adolescents (N = 1,232) in 5th-7th grades. Structural equation modeling suggests that for both male and female adolescents, impulsivity exacerbates the effects of community violence exposure by increasing involvement in deviant behavior. Parental monitoring buffered the effects of community violence exposure on perpetration and victimization (for males and female adolescents) via reduced involvement in deviant behavior. Findings suggest that impulsivity and parental monitoring are implicated in modifying the effects of community violence exposure on both victimization and perpetration through deviancy, although deviancy is not as potent of a predictor for victimization. Thus, prevention efforts would seem to be optimally targeted at multiple ecological levels, including parental involvement and peer networks.

  2. Teaching doctors to treat doctors: medical student peer counselling.

    PubMed

    Spiro, J H; Roenneburg, M; Maly, B J

    1980-01-01

    Physicians' emotional problems need to be recognized and treated. Intervention and prevention in this problem area have been attempted at the Medical College of Wisconsin through a programme of peer counselling designed to teach student physicians how to recognize and treat emotional difficulties faced by their peers. During the 18 months that the programme has been in operation, 20 peer counsellors reported a total 1,185 hours spent in counselling their peers, lending credence to the speculation that doctors will turn to their peers for help if, in medical school, there is acceptance of fallibility and responsiveness on the part of peers.

  3. "Peer" educator initiatives for adolescent reproductive health projects in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk

    2004-05-01

    Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.

  4. The emotional wellbeing of lay HIV counselling and testing counsellors.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maretha; Mabota, Princess

    2015-01-01

    The HIV testing, treatment and care programme of the South African public healthcare system depends on HIV counselling and testing (HCT) that is primarily delivered by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors are expected to educate clients about HIV/AIDS, advocate behaviour change, convey test results and support those infected and affected to cope with the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this influences the quality of services they provide. A mixed methods approach was used. The emotional wellbeing, level of burnout, depression and coping style of 50 lay HCT counsellors working at the City of Tshwane clinics were assessed. Additionally, five focus group discussions were conducted. The results showed that HCT counsellors reported average emotional wellbeing, high levels of emotional exhaustion and depression. They had a sense of personal accomplishment and positive coping skills. The results revealed that they may have difficulty dealing with clients' emotional distress without adequate training and supervision. This creates a dilemma for service delivery. In the light of the important role they play in service delivery, the role of the lay HCT counsellor needs to be reconsidered. HCT should develop as a profession with specific training and supervision to develop their emotional competencies to conduct effective counselling sessions.

  5. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson et al. (Counsellor Education & Supervision 41: 120-130, 1992) was administered at the end of a semester to counselling students engaged in different stages of a counsellor training program. No significant differences were found in regard to gender and age-group categories, but significant differences were found among ethnic groups. It was found that Asian and White students generally had similar and also lower counselling self-efficacy means than the other ethnic groups in the sample in regard to several counselling-specific categories. Implications for counsellor educators in training counselling students of diverse characteristics are discussed.

  6. Peer-support writing group in a community family medicine teaching unit

    PubMed Central

    Al-Imari, Lina; Yang, Jaisy; Pimlott, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Aspiring physician writers need an environment that promotes self-reflection and can help them improve their skills and confidence in writing. Objective of program To create a peer-support writing group for physicians in the Markham-Stouffville community in Ontario to promote professional development by encouraging self-reflection and fostering the concept of physician as writer. Program description The program, designed based on a literature review and a needs assessment, was conducted in 3 sessions over 6 months. Participants included an emergency physician, 4 family physicians, and 3 residents. Four to 8 participants per session shared their projects with guest physician authors. Eight pieces of written work were brought to the sessions, 3 of which were edited. A mixed quantitative and qualitative evaluation model was used with preprogram and postprogram questionnaires and a focus group. Conclusion This program promoted professional development by increasing participants’ frequency of self-reflection and improving their proficiency in writing. Successful elements of this program include creating a supportive group environment and having a physician-writer expert facilitate the peer-feedback sessions. Similar programs can be useful in postgraduate education or continuing professional development. PMID:27965348

  7. EFL Arab Learners' Peer Revision of Writing in a Facebook Group: Contributions to Written Texts and Sense of Online Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Saeed, Murad Abdu

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated peer writing revision among English as foreign language (EFL) Arab students in a Facebook group. Specifically, it aimed to identify the text revisions made by the learners and to determine their contributions to the learners' written texts and sense of online community outside the college classroom context.…

  8. Multilevel Modeling of Direct Effects and Interactions of Peers, Parents, School, and Community Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a social-ecological model of adolescent substance use. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate how systems, such as parents, peers, schools, and communities, directly influence and interact together to influence adolescent substance use. Participants included 14,548 (50.3% female) middle school students who were 78.6% White,…

  9. Peer Interaction and Social Network Analysis of Online Communities with the Support of Awareness of Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Mai, Li-Jung; Lai, Yung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies related to social-context awareness (SA) and knowledge-context awareness (KA) argued that each (SA or KA) can individually enhance peer interaction in an online learning community, other studies reached opposite conclusions. These conflicting findings likely stem from different experimental settings. Most importantly, few…

  10. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  11. International Students in Transnational Mobility: Intercultural Connectedness with Domestic and International Peers, Institutions and the Wider Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Ly Thi; Pham, Lien

    2016-01-01

    International students' connectedness with their peers, institutions and the broader community significantly affects their learning and wellbeing. It is important to understand their multiple desires for intercultural connectedness in order to nurture it. This paper analyses the motives and nature of international students' intercultural…

  12. An Online Peer Assisted Learning Community Model and its Application in ZJNU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaofeng, Ruan; Yeyu, Lin

    2007-01-01

    Peer coaching, or peer assisting, was established in 1970s by Joyce and Showers. Initially used in teachers' professional development, it refers to a process that two or more teacher peers evaluate current practice mutually; expand skills, extract and build new skills; share ideas, and review & solve problems of classroom teaching in a way of…

  13. Fostering the Development of Multicultural Counselling Competencies: Training, Growth and Development for White Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade

    2005-01-01

    This article examines racial identity development for white counsellors in relation to the development of multicultural counselling competencies. Changes in demographics should increase the frequency of cross-cultural counselling experiences for counsellors. White counsellors are encouraged to engage in training and self-assessment around culture…

  14. Somatic symptoms, peer and school stress, and family and community violence exposure among urban elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Hart, Shayla L; Hodgkinson, Stacy C; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Hyman, Corine; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-10-01

    Somatic symptoms are a common physical response to stress and illness in childhood. This study assessed 409, primarily African American (85.6 %), urban elementary school children to examine the association between: (1) somatic symptoms and potential external stressors (school and peer stress, family conflict, and community violence) and (2) parent and child agreement on children's self-report of somatic symptoms. The odds of self-report of somatic complaints were significantly associated with family conflict, school and peer stress, and community violence exposure (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.50; OR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.08-1.28; and OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05, respectively). Identifying the associations between social, family, and community based stress and somatic symptoms may improve the quality of life for children living in urban environments through early identification and treatment.

  15. Peer-Generated Health Information: The Role of Online Communities in Patient and Caregiver Health Decisions.

    PubMed

    Rupert, Douglas J; Gard Read, Jennifer; Amoozegar, Jacqueline B; Moultrie, Rebecca R; Taylor, Olivia M; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W

    2016-11-01

    Individuals increasingly access peer-generated health information (PGHI) through social media, especially online health communities (OHCs). Previous research has documented PGHI topics, credibility assessment strategies, and PGHI's connection with well-being. However, there is limited evidence on where, when, and why individuals seek PGHI and how they use PGHI in health decisions. We conducted in-person and online focus groups with verified OHC members (N = 89)-representing 50 different medical conditions and 77 OHCs-to explore these topics. Two researchers independently coded transcripts with NVivo 9.2 and thematically analyzed responses. Most individuals accidentally discovered PGHI during Web searches rather than intentionally seeking it. Individuals valued PGHI primarily as an alternative information source about treatment options, self-care activities, and health care provider questions rather than a source of emotional support, and they acknowledged PGHI's limitation as anecdotal evidence. Individuals used PGHI as a springboard for additional research and patient-provider discussions, ultimately making treatment decisions alongside providers. These findings suggest that individuals use PGHI in much the same way they use traditional online health information and that PGHI facilitates, rather than obstructs, shared decision making with health care providers.

  16. The Evolution of Peer Run Sober Housing as a Recovery Resource for California Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Friedner D.; Polcin, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Sober living houses (SLHs) are alcohol- and drug-free living environments that offer social support to persons attempting to abstain from alcohol and drugs. They use a peer-oriented, social model approach that emphasizes mutual support, financial self-sufficiency, and resident involvement in decision making and management of the facility. Although they represent an important response to the increasing call for more services that help sustain abstinence from drugs and alcohol over time, they are an under recognized and underutilized recovery resource. The purpose of this paper is to trace the evolution of sober living houses in California from the early influences of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in the 1930’s to the establishment of current SLH associations, such as the Sober Living Network in Southern California. The paper describes key events and policies that influenced SLHs. Although initial research on outcomes of SLH residents has been very encouraging, there is a need for more research to guide improvement of structure and operations. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the growth of recovery services and for community housing policy. PMID:25477748

  17. Educating the provider community about the new role of the peer review organization.

    PubMed

    Clark, J D; Williams, D E

    1993-01-01

    This report suggests an educational format that has been used successfully in Michigan to introduce the Health Care Quality Improvement Initiative to the medical community. The activities related to pattern analysis and the Fourth Scope of Work will require a collaborative effort between the medical community and the peer review organization (PRO). To improve understanding by providers and practitioners of pattern analysis, the Fourth Scope of Work, and the new PRO requirements, a series of educational programs was designed. The first presentation in the educational series included information about the changes between the Third and Fourth Scope of Work as well as the new structure within the PRO responsible for the pattern analysis activities: the Center for Health Outcomes and Evaluation. Descriptions of the process to be followed in interactions between the Center and providers and practitioners also were included: For the second session, a hands-on exercise was created to introduce the concept of a pattern. The exercise included graphic representations of patterns and a worksheet format to encourage the user to find specific data points within tables and graphs, describe a pattern in hospital outcome data, and verify that the same outcome pattern appeared in subgroups of hospitals and physicians. The third component in the educational series was a demonstration of the interaction between the Center and a hospital participating in a cooperative improvement project. Hospital-specific and physician-specific data, with appropriate comparative data, were provided to an audience made up of hospital administrators, practicing physicians, and allied health personnel who then worked through the issues related to data validation, definition of a project, agreement on interventions, and remeasurement of the outcome under study.

  18. Peer Support Training Improved the Glycemic Control, Insulin Management, and Diabetic Behaviors of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Rural Communities of Central China: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kaiqin; Ren, Yanlei; Luo, Zhongmei; Du, Kun; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of peer support in Chinese diabetes patients is still uncertain. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of a peer support program on the outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes who received community-based insulin therapy in rural communities of central China. Material/Methods Two hundred and eight eligible patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned into the traditional training group (control group, n=111) and peer support intervention group (peer group, n=97) between June 2013 and January 2014 in 2 rural communities of Jingzhou area, China. Both groups received 3-month traditional training, followed by another 4-month traditional training or peer support training, respectively. At baseline and 7 months after treatment, the blood glycemic level was evaluated by biochemical detection. Capacities of self-management and knowledge related to insulin usage were assessed by questionnaire survey. Results Ninety-seven and ninety patients completed this study in the control group and peer group, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, gender, diabetes duration, insulin usage time, and complications between the 2 groups at baseline (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, peer group patients achieved a more significant decrease in blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels (P<0.05), increase in knowledge related to insulin usage, and increase of diabetes self-management ability (P<0.05). Conclusions Peer support intervention effectively improves outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes in rural communities of central China. PMID:26808489

  19. Peer review.

    PubMed

    Twaij, H; Oussedik, S; Hoffmeyer, P

    2014-04-01

    The maintenance of quality and integrity in clinical and basic science research depends upon peer review. This process has stood the test of time and has evolved to meet increasing work loads, and ways of detecting fraud in the scientific community. However, in the 21st century, the emphasis on evidence-based medicine and good science has placed pressure on the ways in which the peer review system is used by most journals. This paper reviews the peer review system and the problems it faces in the digital age, and proposes possible solutions.

  20. Peer Support.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Solomon, Michelle; Viran, Tazim

    2016-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada defines peer support as "a supportive relationship between people who have a lived experience in common … in relation to a mental health challenge or illness … related to their own mental health or that of a loved one" (Sunderland et al. 2013: 11). In Ontario, a key resource for peer support is the Ontario Peer Development Initiative (OPDI), which is an umbrella organization of mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and peer support organizations across the province of Ontario. Member organizations are run by and for people with lived experience of a mental health or addiction issue and provide a wide range of services and activities within their communities. The central tenet of member organizations is the common understanding that people can and do recover with the proper supports in place and that peer support is integral to successful recovery. Nationally, Peer Support Accreditation and Certification Canada has recently been established. The relatively new national organization focuses on training and accrediting peer support workers. This paper focuses on a range of diverse peer support groups and CSIs that operate in London and surrounding areas.

  1. Content-specific network analysis of peer-to-peer communication in an online community for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Sahiti; Cobb, Nathan K.; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of user interactions in online communities could improve our understanding of health-related behaviors and inform the design of technological solutions that support behavior change. However, to achieve this we would need methods that provide granular perspective, yet are scalable. In this paper, we present a methodology for high-throughput semantic and network analysis of large social media datasets, combining semi-automated text categorization with social network analytics. We apply this method to derive content-specific network visualizations of 16,492 user interactions in an online community for smoking cessation. Performance of the categorization system was reasonable (average F-measure of 0.74, with system-rater reliability approaching rater-rater reliability). The resulting semantically specific network analysis of user interactions reveals content- and behavior-specific network topologies. Implications for socio-behavioral health and wellness platforms are also discussed. PMID:28269890

  2. Characterization of Temporal Semantic Shifts of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community: Implications for Data-driven Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vishnupriya; Cohen, Trevor; Cobb, Nathan; Myneni, Sahiti

    2016-01-01

    With online social platforms gaining popularity as venues of behavior change, it is important to understand the ways in which these platforms facilitate peer interactions. In this paper, we characterize temporal trends in user communication through mapping of theoretically-linked semantic content. We used qualitative coding and automated text analysis to assign theoretical techniques to peer interactions in an online community for smoking cessation, subsequently facilitating temporal visualization of the observed techniques. Results indicate manifestation of several behavior change techniques such as feedback and monitoring’ and ‘rewards’. Automated methods yielded reasonable results (F-measure=0.77). Temporal trends among relapsers revealed reduction in communication after a relapse event. This social withdrawal may be attributed to failure guilt after the relapse. Results indicate significant change in thematic categories such as ‘social support’, ‘natural consequences’, and ‘comparison of outcomes’ pre and post relapse. Implications for development of behavioral support technologies that promote long-term abstinence are discussed. PMID:28269957

  3. Factors Associated with Peer HIV Prevention Outreach in Drug-Using Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latkin, Carl A.; Hua, Wei; Davey, Melissa A.

    2004-01-01

    Peer education is a critical approach to HIV prevention. The current study evaluated 156 peer outreach educators 6 months after their 10-session training. Specifically, we examined factors associated with talking to network members about HIV-related topics as well as distributing risk reduction materials. Overall, current drug users were less…

  4. Facilitators and barriers to effective smoking cessation: counselling services for inpatients from nurse-counsellors' perspectives--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Chuan; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Chen, Chiu-Yen; Jeng, Yu-Qian; Chen, Yu-Chi

    2014-05-06

    Tobacco use has reached epidemic levels around the World, resulting in a world-wide increase in tobacco-related deaths and disabilities. Hospitalization presents an opportunity for nurses to encourage inpatients to quit smoking. This qualitative descriptive study was aimed to explore nurse-counsellors' perspectives of facilitators and barriers in the implementation of effective smoking cessation counselling services for inpatients. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 nurses who were qualified smoking cessation counsellors and who were recruited from eleven health promotion hospitals that were smoke-free and located in the Greater Taipei City Area.  Data were collected from May 2012 to October 2012, and then analysed using content analysis based on the grounded theory approach. From nurse-counsellors' perspectives, an effective smoking cessation program should be patient-centred and provide a supportive environment. Another finding is that effective smoking cessation counselling involves encouraging patients to modify their lifestyles. Time constraints and inadequate resources are barriers that inhibit the effectiveness of smoking cessation counselling programs in acute-care hospitals. We suggest that hospitals should set up a smoking counselling follow-up program, including funds, facilities, and trained personnel to deliver counselling services by telephone, and build a network with community smoking cessation resources.

  5. Roles and Competencies of Academic Counsellors in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya

    2005-01-01

    Academic counsellors or tutors are engaged as a link between learners and distance teaching institutions. They perform various roles such as facilitating learning of subject matter content, assessing assignments, providing motivation and encouragement, and supervising research/term papers/project work. Each of these roles requires specific…

  6. Breaking the Silence: School Counsellors' Experiences of Client Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Carley L.; Everall, Robin D.

    2009-01-01

    School counselling is a unique discipline involving the provision of personal, social, and educational counselling to youth in schools. Since school counsellors work closely with at-risk children and adolescents they frequently encounter suicidal youth as clients. In this study, a qualitative grounded theory method was used to explore school…

  7. An Holistic Approach for Counsellors: Embracing Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Rosslyn; O'Brien, Patrick John

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a range of therapeutic modalities used by counsellors of children and positions those modalities within Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Research by O'Brien ("Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence and its implications for the counselling of children." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of…

  8. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  9. Preparing Counsellors for Interprofessional Collaboration through Supervision and Lateral Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is emerging as a best practice in health care. For counsellors to work effectively alongside professionals from other disciplines, they need to be educated about the value of collaborative practice and the roles, responsibilities, and expertise that they bring to interprofessional teams. Supervision practices in…

  10. Family Counselling--A New Frontier for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John

    1976-01-01

    Several theoretical orientations to family counselling are proposed and some ideas advanced underlying public and professional acceptance of school counsellor work with the family. A brief analysis of three family programs is undertaken as a means of promoting growth, enrichment and change in the family. (Author)

  11. A qualitative study exploring genetic counsellors' experiences of counselling children.

    PubMed

    Ulph, Fiona; Leong, James; Glazebrook, Cris; Townsend, Ellen

    2010-10-01

    The identification of healthy carriers by newborn screening programmes raises questions about how and when the carrier results will be conveyed to child. There is currently a lack of information concerning how best to convey carrier information to children. This is a serious gap in the literature and practice. This study examined genetic counsellors' experiences of counselling children to explore how to support and inform children about their carrier result. Practising members of the United Kingdom (UK) Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors took part in semi-structured telephone interviews. Respondents described the communication process and identified barriers and facilitators of communication. Age, illness experience and maturity were variously discussed as facilitators; all of which are integral to psychological theories of children's understanding of illness. Adaptive family communication, school tuition and educational materials were also seen as influencing counselling efficacy. Relevant materials that children could keep were also seen as important to enhance children's autonomy. Yet, such resources were rare, constituting a barrier to communication. Counsellors reported communication was further impeded by maladaptive family communication and resistance from children to engaging in counselling. By exploring the facilitators and barriers inherent in communicating genetic information to children, guidance can be offered to counsellors, researchers and parents. This study indicates that some factors (eg illness experiences) previously identified by psychological theories may act in complex ways within this setting. Importantly, the factors identified as being most influential when communicating with children about genetics are amenable to change through interventions, support and training.

  12. Adversarial Growth in Telephone Counsellors: Psychological and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…

  13. Counsellor Education as Humanist Colonialism: Seeking Post-Colonial Approaches to Educating Counsellors by Exploring Pathways to an Indigenous Aesthetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Randolph

    2008-01-01

    This narrative reflection emerged during a time of personally reconnecting with Mi'kmaq First Nation culture and heritage while working in the mainstream roles of counsellor educator and educationalist in Australia. The essay expresses turning points along a path of increasing political and social discomfort with the status quo in counsellor…

  14. The role of the genetic counsellor: a systematic review of research evidence.

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Cordier, Christophe; Ingvoldstad, Charlotta; Taris, Nicolas; Benjamin, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, genetic counsellors are employed in specialist genetic centres or other specialist units. According to the European Board of Medical Genetics, the genetic counsellor must fulfil a range of roles, including provision of information and facilitation of psychosocial adjustment of the client to their genetic status and situation. To evaluate the extent to which genetic counsellors fulfil their prescribed roles, we conducted a systematic review of the published relevant scientific evidence. We searched five relevant electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, SocIndex, AMED and PsychInfo) using relevant search terms and handsearched four subject-specific journals for research-based papers published in English between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2013. Of 419 potential papers identified initially, seven satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. Themes derived from the thematic analysis of the data were: (i) rationale for genetic counsellors to provide care, (ii) appropriate roles and responsibilities and (iii) the types of conditions included in the genetic counsellor caseload. The findings of this systematic review indicate that where genetic counsellors are utilised in specialist genetic settings, they undertake a significant workload associated with direct patient care and this appears to be acceptable to patients. With the burden on genetic services, there is an argument for the increased use of genetic counsellors in countries where they are under-utilised. In addition, roles undertaken by genetic counsellors in specialist genetic settings could be adapted to integrate genetic counsellors into multi-disciplinary teams in other specialisms.

  15. The role of the genetic counsellor: a systematic review of research evidence

    PubMed Central

    Skirton, Heather; Cordier, Christophe; Ingvoldstad, Charlotta; Taris, Nicolas; Benjamin, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, genetic counsellors are employed in specialist genetic centres or other specialist units. According to the European Board of Medical Genetics, the genetic counsellor must fulfil a range of roles, including provision of information and facilitation of psychosocial adjustment of the client to their genetic status and situation. To evaluate the extent to which genetic counsellors fulfil their prescribed roles, we conducted a systematic review of the published relevant scientific evidence. We searched five relevant electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, SocIndex, AMED and PsychInfo) using relevant search terms and handsearched four subject-specific journals for research-based papers published in English between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2013. Of 419 potential papers identified initially, seven satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. Themes derived from the thematic analysis of the data were: (i) rationale for genetic counsellors to provide care, (ii) appropriate roles and responsibilities and (iii) the types of conditions included in the genetic counsellor caseload. The findings of this systematic review indicate that where genetic counsellors are utilised in specialist genetic settings, they undertake a significant workload associated with direct patient care and this appears to be acceptable to patients. With the burden on genetic services, there is an argument for the increased use of genetic counsellors in countries where they are under-utilised. In addition, roles undertaken by genetic counsellors in specialist genetic settings could be adapted to integrate genetic counsellors into multi-disciplinary teams in other specialisms. PMID:24916644

  16. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the “social support” perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual’s efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. Objective The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. Methods In this paper, we describe grounded theory–based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual’s efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. Results We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include “sleepiness,” “pledge,” “patch,” “spouse,” and

  17. Working together as a catalyst for change: the development of a peer mentoring model for the prevention of chronic disease in Australian Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Paasse, Gail; Adams, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a model for an Indigenous peer mentoring program. The aim of this program is to improve the health of Indigenous people living in the western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Although the benefits of peer mentoring are well documented, particularly in relation to disease prevention, little has been written about the specific benefits for Indigenous people. While developing this model, it became apparent that to be successful, peer mentoring programs for Indigenous people need to be flexible, informal and draw on the knowledge and skills of the local community in partnership with local services.

  18. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  19. Peer Influence and Nonsuicidal Self Injury: Longitudinal Results in Community and Clinically-Referred Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence…

  20. Caring for Kids in Communities: Using Mentorship, Peer Support, & Student Leadership Programs in Schools. Counterpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Julia; Small-McGinley, Jan; De Fabrizio, Lucy

    This book invites schools to consider the use of mentorship, peer support, and student leadership programs to positively support the growth and learning of all students. It presents research on successful K-12 programs and case studies of individual programs and people. Eighteen chapters are: (1) "Introduction and Overview"; (2)…

  1. Feasibility of a web-based training system for peer community health advisors in cancer early detection among african americans.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sherie Lou Z; Tagai, Erin K; Wang, Min Qi; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Slade, Jimmie L; Holt, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    We describe the feasibility of a Web-based portal for training peer community health advisors (CHAs). We conducted a community-based implementation trial in African American churches between 2012 and 2014. The Web-based portal allows CHAs to log in and view 13 training videos, preparing them to deliver 3 cancer early detection workshops in their churches. Of 8 churches, 6 completed the training, each certifying 2 CHAs. These CHAs took an average of 26 days to complete the training, requiring little technical assistance. Additional technical assistance was required to implement the workshops. The Web-based system appears to be a feasible method for training lay individuals for the CHA role and has implications for increasing the reach of evidence-based interventions.

  2. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

  3. MAppERS: a peer-produced community for emergency support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    A general trend in European governance tends to shift responsibilities in territorial management from national central authorities to local/regional levels and to the citizens as first actors of Civil Protection. Prevention is a long term goal that rests not only on the capacities of professional operators and volunteers, but that has to necessarily imply the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. In fact people often do not have chance to interact in the surveillance of the territory and only face risks when they have to bear impacts on their lives. Involvement of population creates more cost-effective and context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers citizens as "crowd-sourced mappers" through the development of a smart phone application able to collect GPS-localised and detailed parameters, that can then be sent from citizens to civil protection operators in a contest of geospatial response. The process of app design includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring of the territory as long term objective of raising public awareness and participation from the citizens, as actors in a networked disaster response community. The project proceeds from the design and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to software engineering environment (Android and Iphone SDK). Information exchange and data transfer need clearness and efficiency; thus a previous research is conducted on the cost-effectiveness of already existing practices for territorial

  4. The availability of community ties predicts likelihood of peer referral for mammography: geographic constraints on viral marketing.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Friedenberg, Laura M; Allison, Tiffany R; Nelson, Christina L

    2010-11-01

    Engaging social networks to encourage preventive health behavior offers a supplement to conventional mass media campaigns and yet we do not fully understand the conditions that facilitate or hamper such interpersonal diffusion. One set of factors that should affect the diffusion of health campaign information involves a person's community. Variables describing geographic communities should predict the likelihood of residents accepting campaign invitations to pass along information to friends, family, and others. We investigate two aspects of a community--the availability of community ties and residential stability--as potential influences on diffusion of publicly-funded breast cancer screening in the United States in 2008-2009. In a survey study of 1515 participants living in 91 zip codes across the State of Minnesota, USA, we focus on the extent to which women refer others when given the opportunity to nominate family, friends, and peers to receive free mammograms. We predicted nomination tendency for a particular zip code would be a function of available community ties, measured as religious congregation density in that zip code, and also expected the predictive power of available ties would be greatest in communities with relatively high residential stability (meaning lower turnover in home residence). Results support our hypotheses. Congregation density positively predicted nomination tendency both in bivariate analysis and in Tobit regression models, and was most predictive in zip codes above the median in residential stability. We conclude that having a local infrastructure of social ties available in a community predicts the diffusion of available health care services in that community.

  5. The Relationships Between Sense of Belonging to a Community GLB Youth Group; School, Teacher, and Peer Connectedness; and Depressive Symptoms: Testing of a Path Model.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Suzanne; Schurmann, Jacqueline; Jenkins, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates belonging to a gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) support group is indirectly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, via higher levels of sense of belonging to the general community. The current study extended this research by testing a path model to determine whether school, teacher, and peer connectedness are influenced by sense of belonging to a community GLB youth group. A sample of 82 Australian GLB adolescents aged 14 to 18 years who currently attend high school completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Psychological Subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, and the Social Questionnaire for Secondary Students. Results indicated very good model fit. Higher levels of belonging to a community GLB youth group were associated with higher levels of school, teacher, and peer connectedness, but only peer connectedness was directly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher levels of school and teacher connectedness were associated with higher levels of peer connectedness. Interventions aimed at increasing belonging to a community GLB youth group may have indirect benefits for the mental health of GLB adolescents, via higher levels of school, teacher, and peer connectedness.

  6. Narratives of Developing Counsellors' Preferred Theories of Counselling Storied through Text, Metaphor, and Photographic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Reflective practice is integral for developing counsellors to maintain self-awareness and to recognize influences upon ones personal theory of counselling. In this exploratory narrative inquiry research, four doctoral level counselling psychologists participated to uncover "What are the personal stories of developing counsellors and in what…

  7. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  8. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

  9. "I Was Overcome with Joy at that Moment": Successful Experiences of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Rosenau, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by positive psychology, the present research explores the manner in which school counsellors perceive the meaning of success in their work. Data were collected by means of a narrative questionnaire in which 66 school counsellors were requested to write a detailed description of a well-remembered successful experience and to answer two…

  10. Life outside the 50-Minute Hour: The Personal Lives of Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Barbara Sampaio Alhanati; Black, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects that becoming and being a professional counsellor, including training and professional practice, can have on one's personal life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six professional counsellors, asking how their training and professional practice has affected their personal lives. Qualitative…

  11. School Counsellors' Understanding of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Experiences and International Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jamie M.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; Ross, Shana

    2011-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a concern among professionals working with youth. The present study examined school counsellors' experiences, training and school preparedness, perceived knowledge, beliefs, and intervention approaches related to NSSI. Participants were 470 school counsellors (417 female, 53 male) from across North America (156…

  12. An Examination of the Counsellor's Skills When Counselling Clients With Sexual Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Lawrence G.

    1976-01-01

    The study examined the counsellor's competence in counselling clients with sexual problems. The notion of competence was operationally defined in terms of empathy, anxiety, and sex knowledge. The results demonstrate the need to have specific training in sex counselling incorporated into the counsellor trainee's curriculum. (Author)

  13. Psychopharmacology Training and Canadian Counsellors: Are We Getting What We Want and Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David; Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2008-01-01

    The psychopharmacology training experiences and attitudes of Canadian counsellors were the focus of our national Internet-based survey. This study was part of a larger investigation on Canadian counsellors' attitudes, practices, and training experiences related to clients on antidepressants. Results of the current study indicate Canadian…

  14. The Route to "Inclusive Counselling": Counsellors' Perceptions of Disability Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiz, Halis; Woods, Charlotte; Sart, Hande; Ersahin, Zehra; Aftab, Raiha; Koç, Nizamettin; Sariçam, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The present research highlights new challenges and opportunities faced by counsellors in relation to the movement to include students with disabilities within mainstream schools launched by the Ministry of Education in Turkey. The main purpose of the study was to examine perceptions of counsellors in relation to this movement. Interviews were…

  15. The Practice and Perceptions of School Counsellors: A View from Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade; Shi, Qi

    2010-01-01

    The profession of school counselling in China is in relative infancy. A qualitative analysis of in-person interviews with fourteen high school counsellors sought to identify salient factors currently facing the profession in two urban Chinese schools. The counsellors described the development and practice of school counselling as well as their own…

  16. Opportunities and Challenges: School Guidance Counsellors' Perceptions of Counselling Students Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasheen, Kevin; Campbell, Marilyn A.; Shochet, Ian

    2013-01-01

    School guidance counsellors worldwide seek ways of providing appropriate professional assistance to all students. While young people integrate online technology into their daily lives and go online for information and to communicate with each other, school counsellors in Australia are not offering online support to students. This cross-sectional…

  17. Enhancing Connectedness Through Peer Training for Community-Dwelling Older People: A Person Centred Approach.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Oliver K; Bernoth, Maree; Dietsch, Elaine; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Social interaction and connectedness is important to the mental health and wellbeing of older people. The aim of this research study was to facilitate and increase opportunities for social connectedness for older people living in regional areas through the use of technology training. Weekly technology training sessions were conducted at a Seniors Citizen's Club with a peer trainer (an experienced, retired computer teacher) and sessions were attended not only by the six study participants, but also by other club members, with up to 15 club members participating in sessions. Data analysis involved all documents generated by the project, including the individual interviews, researcher observations of training sessions, reports from the peer trainer and weekly diaries maintained by participants. Findings demonstrated that computer training at the Senior Citizens Club helped participants build group cohesion and to form tiered connections with partners, family, and friends with whom they no longer live. When the trainer is seen as a peer, and training is person-centred, older people are more receptive to learning, exploring, and experimenting with technology. Although only six people were involved in the in-depth evaluation part of the study, voluntary training with the trainer in the absence of any funding continues even to this present time. The outcome of this research reinforces the potential for technology facilitated tiered connectivity to enhance the quality of life for older people living in regional and rural Australia.

  18. Peer Observed Interaction and Structured Evaluation (POISE): a Canadian experience with peer supervision for genetic counselors.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Claire; Honeywell, Christina; Mettler, Gabrielle

    2011-04-01

    Peer observation, while often used in other professions, has not been formally applied in genetic counseling. The objective of this study was to pilot a method of peer evaluation whereby genetic counselors observed, and were observed by, each other during patient interaction. All of the available genetic counselors participated in both rounds of the pilot study (six in round one, seven in round two). The genetic counselors that observed the session used an observation room. Most participants reported learning a new skill. Sensitivity to, and comfort with, the feedback process improved. We conclude that Peer-Observed Interaction and Structured Evaluation (POISE) provides an opportunity to refresh counseling approaches and develop feedback skills without causing undue team discord. This new approach to peer supervision in genetic counselling offers a live observation approach for genetic counsellor supervision.

  19. A University-Assisted, Place-Based Model for Enhancing Students' Peer, Family, and Community Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Richards, K. Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Community schools have recently (re)emerged in the United States as a vital, comprehensive strategy for addressing poverty-related barriers to children's school learning. However, not all low-income school communities are endowed with the resources needed to launch a comprehensive array of school-based/linked services and programs. In this…

  20. Successful dissemination of a community-based strength training program for older adults by peer and professional leaders: the people exercising program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of a model for disseminating community-based strength training programs for older adults through leadership training of both laypersons or "peers" and health and fitness professionals. DESIGN: Longitudinal study conducted from January 2005 to December 2006....

  1. Role of Parent and Peer Relationships and Individual Characteristics in Middle School Children's Behavioral Outcomes in the Face of Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Feldman, Richard S.; Rosario, Margaret; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines processes linking inner-city community violence exposure to subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. Hypothesized risk and protective factors from 3 ecological domains--children's parent and peer relationships and individual characteristics--were examined for mediating, moderating, or independent roles in predicting…

  2. CES4Health.info: A Web-Based Mechanism for Disseminating Peer-Reviewed Products of Community-Engaged Scholarship--Reflections on Year One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Catherine; Gelmon, Sherril; Ryan, Katharine; Seifer, Sarena D.

    2012-01-01

    CES4Health.info was launched in November 2009 as an online mechanism for peer reviewing and disseminating products of community-engaged scholarship in forms other than journal articles. One year after its launch, the authors conducted an online survey of CES4Health.info contributing authors, reviewers, and users of published products. Early…

  3. Eating disorder counsellors with eating disorder histories: a story of being "normal".

    PubMed

    Rance, Nicola M; Moller, Naomi P; Douglas, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    Debate exists in the eating disorders field about the fitness to practise of counsellors with eating disorder histories (Johnston, Smethurst & Gowers, 2005). Yet despite widespread acknowledgement of the demanding nature of eating disorder counselling in general (Zerbe, 2008), almost no research exists about the actual experiences of recovered eating disorder counsellors in particular. Using semi-structured interviews this study aimed to address the research gap by investigating the experiences of 7 counsellors with eating disorder histories. Particular emphasis was given to their beliefs about the impact of their work on their own body image, weight and relationship with food. Results derived from an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis suggested that the counsellors' experienced their eating disorder history as a double-edged sword that led them to engage in a number of self-presentational activities. Implications of these findings for the eating disorders field are discussed.

  4. Promoting Professional Identity: A Within Group Comparison of Wiki-Based and Traditional Assignments on School Counselling Students' Learning, Sense of Community and Computer Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Pritchard, Tracey; McComb-Beverage, Shanna; Schellenberg, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare traditional and non-traditional instructional practices used in a counsellor education programme to determine their effect on pre-service school counsellors' learning and sense of community, thus leading to enhanced professional identity. Traditional and non-traditional assignments were examined: (a) a…

  5. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    PubMed

    Thurling, Catherine H; Harris, Candice

    2012-06-05

    South Africa's high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation. The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training. A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation. The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted. The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  6. Community-based participatory research in a heavily researched inner city neighbourhood: Perspectives of people who use drugs on their experiences as peer researchers.

    PubMed

    Damon, Will; Callon, Cody; Wiebe, Lee; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become an increasingly common approach to research involving people who use(d) drugs (PWUD), who are often employed as peer researchers on these projects. This paper seeks to understand the impact of CBPR on PWUD, particularly those living in heavily researched and stigmatized neighbourhoods where CBPR projects are often located. This study draws on 14 in-depth interviews with PWUD who had previous experience as both peer researchers and research participants in CBPR projects conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. The study employed a CBPR approach in its study design, recruitment, interviewing, and analysis. Our analysis indicates that participants were supportive of CBPR in principle and described the ways in which it helped contest stigmatizing assumptions and researcher bias. Participants also reported positive personal gains from participation in CBPR projects. However, many participants had negative experiences with CBPR projects, especially when CBPR principles were implemented in a superficial or incomplete manner. Participants emphasized the importance of inclusiveness and active deconstruction of hierarchy between researchers and community members to successful CBPR among drug using populations. CBPR has been widely adopted as a research approach within marginalized communities but has often been implemented inconsistently. Still, CBPR can empower communities to contest forms of social stigma that are often reproduced through academic research on marginalized communities. Our findings describe how the benefits of CBPR are maximized when CBPR principles are consistently applied and when community-based researchers are supported in ways that reduce power hierarchies. This suggests a need for capacity building within affected communities to develop independent support, training, and grievance processes for peer researchers.

  7. A Social Network Approach to Demonstrate the Diffusion and Change Process of Intervention from Peer Health Advocates to the Drug Using Community

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianghong; Weeks, Margaret R.; Borgatti, Stephen P.; Clair, Scott; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Project RAP (Risk Avoidance Partnership) trained 112 active drug users to become peer health advocates (PHAs). Six months after baseline survey (Nbl = 522), 91.6% of PHAs and 56.6% of community drug users adopted the RAP innovation of giving peer intervention, and 59.5% of all participants (N6m = 367) were exposed to RAP innovation. Sociometric network analysis shows that adoption of and exposure to RAP innovation was associated with proximity to a PHA or a highly active interventionist (HAI), being directly linked to multiple PHAs/HAIs, and being located in a network sector where multiple PHAs/HAIs were clustered. RAP innovation has diffused into the Hartford drug-using community. PMID:22428816

  8. Role of Parent and Peer Relationships and Individual Characteristics in Middle School Children's Behavioral Outcomes in the Face of Community Violence

    PubMed Central

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines processes linking inner-city community violence exposure to subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. Hypothesized risk and protective factors from three ecological domains -- children's parent and peer relationships and individual characteristics -- were examined for mediating, moderating or independent roles in predicting problem behavior among 667 children over three years of middle school. Mediation was not found. However, parent and peer variables moderated the association between exposure and internalizing problems. Under high exposure, normally protective factors (e.g., attachment to parents) were less effective in mitigating exposure's effects than under low exposure; attachment to friends was more effective. Individual competence was independently associated with decreased internalizing problems. Variables from all domains, and exposure, were independently associated with externalizing problems. Protective factors (e.g., parent attachment) predicted decreased problems; risk factors (e.g., friends' delinquency) predicted increased problems. Results indicate community violence reduction as essential in averting inner-city adolescents' poor behavioral outcomes. PMID:21643493

  9. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Emerging Adult Romantic Styles: A Longitudinal Study of Youth in an Italian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer; Paciello, Marinella; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    This study extends understanding of romantic development in the emerging adult years by using an 8-year longitudinal design in Italy. Peer groups at age 13, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation at age 17, and romantic styles at age 21 were measured in 388 youth. Early peer groups were shown to be indirectly associated with two romantic…

  10. Analyzing the Latent Emotional Transfer Pattern (LETP) of a Learning Community in an Online Peer-Assessment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Cheng, Kun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Peer assessment is utilized extensively in digital learning, and many studies have examined the positive influences of online peer assessment on learning (eg, Tseng & Tsai, 2007). However, other studies indicate that this type of activity has negative influences. For example, students may question the fairness of an assessment or disagree with…

  11. An evaluation of a refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in Chongwe District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Msisuka, Charles; Nozaki, Ikuma; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Seko, Motoko; Ulaya, Mercy M S

    2011-01-01

    To address a severe shortage of human resources for health, the Zambian Ministry of Health has begun to make use of lay counsellors for HIV counselling and testing. However, their skills and knowledge rarely have been reviewed or refreshed. We conducted a two-day refresher workshop for lay counsellors to review their performance and refresh their skills and knowledge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in the rural district of Chongwe in Zambia. The two-day refreshertraining workshop was held in November 2009. Twenty-five lay counsellors were selected by District Health Office and participated in the workshop. The workshop included: the opening, a pre-training exercise, lectures on quality assurance with regard to testing and safety precautions, lectures on counselling, filling the gap/Q&A session, and a post-training exercise. In both the pre- and post-training exercise, participants answered 25 true/false questions and tested 10 blood panel samples to demonstrate their knowledge and skill on HIV counselling and testing. The average overall knowledge test score increased from 79% to 95% (p<0.001). At the baseline, knowledge test scores in topic of standard precaution and post-exposure prophylaxis were relatively low (58%) but rose to 95% after the training (p<0.001). The per cent agreement of HIV testing by lay counsellors with reference laboratory was 99.2%. Participants' knowledge was improved during the workshop and skill at HIV testing was found to remain at a high level of accuracy. Relatively weak knowledge of standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis suggests that lay counsellors are at risk of nosocomial infections, particularly in the absence of refresher training interventions. We conclude that the refresher training was effective for improving the knowledge and skills of lay counsellors and provided an opportunity to monitor their performance.

  12. The effects of student support services peer tutoring on learning and study strategies, grades, and retention at a rural community college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumford, Thomas J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Student Support Services peer tutoring on rural community college students' success in an Anatomy and Physiology class as measured changes in self-reported learning and study strategies, the final grade in Anatomy and Physiology class, and persistence/retention in the following semesters. A secondary goal was to assess the relative merits of two training methods: standard peer tutoring and standard peer tutoring plus introduction to attribution theory. This Anatomy and Physiology class typically has a failure rate of 50%. The federal government annually funds more than 700 Student Support Services (SSS) grants and 162 Health Career Opportunities Programs (HCOP). Nearly 94% of these SSS programs included a tutoring component, and 84% of these programs use peer tutoring. Peer tutors were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions and students were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. There were 31 students in the attribution condition and 28 students in the standard condition. Students were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of tutoring to be included in the analysis. Each tutored student was yoked to a control student who had not sought peer tutoring assistance. Participants were matched for age, marital status, number of adults in the family, number of children in the family and incoming academic skills (CPT Reading Test Results), financial status, and race. The results support peer tutoring as an effective method of increasing student success. The findings support the use of attribution training for tutors as a theoretical base of intervention. Students tutored by attribution trained tutors scored significantly higher on LASSI, had higher Anatomy and Physiology grades, and returned to college at a higher rate than their yoked controls. Standard trained tutors scored significantly higher on the LASSI Test Taking subscale and returned to college at a higher rate than their

  13. Counsellors' Focus on Competitive Employment for People with Severe Mental Illness: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Vocational Rehabilitation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaeps, Jeroen; Neyens, Inge; van Weeghel, Jaap; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Although the evidence-based Individual Placement and Support programme highlights the importance of the vocational rehabilitation (VR) counsellors' focus on competitive employment during career counselling, studies have shown that counsellors do not always target such jobs. This study examines which determinants affect the counsellors' intentions…

  14. Assessment in the Digital Age: An Overview of Online Tools and Considerations for School Psychologists and School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellins, Laura

    2015-01-01

    With recent developments in technology, online tests and digital tools offer school psychologists and school counsellors alternate modes of assessment. These new technologies have the potential to increase accessibility to tests (through greater portability), allow school psychologists and school counsellors to service more students (through…

  15. The Effect of Career Counsellors on the Decision to Pursue Higher Education: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon Eliophotou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the role of career counsellors in secondary education in Cyprus, with emphasis on their effect on students' career decisions. Survey research was used to collect information from 611 students and 36 career counsellors in Cyprus. Students were asked to rate the importance of several factors as influences on their career…

  16. Religiosity Gap Reversed: How Religious Counsellors' Belief System Presents When Working with Clients in a Non-Religious Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motalová, Katarína; Rihácek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Most studies exploring the religiosity gap are concerned with non-religious counsellors and religious clients. Approaching this phenomenon from a reversed perspective, this study explores how counsellors' religiosity presents when working with clients in a predominantly non-religious environment. Semi-structured interviews with 11 Czech…

  17. "She's Not Going to Leave Me"--Counsellors' Feelings on Ending Therapy with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Judi; Akhurst, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of ending therapy on counsellors working with children in schools. Five counsellors were interviewed and their responses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four master themes emerged, one of which, empathic identification, is the focus of this paper. The findings of this study…

  18. Impact of Community Based Peer Support in Type 2 Diabetes: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of Individual and/or Group Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, David; Prevost, A. Toby; Bunn, Chris; Holman, Daniel; Parker, Richard A.; Cohn, Simon; Donald, Sarah; Paddison, Charlotte A. M.; Ward, Candice; Robins, Peter; Graffy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes peer support, where one person with diabetes helps guide and support others, has been proposed as a way to improve diabetes management. We have tested whether different diabetes peer support strategies can improve metabolic and/or psychological outcomes. Methods People with type 2 diabetes (n = 1,299) were invited to participate as either ‘peer’ or ‘peer support facilitator’ (PSF) in a 2x2 factorial randomised cluster controlled trial across rural communities (130 clusters) in England. Peer support was delivered over 8–12 months by trained PSFs, supported by monthly meetings with a diabetes educator. Primary end point was HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, diabetes distress, blood pressure, waist, total cholesterol and weight. Outcome assessors and investigators were masked to arm allocation. Main factors were 1:1 or group intervention. Analysis was by intention-to-treat adjusting for baseline. Results The 4 arms were well matched (Group n = 330, 1:1(individual) n = 325, combined n = 322, control n = 322); 1035 (79•7%) completed the mid-point postal questionnaire and 1064 (81•9%) had a final HbA1c. A limitation was that although 92.6% PSFs and peers were in telephone contact, only 61.4% of intervention participants attended a face to face session. Mean baseline HbA1c was 57 mmol/mol (7•4%), with no significant change across arms. Follow up systolic blood pressure was 2•3mm Hg (0.6 to 4.0) lower among those allocated group peer-support and 3•0mm Hg (1.1 to 5.0) lower if the group support was attended at least once. There was no impact on other outcomes by intention to treat or significant differences between arms in self-reported adherence or medication. Conclusions Group diabetes peer support over 8–12 months was associated with a small improvement in blood pressure but no other significant outcomes. Long term benefits should be investigated. Trial Registration ISRCTN.com ISRCTN6696362166963621 PMID

  19. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation to Adolescent Girls and Boys through Peer Educators at Community Level in the Tribal Area of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093

  20. Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Teens > Peer Pressure A A A ... for the school play. previous continue When the Pressure's On Sometimes, though, the stresses in your life ...

  1. Experiences of Burnout, Self-Care, and Recovery of Female University Counsellors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the burnout, self-care, and recovery experiences of female university counsellors working at a university counselling centre in Taiwan. The 9 participants had an average age of 42.44 years and had worked at the centre for an average of 11.3 years. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth…

  2. The Role of School Counsellors and Psychologists in Supporting Transgender People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Damien W.; Bartholomaeus, Clare

    2015-01-01

    As growing numbers of transgender people--including students, parents, and educators--become visible within schools, so comes with this the requirement that schools ensure their full inclusion. This article suggests that school counsellors and psychologists have an important role to play in supporting transgender people within schools. As an…

  3. School Counsellors' Perceptions on Working with Student High-Risk Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Jeffery, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The current exploratory-descriptive study used a survey design method to examine guidance counsellors' and educational psychologists' perceptions of their preparation, motivation, and effectiveness in preventing, assessing, and intervening into student high-risk behaviour. The study also explored training associated with addressing high-risk…

  4. Spirituality and Counselling: Are Counsellors Prepared to Integrate Religion and Spirituality into Therapeutic Work with Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of 341 Registered Clinical Counsellors in British Columbia was used to understand how therapists view and integrate spirituality and religion in their practice. Therapists were asked about their education and training in this realm, and about their perceived abilities, comfort, and competence when working with religious and/or…

  5. Working with Clients Who Engage in Self-Harming Behaviour: Experiences of a Group of Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…

  6. Assessing Risk: Confrontation or Avoidance?What Is Taught on Counsellor Training Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Andrew; Wheeler, Sue; Bowl, Ric

    2004-01-01

    Recent mental health policy development has focused on the assessment and management of risk in vulnerable clients. Counsellors have a significant role to play in delivering mental health care in a range of settings, with clients sometimes presenting with suicidal ideation, self-injury and a risk of violence. The aim of this research was to…

  7. Establishing Best Practice in School Counselling via Collaborative Leadership in the Counsellor-School Administrator Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reavie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    School counselling services in Canada are inconsistent due to differing provincial guidelines. The lack of a national school counselling model and inconsistent provincial guidelines results in limited awareness of best practice and inconsistent services for students. Administrators and school counsellors have differing perspectives related to the…

  8. Social and Vocational Adjustment in a Multicultural Society: Implications for the School Counsellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliston, Inez

    1977-01-01

    The author states the prerequisites to effective counseling for the school counsellor in a multi-cultural context are acceptance of a philosophy of equal opportunity for all students; proper understanding of cultural value frames of reference, and understanding of how cultural discontinuity may affect the self-identity of the newcomer. (Author)

  9. Raising Achievement with Adolescents in Secondary Education--The School Counsellor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Julie Anne

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study used data from semi-structured interviews with eight school counsellors working with adolescents in secondary education and asked them how they perceived counselling interventions as helping to raise achievement. The present context in secondary education is perceived as results led. This adheres to government policy as…

  10. Exploring Counsellor Perceptions of the Impact of Counselling Supervision on Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Kate

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study explores counsellors' experiences and perceptions of how counselling supervision impacts their clients. The literature review highlights little research in this area. Data collection combined open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Analysis was phenomenological incorporating participant validation. The…

  11. Training to Be a Volunteer Rape Crisis Counsellor: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…

  12. Supervision and the Management of Vicarious Traumatisation among Australian Telephone and Online Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Taylor, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supervision on the management of vicarious traumatisation among telephone and online counsellors on BoysTown Helplines. BoysTown Helplines include Kids Helpline, a 24-hour national counselling service for young people aged 5-25 years of age, and Parentline (PL), a counselling service for parents in…

  13. Weekend Formats in Counsellor Education: A Case Example in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Silliker, S. Alan

    2006-01-01

    Various course and program formats have been developed to better meet the needs of graduate students. One of them is the development of weekend-only courses and programs. This article examines one weekend counsellor education format in the United States, the St. Bonaventure University program offered in the Buffalo (New York) area, in detail. This…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Behaviour by School Counsellors and Their Need for Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine a statewide sample of school counsellors' reporting behaviour of suspected cases of child sexual abuse, and their need for further education in this area. Design: A questionnaire using four hypothetical vignettes on child sexual abuse requested information on the degree of suspicion, reporting behaviour and familiarity with…

  15. The Life Story Board: A Feasibility Study of a Visual Interview Tool for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Robert M.; Medina, Maria Fernanda; Mignone, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the findings of a pilot study of the Life Story Board (LSB), a novel visual information system with a play board and sets of magnetic cards designed to be a practical clinical tool for counsellors, therapists, and researchers. The LSB is similar to a multidimensional genogram, and serves as a platform to depict personal…

  16. Reconsidering Sexual Identities: Intersectionality Theory and the Implications for Educating Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Liane C.

    2013-01-01

    Counselling programs in Canada provide minimal training relating to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues and cultures. This article presents a theoretical argument proposing that counselling programs move away from educating counsellors about LGB issues through specialized courses based on multicultural approaches of difference and diversity…

  17. Empathy and Emotional Intelligence among Eastern and Western Counsellor Trainees: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Kaelber, Kara A.; Schwartz, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored degree of empathy and emotional intelligence among Thai (n?=?48) and American (n?=?53) counsellor trainees to determine if differences in Eastern and Western cultural orientations (e.g., interdependent versus independent self-construals) affect foundational counselling skills. Results indicated that Western trainees showed…

  18. Scottish Secondary School Students' Preferences for Location, Format of Counselling and Sex of Counsellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Mick

    2006-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom there is a significant revival of therapeutic counselling services in schools. This study looks at three factors which may affect students' willingness to attend such a service: location of the service (school-based or external); format (individual or group); and sex of counsellor. The views of 584 students from four…

  19. Developmental associations between externalizing behaviors, peer delinquency, drug use, perceived neighborhood crime, and violent behavior in urban communities.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; age = 29.2 years). The variables assessed were: components of externalizing behaviors (i.e., rebelliousness, delinquency; T1, T3); illicit drug use (T2); peer delinquency (T2); perceived neighborhood crime (T4); and violent behavior (T3, T4). Results showed that the participants' externalizing behaviors (rebelliousness and delinquency) were relatively stable from mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years) to early adulthood (T3; age = 24.4 years). The participants' externalizing behaviors in mid-adolescence also had a direct pathway to peer delinquency in late adolescence (T2; age = 19.1 years). Peer delinquency, in turn, had a direct pathway to the participants' illicit drug use in late adolescence (T2), and to externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3). The participants' illicit drug use (T2; age = 19.1 years) had both direct and indirect paths to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The participants' externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3) were linked with violent behavior at T3, and perceived neighborhood crime (T4), both of which had direct pathways to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The findings suggest developmental periods during which externalizing behaviors, exposure to delinquent peers, illegal drug use, and neighborhood crime could be targeted by prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce violent behavior.

  20. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  1. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  2. Peer review.

    PubMed

    Micheli, A J; Modest, S

    1995-06-01

    Peer review is a major component of a professional practice and shared governance model in which professional staff nurses are given responsibility for practice and patient outcomes. Careful planning is necessary for the development of a peer-review program. Components include definition of roles, responsibilities, and performance standards, as well as the development of an evaluation tool and process. Peer review affords nurses many opportunities for growth and development and allows them to develop communication, evaluation, and presentation skills. The concept of peer review may expand to meet the needs of changing health-care delivery models.

  3. Let’s talk about sex: helping substance abuse counsellors address HIV prevention with men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Anya Y.; Pinto, Rogério M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors’ work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse. PMID:21308577

  4. Early adolescent peer ecologies in rural communities: bullying in schools that do and do not have a transition during the middle grades.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Thomas W; Hamm, Jill V; Leung, Man-Chi; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2011-09-01

    The transition to middle school is considered to be a heightened period for involvement in bullying because the lack of a defined dominance hierarchy is thought to promote jockeying for social positions among students. Accordingly, this study examined bullying in peer ecologies at the beginning of the middle grade years in rural schools that did and did not have a transition to middle school. Thirty-six schools (20 with transitions, 16 without transitions) participated in this research with a sample of 1,800 participants (52% female) who were in sixth grade during the second year of data collection. Overall, 67% were White, 19% African American, 7% Latino, 2% Native American, and 5% other (multi-racial, Asian, unknown). Compared to schools without a transition, schools with a transition had fewer bullies following the move from fifth to sixth grade and the social dynamics in schools with a transition appeared to be less supportive of bullying. Further, students in schools with a transition reported being bullied less frequently in sixth grade and they perceived the sixth grade peer ecology as being more protective against bullying than did students in schools without a transition. In addition, proportionally more youth had controversial sociometric status in schools without a transition during sixth grade than in schools with a transition. Collectively, these findings suggest that risk for involvement in bullying may be elevated in schools that do not have a transition to middle school. They also bring into question the conventional view of the small K-8 or K-12 rural school as a peaceful and supportive peer community.

  5. Mother's perceptions and experiences of infant feeding within a community-based peer counselling intervention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nor, Barni; Ahlberg, Beth Maina; Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Yanga; Jackson, Debra; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2012-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has the potential to significantly reduce infant mortality, but is frequently not practiced in low-income settings where infants are vulnerable to malnutrition and infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study explores mothers' experiences of infant feeding after receiving peer counselling promoting exclusive breast or formula feeding. This qualitative study was embedded in a cluster randomized peer counselling intervention trial in South Africa that aimed to evaluate the effect of peer counselling on EBF. Participants were selected from the three districts that were part of the trial reflecting different socio-economic conditions, rural-urban locations and HIV prevalence rates. Seventeen HIV-positive and -negative mothers allocated to intervention clusters were recruited. Despite perceived health and economic benefits of breastfeeding, several barriers to EBF remained, which contributed to a preference for mixed feeding. The understanding of the promotional message of 'exclusive' feeding was limited to 'not mixing two milks': breast or formula and did not address early introduction of foods and other liquids. Further, a crying infant or an infant who did not sleep at night were given as strong reasons for introducing semi-solid foods as early as 1 month. In addition, the need to adhere to the cultural practice of 'cleansing' and the knowledge that this practice is not compatible with EBF appeared to promote the decision to formula feed in HIV-positive mothers. Efforts to reduce barriers to EBF need to be intensified and further take into account the strong cultural beliefs that promote mixed feeding.

  6. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.

  7. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  8. Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners to consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance of other equal-status learners. Products to be assessed can include writing, oral presentations, portfolios, test performance, or other skilled behaviors. Peer assessment can be summative or formative. A formative view is…

  9. Opportunities, ethical challenges, and lessons learned from working with peer research assistants in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-10-01

    We discuss ethical challenges and opportunities experienced by peer research assistants (PRAs) in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada. We review lessons learned and best practices based on our experience conducting a qualitative investigation of research priorities with diverse women living with HIV (WLWH) and implementation of a cross-sectional survey with African, Caribbean, and Black WLWH. While some opportunities were similar across research phases for PRAs (e.g., skill building), distinct challenges emerged in qualitative and quantitative phases. For example, our training did not adequately prepare PRAs with focus group facilitation skills; at times, survey implementation became counseling sessions. Researchers should assess how best to support PRAs as part of multi-method research processes.

  10. Exploring the Meso-System: The Roles of Community, Family, and Peers in Adolescent Delinquency and Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Faulk, Monique; Sizer, Monteic A.

    2016-01-01

    Community contexts are important ecological settings related to problem behavior and positive youth development (PYD). While substantial work has focused on neighborhood disadvantage, the current study explores the role of community assets, specifically linkages to important institutional resources and people in those settings. These concepts are…

  11. Contributions of Peer Support to Health, Health Care, and Prevention: Papers from Peers for Progress

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edwin B.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Ibarra, Leticia; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Elder, John P.; Tang, Tricia S.; Heisler, Michele; Safford, Monika M.; Simmons, David

    2015-01-01

    SUBSTANTIAL evidence documents the benefits of peer support provided by community health workers, lay health advisors, promotores de salud, and others. The papers in this supplement, all supported by the Peers for Progress program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, contribute to the growing body of literature addressing the efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and adoption of peer support for diabetes self-management. They and additional papers supported by Peers for Progress contribute to understanding how peer support can be implemented in real world settings. Topics include examination of the peers who provide peer support, reaching the hardly reached, success factors in peer support interventions, proactive approaches, attention to emotions, peer support in behavioral health, dissemination models and their application in China, peer support in the patient-centered medical home, research challenges, and policy implications. PMID:26304968

  12. Contributions of Peer Support to Health, Health Care, and Prevention: Papers from Peers for Progress.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ibarra, Leticia; Cherrington, Andrea L; Elder, John P; Tang, Tricia S; Heisler, Michele; Safford, Monika M; Simmons, David

    2015-08-01

    SUBSTANTIAL: evidence documents the benefits of peer support provided by community health workers, lay health advisors, promotores de salud, and others. The papers in this supplement, all supported by the Peers for Progress program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, contribute to the growing body of literature addressing the efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and adoption of peer support for diabetes self-management. They and additional papers supported by Peers for Progress contribute to understanding how peer support can be implemented in real world settings. Topics include examination of the peers who provide peer support, reaching the hardly reached, success factors in peer support interventions, proactive approaches, attention to emotions, peer support in behavioral health, dissemination models and their application in China, peer support in the patient-centered medical home, research challenges, and policy implications.

  13. Patients' self-efficacy within online health communities: facilitating chronic disease self-management behaviors through peer education.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erin

    2016-01-01

    In order to combat the growing burden of chronic disease, evidence-based self-management programs have been designed to teach patients about the disease and its affect on their lives. Self-efficacy is a key component in chronic disease self-management. This research used online ethnography and discourse analysis (N = 8,231) to examine self-efficacy within the computer-mediated communication (CMC) of four online health communities used by people with arthritis. Specifically, online opinion leaders were identified for examination. Across the four communities, there was a cyclical process that involved "disease veterans" sharing their experiences and gaining credibility within the community, new(er) members suffering from disease symptoms and sharing their experiences online, and finally, asking others for help with arthritis self-management behaviors. Three themes follow: (1) sharing disease experience, (2) suffering from disease symptoms, and (3) asking for help. Practical implications for health promotion and education are discussed.

  14. Students on Academic Probation at Bronx Community College: A Project in Peer-Mediated Self-Management Contracts. Report II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    The study described in this report was launched in Fall 1978 at Bronx Community College (BCC) to determine the efficacy of two procedures for enhancing the academic survival and study skills of students in academic difficulty. Introductory material looks at BCC's Operation Second Chance (OSC), one of these treatment procedures, which employs…

  15. The Role of Community, Family, Peer, and School Factors in Group Bullying: Implications for School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael J.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. Methods: We used…

  16. Peer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.; Ehly, Stewart, Ed.

    Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) involves students consciously assisting others to learn, and in so doing, learning more effectively themselves. PAL encompasses peer tutoring, peer modeling, peer education, peer counseling, peer monitoring, and peer assessment, which are differentiated from other more general "cooperative learning" methods.…

  17. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    PubMed

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context.

  18. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  19. Being "chill" with teachers and "frozen" by peers in science: overcoming social and educational barriers in a learning community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hannah; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    This forum discusses the issue of `othering' and how intersectionality is a useful analytical framework for understanding the students' immigrant experiences in, and out of, the science classroom. We use a feminist perspective to discuss Minjung's study because gender is a key aspect of one's identity other aspects such as race, religion, socio-economic status, and age have assumed a significant status in gender studies. Lastly we examine the supports and barriers that cliques can produce and propose the importance of building a learning community in the science classroom to engage all students.

  20. HIV peer counseling and the development of hope: perspectives from peer counselors and peer counseling recipients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Gregory E; Larsen, Denise

    2007-11-01

    Peer counseling is becoming an increasingly viable treatment option when working with people living with HIV and AIDS, especially during the diagnostic process. Unfortunately, little research has looked at the perceived benefits of peer counseling from the perspectives of clients receiving the services and those providing the services. In addition, research suggests that hope can help people living with HIV to deal with the HIV diagnosis and to improve their lifestyles; however, the authors were unable to locate any research exploring the benefits of peer counseling in fostering the hope of people living with HIV/AIDS. The present paper, following a community-based research paradigm embedded within a qualitative case study methodology explores the benefits of peer support counseling from the perspective of 12 participants living with HIV who have had experiences with peer counseling. Participants identified several thematic benefits of peer support counseling, including the role of peer counselors in the process of fostering hope. Roles and benefits of peer counseling, in relation to the facilitation of hope for people living with HIV/AIDS, suggest potentially interesting implications for future research and practice in HIV/AIDS care.

  1. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure A ... talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you don' ...

  2. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure Print ... talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you don' ...

  3. Recommendations for peer-to-peer support for NICU parents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J; Grubbs, L

    2015-01-01

    Peer-to-peer support provided by ‘veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer training and program operation are discussed. Recommendations for offering peer support to all NICU parents as an integral component of family-centered care and comprehensive family support are presented. PMID:26597805

  4. Canadian Community College Counselling Services--How Are They Staffed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, E. F.; Miles, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Because little is known about counselling services in Canadian community colleges, the authors sent questionnaires to 179 post-secondary, non-university, educational institutions and received replies from 83. Data on numbers of counseling personnel, their educational level, salaries, counsellor-student ratios, support staff, and other relevant…

  5. CDMRP: Fostering Innovation Through Peer Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    objectives. Research proposals (applications) are reviewed using a two-tiered process that includes peer review panels that evaluate scientific merit...that will have an impact on the communities affected by the relevant illness, injury, or disorder. Scientific peer review is executed using a dynamic...CDMRP’s peer review processes support the organization’s mission to fund innovative, high-impact research.

  6. Peer support: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mead, S; Hilton, D; Curtis, L

    2001-01-01

    This article offers one theoretical perspective of peer support and attempts to define the elements that, when reinforced through education and training, provide a new cultural context for healing and recovery. Persons labeled with psychiatric disability have become victims of social and cultural ostracism and consequently have developed a sense of self that reinforces the "patient" identity. Enabling members of peer support to understand the nature and impact of these cultural forces leads individuals and peer communities toward a capacity for personal, relational, and social change. It is our hope that consumers from all different types of programs (e.g. drop-in, social clubs, advocacy, support, outreach, respite), traditional providers, and policy makers will find this article helpful in stimulating dialogue about the role of peer programs in the development of a recovery based system.

  7. The Effects of Counsellor Gender and Problem Type on Help-Seeking Attitudes among Turkish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz-Gozu, Hamide

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores gender differences in help-seeking attitudes and the effects of counsellor gender and problem type on those attitudes among Turkish high school students. The Attitudes towards Seeking Help Scale and a survey instrument concerning related factors were administered to 342 adolescents. ANOVAs show that male and female…

  8. The School Counsellor and Students' Career Choice in High School: The Assessor's Perspective in a Ghanaian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoah, Samuel Asare; Kwofie, Isaac; Kwofie, Faustina Akosua Agyeiwaa

    2015-01-01

    School counsellors play significant role in the total development of students in respect to career choices. In view of that career development interventions are provide to support the provision of information to guide students make well informed choices in personal, academic and social aspects. This study thus, aimed to examine whether the role of…

  9. Buying into the Profession: Looking at the Impact on Students of Expert Videotape Demonstrations in Counsellor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, Patrice A.

    2008-01-01

    From analysing qualitative questionnaires, a group interview, and instructor interviews, this study explores the impact of viewing expert demonstration videotapes on students' learning processes, their identification as counsellors, and understanding of the counselling profession. Commonly, students selectively choose what they see and how they…

  10. International Registry of Counsellor Education Programs: CACREP's Contribution to the Development of Counseling as a Global Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanard, Rebecca Powell

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issues and challenges involved in the development of the counseling profession internationally and the role that quality assurance plays in its development. It chronicles the development of the International Registry for Counsellor Education Programs and its contributions, a critical analysis of the strengths and…

  11. Psycho-Educational Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities: Views and Practices of Australian Psychologists and Guidance Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyard, John D.; Gilmore, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of the views and practices of 203 Australian psychologists and guidance counsellors with respect to psycho-educational assessment of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Results from an online survey indicated that practitioners draw upon a wide range of theoretical perspectives when…

  12. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  13. Dimensions of Cognitive Dissonance and the Level of Job Satisfaction among Counsellors in Delta and Edo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduh, William Akporobaroh

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the dimensions of cognitive dissonance and the extent to which cognitive dissonance could influence the level of job satisfaction of guidance counsellors. The study was guided by three research questions and one null hypothesis. The design of the study was correlational survey. The population of the study was 158 practising…

  14. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  15. Stress Coping Strategies among Guidance Counsellors in the Performance of Their Jobs in Secondary Schools Delta North Senatorial District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The study was set out to investigate stress coping strategies among Guidance Counsellors in the performance of their jobs. One research question and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study. One hundred and ten copies of the instruments were administered on one hundred and ten…

  16. Digital Divide in the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Counsellor Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyo, Mfon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated digital divide in the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in counsellor education in Nigerian universities. It had two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a survey design and used ICT Utilization Questionnaire (IUQ) in gathering data from the…

  17. Writing Quality Peer Reviews of Research Manuscripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Phillip; Graber, Kim C.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of…

  18. Peer Managed Token Economies: Evaluation and Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, Jeffrey R.; Archer, Robert P.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate equivalent levels of patient performance when contingent reinforcement in a residential token economy program was controlled by either patient peer groups or staff. Patients in a peer-managed program showed positive ward behavior, reductions in psychosocial problems, and increase in potential for adjusting to community life.…

  19. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  20. The "Peer" in "Peer Review"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  1. "Peer but not peer": considering the context of infant feeding peer counseling in a high HIV prevalence area.

    PubMed

    Nor, Barni; Zembe, Yanga; Daniels, Karen; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Ahlberg, Beth Maina; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2009-11-01

    Postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding remains an unsolved problem in resource poor settings, where refraining from breastfeeding is neither feasible nor safe. This study describes how women experienced infant-feeding peer counseling within a community-based intervention trial in 3 settings in South Africa. In total, 17 interviews and 10 observations were done with HIV-infected and uninfected women. The findings raise questions on the concept of "peer." Some women feared the peer counselor visits and questioned their intentions. Others, especially HIV-infected women, valued peer counseling for the emotional support provided. Being HIV infected with limited or no network of support appeared stressful for most women. The effects of data collection on the delivery and uptake of peer counseling are discussed. The findings underline the contextual barriers facing peer counselors and show that these challenges could have important implications for the effectiveness of infant-feeding counseling in high HIV prevalence countries.

  2. Peer Response That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes a method of peer review in which peers read each other's papers while writing questions to inspire invention and elaboration in their partners. Describes a four-day sequence for introducing the peer-review method. (TB)

  3. A Model for Foxy Peer-to-Peer Network Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieong, Ricci; Lai, Pierre; Chow, Kam-Pui; Law, Frank; Kwan, Michael; Tse, Kenneth

    In recent years, peer-to-peer (P2P) applications have become the dominant form of Internet traffic. Foxy, a Chinese community focused filesharing tool, is increasingly being used to disseminate private data and sensitive documents in Hong Kong. Unfortunately, its scattered design and a highly distributed network make it difficult to locate a file originator. This paper proposes an investigative model for analyzing Foxy communications and identifying the first uploaders of files. The model is built on the results of several experiments, which reveal behavior patterns of the Foxy protocol that can be used to expose traces of file originators.

  4. Peer-review: An IOP Publishing Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Online publishing is challenging, and potentially changing, the role of publishers in both managing the peer-review process and disseminating the work that they publish in meeting contrasting needs from diverse groups of research communities. Recognizing the value of peer-review as a fundamental service to authors and the research community, the underlying principles of managing the process for journals published by IOP Publishing remain unchanged and yet the potential and demand for alternative models exists. This talk will discuss the traditional approach to peer-review placed in the context of this changing demand.

  5. How can we build resilience in primary school aged children? The importance of social support from adults and peers in family, school and community settings.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D; Sun, J

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the association between firstly, student resiliency and their perceptions of social support from parents/caregivers, teachers, and peers, and secondly, between student's perception of their general health status and their social support. A cross-sectional research project was designed and conducted in 2003 in an urban and remote area of Queensland, Australia. The study population comprised of 2580 students (Years three, five, and seven) across 20 primary schools. The main outcome measures were self-reported health status and resiliency behaviours. Independent variables included student perceptions of support from parents/caregivers, teachers, school peers, and prosocial groups. Students who perceived parents, teachers, and peers as supportive were more likely to have higher resiliency behaviour in communication and cooperation, self-esteem, empathy, help-seeking, goals and aspirations. Students who considered that their parents, peers at school and prosocial groups were supportive, were more likely to feel healthy. Findings suggest that providing adult and peer support to students at primary school age is a vital strategy in promoting student resiliency and general health for children of primary school age.

  6. Counsellors contact dementia caregivers - predictors of utilisation in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Counselling of family members is an established procedure in the support of dementia patients' relatives. In absence of widespread specialised dementia care services in most countries, however, counselling services are often not taken up or only very late in the course of the disease. Object In order to promote acceptance of this service, a new counselling concept was implemented where general practitioners recommended family counsellors, who then actively contacted the family caregivers to offer counselling ("Counsellors Contact Caregivers", CCC). The research questions were: To what extent can the rate of family counselling be increased by CCC? What are the predictors for usage of this form of family counselling? Methods The study started in June 2006 in Middle Franconia for patients with mild to moderate dementia. At baseline, 110 family caregivers were offered counselling based on the CCC guideline. Data was analysed from 97 patient-caregiver dyads who received counselling for one year. The mean age of the patients with dementia (67 women and 30 men) was 80.7 years (SD = 6.2). The mean age of their primary family caregivers (68 women, 23 men) was 60.8 years (SD = 13.8). Results 35 family members (36%) made use of more extensive counselling (more than one personal contact). By contrast, 29 family members (30%) had no personal contact or only one personal contact (33 cases, 34%). The factors "spouse" (p = .001) and "degree of care" (p = .005) were identified as significant predictors for acceptance of extensive counselling. Conclusions Actively contacting patients and their caregivers is a successful means of establishing early and frequent contact with family members of patients with mild to moderate dementia. Use of extensive counselling is made especially by spouses of patients requiring intensified care. Trial Registration ISRCTN68329593 PMID:20470365

  7. Community-based approaches for prevention of mother to child transmission in resource-poor settings: a social ecological review

    PubMed Central

    Busza, Joanna; Walker, Damilola; Hairston, Alana; Gable, Alicia; Pitter, Christian; Lee, Stephen; Katirayi, Leila; Simiyu, Rogers; Mpofu, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Numerous barriers to optimal uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services occur at community level (i.e., outside the healthcare setting). To achieve elimination of paediatric HIV, therefore, interventions must also work within communities to address these barriers and increase service use and need to be informed by evidence. This paper reviews community-based approaches that have been used in resource-limited settings to increase rates of PMTCT enrolment, retention in care and successful treatment outcomes. It aims to identify which interventions work, why they may do so and what knowledge gaps remain. Methods First, we identified barriers to PMTCT that originate outside the health system. These were used to construct a social ecological framework categorizing barriers to PMTCT into the following levels of influence: individual, peer and family, community and sociocultural. We then used this conceptual framework to guide a review of the literature on community-based approaches, defined as interventions delivered outside of formal health settings, with the goal of increasing uptake, retention, adherence and positive psychosocial outcomes in PMTCT programmes in resource-poor countries. Results Our review found evidence of effectiveness of strategies targeting individuals and peer/family levels (e.g., providing household HIV testing and training peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding) and at community level (e.g., participatory women’s groups and home-based care to support adherence and retention). Evidence is more limited for complex interventions combining multiple strategies across different ecological levels. There is often little information describing implementation; and approaches such as “community mobilization” remain poorly defined. Conclusions Evidence from existing community approaches can be adapted for use in planning PMTCT. However, for successful replication of evidence-based interventions to

  8. Adaptive search in mobile peer-to-peer databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Ouri (Inventor); Xu, Bo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Information is stored in a plurality of mobile peers. The peers communicate in a peer to peer fashion, using a short-range wireless network. Occasionally, a peer initiates a search for information in the peer to peer network by issuing a query. Queries and pieces of information, called reports, are transmitted among peers that are within a transmission range. For each search additional peers are utilized, wherein these additional peers search and relay information on behalf of the originator of the search.

  9. ESL Students' Perceptions of Their English Writing Proficiency and the Effects of Peer Review Training among Three Types of Students in a Community College ESL Composition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldburg, Maxine E.

    2012-01-01

    Learner-centered methodology like peer review is problematic in the pluralism of the ESL classroom when teaching academic English composition. A distinct complication is the form writing instruction should take given the interaction and variations between ESL students' L1 background, experiences, schema, and the meaning of academic literacy in…

  10. Youth Who are "Disconnected" and Those Who Then Reconnect: Assessing the Influence of Family, Programs, Peers and Communities. Research Brief. Publication #2009-37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Moore, Kristin A.; Ling, Thomson J.; McPhee-Baker, Cameron; Brown, Brett V.

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood can be a turbulent time. To succeed in this transition, adolescents and emerging adults must advance in several areas of development, such as education, work, financial autonomy, romantic relationships, peer involvement, citizenship, and avoidance of destructive health behaviors. However, some young people who have…

  11. Peer Relations in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age.…

  12. Trends in Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2005-01-01

    Developments in forms of peer learning 1981-2006 are reviewed, focusing mainly on peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and peer assessment. Types and definitions of peer learning are explored, together with questions of implementation integrity and consequent effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Benefits to helpers are now emphasised at least as…

  13. Opposites detract: middle school peer group antipathies.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-08-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age=15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youths in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked groups whose members participated in sports.

  14. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish 9th grade middle school students (M = 15.0 years-old). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youth in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youth in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked those in groups whose members participated in sports. PMID:20378125

  15. Reflections on Ideological Consistency between Community-Based Research and Counselling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based research (CBR) and counselling practice share multiple skill sets and ideological tenets. In addition, CBR offers an approach to research that can be highly conducive to effective counselling-related research. Despite these consistencies and benefits, counsellors and counselling students have underutilized this approach to…

  16. Counselling, Suicide Risk Assessment, and Retention in a Community College (2004-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on Suicide Risk Assessment (SRA) protocols completed by counsellors for 153 students who presented with suicidal ideation at a community college counselling centre during a five year period. This study sought to: determine the number of students presenting with suicidal ideation annually; identify the types of interventions used…

  17. Medical journal peer review: process and bias.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Scientific peer review is pivotal in health care research in that it facilitates the evaluation of findings for competence, significance, and originality by qualified experts. While the origins of peer review can be traced to the societies of the eighteenth century, it became an institutionalized part of the scholarly process in the latter half of the twentieth century. This was a response to the growth of research and greater subject specialization. With the current increase in the number of specialty journals, the peer review process continues to evolve to meet the needs of patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The peer review process itself faces challenges. Unblinded peer review might suffer from positive or negative bias towards certain authors, specialties, and institutions. Peer review can also suffer when editors and/or reviewers might be unable to understand the contents of the submitted manuscript. This can result in an inability to detect major flaws, or revelations of major flaws after acceptance of publication by the editors. Other concerns include potentially long delays in publication and challenges uncovering plagiarism, duplication, corruption and scientific misconduct. Conversely, a multitude of these challenges have led to claims of scientific misconduct and an erosion of faith. These challenges have invited criticism of the peer review process itself. However, despite its imperfections, the peer review process enjoys widespread support in the scientific community. Peer review bias is one of the major focuses of today's scientific assessment of the literature. Various types of peer review bias include content-based bias, confirmation bias, bias due to conservatism, bias against interdisciplinary research, publication bias, and the bias of conflicts of interest. Consequently, peer review would benefit from various changes and improvements with appropriate training of reviewers to provide quality reviews to maintain the quality and integrity of

  18. Peer Grouping: The Refinement of Performance Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges operate under much scrutiny these days, and these institutions have experienced a growing emphasis on performance indicators as paths to institutional accountability. California's system of 109 community colleges recently developed and implemented an innovative accountability program that used peer group comparison as one of its…

  19. PKI-based security for peer-to-peer information sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Essiari, Abdelilah; Muratas, Artur

    2004-05-02

    The free flow of information is the feature that has made peer-to-peer information sharing applications popular. However, this very feature holds back the acceptance of these applications by the corporate and scientific communities. In these communities it is important to provide confidentiality and integrity of communication and to enforce access control to shared resources. We present a number of security mechanisms that can be used to satisfy these security requirements. Our solutions are based on established and proven security techniques and we utilize existing technologies when possible. As a proof of concept, we have developed an information sharing system, called scishare, which integrates a number of these security mechanisms to provide a secure environment for information sharing. This system will allow a broader set of user communities to benefit from peer-to-peer information sharing.

  20. Enriching Patient-Centered Medical Homes Through Peer Support.

    PubMed

    Daaleman, Timothy P; Fisher, Edwin B

    2015-08-01

    Peer supporters are recognized by various designations-community health workers, promotores de salud, lay health advisers-and are community members who work for pay or as volunteers in association with health care systems or nonprofit community organizations and often share ethnicity, language, and socioeconomic status with the mentees that they serve. Although emerging evidence demonstrates the efficacy of peer support at the community level, the adoption and implementation of this resource into patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) is still under development. To accelerate that integration, this article addresses three major elements of peer support interventions: the functions and features of peer support, a framework and programmatic strategies for implementation, and fiscal models that would support the sustained viability of peer support programs within PCMHs. Key functions of peer support include assistance in daily management of health-related behaviors, social and emotional support, linkage to clinical care, and longitudinal or ongoing support. An organizational model of innovation implementation provides a useful framework for determining how to implement and evaluate peer support programs in PCMHs. Programmatic strategies that can be useful in developing peer support programs within PCMHs include peer coaching or mentoring, group self-management training, and programs designed around the telephone and information technology. Fiscal models for peer support programs include linkages with hospital or health care systems, service- or community-based nonprofit organizations, and partnerships between health care systems and community groups. Peer support promises to enrich PCMHs by activating patients in their self-care, providing culturally sensitive outreach, and opening the way for partnerships with community-based organizations.

  1. Coaching mental health peer advocates for rural LGBTQ people.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Trott, Elise M; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities.

  2. Peer-to-Peer Science Data Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, J. B.; Holland, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of P2PSDE is to provide a convenient and extensible Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network architecture that allows: distributed science-data services-seamlessly incorporating collaborative value-added services with search-oriented access to remote science data. P2PSDE features the real-time discovery of data-serving peers (plus peer-groups and peer-group services), in addition to the searching for and transferring of science data. These features are implemented using "Project JXTA", the first and only standardized set of open, generalized P2P protocols that allow arbitrary network devices to communicate and collaborate as peers. The JXTA protocols standardize the manner in which peers discover each other, self-organize into peer groups, advertise and discover network services, and securely communicate with and monitor each other-even across network firewalls. The key benefits include: Potential for dramatic improvements in science-data dissemination; Real-time-discoverable, potentially redundant (reliable), science-data services; Openness/Extensibility; Decentralized use of small, inexpensive, readily-available desktop machines; and Inherently secure-with ability to create variable levels of security by group.

  3. Towards Understanding Peer Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the nature and significance of peer relations among children, focusing on social psychological theories of close relationships, a social relational model of social development, research on conflict management, and progress toward understanding peer conflict. (MDM)

  4. AQUATOX Peer Review Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    AQUATOX Release 2 underwent an external peer review in early 2003, and Release 3 underwent an external peer review in late 2008. Reviewers stated model enhancements have made AQUATOX one of the most exciting tools in aquatic ecosystem management.

  5. Peer relations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hay, Dale F; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age. Social skills that facilitate peer relationships consolidate in the preschool years, during which time peer groups become structured with respect to friendship groups, gender, and dominance relations; some children begin to be rejected by their peers. In later childhood some children develop entrenched problems with peer relationships, in terms of loneliness, bullying and victimisation. Underlying cognitive and emotional processes that facilitate successful peer relationships at all ages are identified, and the extent to which peer relations play a causal role in the genesis of disorder is evaluated. A review of the evidence suggests that, rather than a simple pathway from problematic peer relations to disorder, there is a reciprocal relationship between children's problems with peers and their psychological problems from infancy to adolescence.

  6. Peer Influence and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal; Simpson, Shelly; Najera, John; Weiner, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that peer influence can be negative, by increasing the likelihood that a youth will engage in high-risk behaviors and make risky decisions. However, peer influence can also be positive and protect a youth from these same high-risk activities. This article examines the extent of peer influence and then describes the Alternative…

  7. Peer Leadership Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula

    This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…

  8. Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2013-12-01

    Several studies across fields have documented the detrimental effects of exposure to violence and, separately, the power of developmental assets to promote positive youth development. However, few have examined the lives of youth exposed to violence who demonstrate resilience (that is, positive adjustment despite risk), and hardly any have examined how developmental assets may shape resilient trajectories into adulthood for youth exposed to violence. What are these resources and relationships that high-risk youth can leverage to tip the balance from vulnerability in favor of resilience? We used generalized estimating equations to examine multilevel longitudinal data from 1,114 youth of ages 11-16 from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Behavioral adaptation was a dynamic process that varied over time and by level of violence exposure. In the short term, being a victim was associated with increased aggression and delinquency. In the long term though, both victims and witnesses to violence had higher odds of behavioral adaptation. Baseline family support and family boundaries, friend support, neighborhood support, and collective efficacy had positive main effects for all youth. Additionally, having family support, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities for participation modified the effect of exposure to violence and increased odds of behavioral adaptation over time. Policies, systems, and programs across sectors should focus on building caring relationships/supports with family members and friends, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities especially for witnesses and victims of violence, to promote behavioral resilience and related outcomes into adulthood for high-risk youth.

  9. A Study of the Effects of the Implementation of Small Peer Led Collaborative Group Learning on Students in Developmental Mathematics Courses at a Tribal Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Dianna Dawn Tiahrt

    2010-01-01

    College students needing remediation in mathematics are a problem at nearly all colleges and universities but are immense at community colleges where large numbers of students enroll in developmental mathematics courses. This issue for Native American students at Tribal Community Colleges has an enormous effect on future opportunities in…

  10. Nuevo Amanecer: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Community-Based, Peer-Delivered Stress Management Intervention to Improve Quality of Life in Latinas With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz, Carmen; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L.; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E.; Durón, Ysabel; McGuire, Peggy; Luce, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a community-based, translational stress management program to improve health-related quality of life in Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer. Methods. We adapted a cognitive–behavioral stress management program integrating evidence-based and community best practices to address the needs of Latinas with breast cancer. Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual-care control group. Trained peers delivered the 8-week intervention between February 2011 and February 2014. Primary outcomes were breast cancer–specific quality of life and distress, and general symptoms of distress. Results. Of 151 participants, 95% were retained at 6 months (between May 2011 and May 2014). Improvements in quality of life from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention than the control group on physical well-being, emotional well-being, breast cancer concerns, and overall quality of life. Decreases from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention group on depression and somatization. Conclusions. Results suggest that translation of evidence-based programs can reduce psychosocial health disparities in Latinas with breast cancer. Integration of this program into community-based organizations enhances its dissemination potential. PMID:25905829

  11. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  12. PEER REVIEW PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    MOGHISSI, A ALAN; LOVE, BETTY R; STRAJA, SORIN R

    2007-09-29

    The Institute for Regulatory Science (RS) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) jointly estab lished a peer-review program. As the program evolved, four types of review were established. A process for stakeholder participation in peer review eetings was also developed. While a committee established by the ASME provided oversight to the peer-review process, the RSI managed the day-to-day operations of peer review panels. In addition to the reports resulting from peer review of specific projects, several documents were prepared to facilitate the review process, all of which were widely distributed.

  13. The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, J. A.; Aschbrenner, K. A.; Marsch, L. A.; Bartels, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims People with serious mental illness are increasingly turning to popular social media, including Facebook, Twitter or YouTube, to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health conditions. This emerging form of unsolicited communication among self-forming online communities of patients and individuals with diverse health concerns is referred to as peer-to-peer support. We offer a perspective on how online peer-to-peer connections among people with serious mental illness could advance efforts to promote mental and physical wellbeing in this group. Methods In this commentary, we take the perspective that when an individual with serious mental illness decides to connect with similar others online it represents a critical point in their illness experience. We propose a conceptual model to illustrate how online peer-to-peer connections may afford opportunities for individuals with serious mental illness to challenge stigma, increase consumer activation and access online interventions for mental and physical well-being. Results People with serious mental illness report benefits from interacting with peers online from greater social connectedness, feelings of group belonging and by sharing personal stories and strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of living with a mental illness. Within online communities, individuals with serious mental illness could challenge stigma through personal empowerment and providing hope. By learning from peers online, these individuals may gain insight about important health care decisions, which could promote mental health care seeking behaviours. These individuals could also access interventions for mental and physical wellbeing delivered through social media that could incorporate mutual support between peers, help promote treatment engagement and reach a wider demographic. Unforeseen risks may include exposure to misleading information, facing hostile or derogatory comments from others, or

  14. Peer support for stroke survivors: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Innovative and sustainable programs are required to support the well-being of stroke survivors. Peer support is a potentially low cost way to enhance well-being of recent stroke survivors and the well-being and community reintegration of their peer supporters. This article describes the perceptions of stroke survivors, care partners, peer supporters, and professionals of an individual peer support program. Methods An instrumental case study design was used to examine a volunteer peer support program that provides acute care visits and telephone follow-up post-discharge. In particular, a) type of support provided, b) benefits for the stroke survivor and care partner, c) potential harms to the stroke survivor, d) impact of providing support on the peer supporter, and e) required processes were considered. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 16 new stroke survivors and 8 care partners immediately following hospital discharge and then 6 months later, and with 7 peer supporters, 3 program co-ordinators and 4 health professionals to gather feedback from multiple stakeholders. Results Emotional, affirmational and informational support were perceived as being offered by the peer supporters. Peer visits were perceived as providing encouragement, motivation, validation, and decreased feelings of being alone. However, the visits were not perceived as beneficial to all stroke survivors. The impact on the peer supporters included increased social connections, personal growth, enjoyment, and feelings of making a difference in the lives of others. Involvement of the healthcare team, peer supporter training and a skilled coordinator were crucial to the success this program. Conclusions Peer support can potentially enhance service to stroke survivors and promote community reintegration for peer volunteers. Further research is needed to determine the preferred format and timing of peer support, and the characteristics of stroke survivors most likely to

  15. Defining Peer-to-Peer Learning--From an Old "Art of Practice" to a New Mode of Forest Owner Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamunen, Katri; Appelstrand, Marie; Hujala, Teppo; Kurttila, Mikko; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah; Vilkriste, Lelde; Westberg, Lotten; Tikkanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the concept of peer-to-peer learning (P2PL) in the context of North-European small-scale forest owners. The aim is to develop a framework for initiating new and evaluating already existing forest owners' P2PL communities. Design: Previous studies of peer-learning are used to determine and justify eight dimensions for…

  16. Peer Victimization and Substance Use Among African American Adolescents and Emerging Adults on Chicago's Southside.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Smith, Douglas C; Resko, Stella M

    2017-03-13

    Urban African-American youth residing in poorly resourced communities are at a heightened risk of peer victimization, which consequently increases their likelihood of risky behaviors such as substance use. The present study examined whether there was a direct relationship between peer victimization and substance use and whether it was mediated by negative peer norms, internalizing problems, and bullying perpetration. African-American youth (n = 638) completed a self-administered questionnaire on age, biological sex, socioeconomic status, lifetime substance use, peer victimization and bullying perpetration, negative peer norms, and internalizing problems. There were no direct effects between peer victimization and substance use. However, negative peer norms and bullying were both independently associated with substance use, although internalizing problems were not significant. In addition, peer victimization increased the odds of internalizing problems. Social services must be expended in low-income communities to effectively address peer victimization and substance use among urban African-American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Clarifying the role of the mental health peer specialist in Massachusetts, USA: insights from peer specialists, supervisors and clients.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Linda; Strother, Heather; Muhr, Kathy; Sefton, Laura; Savageau, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Mental health peer specialists develop peer-to-peer relationships of trust with clients to improve their health and well-being, functioning in ways similar to community health workers. Although the number of peer specialists in use has been increasing, their role in care teams is less defined than that of the community health worker. This qualitative study explored how the peer specialist role is defined across different stakeholder groups, the expectations for this role and how the peer specialist is utilised and integrated across different types of mental health services. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups conducted in Massachusetts with peer specialists (N = 44), their supervisors (N = 14) and clients (N = 10) between September 2009 and January 2011. A consensus coding approach was used and all data outputs were reviewed by the entire team to identify themes. Peer specialists reported that their most important role is to develop relationships with clients and that having lived mental health experience is a key element in creating that bond. They also indicated that educating staff about the recovery model and peer role is another important function. However, they often felt a lack of clarity about their role within their organisation and care team. Supervisors valued the unique experience that peer specialists bring to an organisation. However, without a defined set of expectations for this role, they struggled with training, guiding and evaluating their peer specialist staff. Clients reported that the shared lived experience is important for the relationship and that working with a peer specialist has improved their mental health. With increasing support for person-centred integrated healthcare delivery models, the demand for mental health peer specialist services will probably increase. Therefore, clearer role definition, as well as workforce development focused on team orientation, is necessary for peer specialists to be fully integrated

  18. Peer to Peer Information System Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    theory to lookup problem causes based on the current set of symptoms. This gives a (claimed) performance improvement of a factor of 100 over other...turn initiates actions by the receiving peer system. Occasionally, the relationship is extended all the way to the ultimate target managed object...validation is based first on CORBA mechanisms, followed by the server supplying the receiving peer system with an appropriate user identity

  19. Academic Peer Instruction: Reference and Training Manual (with Answers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaritsky, Joyce; Toce, Andi

    2013-01-01

    This manual consists of an introduction to our Academic Peer Instruction (API) program at LaGuardia Community College, a compilation of the materials we have developed and use for training of our tutors (with answers), and a bibliography. API is based on an internationally recognized peer tutoring program, Supplemental Instruction. (Contains 6…

  20. Professionalizing the Role of Peer Leaders in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Bethany; Doyle, Maureen; Taylor, Jennifer; Antes, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors frequently utilize peer mentors and/or leaders. At Northern Kentucky University, the STEM Ambassador (SA) program involves students in the creation of a STEM community through multifaceted roles as mentors, peer-learning facilitators, and social…

  1. The Healthy Activity Program lay counsellor delivered treatment for severe depression in India: systematic development and randomised evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Neerja; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; Shinde, Sachin; Weobong, Benedict; Balaji, Madhumitha; Hollon, Steven D.; Rahman, Atif; Wilson, G. Terence; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; King, Michael; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Fairburn, Christopher; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the global treatment gap for mental disorders requires treatments that are economical, effective and culturally appropriate. Aims To describe a systematic approach to the development of a brief psychological treatment for patients with severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary healthcare. Method The treatment was developed in three stages using a variety of methods: (a) identifying potential strategies; (b) developing a theoretical framework; and (c) evaluating the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the psychological treatment. Results The Healthy Activity Program (HAP) is delivered over 6–8 sessions and consists of behavioral activation as the core psychological framework with added emphasis on strategies such as problem-solving and activation of social networks. Key elements to improve acceptability and feasibility are also included. In an intention-to-treat analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial (55 participants), the prevalence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II ⩾19) after 2 months was lower in the HAP than the control arm (adjusted risk ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.94, P = 0.01). Conclusions Our systematic approach to the development of psychological treatments could be extended to other mental disorders. HAP is an acceptable and effective brief psychological treatment for severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care. PMID:26494875

  2. Assessing peer advisor intervention fidelity using video skits in a peer support implementation trial.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Marquita W; Cherrington, Andrea L; Gamboa, Christopher M; Halanych, Jewell H; Martin, Michelle Y; Safford, Monika M

    2014-09-01

    In community-based interventions involving lay health workers, or "community health workers," peer-client interactions are not typically observed by investigators, creating challenges in assessing intervention fidelity. In the context of a community-based randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of peer support on diabetes outcomes of people with diabetes in rural Alabama, a region characterized by poverty and low literacy, we developed a video assessment tool that assessed participant perceptions of peer-client interactions. The video assessment consisted of four short skits on areas of emphasis during peer training: directive versus nondirective counseling style and setting a specific versus a more general goal. The video tool was evaluated for association with questionnaire-derived measures of counseling style and goal setting among 102 participants. For counseling style, 44% of participants reported that their peer advisor was most similar to the nondirective skit. For goal setting, 42% reported that their peer advisor was most similar to the specific goal skit. There was no statistically significant relationship between skit selection and questionnaire-derived measures. The video assessment was feasible, but results suggest that video and questionnaire assessments in this population yield different results. Further validation to better understand the differences between questionnaire reports and video assessment is warranted.

  3. Peer-to-Peer Training Facilitator’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Peer -to- Peer Training Peer Collaboration Peer Learning Unit Training Program Video-Teleconference Facilitation SECURITY...Adults learn best when they are working on current, real-life challenges and exchanging feedback with others in similar situations (Senge, 1990...programs, peers often can schedule and locate their own learning sessions which makes the sessions very accommodating to busy schedules (Authenticity

  4. Keyword Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dingyi; Yu, Yong

    Keyword search is a preliminary application for peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. It is important for users to find relevant resources in the highly dynamic system. Many factors affect the results of keyword search, including the underlying structure of peer-to-peer network, the dynamics of peers, the distribution of resources, etc.

  5. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…

  6. Lay Counsellor-Based Risk Reduction Intervention with HIV Positive Diagnosed Patients at Public HIV Counselling and Testing Sites in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…

  7. Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Psychological Counsellors Working at Different Institutions and Their Attitudes and Behaviours as a Response to These Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolay Akfert, Serpil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ethical dilemmas experiencing by the counsellors who work at different conditions and what they do to solve these dilemmas as well as the obstacles they have to deal with while resolving the dilemmas. This is a qualitative study in which multi-state pattern was used. For this research, 40 counsellors…

  8. As They Like It--Culture-Centred Counsellor Education in the Context of Aotearoa New Zealand: A Play on Bicultural Pluralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Steve K. W.; Gardiner, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Against a backdrop of social struggles to rebalance power between colonisers and indigenous peoples, counsellor education at a university in Aotearoa New Zealand is undergoing a transformation. This article explores the creation and application of a framework that results from listening to the voices of indigenous peoples and counselling…

  9. "The Weight of Class": Clients' Experiences of How Perceived Differences in Social Class between Counsellor and Client Affect the Therapeutic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmforth, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a difference in social class on the therapeutic relationship has received less attention than other differences between counsellor and client, such as gender, race and sexual orientation. In this qualitative research study six clients who identified as working class were interviewed about their experience of a therapeutic…

  10. An Assessment of the Professional Capacity Needs of Counsellors to Cope with Poverty-Prone at Risk Secondary School Students in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adefunke, Ehindero Serifat

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the professional capacity needs of counselor and difference in the capacity needs to cope with at risk students in terms of their sex, age and years of professional experience with a view to assisting the counsellors to improve service delivery in secondary schools. The study adopted survey design. The population for the study…

  11. School Counsellors and Cultural Diversity Management in Spanish Secondary Schools: The Role of Relations with Other Educators and Intervention Models Used in Care of Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Falcón, Inmaculada; Coronel, José M.; Correa, R. Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the influx of immigrant pupils in Spanish schools has taken up much of school counsellors' agendas. This leads us to reflect upon the status and role of educational guidance in terms of cultural diversity management, particularly focusing on two elements that may potentially help understand the situation: relations with…

  12. "It's important to take your medication everyday okay?" An evaluation of counselling by lay counsellors for ARV adherence support in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewing, S; Mathews, C; Schaay, N; Cloete, A; Louw, J; Simbayi, L

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in standard care programmes for antiretroviral (ARV) adherence support. In South Africa, individual counselling following ARV initiation is a main strategy for supporting adherence in the public sector. Egan's client-centred "Skilled Helper" counselling model is the predominant model used in HIV counselling in this context. This study evaluated counselling delivered by lay ARV adherence counsellors in Cape Town in terms of adherence to Egan's model. Thirty-eight transcripts of counselling sessions with non-adherent patients were analysed based on the methods of content analysis. These sessions were conducted by 30 counsellors. Generally counsellors' practice adhered neither to Egan's model nor a client-centred approach. Inconsistent with evidence-based approaches to counselling for ARV adherence support, counsellors mainly used information-giving and advice as strategies for addressing clients' non-adherence. Recommendations for improving practice are made. The question as to how appropriate strategies from developed countries are for this setting is also raised.

  13. A Case Study of an Undergraduate Engineering Peer Tutoring Group: An Investigation of the Structure of a Community of Practice and the Value Members Gain from Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke Douglas, Tameka Sharona

    2010-01-01

    "Shaping the Future", the 1996 report to the National Science Foundation (NSF), called for the research community to identify and characterize practical solutions for developing "supportive" and "excellent" learning experiences for all students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (SME). The recommendation was that we "start with…

  14. Literacy and Community. The Twentieth Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association, 1998. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 1997].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturtevant, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Dugan, JoAnn, Ed.; Linder, Patricia, Ed.; Linek, Wayne M., Ed.

    This 20th Yearbook of the College Reading Association reflects the theme of "community" again and again, in diverse ways. First in the yearbook are the Presidential Address by Marino C. Alvarez, "Adolescent Literacy: Are We in Contact?" and the three Keynote Addresses: "My Life in Reading" (J. Chall); "A…

  15. Building Literacy Communities. The Thirty-Second Yearbook: A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Morrison, Timothy, Ed.; Martin, Linda, Ed.; Boggs, Merry, Ed.; Raine, I. LaVerne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For its 53rd annual meeting, the Association of Educators and Researchers met in Charlotte, North Carolina at the Marriott Charlotte City Center. This year's conference theme was "Building Literacy Communities", which was also used as the title for this year's Yearbook, Volume 32. This organization has long been the home of some of the nation's…

  16. A Fresh Approach to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John

    2013-01-01

    Bullying often persists in spite of formal programs targeting this problem. Supportive school and classroom communities enlist brave peers in consoling, encouraging, and befriending victims, which removes the status that fuels bullies. For the past 18 years, this author has worked in multiple children's agencies and schools, studying bullying…

  17. Reviewing post-publication peer review

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Post-publication peer review (PPPR) is transforming how the life sciences community evaluates published manuscripts and data. Unsurprisingly, however, PPPR is experiencing growing pains, and some elements of the process distinct from standard pre-publication review remain controversial. I discuss the rapid evolution of PPPR, its impact, and the challenges associated with it. PMID:25851694

  18. Peer Review in Class: Metrics and Variations in a Senior Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankulov, Krassimir; Couto, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Peer reviews are the generally accepted mode of quality assessment in scholarly communities; however, they are rarely used for evaluation at college levels. Over a period of 5 years, we have performed a peer review simulation at a senior level course in molecular genetics at the University of Guelph and have accumulated 393 student peer reviews.…

  19. Temperament alters susceptibility to negative peer influence in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence. Participants included 704 adolescents recruited from the community. At baseline, parents provided information on adolescents' temperament and youth reported on their own and their friends' delinquent behavior. Self-reports of adolescents' delinquent behavior were collected again 16 months later. Peer deviance was related to delinquent behavior over time more strongly for adolescents with low levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood, compared to youth with high levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood. Analyses of gender differences indicated that low flexibility increased susceptibility to negative peer influence only for males, but not females. General activity level and sleep rhythmicity did not moderate the effect of peer behavior on delinquency.

  20. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  1. Converting Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Audrey

    1997-01-01

    Reports on research on peer helping programs and describes a peer tutoring program in three New York City high schools. Results illustrate the importance of youth participation in meaningful roles. Notes that programs in which youth help youth could do many positive things, especially in urban schools. (SLD)

  2. Peer review of teaching.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Charles E; Yu, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview and description of peer review of teaching for faculty members and administrators who would like to implement a peer review program. This may include classroom and clinical settings. A brief overview, procedure, and a teaching competence evaluation rubric are provided.

  3. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  4. Peer Review Undergoing Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Established in the 142,000-student Montgomery County, Maryland, district in 1999, peer assistance and review (PAR)--or "peer review," as it is occasionally called--is actually an old idea. In 1981, the then-president of the Toledo Federation of Teachers, Dal Lawrence, helped create the first PAR program. Almost 30 years later, only a…

  5. What is the role of a case manager in community aged care? A qualitative study in Australia.

    PubMed

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the perceptions of case managers about their roles in providing community aged care in Australia. Purposeful sampling was used and 33 qualitative semi-structured interviews with 47 participants were conducted. Participants were drawn from a list of all case managers working in aged care organisations that provided publicly funded case-managed community aged care programmes in the State of Victoria, Australia. Participant selection criteria included age, gender, job titles, professional backgrounds, practice locations, organisational attributes and organisational size. Data collection was implemented between September 2012 and March 2013. Thematic analysis was performed. Participants believed that case managers performed diverse roles based on clients' needs. They also articulated 16 important roles of case managers, including advisors, advocates, carers, communicators, co-ordinators, educators, empowering clients, engaging clients and families, liaising with people, managing budgets, navigators, negotiators, networking with people, facilitators, problem solvers and supporters. However, they were concerned about brokers, mediators and counsellors in terms of the terminology or case managers' willingness to perform these roles. Moreover, they perceived that neither gatekeepers nor direct service provision was case managers' role. The findings of this study suggest that case managers working in community aged care sectors may be more effective if they practised the 16 roles aforementioned. With the value of helping rather than obstructing clients to access services, they may not act as gatekeepers. In addition, they may not provide services directly as opposed to their peers working in medical care settings. The findings will also assist organisations to design job descriptions specifying case managers' roles and associated job responsibilities. Clear job descriptions will further benefit the organisations in staff recruitment, orientation

  6. Peer mentoring: untapped potential.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Susan

    2010-06-01

    Peer mentoring is a potential solution to the many challenges that nursing education is faced with today, including increasing class sizes, rising competency requirements, decreasing number of faculty, tightening budgets, and shrinking clinical placement opportunities. This article describes a successful peer mentoring program in the nursing clinical learning center at a southern Ontario university. The benefits to mentors, students, and the educational institution are discussed. In their role, peer mentors develop an increase in confidence with skills as well as with leadership and teaching abilities. Peer mentors provide a student-centered service that results in frequent positive feedback from students in all levels of the nursing program. A suggestion for the future potential of this role also is offered to expand undergraduate nursing students' exposure to peer mentoring.

  7. Task-shifting to community health workers: evaluation of the performance of a peer-led model in an antiretroviral program in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Stella; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kenneth, Ekoru; Sunday, Pamella; Laga, Marie; Colebunders, Robert Leon

    2012-02-01

    Task shifting to community health workers (CHW) has received recognition. We examined the performance of community antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis treatment supporters (CATTS) in scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Reach Out, a community-based ART program in Uganda. Retrospective data on home visits made by CATTS were analyzed to examine the CATTS ability to perform home visits to patients based on the model's standard procedures. Qualitative interviews conducted with 347 randomly selected patients and 47 CATTS explored their satisfaction with the model. The CATTS ability to follow-up with patients worsened from patients requiring daily, weekly, monthly, to three-monthly home visits. Only 26% and 15% of them correctly home visited patients with drug side effects and a missed clinic appointment, respectively. Additionally, 83% visited stable pre-ART and ART patients (96%) more frequently than required. Six hundred eighty of the 3650 (18%) patients were lost to follow-up (LTFU) during the study period. The mean number of patients LTFU per CATTS was 40.5. Male (p = 0.005), worked for longer durations (p = 0.02), and had lower education (p = 0.005). An increased number of patients (p = 0.01) were associated with increased LTFU. Ninety-two percent of the CATTS felt the model could be improved by reducing the workload. CATTS who were HIV positive, female, not residing in the same village as their patients, more educated, married, on ART, and spent less time with the patients were rated better by their patients. The Reach-Out CHW model is labor-intensive. Triaged home visits could improve performance and allow CATTS time to focus on patients requiring more intensive follow-up.

  8. The professional experiences of peer specialists in the Georgia Mental Health Consumer Network.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anthony O; Hunter, Kristin M; Mabe, Alex P; Tucker, Sherry J; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-05-01

    There has been an increase in the number of peer-led services within the mental health care system. There however remains little information about the experiences of peers serving in such helping roles. This study explored the professional experiences of peer specialists including the basic roles, benefits, and potential challenges of the peer specialist role. Peer specialists (N = 84) completed a battery of surveys and questionnaires. Qualitative analysis of participants' responses indicated that peer specialists face difficulties such as poor compensation, limited employment opportunities, work stress, emotional stress in helping others, and maintaining personal wellness. Quantitative analyses revealed that recovery attitudes may confer clinical and psychosocial benefits for peer specialists and employment may contribute to hope, empowerment, social engagement, and competence. Peer specialists would benefit from resources and supports aimed at their continued training and supervision. Fostering the vocational advancement of peer specialists could potentially enhance their experiential recovery and community functioning.

  9. Peer-to-Peer Magnetron Locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Edward Jeffrey

    The viability of coherent power combination of multiple high-efficiency, moderate power magnetrons requires a thorough understanding of frequency and phase control. Injection locking of conventional magnetrons, and other types of oscillators, employing a master-to-slave configuration has been studied theoretically and experimentally. This dissertation focuses on the peer-to-peer locking, where each oscillator acts as a master of and slave to all others, between two conventional magnetrons, where the general condition for locking was recently derived. The experiments performed on peer-to-peer locking of two 1-kW magnetrons verify the recently developed theory on the condition under which the two nonlinear oscillators may be locked to a common frequency and relative phase. This condition reduces to Adler's classical locking condition (master-slave) if the coupling is one way. Dependent on the degree of coupling, the frequency of oscillation when locking occurs was found to not necessarily lie between the two magnetrons' free running frequencies. Likewise, when the locking condition was violated, the beat of the spectrum was not necessarily found to be equal to the difference between the free running frequencies. The frequency of oscillation and relative phase between the two magnetrons when locking did occur were found to correspond to one of two solution modes given by the recent theory. The accessibility of the two possible modes is yet to be determined. This work was supported by ONR, AFRL, AFOSR, L-3 Communications Electron Devices Division and Northrop-Grumman Corporation.

  10. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  11. Avoiding Greediness in Cooperative Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Matthias R.; Ribeiro, Carlos H. C.; Mesit, Jaruwan

    In peer-to-peer networks, peers simultaneously play the role of client and server. Since the introduction of the first file-sharing protocols, peer-to-peer networking currently causes more than 35% of all internet network traffic— with an ever increasing tendency. A common file-sharing protocol that occupies most of the peer-to-peer traffic is the BitTorrent protocol. Although based on cooperative principles, in practice it is doomed to fail if peers behave greedily. In this work-in-progress paper, we model the protocol by introducing the game named Tit-for-Tat Network Termination (T4TNT) that gives an interesting access to the greediness problem of the BitTorrent protocol. Simulations conducted under this model indicate that greediness can be reduced by solely manipulating the underlying peer-to-peer topology.

  12. The Potential of Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…

  13. Peer Instruction for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, P. J.; Morgan, W. A., Jr.

    2000-12-01

    How can instructors achieve real-time pace matching with students during large class lectures? How can students become more invested in their own in-class learning? Peer Instruction, coming into widespread use for undergraduate physics courses across the U.S., and now for astronomy as well, can help resolve these perennial questions. As a crucial part of Peer Instruction, teachers pose a question that probes students' conceptual understanding and may also highlight common misconceptions (a ConcepTest). The ConcepTests become the subject of small interactive peer group debates in class. We are compiling a library of ConcepTests to facilitate the implementation of Peer Instruction in introductory undergraduate astronomy. We describe the ConcepTest library, tell you how to access it, and discuss modes of evaluation.

  14. EERE Peer Review Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  15. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  16. Analysis of online social networking peer health educators.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether peer leaders can be recruited to deliver a community-based health intervention using social media. African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited as peer leaders for either an HIV prevention or general health intervention using social networking technologies. Peer leaders attended 3 training sessions on how to use social media for health behaviour change. Baseline and post-training questionnaires were given to ensure that peer leaders were qualified in using social media to communicate health information. Repeated measures ANOVA models and χ2 tests assessed differences in peer leader knowledge and comfort using social networking technologies pre- and post-training. Post-training, peer leaders were significantly more comfortable using social media to discuss sexual positions. Almost all peer leaders reported being comfortable using social media. There were no significant pre- and post-training differences on other knowledge or comfort measures. Results suggest that peer leaders can be recruited to conduct health interventions using social networking technologies. The discussed training plan can be adapted to health domains to ensure that peer leaders are qualified to conduct health interventions using social media.

  17. Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Network Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xing; Chan, S.-H. Gary

    With the rapid growth of the Internet, peer-to-peer P2P networks have been widely studied and deployed. According to CacheLogic Research, P2P traffic has dominated the Internet traffic in 2006, by accounting for over 72% Internet traffic. In this chapter, we focus on unstructured P2P networks, one key type of P2P networks. We first present several unstructured P2P networks for the file sharing application, and then investigate some advanced issues in the network design. We also study two other important applications, i.e., media streaming and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Finally, we discuss unstructured P2P networks over wireless networks.

  18. Promoting Physical Understanding through Peer Mentoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, S. M.; Huesmann, A.; Hooper, E.; Moore, C.; Watson, L.; Trestrail, A.; Weber, J.; Timbie, P.; Jacob, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a supportive learning community for students studying introductory physics, as well as teaching and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors who receive extensive training and supervision. Many of our Peer Tutors were former Physics Learning Center participants. A central goal of the Physics Learning Center is to address achievement/equity gaps (e.g. race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, age, transfer status, etc.) for undergraduate students pursuing majors and coursework in STEM fields. Students meet twice a week in small learning teams of 3-8 students, facilitated by a trained Peer Mentor Tutor or staff member. These active learning teams focus on discussing core physical concepts and practicing problem-solving. The weekly training of the tutors addresses both teaching and mentoring issues in science education such as helping students to build confidence, strategies for assessing student understanding, and fostering a growth mindset. A second weekly training meeting addresses common misconceptions and strategies for teaching specific physics topics. For non-science majors we have a small Peer Mentor Tutor program for Physics in the Arts. We will discuss the Physics Learning Center's approaches to promoting inclusion, understanding, and confidence for both our participants and Peer Mentor Tutors, as well as examples from the geosciences that can be used to illustrate introductory physics concepts.

  19. Inspiring peer-to-peer educations with film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Oceans are vast, complicated, often inaccessible, three-dimensional and dark (for the most part). The value, vulnerabilities and dynamics of marine systems are quite far removed from the consciousness of many people. However, these reasons are not alibis for not understanding and appreciating oceans deep-rooted influences on our lives. Currently, the Nereus Program, a fellowship of climate, fisheries and computer modeling scientists, are accessing school systems in person and virtually, motivating teens to tell stories about their local understanding of the ocean's influence on their communities (even if they live in a landlocked location). In it's first iteration, we are soliciting youth to communicate through the popular medium of film. These films will be assembled into an on-line digital field guide. In part, this program is designed to be a peer-to-peer educational technique, where civilians are teaching other civilians about local or regional ocean dynamics. Additionally, the act of teaching through film is a proven method for deepening engagement, learning and empowerment of the individuals producing the films.

  20. Evaluation of the CHOICES program of peer-to-peer tobacco education and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jill M; Dwyer, Martha; Verna, Marie; Zimmermann, Mia Hanos; Gandhi, Kunal K; Galazyn, Magdalena; Szkodny, Nancy; Molnar, Margaret; Kley, Robert; Steinberg, Marc L

    2011-06-01

    CHOICES is a consumer driven program for addressing tobacco in people with mental illness that employs mental health peer counselors. Since 2005, CHOICES has conducted over 298 community visits reaching more than 10,000 smokers with mental illness (about 2500/year). A telephone based outcome study was conducted in 102 outpatient smokers who received a CHOICES peer-to-peer session. At 1-month follow up participants (N = 86; 84%) reported smoking an average of 13 cigarettes per day which was significantly reduced from a baseline of 19 (P < 0.001). Twenty-five individuals (29%) tried to quit smoking in the month after the peer session and another 47 (55%) reduced their smoking. Feedback from smokers about the program was positive. Most (N = 59, 71%) said it was a lot easier to talk with a consumer about smoking compared to their psychiatrist or staff. Peer-to-peer communication about tobacco use can be effective to increase awareness and change smoking behaviors.

  1. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  2. Peer Review and Surgical Innovation: Robotic Surgery and Its Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Cronin, Sean

    2015-12-01

    The peer review processes as outlined in the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) is meant ensure quality standard of care through a self-policing mechanism by the medical community. This process grants immunity for people filing a peer review, which is meant to protect whistleblowers. However, it also creates a loophole that can be used maliciously to hinder competition. This is accentuated when surgeons are integrating new technologies, such as robotic surgery, into their practice. With more than 2000 da Vinci robots in use and more than 300 new units being shipped each year, robotic surgery has become a mainstay in the surgical field. The applications for robots continue to expand as surgeons discover their expanding capability. We need a better peer review process. That ensures the peer review is void of competitive bias. Peer reviewers need to be familiar with the procedure and the technology. The current process could stymie innovation in the name of competition.

  3. Peer influence processes for youth delinquency and depression.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew D; Crea, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the multiple factors that account for peer influence processes of adolescent delinquency and depression using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Random-effects longitudinal negative binomial models were used to predict depression and delinquency, controlling for social connection variables to account for selection bias. Findings suggest peer depression and delinquency are both predictive of youth delinquency, while peer influences of depression are much more modest. Youth who are more connected to parents and communities and who are more popular within their networks are more susceptible to peer influence, while self-regulating youth are less susceptible. We find support for theories of popularity-socialization as well as weak-ties in explaining social network factors that amplify or constrain peer influence. We argue that practitioners working with youth should consider network-informed interventions to improve program efficacy and avoid iatrogenic effects.

  4. On Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This letter briefly reviews ideas about the purpose and benefits of peer review and reaches some idealistic conclusions about the process. Method The author uses both literature review and meditation born of long experience. Results From a cynical perspective, peer review constitutes an adversarial process featuring domination of the weak by the strong and exploitation of authors and reviewers by editors and publishers, resulting in suppression of new ideas, delayed publication of important research, and bad feelings ranging from confusion to fury. More optimistically, peer review can be viewed as a system in which reviewers and editors volunteer thousands of hours to work together with authors, to the end of furthering human knowledge. Conclusion Editors and authors will encounter both peer-review cynics and idealists in their careers, but in the author's experience the second are far more prevalent. Reviewers and editors can help increase the positive benefits of peer review (and improve the culture of science) by viewing the system as one in which they work with authors on behalf of high-quality publications and better science. Authors can contribute by preparing papers carefully prior to submission and by interpreting reviewers' and editors' suggestions in this collegial spirit, however difficult this may be in some cases. PMID:27333021

  5. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  6. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara; Adeli, Khosrow

    2014-10-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current article

  7. Peer Instruction for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul

    Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

  8. The Developmental Pattern of Resistance to Peer Influence in Adolescence: Will the Teenager Ever Be Able to Resist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumter, Sindy R.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Steinberg, Laurence; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2009-01-01

    Common folklore seems to suggest that adolescents are particularly susceptible to peer influence. However, from the literature the exact age differences in susceptibility to peer influence remain unclear. The current study's main focus was to chart the development of general susceptibility to peer pressure in a community sample of 10-18 year olds…

  9. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  10. A Reference Model for Semantic Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawlood-Yunis, Abdul-Rahman; Weiss, Michael; Santoro, Nicola

    Today’s information systems are highly networked and need to operate in a global world. With this comes the problem of semantic heterogeneity of information representations. Semantic peer-to- peer networks have been proposed as a solution to this problem. They are based around two components: a peer-to-peer infrastructure for information exchange between information system, and the use of ontologies to define application semantics. However, progress in this area is hampered by a lack of commonality between these approaches, which makes their comparison and translation into practical implementations difficult. In this paper, we describe a reference model for semantic peer-to-peer networks in an effort to remedy this problem. The reference model will (1) enable the establishment of a common terminology for describing semantic peer-to-peer networks, and (2) pave the way for an emerging standardized API that will promote information system interoperability.

  11. Perceived peer influence and peer selection on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beth R; Monge, Peter R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Valente, Thomas W

    2007-08-01

    Despite advances in tobacco control, adolescent smoking remains a problem. The smoking status of friends is one of the highest correlates with adolescent smoking. This homophily (commonality of friends based on a given attribute) may be due to either peer pressure, where adolescents adopt the smoking behaviors of their friends, or peer selection, where adolescents choose friends based on their smoking status. This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of peer influence and peer selection on ever smoking by adolescents. The primary analysis of the model did not reach significance, but post hoc analyses did result in a model with good fit. Results indicated that both peer influence and peer selection were occurring, and that peer influence was more salient in the population than was peer selection. Implications of these results for tobacco prevention programs are discussed.

  12. 'Peer review' culture.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, M

    2001-04-01

    A relatively high incidence of unsatisfactory review decisions is widely recognised and acknowledged as 'the peer review problem'. Factors contributing to this problem are identified and examined. Specific examples of unreasonable rejection are considered. It is concluded that weaknesses of the 'peer review' system are significant and that they are well known or readily recognisable but that necessary counter-measures are not always enforced. Careful management is necessary to discount hollow opinion or error in review comment. Review and referee functions should be quite separate.

  13. Analysis of peer-to-peer locking of magnetrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pengvanich, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Cruz, E.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B.; Luginsland, J. W.

    2008-10-15

    The condition for mutual, or peer-to-peer, locking of two magnetrons is derived. This condition reduces to Adler's classical phase-locking condition in the limit where one magnetron becomes the 'master' and the other becomes the 'slave.' The formulation is extended to the peer-to-peer locking of N magnetrons, under the assumption that the electromagnetic coupling among the N magnetrons is modeled by an N-port network.

  14. Effects of Gifted Peers Tutoring Struggling Reading Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawn, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a peer tutoring program that used a Direct Instruction (DI) reading curriculum. Students identified as gifted and talented delivered instruction, using the DI reading program, to their struggling reading peers. The students used a cross-skill peer tutoring instructional format. The results indicated that all of…

  15. Perchlorate Peer Review Frequent Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA believes that peer review is an important component of the scientific process. EPA will ask peer reviewers to comment on products that the agency will use to derive a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) for perchlorate.

  16. Peer Online Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ke; Carr-Chellman, Ali

    Research shows that learning in groups improves students' achievement of learning objectives. Some indicate that a facilitator will smooth the process of collaboration (Johnson et al, 1987; Hooper, 1992; Moore and Kearsley, 1996; Brandon & Hollingshead, 1999; Bernard et al, 2000). Advocates for peer-controlled collaboration claim that learners…

  17. Peer Harassment in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Charol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes year one of a two-year study of peer harassment in eight New York State schools. Most adolescents find school a harassing experience. Three types of students report being harassed: girls viewed as unattractive or unstylish dressers, physically well-developed girls, and non-macho boys. Educators must intervene to create more caring…

  18. Approaching Authentic Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some scholars writing about improving students' reading and integrating reading and writing instruction suggest using think-aloud techniques to teach students reading comprehension skills. Using think-alouds to teach reading comprehension and then the read-aloud protocol technique (which is based on think-alouds) for peer review has two major…

  19. The Power of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traver, Rob

    2016-01-01

    "Students are naturally inclined to watch one another, to make suggestions and support their peers, to avoid mistakes, to copy what works and modify what doesn't, and to learn from one another," writes Rob Traver in this article. To prove his point, Traver brings readers into three classrooms where teachers tap into students' intrinsic…

  20. Water Peer Review

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-02

    All programs with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) are required to undertake rigorous, objective peer review of their funded projects on a yearly basis in order to ensure and enhance the management, relevance, effectiveness, and productivity of those projects.

  1. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-08-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  2. Investigating Peer Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mynard, Jo; Almarzouqi, Iman

    2006-01-01

    This article gives an overview of a piece of qualitative research conducted at a women's university in the United Arab Emirates. The aim of the study was to evaluate the English language peer tutoring programme in order to highlight benefits and challenges, and to make informed improvements. The study drew particularly on participant perceptions…

  3. Peer Crowds in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yeo, Geck Hong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined peer crowds in the Singapore context. A total of 598 Secondary 1 and 2 adolescents were asked to identify the crowds they perceived to exist in their schools and to describe these crowds' characteristics. The adolescents had no difficulty identifying crowds, generating a total of 1,534 crowds. Among the crowds identified, seven…

  4. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  5. Kids, Clothes and Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Parents are advised on ways to cope with the peer pressure associated with clothes. Techniques focus on countering and preventing peer pressure or, at least, putting it into healthier perspective. A list of retorts children can make to peer critics is included. (IAH)

  6. Peer-Led Team Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Deming, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) model as an alternative to traditional cooperative learning. Discusses the difficulties of PLTL based curriculum which include finding the peer leaders, selecting the right materials for implementation, and training techniques for peer leaders. (YDS)

  7. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  8. Peer Review in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianguo; Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike; Taylor, William W.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the importance of peer assessment in professional life and describes a course using peer review processes to teach modeling in natural resource management. Uses a typical scientific research protocol and assigns students to review peer proposals considering their expertise and area of interest. Presents guidelines for proposal review,…

  9. Peer Coaching: Teachers Supporting Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donegan, Mary M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes peer coaching as a method for teacher improvement and offers guidelines for establishing a peer coaching program for early childhood and early childhood special education teachers and related services professionals. It also identifies common problems and possible solutions of peer coaching programs. Sample forms for use in…

  10. Secure Service Invocation in a Peer-to-Peer Environment Using JXTA-SOAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghi, Maria Chiara; Amoretti, Michele; Conte, Gianni

    The effective convergence of service-oriented architectures (SOA) and peer-to-peer (P2P) is an urgent task, with many important applications ranging from e-business to ambient intelligence. A considerable standardization effort is being carried out from both SOA and P2P communities, but a complete platform for the development of secure, distributed applications is still missing. In this context, the result of our research and development activity is JXTA-SOAP, an official extension for JXTA enabling Web Service sharing in peer-to-peer networks. Recently we focused on security aspects, providing JXTA-SOAP with a general security management system, and specialized policies that target both J2SE and J2ME versions of the component. Among others, we implemented a policy based on Multimedia Internet KEYing (MIKEY), which can be used to create a key pair and all the required parameters for encryption and decryption of service messages in consumer and provider peers running on resource-constrained devices.

  11. Coaching mental health peer advocates for rural LGBTQ people

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Trott, Elise M.; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities. PMID:27458498

  12. Peer Relationships of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Predictors of Peer Entry and Peer Interaction Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one…

  13. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

  14. MELCOR Peer Review

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Dhir, V.K.; Gieseke, J.A.; Haste, T.J.; Kenton, M.A.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Leonard, M.T.; Viskanta, R.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.

  15. Key Features Of Peer Support In Chronic Disease Prevention And Management.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Ballesteros, Juana; Bhushan, Nivedita; Coufal, Muchieh M; Kowitt, Sarah D; McDonough, A Manuela; Parada, Humberto; Robinette, Jennifer B; Sokol, Rebeccah L; Tang, Patrick Y; Urlaub, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Peer support from community health workers, promotores de salud, and others through community and health care organizations can provide social support and other assistance that enhances health. There is substantial evidence for both the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of peer support, as well as for its feasibility, reach, and sustainability. We discuss findings from Peers for Progress, a program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, to examine when peer support does not work, guide dissemination of peer support programs, and help integrate approaches such as e-health into peer support. Success factors for peer support programs include proactive implementation, attention to participants' emotions, and ongoing supervision. Reaching those whom conventional clinical and preventive services too often fail to reach; reaching whole populations, such as people with diabetes, rather than selected samples; and addressing behavioral health are strengths of peer support that can help achieve health care that is efficient and of high quality. Challenges for policy makers going forward include encouraging workforce development, balancing quality control with maintaining key features of peer support, and ensuring that underresourced organizations can develop and manage peer support programs.

  16. 2015 Peer Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    In the spring and summer of 2015, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO or the Office) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an external peer review of the projects in its research, development and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio. The Office manages a diverse portfolio of technologies across the spectrum of applied RD&D within the dynamic context of changing budgets and Administration priorities. The Office portfolio is organized according to the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain—from the feedstock source to the end user (see Figure 1)—with major focus on feedstock supply and biomass conversion. The 2015 Project Peer Review took place March 23-27, 2015, outside of Washington, D.C., in Alexandria, Virginia, and evaluated most of the publicly funded projects in BETO’s portfolio. The subsequent Program Management Review took place on June 25, 2015, in Washington, D.C., and provided an Office- level assessment of strategic planning and programmatic initiatives. The peer review process enables external stakeholders to provide feedback on the responsible use of taxpayer funding and develop recommendations for the most efficient and effective ways to accelerate the development of an advanced bioenergy industry. The planning and execution of these reviews was completed over the course of 10 months, and this report includes the results of both events.

  17. Peer-assisted learning in medical school: tutees’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Audrey; Burgess, Annette; Clarke, Antonia J; Mellis, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 66 of 101 (65%) Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40%) students as tutors. The tutees’ response rate was 53% (35/66). Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and gaining practical skills and advice through a small-group format. The community of practice framework was useful in identifying these areas of benefit, demonstrating that a peer tutoring program such as this can provide an enhanced learning

  18. Guide to Implementing TAP (Teens for AIDS Prevention). A Peer Education Program To Prevent HIV and STI. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Megan

    This guide presents steps to implementing human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) programs in schools, faith communities, AIDS service organizations, and community based organizations. Eight chapters are: (1) "The Need for HIV/STI Prevention Peer Education" (including research findings on peer education);…

  19. Developing an intervention to facilitate family communication about inherited genetic conditions, and training genetic counsellors in its delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eisler, Ivan; Ellison, Matthew; Flinter, Frances; Grey, Jo; Hutchison, Suzanne; Jackson, Carole; Longworth, Louise; MacLeod, Rhona; McAllister, Marion; Metcalfe, Alison; Murrells, Trevor; Patch, Christine; Pritchard, Stuart; Robert, Glenn; Rowland, Emma; Ulph, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Many families experience difficulty in talking about an inherited genetic condition that affects one or more of them. There have now been a number of studies identifying the issues in detail, however few have developed interventions to assist families. The SPRinG collaborative have used the UK Medical Research Council's guidance on Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions, to work with families and genetic counsellors (GCs) to co-design a psycho-educational intervention to facilitate family communication and promote better coping and adaptation to living with an inherited genetic condition for parents and their children (<18 years). The intervention is modelled on multi-family discussion groups (MFDGs) used in psychiatric settings. The MFDG was developed and tested over three phases. First focus groups with parents, young people, children and health professionals discussed whether MFDG was acceptable and proposed a suitable design. Using evidence and focus group data, the intervention and a training manual were developed and three GCs were trained in its delivery. Finally, a prototype MFDG was led by a family therapist and co-facilitated by the three GCs. Data analysis showed that families attending the focus groups and intervention thought MFDG highly beneficial, and the pilot sessions had a significant impact on their family' functioning. We also demonstrated that it is possible to train GCs to deliver the MFDG intervention. Further studies are now required to test the feasibility of undertaking a definitive randomised controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness in improving family outcomes before implementing into genetic counselling practice. PMID:26443265

  20. Using Your WITS: A 6-Year Follow-Up of a Peer Victimization Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L.; Hosan, Naheed E.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of a community-based, whole-school peer victimization prevention program (WITS Primary Program), implemented from Grades 1 to 3, on trajectories of child-reported peer victimization and help-seeking and teacher-reported social-emotional adjustment from Grades 1 to 6. This quasi-experimental design followed a…

  1. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…

  2. Exploring Students' Emotional Responses and Participation in an Online Peer Assessment Activity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the social interactions among individuals of learning communities, including those individuals engaged in peer assessment activities, emotion may be a key factor in learning. However, research regarding the emotional response of learners in online peer assessment activities is relatively scarce. Detecting learners' emotion when they make…

  3. Establishing an Online HIV Peer Helping Programme: A Review of Process Challenges and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Corcoran, Valerie; Myles, Adam; Lundrigan, Philip; White, Robert; Greidanus, Elaine; Savage, Stephanie L.; Pope, Leslie; McDonald, James; Yetman, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Online peer support can be a valuable approach to helping people living with HIV, especially in regions with large rural populations and relatively centralised HIV services. Design: This paper focuses on a community-university partnership aimed at developing an online peer support programme in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and…

  4. Peer deviance, social support, and symptoms of internalizing disorders among youth exposed to Hurricane Georges.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Sonia L; Vernberg, Eric M; Felix, Erika D; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of peers in meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder in adolescents exposed to Hurricane Georges. Participants included a representative community sample of 905 youth (n = 476 boys) ages 11-17, residing in Puerto Rico. Data were gathered on hurricane exposure, symptoms of internalizing disorders, peer social support, peer violence, and peer substance use through in-person structured interviews with adolescents and caretakers from 1999 to 2000 in Puerto Rico, 12-27 months after Hurricane Georges. Hurricane exposure, peer violence, and peer substance use predicted whether adolescents met DSM-IV symptom criteria for a measured internalizing disorder. An interaction was found between hurricane exposure and peer violence, which indicated that hurricane exposure was significantly related to meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder among adolescents who do not report associating with violent peers. However, for participants who reported high levels of peer violence, hurricane exposure did not convey additional risk for meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder. With the increasing role peers play in adolescents' lives, understanding the influence of peers on the development of internalizing symptoms following hurricane exposure may assist in planning developmentally sensitive response plans.

  5. Efficient Hierarchical Quorums in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Kevin; Swanson, Colleen; Xie, Qi; Daudjee, Khuzaima

    Managing updates in a peer-to-peer (P2P) network can be a challenging task, especially in the unstructured setting. If one peer reads or updates a data item, then it is desirable to read the most recent version or to have the update visible to all other peers. In practice, this should be accomplished by coordinating and writing to only a small number of peers. We propose two approaches, inspired by hierarchical quorums, to solve this problem in unstructured P2P networks. Our first proposal provides uniform load balancing, while the second sacrifices full load balancing for larger average quorum intersection, and hence greater tolerance to network churn. We demonstrate that applying a random logical tree structure to peers on a per-data item basis allows us to achieve near optimal quorum size, thus minimizing the number of peers that must be coordinated to perform a read or write operation. Unlike previous approaches, our random hierarchical quorums are always guaranteed to overlap at at least one peer when all peers are reachable and, as demonstrated through performance studies, prove to be more resilient to changing network conditions to maximize quorum intersection than previous approaches with a similar quorum size. Furthermore, our two quorum approaches are interchangeable within the same network, providing adaptivity by allowing one to be swapped for the other as network conditions change.

  6. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  7. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  8. Deviancy training and association with deviant peers in young children: ocurrence and contribution to early-onset conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James; Schrepferman, Lynn; Oeser, Jessica; Patterson, Gerald; Stoolmiller, Mike; Johnson, Kassy; Snyder, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    The relationships of deviant talk and role taking during peer interaction, association with deviant peers, and growth in overt and covert conduct problems during kindergarten and first grade were examined in a community sample of 267 boys and girls. At entry to kindergarten, high levels of overt and covert conduct problems predicted association with deviant peers, and deviant peer association predicted deviant talk and role taking during peer interaction during kindergarten. Association with deviant peers, and deviant talk and role taking predicted growth in overt and covert conduct problems on the playground, in the classroom, and at home during kindergarten and first grade. Peer processes associated with growth in conduct problems that escalate rapidly during late childhood and adolescence appear to occur in earlier childhood. These peer processes may play a central role in the evolution of conduct problems to include covert as well as overt forms.

  9. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  10. Peered and Tiered Learning: Action Research as Creative Cultural Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and problematizes a peered and tiered model of creative and educational knowledge transfer piloted in Culture Shack, a community-based arts education program in Melbourne, Australia. Drawing on Eisner and Sefton-Green and Soep, I argue the value of this approach as a potential new pedagogical strategy in both secondary…

  11. Peer Partnership to Enhance Scholarship of Teaching: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Alan; Croft, Waveney; Irons, Rosemary; Cuffe, Natalie; Bandara, Wasana; Rowntree, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the outcomes of a peer partnership program trialled at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Australia. The program was designed based on a community of practice methodology to bring together academic staff for the purpose of advancing teaching practice. The program encouraged professional and supportive environments…

  12. Improving Teaching through a Peer Support "Teacher Consultation Process."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin, Mike; Rhoads, Judith

    The Teaching Consultation Program (TCP) is one of the most popular faculty development programs offered in the University of Kentucky Community Colleges (UKCC's), having trained over 500 faculty since its implementation in 1977. The TCP is a confidential, peer consulting program available to faculty who wish to analyze their teaching behaviors and…

  13. On Valuing Peers: Theories of Learning and Intercultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajander, Asa; Daniels, Mats; McDermott, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the links between the "contributing student pedagogy" and other forms of peer-mediated learning models, e.g. "open-ended group projects" and "communities of practice." We find that a fundamental concern in each of these models is the attribution of "value"; specifically, recognition…

  14. Bringing Boys and Girls Together: Supporting Preschoolers' Positive Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaster, Hillary; Jobe, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Children thrive in inclusive settings where each child is an important part of the community. When differences are celebrated and similarities discovered, children learn to value themselves, appreciate their peers, and develop meaningful and significant relationships with one another. A sizable body of research indicates that promoting positive…

  15. Peer Contagion and Adolescent Depression: The Role of Failure Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…

  16. Peer Educators in a Theoretical Context: Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennett, Carolyn G.; Azar, James A.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the role and experience of a peer educator, it is imperative to examine the developmental issues and concerns associated with this stage of a student's life as well as the demands and challenges of a higher education community. For years, student affair professionals have used a breadth of theories to guide their efforts in…

  17. Active Minds: Creating Peer-to-Peer Mental Health Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Willliam A.; Abelson, Sara; Malmon, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing student peers is one vital avenue for improving the prevention, detection, and treatment of mental health disorders on college campuses (The Campus Suicide Prevention Center of Virginia, 2011). This article will briefly review research findings indicating the importance of student peers and then focus on a promising model and growing…

  18. Peer to Peer: Youth Preventing HIV Infection Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    To meet the challenge of teaching safer sexual behavior to teens, peer education--individuals teaching others in their own or similar age group--is an effective teaching method. Teenagers report that they are more likely to listen and talk to their peers about sexuality issues than to their parents, guardians, or health care providers. Effective…

  19. Peer-Assessing Peers' Contribution to EFL Group Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is three-fold: (1) to examine the similarities and differences between instructor and peer assessments of EFL group presentations; (2) to understand the utility of peer assessment for discriminating each group member's contribution to group presentations in college EFL classrooms; and (3) to investigate the relationship…

  20. Estimating peer effects in networks with peer encouragement designs.

    PubMed

    Eckles, Dean; Kizilcec, René F; Bakshy, Eytan

    2016-07-05

    Peer effects, in which the behavior of an individual is affected by the behavior of their peers, are central to social science. Because peer effects are often confounded with homophily and common external causes, recent work has used randomized experiments to estimate effects of specific peer behaviors. These experiments have often relied on the experimenter being able to randomly modulate mechanisms by which peer behavior is transmitted to a focal individual. We describe experimental designs that instead randomly assign individuals' peers to encouragements to behaviors that directly affect those individuals. We illustrate this method with a large peer encouragement design on Facebook for estimating the effects of receiving feedback from peers on posts shared by focal individuals. We find evidence for substantial effects of receiving marginal feedback on multiple behaviors, including giving feedback to others and continued posting. These findings provide experimental evidence for the role of behaviors directed at specific individuals in the adoption and continued use of communication technologies. In comparison, observational estimates differ substantially, both underestimating and overestimating effects, suggesting that researchers and policy makers should be cautious in relying on them.

  1. Peer Power. Book 2, Applying Peer Helper Skills. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, Judith A.

    A step-by-step model for training peer counselors forms the basis of the trainer's manual and accompanying exercises for trainees which are organized into two books for effective skill building. Designed for peer counseling trainees, this document presents the second of these two exercise books. The book begins with a brief introduction to…

  2. Incentive Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    The increasing popularity of high-bandwidth Internet connections has enabled new applications like the online delivery of high-quality audio and video content. Conventional server-client approaches place the entire burden of delivery on the content provider's server, making these services expensive to provide. A peer-to-peer approach allows end…

  3. Computer-Mediated Peer-to-Peer Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Francesco; Tan, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    An online collaborative writing project was carried between two report writing classes from two separate institutions, Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and Singapore Polytechnic (SP). The aim was to test how successfully a peer-to-peer mentoring system could be established using asynchronous and synchronous communication features. The…

  4. Estimating peer effects in networks with peer encouragement designs

    PubMed Central

    Eckles, Dean; Kizilcec, René F.; Bakshy, Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Peer effects, in which the behavior of an individual is affected by the behavior of their peers, are central to social science. Because peer effects are often confounded with homophily and common external causes, recent work has used randomized experiments to estimate effects of specific peer behaviors. These experiments have often relied on the experimenter being able to randomly modulate mechanisms by which peer behavior is transmitted to a focal individual. We describe experimental designs that instead randomly assign individuals’ peers to encouragements to behaviors that directly affect those individuals. We illustrate this method with a large peer encouragement design on Facebook for estimating the effects of receiving feedback from peers on posts shared by focal individuals. We find evidence for substantial effects of receiving marginal feedback on multiple behaviors, including giving feedback to others and continued posting. These findings provide experimental evidence for the role of behaviors directed at specific individuals in the adoption and continued use of communication technologies. In comparison, observational estimates differ substantially, both underestimating and overestimating effects, suggesting that researchers and policy makers should be cautious in relying on them. PMID:27382145

  5. An explanatory model of peer education within a complex medicines information exchange setting.

    PubMed

    Klein, Linda A; Ritchie, Jan E; Nathan, Sally; Wutzke, Sonia

    2014-06-01

    Studies of the effectiveness and value of peer education abound, yet there is little theoretical understanding of what lay educators actually do to help their peers. Although different theories have been proposed to explain components of peer education, a more complete explanatory model has not been established empirically that encompasses the many aspects of peer education and how these may operate together. The Australian Seniors Quality Use of Medicines Peer Education Program was developed, in conjunction with community partners, to improve understanding and management of medicines among older people - an Australian and international priority. This research investigated how peer educators facilitated learning about quality use of medicines among older Australians. Participatory action research was undertaken with volunteer peer educators, using a multi-site case study design within eight geographically-defined locations. Qualitative data from 27 participatory meetings with peer educators included transcribed audio recordings and detailed observational and interpretive notes, which were analysed using a grounded theory approach. An explanatory model arising from the data grouped facilitation of peer learning into four broad mechanisms: using educator skills; offering a safe place to learn; pushing for change; and reflecting on self. Peer educators' life experience as older people who have taken medicines was identified as an overarching contributor to peer learning. As lay persons, peer educators understood the potential disempowerment felt when seeking medicines information from health professionals and so were able to provide unique learning experiences that encouraged others to be 'active partners' in their own medicines management. These timely findings are linked to existing education and behaviour change theories, but move beyond these by demonstrating how the different elements of what peer educators do fit together. In-depth examination of peer educators

  6. Peer-to-Peer Semantic Wikis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaf-Molli, Hala; Rahhal, Charbel; Molli, Pascal

    Wikis have demonstrated how it is possible to convert a community of strangers into a community of collaborators. Semantic wikis have opened an interesting way to mix web 2.0 advantages with the semantic web approach. P2P wikis have illustrated how wikis can be deployed on P2P wikis and take advantages of its intrinsic qualities: fault-tolerance, scalability and infrastructure cost sharing. In this paper, we present the first P2P semantic wiki that combines advantages of semantic wikis and P2P wikis. Building a P2P semantic wiki is challenging. It requires building an optimistic replication algorithm that is compatible with P2P constraints, ensures an acceptable level of consistency and generic enough to handle semantic wiki pages. The contribution of this paper is the definition of a clear model for building P2P semantic wikis. We define the data model, operations on this model, intentions of these operations, algorithms to ensure consistency and finally we implement the SWOOKI prototype based on these algorithms.

  7. CONTAIN independent peer review

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Denning, R.S.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  8. Peer-to-peer communication, cancer prevention, and the internet.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Jessica S; Carpenter, Kristen M; Greene, Paul; Hoffman, Randi; Kukafka, Rita; Marlow, Laura A V; Prigerson, Holly G; Quillin, John M

    2009-01-01

    Online communication among patients and consumers through support groups, discussion boards, and knowledge resources is becoming more common. In this article, the summary of a workgroup discussion, we discuss key methods through which such web-based peer-to-peer communication may affect health promotion and disease prevention behavior (exchanges of information, emotional and instrumental support, and establishment of group norms and models). We also discuss several theoretical models for studying online peer communication, including social theory, health communication models, and health behavior models. Although online peer communication about health and disease is very common, research evaluating effects on health behaviors, mediators, and outcomes is still relatively sparse. We suggest that future research in this field should include formative evaluation and studies of effects on mediators of behavior change, behaviors, and outcomes. It also will be important to examine spontaneously emerging peer communication efforts to see how they can be integrated with theory-based efforts initiated by researchers.

  9. Changing the Peer Review or Changing the Peers--Recent Development in Assessment of Large Research Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Finn; Monsted, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of research programmes is changing. The problem is discussed through detailed study of a selection process to a call for collaborations in the energy sector for the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. The authors were involved in the application for a Knowledge Innovation Community. Through the analysis of the case the…

  10. My-Peer Toolkit [1.0]: Developing an Online Resource for Planning and Evaluating Peer-Based Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Janina; Lobo, Roanna; Hallett, Jonathan; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Peer-based youth services provided by small non-profit community organisations have grown in number over the past two decades in response to an increasing need for informal, youth-friendly, accessible and confidential early intervention services. However, gaps in the evidence base and a general lack of evaluation capacity of service providers…

  11. A qualitative study of roles performed by peer workers in the context of HIV in India.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    While peer interventions have been shown to be effective in HIV prevention and support amongst intravenous drug users, women, youth, and other high-risk populations, less is known about the particular roles peers play in disenfranchised and non-Western contexts. This study examined the various roles peer workers played in the context of HIV in Karnataka, a southern Indian state. In-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-infected peer workers engaged in providing counseling, outreach, and health education to other people living with HIV. Grounded analysis revealed five roles: role model, persuader, maven, going the extra mile, and micro-level advocacy. In the Discussion section, these roles are used to explore the relationship between peer work and empowerment. Findings showed that in addition to personal empowerment, peers were crucial to building social capital and challenging existing social norms in the community.

  12. Peer influence in children and adolescents: crossing the bridge from developmental to intervention science.

    PubMed

    Gifford-Smith, Mary; Dodge, Kenneth A; Dishion, Thomas J; McCord, Joan

    2005-06-01

    Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that peer relationships influence the growth of problem behavior in youth. Developmental research consistently documents the high levels of covariation between peer and youth deviance, even controlling for selection effects. Ironically, the most common public interventions for deviant youth involve segregation from mainstream peers and aggregation into settings with other deviant youth. Developmental research on peer influence suggests that desired positive effects of group interventions in education, mental health, juvenile justice, and community programming may be offset by deviant peer influences in these settings. Given the public health policy issues raised by these findings, there is a need to better understand the conditions under which these peer contagion effects are most pronounced with respect to intervention foci and context, the child's developmental level, and specific strategies for managing youth behavior in groups.

  13. Embodied Work: Insider Perspectives on the Work of HIV/AIDS Peer Counselors

    PubMed Central

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Moneyham, Linda; Vyavaharkar, Medha; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Phillips, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Our aim in this study was to explore HIV/AIDS peer counseling from the perspective of women actively engaged in this work within the context of a community-based program in rural areas of the southeastern United Sates. Based on this research we suggest that the embodied work of HIV/AIDS peer counselors is constructed around their personal identities and experiences. This work involves gaining entry to other HIV-positive women's lives, building relationships, drawing on personal experiences, facing issues of fear and stigma, tailoring peer counseling for diversity, balancing risks and benefits, and terminating relationships. Peer counselors recognize the personal and collective value of their work, which, like much of women's work within the context of family and community, lacks public visibility and acknowledgement. We discuss implications for the training and support of peer-based interventions for HIV and other women's health issues across diverse contexts and settings. PMID:19492204

  14. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  15. Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…

  16. Peer Review: The CHAMPUS Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, George

    This paper examines the use of the peer review system in evaluating out-patient clinical services for a third-party payer seeking justification for payment of services. Peer review is defined as a process by which one professional, in an official capacity, makes a judgment about a co-professional in a matter involving professional functioning. The…

  17. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B; Maunsell, John HR

    2009-01-01

    As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC) ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. PMID:19284614

  18. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  19. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  20. The Peer Helping Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturkie, Joan; Phillips, Maggie

    Peers can provide types of assistance that enhance student development. This training course presents ways in which students can be trained as peer helpers. Those who use the manual are encouraged to tailor skills and activities to fit the needs and interests of their particular groups and schools. The course is divided into two parts. In part 1,…

  1. Peer Effects in Academic Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; Malmstrom, Frederick V.; West, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Using self-reported academic cheating from the classes of 1959 through 2002 at the three major United States military service academies (Air Force, Army, and Navy), we measure how peer cheating influences individual cheating behavior. We find higher levels of peer cheating result in a substantially increased probability that an individual will…

  2. The myth of peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Ungar, M T

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives revealed peer pressure to be a myth. The youths indicated that adoption of the behavior and appearance of peers was a consciously employed strategy to enhance personal and social power. Association with peers was used to construct and maintain health-promoting identities that challenged the stigmatizing labels given to them by others. Three developmental stages to this process of identity construction were identified. During stage one, vulnerable youths learn to maintain a singular self-definition through interaction with peers. In stage two, youths purposefully use their peer relations to experiment with multiple identities. During stage three, youths collaborate with peers as equal partners in the construction of one or more identities for which they find acceptance.

  3. Peer Relationships in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Thomas J., Ed.; Ladd, Gary W., Ed.

    Although hypotheses about the consequences of peer relationships for children's development have served as the foundation for much of the research into children and adolescent peer relationships, direct assessment of the impact of such relationships on children's personality, social behavior, or cognition has rarely been done. This book discusses…

  4. Peer Learning in Virtual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sam Catherine; Greer, Diana; Smith, Sean Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article examines peer-to-peer learning--in virtual schools--among the most vulnerable of students. As a description of a comprehensive case study focused on three different students with disabilities, their parents, their teachers, and their school administrators, this article examines the effects of three kinds of variables on the prevalence…

  5. Beyond Music Sharing: An Evaluation of Peer-to-Peer Data Dissemination Techniques in Large Scientific Collaborations

    SciTech Connect

    Ripeanu, Matei; Al-Kiswany, Samer; Iamnitchi, Adriana; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2009-03-01

    The avalanche of data from scientific instruments and the ensuing interest from geographically distributed users to analyze and interpret it accentuates the need for efficient data dissemination. A suitable data distribution scheme will find the delicate balance between conflicting requirements of minimizing transfer times, minimizing the impact on the network, and uniformly distributing load among participants. We identify several data distribution techniques, some successfully employed by today's peer-to-peer networks: staging, data partitioning, orthogonal bandwidth exploitation, and combinations of the above. We use simulations to explore the performance of these techniques in contexts similar to those used by today's data-centric scientific collaborations and derive several recommendations for efficient data dissemination. Our experimental results show that the peer-to-peer solutions that offer load balancing and good fault tolerance properties and have embedded participation incentives lead to unjustified costs in today's scientific data collaborations deployed on over-provisioned network cores. However, as user communities grow and these deployments scale, peer-to-peer data delivery mechanisms will likely outperform other techniques.

  6. Quality assurance in radiology: peer review and peer feedback.

    PubMed

    Strickland, N H

    2015-11-01

    Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record

  7. Austin Community College Benchmarking Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX. Office of Institutional Effectiveness.

    Austin Community College contracted with MGT of America, Inc. in spring 1999 to develop a peer and benchmark (best) practices analysis on key indicators. These indicators were updated in spring 2002 using data from eight Texas community colleges and four non-Texas institutions that represent large, comprehensive, urban community colleges, similar…

  8. Peer review in cardiothoracic radiology.

    PubMed

    Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-09-01

    A variety of peer review methods can be used as part of quality assurance and quality improvement in cardiothoracic radiology. Traditionally, peer review in radiology is a retrospective process relying primarily on review of previously interpreted studies at the time of follow-up or additional imaging. However, peer review can be enhanced with other methods such as double reads, focused practice review, practice audit, and correlation with operative and pathologic findings. Furthermore, feedback from referring physicians can be extremely useful in improving the quality of a radiology practice. This article discusses peer review in radiology with a focus on cardiothoracic imaging. Types of peer review, advantages and shortcomings, and future challenges are addressed.

  9. Thanking our peer reviewers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Contributing reviewers As 2013 commences I would like to take a moment to reflect and recognize the peer reviewers that made the previous year possible. Listed below are those people who reviewed for Molecular Cancer last year. All are generous individuals who donated their time to assessing and improving our authors’ submissions. Your combined efforts have been invaluable to the editorial staff in maintaining the continued success of the journal in the Open Access forum. The editors of Molecular Cancer would like to thank all the reviewers who contributed to the journal in Volume 11 (2012) by participating in the review process - taking time out of your busy schedules and even to volunteer - without your critical insights, hard work and support for the journal we wouldn’t be able to do what we do.

  10. On becoming a peer reviewer for a neuropsychology journal.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; O'Bryant, Sid E; Westervelt, Holly James; Sweet, Jerry J; Reynolds, Cecil R; van Gorp, Wilfred G; Tranel, Daniel; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The peer-review process is an invaluable service provided by the professional community, and it provides the critical foundation for the advancement of science. However, there is remarkably little systematic guidance for individuals who wish to become part of this process. This paper, written from the perspective of reviewers and editors with varying levels of experience, provides general guidelines and advice for new reviewers in neuropsychology, as well as outlining benefits of participation in this process. It is hoped that the current information will encourage individuals at all levels to become involved in peer-reviewing for neuropsychology journals.

  11. Dynamic peer-to-peer competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caram, L. F.; Caiafa, C. F.; Proto, A. N.; Ausloos, M.

    2010-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of a multiagent system in which the agent size si is variable it is studied along a Lotka-Volterra approach. The agent size has hereby the meaning of the fraction of a given market that an agent is able to capture (market share). A Lotka-Volterra system of equations for prey-predator problems is considered, the competition factor being related to the difference in size between the agents in a one-on-one competition. This mechanism introduces a natural self-organized dynamic competition among agents. In the competition factor, a parameter σ is introduced for scaling the intensity of agent size similarity, which varies in each iteration cycle. The fixed points of this system are analytically found and their stability analyzed for small systems (with n=5 agents). We have found that different scenarios are possible, from chaotic to non-chaotic motion with cluster formation as function of the σ parameter and depending on the initial conditions imposed to the system. The present contribution aim is to show how a realistic though minimalist nonlinear dynamics model can be used to describe the market competition (companies, brokers, decision makers) among other opinion maker communities.

  12. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed.

  13. Hybrid Fault Tolerant Peer to Peer Video Streaming Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztoprak, Kasim; Akar, Gözde Bozdagi

    In this paper, we propose a fault tolerant hybrid p2p-CDN video streaming arhitecture to overcome the problems caused by peer behavior in peer-to-peer (P2P) video streaming systems. Although there are several studies modeling and analytically investigating peer behaviors in P2P video streaming systems, they do not come up with a solution to guarantee the required Quality of the Services (QoS). Therefore, in this study a hybrid geographical location-time and interest based clustering algorithm is proposed to improve the success ratio and reduce the delivery time of required content. A Hybrid Fault Tolerant Video Streaming System (HFTS) over P2P networks conforming the required QoS and Fault Tolerance is also offered. The simulations indicate that the required QoS can be achieved in streaming video applications using the proposed hybrid approach.

  14. An Analysis of Peer-Submitted and Peer-Reviewed Answer Rationales, in an Asynchronous Peer Instruction Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Sameer; Lasry, Nathaniel; Desmarais, Michel; Dugdale, Michael; Whittaker, Chris; Charles, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an analyis of data from a novel "Peer Instruction" application, named DALITE. The Peer Instruction paradigm is well suited to take advantage of peer-input in web-based learning environments. DALITE implements an asynchronous instantiation of peer instruction: after submitting their answer to a multiple-choice…

  15. Surfing Peer-to-Peer IPTV: Distributed Channel Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermarrec, A.-M.; Le Merrer, E.; Liu, Y.; Simon, G.

    It is now common for IPTV systems attracting millions of users to be based on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. In such systems, each channel is typically associated with one P2P overlay network connecting the users. This significantly enhances the user experience by relieving the source from dealing with all connections. Yet, the joining process resulting in a peer to be integrated in channel overlay usually requires a significant amount of time. As a consequence, switching from one channel to another is far to be as fast as in IPTV solutions provided by telco operators. In this paper, we tackle the issue of efficient channel switching in P2P IPTV system. This is to the best of our knowledge the first study on this topic. First, we conducted and analyzed a set of measurements of one of the most popular P2P systems (PPlive). These measurements reveal that the set of contacts that a joining peer receives from the central server are of the utmost importance in the start-up process. On those neigbors, depends the speed to acquire the first video frames to play. We then formulate the switching problem, and propose a simple distributed algorithm, as an illustration of the concept, which aims at leveraging the presence of peers in the network to fasten the switch process. The principle is that each peer maintains as neighbors peers involved in other channels, providing peers with good contacts upon channel switching. Finally, simulations show that our approach leads to substantial improvements on the channel switching time. As our algorithmic solution does not have any prerequisite on the overlays, it appears to be an appealing add-on for existing P2P IPTV systems.

  16. Peer to Peer Education: OB Visits the ED.

    PubMed

    Homan, Nancy; Chichester, Melanie

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing education, an ever-present challenge in a hectic clinical environment, can be addressed by utilizing peer-to-peer education. Enhancing nurses' comfort level with specialty topics can reduce anxiety while enhancing core knowledge and skill proficiency for the provision of safe care. Increased self-confidence in a nurse's ability to detect a new or developing concern can lead to fewer delays in care. Critical problems identified and addressed promptly support better outcomes.

  17. Robust Reputations for Peer-to-peer Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-24

    business procurement, this model is not prevalent in the business -to- consumer and consumer -to- consumer markets on which we focus. 20 for each vehicle in...another person or business in the past, we are likely to believe that future interactions will also be successful. Unfortunately, personal experience has...complications with collecting, aggregating, and evaluating feedback. Peer-to-peer markets, as legal businesses , often rely on centralized search and

  18. A Peer Support Scale for Adults Treated for Psychoactive Substance–Use Disorder: A Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Kathryn D; Ciesla, James R

    2015-01-01

    The literature suggests that peer support is protective of relapse for adults treated for substance-use disorder. However, to our knowledge there is no standard measure of peer support. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to use Rasch analysis to assess a 13-item peer support scale used in a group of adults treated for primary psychoactive substance–abuse disorder. The participants (n = 408) are adults who were discharged from an inpatient substance-abuse treatment program from five successive years, 2004–2009. Overall, it is acceptable to surmise that items 1–12 are part of the same dimension for the 13-item scale. Given the prominence of therapeutic communities as a mode of primary treatment and the importance of peer support, it is important to both the academic and treatment communities to have a standard way to measure peer support. The scale presented here can be useful for this purpose. HIGHLIGHTS We asses a peer support scale for those treated for substance abuse. We examine characteristics of the peer support scale. We provide an option to measure peer support for those treated for substance abuse. PMID:26462238

  19. Adaptive multisource streaming in heterogeneous peer-to-peer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Vikash; Rejaie, Reza

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents design and evaluation of an adaptive streaming mechanism from multiple senders to a single receiver in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, called P2P Adaptive Layered Streaming, or PALS. PALS is a receiver-driven mechanism. It enables a receiver peer to orchestrate quality adaptive streaming of a single, layer encoded video stream from multiple congestion controlled senders, and is able to support a spectrum of non-interactive streaming applications. The primary challenge in design of a multi-source streaming mechanism is that available bandwidth from each peer is not known a priori, and could significantly change during a session. In PALS, the receiver periodically performs quality adaptation based on aggregate bandwidth from all senders to determine (i) overall quality (i.e. number of layers) that can be collectively delivered from all senders, and more importantly (ii) specific subset of packets that should be delivered by each sender in order to gracefully cope with any sudden change in its bandwidth. Our detailed simulation-based evaluations illustrate that PALS can effectively cope with several angles of dynamics in the system including: bandwidth variations, peer participation, and partially available content at different peers. We also demonstrate the importance of coordination among senders and examine key design tradeoffs for the PALS mechanism.

  20. Adaptive multisource streaming in heterogeneous peer-to-peer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Vikash; Rejaie, Reza

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents design and evaluation of an adaptive streaming mechanism from multiple senders to a single receiver in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, called P2P Adaptive Layered Streaming, or PALS. PALS is a receiver-driven mechanism. It enables a receiver peer to orchestrate quality adaptive streaming of a single, layer encoded video stream from multiple congestion controlled senders, and is able to support a spectrum of non-interactive streaming applications. The primary challenge in design of a multi-source streaming mechanism is that available bandwidth from each peer is not known a priori, and could significantly change during a session. In PALS, the receiver periodically performs quality adaptation based on aggregate bandwidth from all senders to determine (i) overall quality (i.e. number of layers) that can be collectively delivered from all senders, and more importantly (ii) specific subset of packets that should be delivered by each sender in order to gracefully cope with any sudden change in its bandwidth. Our detailed simulation-based evaluations illustrate that PALS can effectively cope with several angles of dynamics in the system including: bandwidth variations, peer participation, and partially available content at different peers. We also demonstrate the importance of coordination among senders and examine key design tradeoffs for the PALS mechanism.

  1. 45 CFR 1388.9 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must...

  2. Peer Review: Has It a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Although its history is short, peer review has fast become a fixture of journal publications acquiring the status of a ritual in the academia. Many relevant and important issues have been raised leading to doubts about the value of peer review. The advent of electronic publishing further threatens the future of peer review. For peer review to…

  3. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section 194.27... § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... barrier evaluation as required in § 194.44. (b) Peer review processes required in paragraph (a) of...

  4. The Multidimensionality of Peer Pressure in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clasen, Donna Rae; Brown, B. Bradford

    1985-01-01

    A sample of 689 adolescents responded to a self report survey measuring perceptions of peer pressure in five areas of behavior: involvement with peers, school involvement, family involvement, conformity to peer norms, and misconduct. Results elaborated the process of peer influence in adolescent socialization and identity development. (Author/LMO)

  5. Theory and Practice of Peer Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rey A.

    1984-01-01

    The rationale, origins, and practice of peer counseling, a system of training people to help each other through empathy and decision making, are detailed. Specific applications are described, with particular attention to involving adolescents as peer counselors. Peer counselor training as practiced by the Peer Counselling Project (University of…

  6. 2011 OBP Peer Review Portal

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-04

    The Biomass Program conducted detailed biennial peer review meetings of its activities throughout the first half of 2011. This Web page houses information from the reviews. The final reports will be available in 2012.

  7. A narrative review of undergraduate peer-based healthcare ethics teaching

    PubMed Central

    Allikmets, Silvia; Knights, Felicity

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study explores the literature in establishing the value of undergraduate peer-based healthcare ethics teaching as an educational methodology. Methods A narrative review of the literature concerning peer-based ethics teaching was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases, and the Cochrane Library, were systematically searched for studies of peer-based ethics or professionalism teaching. Selected studies related peer-based teaching to ethics education outcomes. Results Ten publications were identified. Selected studies were varied in their chosen intervention methodology and analysis. Collectively, the identified studies suggest peer-based ethics education is an effective and valued educational methodology in training healthcare professionals. One paper suggests peer-based ethics teaching has advantages over traditional didactic methods. Peer-based ethics teaching also receives positive feedback from student participants. However, the limited literature base demonstrates a clear need for more evaluation of this pedagogy. Conclusions The current literature base suggests that undergraduate peer based healthcare ethics teaching is valuable in terms of efficacy and student satisfaction. We conclude that the medical community should invest in further study in order to capitalise upon the potential of peer-based ethics teaching in undergraduate healthcare education. PMID:26668050

  8. Peer review in hematopoietic cell transplantation: are we doing our fair share?

    PubMed

    Giralt, S; Korngold, R; Lazarus, H M

    2016-09-01

    Peer review is believed to be important in maintaining the quality and integrity of research in academic endeavors. Recently, the value of the current peer review process, which is more than 100 years old has come into question. In the field of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), peer review was unable to prevent the publication of the largest and most notorious scientific fraud in our field. In order to assess how the HCT community views and how engaged it is with the peer review process, the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation conducted a survey of all of its members in 2014. The survey was sent to all active members through multiple email communications in August and September 2014. Of a total of 1183 members, 149 responded. Almost all of the respondents had participated in the peer review process, with few respondents declining ever to review manuscripts. The most common cause for declining review requests was lack of time. Most respondents (68%) thought that the current peer review process was relatively fair and unbiased, whereas only 9% of the respondents stated that they did not believe in the peer review process. In conclusion, among the respondents of this survey most felt the peer review process to be valuable and fair, however, the lack of response suggests that further study into improving the peer review process in the field of HCT is warranted in the era of electronic publishing and communication.

  9. Process evaluation of HIV prevention peer groups in Malawi: a look inside the black box.

    PubMed

    McCreary, Linda L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Kafulafula, Ursula K; Ngalande, Rebecca C; Kumbani, Lily C; Jere, Diana L N; Norr, James L; Norr, Kathleen F

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the process evaluation of a peer group intervention for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention which had positive outcomes for three target groups in Malawi: rural adults, adolescents and urban hospital workers. The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10-12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer leaders working in pairs. A descriptive, observational mixed methods design was used with a convenience sample of 294 intervention sessions. Using project records and a conceptually based observation guide, we examined five aspects of the implementation process. The context was favorable, but privacy to discuss sensitive issues was a concern for some groups. In study communities, program reach was 58% of rural adults, 70% of adolescents and nearly all hospital workers. Session records confirmed that all peer groups received the intended six sessions (dose delivered). The dose received was high, as evidenced by high participant engagement in peer group activities. Peer leaders were rated above the median for three indicators of peer group content and process fidelity: session management skills, interpersonal facilitation skills and whether more like a peer group than classroom. Documenting that this HIV prevention peer group intervention was delivered as intended by trained peer volunteers supports widespread dissemination of the intervention.

  10. Perception and Management of Risk in Internet-Based Peer-to-Peer Milk-Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribble, Karleen D.

    2014-01-01

    The perception and management of the risks of peer-to-peer milk sharing was explored via a written questionnaire administered to 97 peer milk donors and 41 peer milk recipients who were recruited via Facebook. All recipients' respondents were aware that there were risks associated with using peer-shared milk and took action to mitigate these…

  11. Safeguarding children: the benefits of a peer-review process.

    PubMed

    Morris-Thompson, Trish; Shepherd, Janet; Rogers, Maggie; Ladbury, Briony; Kirk, Catherine; Marks-Maran, Di

    Nurses in hospitals and in the community are increasingly taking a leading role in safeguarding children. NHS London established a Safeguarding Improvement Team (SIT) in 2009. The SIT project was designed as a one-off activity to raise performance related to safeguarding children in London. This article presents a peer-review process that was established by NHS London and implemented across the 31 PCTs across London. This article presents the peer-review process methodology and a summary of the findings from the SIT visits. Feedback was requested from participants about participants' perceptions of the peer-review process immediately after the SIT visits and again, several months after the completion of all SIT visits. Findings show that the peer-review process was of value, both organisationally and professionally, and the process itself led to identification of good practice as well as gaps in existing practices. The non-threatening nature of the peer-review process was particularly valued, as was the feedback offered by the review teams.

  12. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K

    2013-08-01

    Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk.

  13. Peer relationships of deaf children with cochlear implants: predictors of peer entry and peer interaction success.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one situations compared to interactions including two other hearing children and better performance among girls than boys. In addition, longer duration of implant use and higher self-esteem were associated with better performance on the Peer Task, which was in turn related to parental reports of children's social functioning outside the experimental situation. These findings contribute to the growing literature describing the benefits of cochlear implantation in the areas of communication and socialization, while pointing to interventions that may enhance deaf children's social competence.

  14. Circles of Care: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Peer Support Model for African Americans with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Laura C.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Green, Melissa A.; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliot-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses V.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Earp, Jo Anne

    2013-01-01

    Peer support interventions extend care and health information to underserved populations yet rarely address serious illness. Investigators from a well-defined academic-community partnership developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for African Americans facing advanced cancer. Evaluation methods used the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption,…

  15. Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218…

  16. The Role of Witnessing Violence, Peer Provocation, Family Support, and Parenting Practices in the Aggressive Behavior of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the influence of witnessing violence, peer provocation, family support, and parenting practices (monitoring and discipline) on aggression. Participants were 1,196 ninth graders at nine schools in poor, predominantly agricultural, rural communities who completed measures of these variables. Witnessing violence, peer provocation,…

  17. Outcomes of Project Wall Talk: An HIV/AIDS Peer Education Program Implemented within the Texas State Prison System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael W.; Harzke, Amy Jo; Scott, Deborah P.; McCann, Kelly; Kelley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We report select outcomes from an evaluation of Project Wall Talk, a community-based, peer-led HIV prevention education program implemented in 36 Texas State prison units. Peer educators completed questionnaires prior to receipt of a 40-hour intensive training (N = 590) and at 9-month follow-up (N = 257). Students (N = 2506) completed…

  18. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  19. Peer Mentoring for International Students in a UK Law School: Lessons from a Pilot Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragavan, Shamini K.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study discusses the impact of a support network for international students of culturally diverse backgrounds using a peer mentoring scheme. The scheme focused on facilitating cultural integration in the international student community in Newcastle and sought to engender a cooperative community among new students. Data obtained…

  20. Global Phenomena from Local Rules: Peer-to-Peer Networks and Crystal Steps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    participating in these networks. We explore the use of supervised machine learning to identify peer -to- peer hosts, without using application-specific informa...We then give a detailed introduction to distributed hash tables, which are decentralized but structured peer -to- peer systems. Finally, we discuss the...explores the use of supervised machine learning to identify peer - to- peer hosts, without using port numbers or other application-specific information

  1. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the International Technical Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Yulin WU Tsinghua University China François AVELLAN EPFL-LMH Switzerland (principal) Xingqi LUO Xi'an University of Sci & Tech China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS Arts et Métiers ParisTech France Luca D'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia Wei YANG China Agriculture University China YinLu YOUNG University of Michigan USA Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain Baoshan ZHU Tsinghua University China Hongxun CHEN Shanghai University China Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Zhenyue MA Dalian University of Sci & Tech China Honggang FAN Tsinghua University China François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Pengcheng GUO Xian University of Technology China Leqing WANG Zhejiang University China Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Jiandong YANG Wuhan University China Jianzhong ZHOU Huazhong University of Sci & Tech China Jinwei LI NULL China Rennian LI Lanzhou University of Sci & Tech China Houlin LIU NULL China Juan LIU Tsinghua University China Shuhong LIU Tsinghua University China Xianwu LUO Tsinghua University China Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua

  2. Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Peer to Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylios, Georgios; Tsolis, Dimitrios

    Peer to Peer Networks are oftenly used by internet users to share and distribute digital content (images, audio and video) which is in most of cases protected by the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) legislation. This fact threatens e-inclusion and Internet democracy as a whole as it forces organizations to block access to valuable content. This paper claims that IPR protection and P2P can be complementary. Specifically, a P2P infrastructure is presented which allows broad digital content exchange while on the same time supports data and copyright protection through watermarking technologies.

  3. “Someone like us”: Delivering maternal mental health through peers in two South Asian contexts

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Daisy; Lazarus, Anisha; Atif, Najia; Sikander, Siham; Bhatia, Urvita; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Nisar, Anum; Khan, Sonia; Fuhr, Daniela; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peer-led psychosocial interventions are one solution to address the great paucity of skilled mental health human resources in South Asia. The aim of this study was to explore peer-delivered care for maternal depression in two diverse contexts in South Asia. METHODS The study was carried out in the urban setting of Goa, India and a rural setting in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. In total, 61 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 3 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 38 IDIs and 10 FGDs, were conducted with multiple stakeholders in urban Goa and rural Rawalpindi respectively. We used the framework approach to analyze data. RESULTS Peers, from the same community were the most preferred delivery agents of a community-based psychosocial intervention in both sites. There were contextual similarities and differences between the two sites. Preferred characteristics among peers included local, middle-aged, educated mothers with similar experiences, good communication skills and a good character. Key differences between the two contexts included a greater emphasis on the peer's family social standing in rural Rawalpindi and financial incentives as motivators for individual peers in urban Goa. LIMITATIONS Generalizability of our findings is limited to two specific contexts in a vast and diverse region. DISCUSSION Our study demonstrates that peers have the potential to deliver maternal psychosocial interventions in low-income settings. There are contextual differences in the preferred characteristics and motivators between the sites, and these should be carefully considered in program implementation. PMID:25113958

  4. A Dynamic Program Assessment Framework for Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Gabrielle; Calienes, Christian M.; Thompson, Tara A.

    2016-01-01

    This research builds upon Malnarich, Pettitt, and Mino's (2014) investigation of students' reflections on their learning community (LC) experiences. Adapting their Peer-to-Peer Reflection Protocol for use at Kingsborough Community College, CUNY, we present a framework for dynamic LC program assessment. To obtain feedback about theory-practice…

  5. Researcher perspectives on publication and peer review of data.

    PubMed

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data "publication" seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences- asking what expectations"data publication" raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data's documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data.

  6. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    PubMed

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R; Noblet, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior.

  7. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E.; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R.; Noblet, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner’s management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of ‘harvest readiness’ and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior. PMID:26562429

  8. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    All papers published in this Volume 12 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, Professor Romeo Susan-Resiga, Dr Sebastian Muntean and Dr Sandor Bernad. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the Scientific Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Anton ANTONTechnical University of Civil Engineering, BucharestRomania François AVELLANEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSwitzerland Fidel ARZOLAEDELCAVenezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNERVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Anton BERGANTLitostroj Power d.o.o., LjubljanaSlovenia Gerard BOISENSAM, LilleFrance Hermod BREKKENTNU, TrondheimNorway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc., YorkUSA Eduard EGUSQUIZAPolytechnical University Catalonia BarcelonaSpain Arpad FAYUniversity of MiskolczHungary Richard FISHERVoith Hydro Inc., York USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLAInstitut Polytechnique de GrenobleFrance Aleksandar GAJICUniversity of BelgradeSerbia Arno GEHRERAndritz Hydro GrazAustria José GONZÁLEZUniversidad de OviedoSpain François GUIBAULTEcole Polytechnique de MontrealCanada Chisachi KATOUniversity of TokyoJapan Kwang-Yong KIMInha University, IncheonKorea Jiri KOUTNIKVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Adrian LUNGUDunarea de Jos University of GalatiRomania Christophe NICOLETPower Vision Engineering Sàrl, LausanneSwitzerland Torbjøm K. NIELSENNTNU, TrodheimNorway Michihiro NISHIKyushu Institute of TechnologyJapan Maryse PAGEHydro Quebec IREQ, VarennesCanada Etienne PARKINSONAndritz Hydro LtdSwitzerland František POCHYLYBrno UniversityCzech Republic Stefan RIEDELBAUCHVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG

  9. The developmental pattern of resistance to peer influence in adolescence: will the teenager ever be able to resist?

    PubMed

    Sumter, Sindy R; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Steinberg, Laurence; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2009-08-01

    Common folklore seems to suggest that adolescents are particularly susceptible to peer influence. However, from the literature the exact age differences in susceptibility to peer influence remain unclear. The current study's main focus was to chart the development of general susceptibility to peer pressure in a community sample of 10-18 year olds (N =464) with the recently developed Resistance to Peer Influence Scale (RPI). The one-factor structure of the RPI was cross-validated in the present sample, and the RPI was equally reliable at all ages. As expected, general resistance to peer influence increased during adolescence. In addition, gender differences were most pronounced during mid-adolescence, when girls were more resistant to peer influence than boys. These findings are explained in terms of psychosocial maturation during adolescence.

  10. Using Peer Feedback to Improve Learning via Online Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of various forms of peer observation and feedback on student learning. We recruited twelve graduate students enrolled in a course entitled, Statistics in Education and Psychology, at a university in northern Taiwan. Researchers adopted the case study method, and the course lasted for ten weeks. Students were…

  11. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  12. Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE): integrating C-POL and social media to train peer leaders in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D

    2012-01-01

    Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA Harnessing Online Peer Education study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African-American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups.

  13. 2009 Water Power Peer Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael; Higgins, Mark; Reed, Mike

    2011-04-01

    This report contains the findings of the 2009 Water Power Peer Review Panel, as well as the Water Power Program's responses to those findings. This Peer Review focused on the Program's marine and hydrokinetic energy projects.

  14. 28 CFR 34.110 - Management of peer reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 34.110 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.110 Management of peer reviews. A technical support contractor may assist in managing the peer review process....

  15. The Dedisciplining of Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodeman, Robert; Briggle, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The demand for greater public accountability is changing the nature of ex ante peer review at public science agencies worldwide. Based on a four year research project, this essay examines these changes through an analysis of the process of grant proposal review at two US public science agencies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the…

  16. The Power of Peer Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    In a religion class of 26 bright creative sixth graders, one student demonstrates the power of peer pressure. Part of the morning ritual is to say prayer petitions. Students seems to be calmed by their expressions of care for their families, friends, pets, their military troops, victims of natural disasters, the homeless, etc. However, one student…

  17. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  18. Peer Advising: A Working Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Benson, Paul A.

    1981-01-01

    The development and implementation of a Peer Advising Program at the University of Wisconsin-Superior is discussed. The program's components and evaluation are described and observations and conclusions drawn from a working model are provided. An advisor evaluation form is appended. (MLW)

  19. Peer Observation: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einwaechter, Nelson Frederick, Jr.

    This thesis describes a peer observation program implemented among American and Japanese teachers in the English Department of Hiroshima College of Foreign Languages, a two-year vocational college in Hiroshima, Japan. Each participant functioned as both an observer and observee, while pre- and post-observation meetings were held between the…

  20. Team Projects and Peer Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin; Meeker, Ralph D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assign semester- or quarter-long team-based projects in several Computer Science and Finance courses. This paper reports on our experience in designing, managing, and evaluating such projects. In particular, we discuss the effects of team size and of various peer evaluation schemes on team performance and student learning. We report…

  1. Responsible authorship and peer review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James R

    2002-04-01

    In this article the basic principles of responsible authorship and peer review are surveyed, with special emphasis on (a) guidelines for refereeing archival journal articles and proposals; and (b) how these guidelines should be taken into account at all stages of writing.

  2. Peer Coaching for Better Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Michael E.; Welch, Frances C.

    1996-01-01

    College faculty peer coaching encourages better teaching while addressing the unique nature of college instruction. It is non-evaluative, based on classroom observation or instructional materials review, and targets specific instructional techniques. Programs should have clear purposes and procedures, provide formal coaching training, provide…

  3. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  4. Research on Intellectual Property Right Problems of Peer-to-Peer Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Ying; Li, Mingshu; Chen, Meizhang; Zheng, Shengli

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital intellectual property rights relating to peer-to-peer networks, using Napster as an example. Suggests anti-piracy solutions to prevent litigation and considers how libraries can develop potential service models using peer-to-peer networks, including the development of personal libraries on the Internet, interlibrary loan,…

  5. What Positive Impacts Does Peer Tutoring Have upon the Peer Tutors at SQU?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al kharusi, Dhafra

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide an answer to the question: What positive impacts does peer tutoring have upon the peer tutors at SQU? It is conducted in the LC Tutorial Centre at Sultan Qaboos University where senior English language students are hired to tutor their peers who are struggling with the language. It sheds light on the peer tutors'…

  6. A Peer Review Training Workshop: Coaching Students to Give and Evaluate Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Trained peer review, as illustrated in a plethora of peer review or peer response scholarship, has a positive effect on students' writing in general and on improved revision quality in particular (Berg, 1999; Hu, 2005; Min, 2006; Paulus, 1999; Stanley, 1992). From these studies, it is evident that trained peer feedback does have a significant role…

  7. Training the Peer Facilitator: Using Participatory Theatre to Promote Engagement in Peer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Sarah Hunter

    2015-01-01

    "Training the peer facilitator: using participatory theatre to promote engagement in peer education" examines the role of participatory theatre in a peer education setting in relation to the goal of young people engaging and empowering their peers to create new knowledge together. Extending research about the use of applied theatre…

  8. Peer-to-Peer Teaching Using Multi-Disciplinary Applications as Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Souhan, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Most educators know that the best way to truly understand new material is to teach it. The use of students as peer educators provides numerous benefits to the student teacher and his or her classmates. Student-led instruction or peer-to-peer teaching is not a new concept or teaching technique. Peer teaching traces its roots back to the ancient…

  9. Which Peers Matter: How Social Ties Affect Peer-Group Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poldin, Oleg; Valeeva, Diliara; Yudkevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals' social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence of peers' performance from that of peers'…

  10. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  11. Longitudinal Associations among Youth Depressive Symptoms, Peer Victimization, and Low Peer Acceptance: An Interpersonal Process Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochel, Karen P.; Ladd, Gary W.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal investigation was conducted to explicate the network of associations between depressive symptoms and peer difficulties among 486 fourth through sixth graders (M = 9.93 years). Parent and teacher reports of depressive symptoms; peer, self, and teacher reports of victimization; and peer reports of peer acceptance were obtained. A…

  12. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

    2013-01-01

    Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

  13. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  14. Peer Harassment. Hassles for Women on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    The subject of peer harassment for women on college campuses is explored. In order to handle such situations effectively, administrators need to know the parameters of the problem, what they are dealing with, and ways to prevent bad situations. The topic is presented as follows: a definition of peer harassment; the prevalence of peer harassment;…

  15. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  16. Understanding Peer Influence in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…

  17. Peer Review: Promoting Efficient School District Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    Many professions recognize the benefits of peer reviews to assess processes and operations because peers can more easily identify one another's inefficiencies and provide some kind of intervention. Generally, the goal of the peer review process is to verify whether the work satisfies the standards set by the industry. A number of states have begun…

  18. Advancing Kinesiology through Improved Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We…

  19. Peer Review of Teaching: Sharing Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golparian, Shaya; Chan, Judy; Cassidy, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we share examples of best peer review of teaching practices, drawing on our involvement in the design and implementation of the Peer Review of Teaching program at the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology. We review the history of the Peer Review of Teaching Initiative at the University of British Columbia and explain key…

  20. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate...

  1. Peer Pressure: An Issue That Crosses Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Karen; McCarthy, Alice R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research on peer pressure shows that: parents are important to teens, today's teens face unique challenges, and teaching teens to say no does not mean losing friends. The paper presents parenting tips for countering peer pressure, noting the influence of adult peer pressure on children. A sidebar examines the right age to start talking to…

  2. Peer Tutoring at Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the important roles of peer tutoring and peer tutoring services that utilize student tutors in higher education. First, the roles and potential benefits of peer tutoring are identified and reviewed as they apply to various dimensions of student development. Second, the impacts, benefits, and extended beneficiaries of peer…

  3. Peer-Mediated Learning beyond the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havnes, Anton

    2008-01-01

    In higher education, there is an increasing interest in student interaction in the form of peer learning. In the literature, peer learning is mainly presented as a pedagogical tool used to promote curriculum learning. This article is based on observations of peer learning that expand beyond learning of the curriculum. It particularly addresses the…

  4. Student User Evaluations of Peer Adviser Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisz, Ruth H.; Lane, Jeffrey R.

    1987-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=1,032) using a peer advisement service completed a questionnaire containing a personal profile, reasons for using the service, previous use, how students learned of service, and evaluation of peer advisers. Results support continued use of existing peer advisement training model, which includes interpersonal communication…

  5. 48 CFR 215.270 - Peer Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 215.270 Section 215.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... of Proposals and Information 215.270 Peer Reviews. Agency officials shall conduct Peer Reviews...

  6. 48 CFR 201.170 - Peer Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 201.170... Procurement and Acquisition Policy, will organize teams of reviewers and facilitate Peer Reviews for solicitations and contracts valued at $1 billion or more, as follows: (i) Pre-award Peer Reviews will...

  7. Empowering Peers To Prevent Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazler, Richard J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

    2002-01-01

    An examination of peer-on-peer abuse (e.g., bullying, harassment) and peer-on-self abuse (e.g., suicide, self-mutilation) prevention programs identified more effective ways to involve youth in similar programs. Stronger programs emphasized youth empowerment through active roles in program development and reaching out with understanding and support…

  8. Preservice Teacher Observations in Peer Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jayne M.; Garn, Alex; Jenkins, Patience

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what and how preservice teachers observe when peer coaching during an early field experience. Twenty-three male and 14 female preservice teachers trained in peer coaching participated in the study. Coaches observed a peer partner teach five 40-min lessons to small groups of elementary or junior high school…

  9. Developing Reflection and Teaching through Peer Coaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlin, Rebecca P.

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter highlights the development of reflection and teaching skills in preservice teachers via peer coaching. Peer coaching in preservice programs can serve as an induction program, while with experienced teachers it can serve as professional development. Research suggests that peer coaching contributes to the development of effective…

  10. Coaching in Community Settings: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Saundra Murray

    Coaching is a means of instruction that combines elements of mentoring and tutoring in natural community environments. Coach and student characteristics, processes of coaching, and outcomes of coaching in varied community settings and across different developmental levels are examined. Programs utilizing adults and peers from the community in…

  11. Exchange-Based Incentive Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer File Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    sharing networks. Peers give higher service priority to requests from peers that can provide a simultaneous and symmetric service in return. We...locally as a function of uptime, download and upload volume, and give priority to remote peers that claim high participation This work was partially...networks. Peers give higher service priority to requests from peers that can provide a simultaneous and symmetric service in return. We generalize

  12. Resilient peer-to-peer multicast without the cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrer, Stefan; Bustamante, Fabian E.

    2004-12-01

    We introduce Nemo, a novel peer-to-peer multicast protocol that achieves high delivery ratio without sacrificing end-to-end latency or incurring additional costs. Based on two simple techniques: (1) co-leaders to minimize dependencies and, (2) triggered negative acknowledgments (NACKs) to detect lost packets, Nemo's design emphasizes conceptual simplicity and minimum dependencies, thus achieving performance characteristics capable of withstanding the natural instability of its target environment. We present an extensive comparative evaluation of our protocol through simulation and wide-area experimentation. We contrast the scalability and performance of Nemo with that of three alternative protocols: Narada, Nice and Nice-PRM. Our results show that Nemo can achieve delivery ratios similar to those of comparable protocols under high failure rates, but at a fraction of their cost in terms of duplicate packets (reductions > 90%) and control-related traffic.

  13. Resilient peer-to-peer multicast without the cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrer, Stefan; Bustamante, Fabian E.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce Nemo, a novel peer-to-peer multicast protocol that achieves high delivery ratio without sacrificing end-to-end latency or incurring additional costs. Based on two simple techniques: (1) co-leaders to minimize dependencies and, (2) triggered negative acknowledgments (NACKs) to detect lost packets, Nemo's design emphasizes conceptual simplicity and minimum dependencies, thus achieving performance characteristics capable of withstanding the natural instability of its target environment. We present an extensive comparative evaluation of our protocol through simulation and wide-area experimentation. We contrast the scalability and performance of Nemo with that of three alternative protocols: Narada, Nice and Nice-PRM. Our results show that Nemo can achieve delivery ratios similar to those of comparable protocols under high failure rates, but at a fraction of their cost in terms of duplicate packets (reductions > 90%) and control-related traffic.

  14. [Peer reputation of adolescents: sociometric status differences].

    PubMed

    Vysniauskyte-Rimkiene, Jorūne; Kardelis, Kestutis

    2005-01-01

    Successful communication with peers, positive classroom acceptance influence psychosocial health of children, while social maladjustment in childhood has emerged as high risk predictor of later delinquency and conduct problems (dropping out of school, criminality, psychopathology). Though these issues have devoted increasing attention in recent years, but still there is a lack of studies analyzing peer relation of adolescents. The primary purposes of the present study were to examine sociometric status, peer reputation and peer relations of adolescents and reveal connections between these results. Data were obtained on 502 adolescents (mean age 13+/-0.03) attending secondary schools of Kaunas city. The findings revealed peer reputation connections with status and sex groups.

  15. Empowering First Responders - Peer-to-Peer Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    across international boundaries. Peering Closer to Home This difference in language highlights America’s other neighbor, Mexico . Here too...venture merely means hitch hiking on traditional cooperative agreements and systems already in place.14 If adding Mexico makes sense, then adding...org/c3is/ccbm/mic.html. 14 Discussions with Special Agent Perla Garcia-Alcocer with the Mexican Instituto Nacional Para el Combate a las Drogas

  16. Peer-to-Peer Topology Formation Using Random Walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Kin-Wah; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems such as live video streaming and content sharing are usually composed of a huge number of users with heterogeneous capacities. As a result, designing a distributed algorithm to form such a giant-scale topology in a heterogeneous environment is a challenging question because, on the one hand, the algorithm should exploit the heterogeneity of users' capacities to achieve load-balancing and, on the other hand, the overhead of the algorithm should be kept as low as possible. To meet such requirements, we introduce a very simple protocol for building heterogeneous unstructured P2P networks. The basic idea behind our protocol is to exploit a simple, distributed nature of random walk sampling to assist the peers in selecting their suitable neighbors in terms of capacity and connectivity to achieve load-balancing. To gain more insights into our proposed protocol, we also develop a detailed analysis to investigate our protocol under any heterogeneous P2P environment. The analytical results are validated by the simulations. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to stimulate further research to explore the fundamental issues in heterogeneous P2P networks.

  17. Hierarchical Data Distribution Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Shashi; Dave, M.; Patel, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    In the past few years, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become an extremely popular mechanism for large-scale content sharing. P2P systems have focused on specific application domains (e.g. music files, video files) or on providing file system like capabilities. P2P is a powerful paradigm, which provides a large-scale and cost-effective mechanism for data sharing. P2P system may be used for storing data globally. Can we implement a conventional database on P2P system? But successful implementation of conventional databases on the P2P systems is yet to be reported. In this paper we have presented the mathematical model for the replication of the partitions and presented a hierarchical based data distribution scheme for the P2P networks. We have also analyzed the resource utilization and throughput of the P2P system with respect to the availability, when a conventional database is implemented over the P2P system with variable query rate. Simulation results show that database partitions placed on the peers with higher availability factor perform better. Degradation index, throughput, resource utilization are the parameters evaluated with respect to the availability factor.

  18. The ethics of peer review in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin

    2014-10-01

    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved.

  19. Security Issues in Cross-Organizational Peer-to-Peer Applications and Some Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ankur; Awasthi, Lalit K.

    Peer-to-Peer networks have been widely used for sharing millions of terabytes of content, for large-scale distributed computing and for a variety of other novel applications, due to their scalability and fault-tolerance. However, the scope of P2P networks has somehow been limited to individual computers connected to the internet. P2P networks are also notorious for blatant copyright violations and facilitating several kinds of security attacks. Businesses and large organizations have thus stayed away from deploying P2P applications citing security loopholes in P2P systems as the biggest reason for non-adoption. In theory P2P applications can help fulfill many organizational requirements such as collaboration and joint projects with other organizations, access to specialized computing infrastructure and finally accessing the specialized information/content and expert human knowledge available at other organizations. These potentially beneficial interactions necessitate that the research community attempt to alleviate the security shortcomings in P2P systems and ensure their acceptance and wide deployment. This research paper therefore examines the security issues prevalent in enabling cross-organizational P2P interactions and provides some technical insights into how some of these issues can be resolved.

  20. Improving healthcare quality through organisational peer-to-peer assessment: lessons from the nuclear power industry

    PubMed Central

    Pronovost, Peter J; Hudson, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare has made great efforts to reduce preventable patient harm, from externally driven regulations to internally driven professionalism. Regulation has driven the majority of efforts to date, and has a necessary place in establishing accountability and minimum standards. Yet they need to be coupled with internally driven efforts. Among professional groups, internally-driven efforts that function as communities of learning and change social norms are highly effective tools to improve performance, yet these approaches are underdeveloped in healthcare. Healthcare can learn much from the nuclear power industry. The nuclear power industry formed the Institute of Nuclear Power Operators following the Three Mile Island accident to improve safety. That organization established a peer-to-peer assessment program to cross-share best practices, safety hazards, problems and actions that improved safety and operational performance. This commentary explores how a similar program could be expanded into healthcare. Healthcare needs a structured, clinician-led, industry-wide process to openly review, identify and mitigate hazards, and share best practices that ultimately improve patient safety. A healthcare version of the nuclear power program could supplement regulatory and other strategies currently used to improve quality and patient safety. PMID:22562877

  1. Improving healthcare quality through organisational peer-to-peer assessment: lessons from the nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Hudson, Daniel W

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare has made great efforts to reduce preventable patient harm, from externally driven regulations to internally driven professionalism. Regulation has driven the majority of efforts to date, and has a necessary place in establishing accountability and minimum standards. Yet they need to be coupled with internally driven efforts. Among professional groups, internally-driven efforts that function as communities of learning and change social norms are highly effective tools to improve performance, yet these approaches are underdeveloped in healthcare. Healthcare can learn much from the nuclear power industry. The nuclear power industry formed the Institute of Nuclear Power Operators following the Three Mile Island accident to improve safety. That organization established a peer-to-peer assessment program to cross-share best practices, safety hazards, problems and actions that improved safety and operational performance. This commentary explores how a similar program could be expanded into healthcare. Healthcare needs a structured, clinician-led, industry-wide process to openly review, identify and mitigate hazards, and share best practices that ultimately improve patient safety. A healthcare version of the nuclear power program could supplement regulatory and other strategies currently used to improve quality and patient safety.

  2. Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  3. Moving from outsider to insider: peer status and partnerships between electricity utilities and residential consumers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure.

  4. Building blocks for peer success: lessons learned from a train-the-trainer program.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Carol R; Downes, Alicia; Eddens, Shalini; Ruiz, John

    2012-01-01

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) calls for a reduction in health disparities, a reduction in new HIV infections, and improved retention in HIV care and treatment. It acknowledges that HIV-positive peers can play an important role in supporting these aims. However, peer training must be comprehensive enough to equip peers with the knowledge and skills needed for this work. This article describes the development of a national train the trainer (TTT) model for HIV peer educators, and the results of its implementation and replication. A mixed methods evaluation identified who was trained locally as a result of TTT implementation, what aspects of the TTT were most useful to trainers in implementing local training sessions, and areas for improvement. Over the course of 1 year, 91 individuals were trained at 1 of 6 TTT sessions. These individuals then conducted 26 local training sessions for 272 peers. Factors that facilitated local replication training included the teach-back/feedback model, faculty modeling of facilitation styles, financial support for training logistics, and faculty support in designing and implementing the training. The model could be improved by providing instruction on how to incorporate peers as part of the training team. TTT programs that are easily replicable in the community will be an important asset in developing a peer workforce that can help implement the National AIDS Strategy.

  5. Fiscal Year 2000 Salary Report for the Illinois Public Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report presents data about compensation received by employees in Illinois' 48 public community colleges. Data are presented by peer groups with statewide totals. The seven peer groups are based on a combination of college enrollment (semester), geographic location, and financial data. These seven peer groups are described as follows: (1)…

  6. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  7. The Global Burden of Journal Peer Review in the Biomedical Literature: Strong Imbalance in the Collective Enterprise

    PubMed Central

    Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe; Trinquart, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The growth in scientific production may threaten the capacity for the scientific community to handle the ever-increasing demand for peer review of scientific publications. There is little evidence regarding the sustainability of the peer-review system and how the scientific community copes with the burden it poses. We used mathematical modeling to estimate the overall quantitative annual demand for peer review and the supply in biomedical research. The modeling was informed by empirical data from various sources in the biomedical domain, including all articles indexed at MEDLINE. We found that for 2015, across a range of scenarios, the supply exceeded by 15% to 249% the demand for reviewers and reviews. However, 20% of the researchers performed 69% to 94% of the reviews. Among researchers actually contributing to peer review, 70% dedicated 1% or less of their research work-time to peer review while 5% dedicated 13% or more of it. An estimated 63.4 million hours were devoted to peer review in 2015, among which 18.9 million hours were provided by the top 5% contributing reviewers. Our results support that the system is sustainable in terms of volume but emphasizes a considerable imbalance in the distribution of the peer-review effort across the scientific community. Finally, various individual interactions between authors, editors and reviewers may reduce to some extent the number of reviewers who are available to editors at any point. PMID:27832157

  8. The Global Burden of Journal Peer Review in the Biomedical Literature: Strong Imbalance in the Collective Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Kovanis, Michail; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe; Trinquart, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The growth in scientific production may threaten the capacity for the scientific community to handle the ever-increasing demand for peer review of scientific publications. There is little evidence regarding the sustainability of the peer-review system and how the scientific community copes with the burden it poses. We used mathematical modeling to estimate the overall quantitative annual demand for peer review and the supply in biomedical research. The modeling was informed by empirical data from various sources in the biomedical domain, including all articles indexed at MEDLINE. We found that for 2015, across a range of scenarios, the supply exceeded by 15% to 249% the demand for reviewers and reviews. However, 20% of the researchers performed 69% to 94% of the reviews. Among researchers actually contributing to peer review, 70% dedicated 1% or less of their research work-time to peer review while 5% dedicated 13% or more of it. An estimated 63.4 million hours were devoted to peer review in 2015, among which 18.9 million hours were provided by the top 5% contributing reviewers. Our results support that the system is sustainable in terms of volume but emphasizes a considerable imbalance in the distribution of the peer-review effort across the scientific community. Finally, various individual interactions between authors, editors and reviewers may reduce to some extent the number of reviewers who are available to editors at any point.

  9. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  10. Peer coaching: an overlooked resource.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, Linda Smith; Hanna, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The authors present an innovative pedagogical approach to peer coaching using senior leadership and junior medical/surgical nursing students within the acute care clinical setting. The collaboration among faculty, staff, and students developed awareness of thinking critically, reasoning, and using effective clinical judgment. Through the use of Lasater's Clinical Judgment Rubric, student reflections provided insight to the program's effectiveness and use of alternative clinical experiences.

  11. A Developmental Perspective on Peer Rejection, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Conduct Problems Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Diane; Drabick, Deborah A G; Burgers, Darcy E

    2015-12-01

    Peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are linked consistently to the development and maintenance of conduct problems. Two proposed models may account for longitudinal relations among these peer processes and conduct problems: the (a) sequential mediation model, in which peer rejection in childhood and deviant peer affiliation in adolescence mediate the link between early externalizing behaviors and more serious adolescent conduct problems; and (b) parallel process model, in which peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are considered independent processes that operate simultaneously to increment risk for conduct problems. In this review, we evaluate theoretical models and evidence for associations among conduct problems and (a) peer rejection and (b) deviant peer affiliation. We then consider support for the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Next, we propose an integrated model incorporating both the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Future research directions and implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  12. A Developmental Perspective on Peer Rejection, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Conduct Problems among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Diane; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Burgers, Darcy E.

    2015-01-01

    Peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are linked consistently to the development and maintenance of conduct problems. Two proposed models may account for longitudinal relations among these peer processes and conduct problems: the (a) sequential mediation model, in which peer rejection in childhood and deviant peer affiliation in adolescence mediate the link between early externalizing behaviors and more serious adolescent conduct problems; and (b) parallel process model, in which peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are considered independent processes that operate simultaneously to increment risk for conduct problems. In this review, we evaluate theoretical models and evidence for associations among conduct problems and (a) peer rejection and (b) deviant peer affiliation. We then consider support for the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Next, we propose an integrated model incorporating both the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Future research directions and implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25410430

  13. Peer Problems and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Among Norwegian and American Children: The Role of 5-HTTLPR.

    PubMed

    Stenseng, Frode; Li, Zhi; Belsky, Jay; Hygen, Beate W; Skalicka, Vera; Guzey, Ismail C; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-03-10

    Peer problems are linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the serotonin system is thought to be involved in ADHD-related behavior. Hence, from a Gene × Environment perspective, the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR may play a moderating role. In two large community samples, the moderating role of 5-HTTLPR was examined related to more hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms (HI symptoms) predicted by more peer problems. In Study 1, involving 642 Norwegian children, results indicated that for s-allele carriers only, caregiver-reported peer problems at age 4 predicted more parent-reported HI symptoms at age 6. In Study 2, similar results emerged involving 482 American children. Discussion focuses on differential sensitivity to the adverse effects of poor peer relations.

  14. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DYNAMICS OF ENHANCED HIV RISK REDUCTION AMONG PEER INTERVENTIONISTS

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Weeks, Margaret R.; Convey, Mark; Li, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a model of interactive social psychological and relational feedback processes leading to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction behavior change among active drug users trained as Peer Health Advocates (PHAs). The model is supported by data from qualitative interviews with PHAs and members of their drug-using networks in the Risk Avoidance Partnership (RAP) project. Results suggest three mutually reinforcing social psychological processes that motivate PHAs to provide HIV prevention intervention to their peers and to reduce their own risk behaviors: development of a prosocial identity, positive social reinforcement from drug users and community members, and cognitive dissonance associated with continued risk behavior while engaging in health advocacy. These processes directly influence peer interventionists’ motivation and efficacy to continue giving intervention to their peers, and to reduce their HIV risk behaviors. The authors discuss implications of the model for continued research on effective HIV prevention in high-risk groups. PMID:25414528

  15. Child neglect and adolescent violence: examining the effects of self-control and peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Constance L; Tyler, Kimberly A; Bersani, Bianca E

    2005-02-01

    Child maltreatment researchers have often suggested that experiences with child neglect have long-term, negative effects. Child neglect is thought to have particularly adverse effects on self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. In this research, we examine the relationship of child neglect with adolescent violence via self-control and peer rejection. Using prospective, longitudinal data from a community sample, we find that child neglect adversely affects peer rejection and violence. Neglected children were more likely to be rejected by their peers in early adolescence and were more likely to be violent later in adolescence. Contrary to theoretical predictions, child neglect was not a significant predictor of self-control. Implications for delinquency and child maltreatment researchers are discussed.

  16. Emergence of Virtual Communities as Means of Communication: A Case Study on Virtual Health Care Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.

    2011-01-01

    Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…

  17. Peer Learning in a MATLAB Programming Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, Shanon

    2016-11-01

    Three forms of research-based peer learning were implemented in the design of a MATLAB programming course for mechanical engineering undergraduate students. First, a peer learning program was initiated. These undergraduate peer learning leaders played two roles in the course, (I) they were in the classroom helping students' with their work, and, (II) they led optional two hour helps sessions outside of the class time. The second form of peer learning was implemented through the inclusion of a peer discussion period following in class clicker quizzes. The third form of peer learning had the students creating video project assignments and posting them on YouTube to explain course topics to their peers. Several other more informal techniques were used to encourage peer learning. Student feedback in the form of both instructor-designed survey responses and formal course evaluations (quantitative and narrative) will be presented. Finally, effectiveness will be measured by formal assessment, direct and indirect to these peer learning methods. This will include both academic data/grades and pre/post test scores. Overall, the course design and its inclusion of these peer learning techniques demonstrate effectiveness.

  18. Advancing kinesiology through improved peer review.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane V; Morrow, James R; Thomas, Jerry R

    2014-06-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We reviewed the literature on the characteristics of peer review in scientific journals and describe the status of peer review in kinesiology journals. Although the majority of scholars and editors strongly support the peer-review process, systematic research in several disciplines has shown somewhat positive but mixed results for the efficacy of peer review in evaluating the quality of and improving research reports. Past recommendations for improvement have focused on agreement between reviewers, standards for evaluating quality, and clarification of the editorial team roles. Research on interventions, however, indicates that improving reviewer performance is difficult. The specific research on peer review in kinesiology is limited. Six recommendations to improve peer review are proposed: publishing clear evaluation standards, establishing collaborative evaluation procedures and editorial team roles, utilizing online submission data to help improve reviewer comments, creating author appeals procedures, protecting reviewer time commitments, and improving reviewer recognition. There is considerable variation in peer-review criteria and procedures in kinesiology, and implementing several reasonable improvements may advance knowledge development and the field of kinesiology.

  19. Multi-Stage Open Peer Review: Scientific Evaluation Integrating the Strengths of Traditional Peer Review with the Virtues of Transparency and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pöschl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to all demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public. The advantages of open access, public peer review, and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP, www.atmos-chem-phys.net) and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) and the open access publisher Copernicus (www.copernicus.org). The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. Key features and achievements of this approach are: top quality and impact, efficient self-regulation and low rejection rates, high attractivity and rapid growth, low costs, and financial sustainability. In fact, ACP and the EGU interactive open access sister journals are by most if not all standards more successful than comparable scientific journals with traditional or alternative forms of peer review (editorial statistics, publication statistics, citation statistics, economic costs, and sustainability). The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including

  20. Multi-stage open peer review: scientific evaluation integrating the strengths of traditional peer review with the virtues of transparency and self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Pöschl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to all demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today's highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public. The advantages of open access, public peer review, and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP, www.atmos-chem-phys.net) and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) and the open access publisher Copernicus (www.copernicus.org). The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. Key features and achievements of this approach are: top quality and impact, efficient self-regulation and low rejection rates, high attractivity and rapid growth, low costs, and financial sustainability. In fact, ACP and the EGU interactive open access sister journals are by most if not all standards more successful than comparable scientific journals with traditional or alternative forms of peer review (editorial statistics, publication statistics, citation statistics, economic costs, and sustainability). The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including the

  1. Identifying Influential Young People to Undertake Effective Peer-Led Health Promotion: the example of A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial (ASSIST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Fenella; Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Campbell, Rona

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate an effective whole-community approach to identifying a diverse group of influential young people to effectively diffuse health promotion messages among their peers. A peer nomination questionnaire, developed through extensive piloting work, was completed by 10 730 Year 8 students (aged 12-13…

  2. Peer counselors' role in supporting patients' adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Gusdal, Annelie K; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlstrom, Rolf; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to explore peer counselors' work and their role in supporting patients' adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors, and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from the analysis. The first main category, peer counselors as facilitators of adherence, describes how peer counselors played an important role by acting as role models, raising awareness, and being visible in the community. They were also recognized for being close to the patients while acting as a bridge to the health system. They provided patients with an opportunity to individually talk to someone who was also living with HIV, who had a positive and life-affirming attitude about their situation, and were willing to share personal stories of hope when educating and counseling their patients. The second main category, benefits and challenges of peer counseling, deals with how peer counselors found reward in helping others while at the same time acknowledging their limitations and need of support and remuneration. Their role and function were not clearly defined within the health system and they received negligible financial and organizational support. While peer counseling is acknowledged as an essential vehicle for treatment success in ART support in sub-Saharan Africa, a formal recognition and regulation of their role should be defined. The issue of strategies for disclosure to support adherence, while avoiding or reducing stigma, also requires specific attention. We argue that the development and implementation of support to peer counselors are crucial in existing and future ART programs, but more research is needed to further explore factors that are important to sustain and strengthen the work of peer counselors.

  3. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.

  4. Community and Virtual Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Oldridge, Rachel; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to virtual communities: (1) information and virtual community; (2) virtual communities and communities of practice; (3) virtual communities and virtual arenas, including virtual community networks; and (4) networked virtual communities. (Contains 175 references.) (MES)

  5. Environmental Restoration Project, Peer Review Process Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    are risk based, technically sound, and cost effective, the Air Force instituted a peer review program in 1992. The objective of this research is to...describe and analyze the peer review process. Through triangulation of data from interviews, observations, official and academic documents, and surveys...characteristics. A questionnaire was used to gather perceptions of peer review effectiveness--the criterion variable--and of the seven constructs. A total of 141

  6. Discouraged by Peer Excellence: Exposure to Exemplary Peer Performance Causes Quitting.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Todd; Feller, Avi

    2016-03-01

    People are exposed to exemplary peer performances often (and sometimes by design in interventions). In two studies, we showed that exposure to exemplary peer performances can undermine motivation and success by causing people to perceive that they cannot attain their peers' high levels of performance. It also causes de-identification with the relevant domain. We examined such discouragement by peer excellence by exploiting the incidental exposure to peers' abilities that occurs when students are asked to assess each other's work. Study 1 was a natural experiment in a massive open online course that employed peer assessment (N = 5,740). Exposure to exemplary peer performances caused a large proportion of students to quit the course. Study 2 explored underlying psychological mechanisms in an online replication (N = 361). Discouragement by peer excellence has theoretical implications for work on social judgment, social comparison, and reference bias and has practical implications for interventions that induce social comparisons.

  7. Inflammablog: peer-to-peer online learning in immunology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Zoë; Cohen, J John

    2013-03-01

    Is it possible for students in different courses, at different academic levels, and at different universities to learn immunology together using the Internet? We teach a colloquium on inflammation for undergraduates at the University of Arizona and a lecture course on human immunology for graduate students and clinical and basic science fellows at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Students in these programs, being scattered about large campuses, have little time for student-directed discussion and peer interactions, and they never have the opportunity to meet students in the course in the other state. Instead of requiring the usual essays and term papers, we set up a blog (an online discussion group) for the two courses, and required all students to post, and comment on other posts, within and between the courses. Student writing is normally directed at a single reader, the instructor, which seems like a waste of talent; we encouraged peer exchanges. Furthermore, we were interested in observing the interactions between the Colorado students, who were older and sometimes experienced professionals, and the younger Arizonans. We used a blog because it is administratively impossible to enroll the students in two universities in a single courseware (learning management system) site. Blogging has offered insights into students' comfort with this form of social medium, and into the potential for this approach in light of the rapid adoption of blended and massively open online courses.

  8. The Nature of Peer-to-Peer Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, João V. P.; Inácio, Pedro R. M.; Freire, Mário M.; Pereira, Manuela; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    The massive adoption of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications brings new challenges for network management. The increase of the bandwidth usage, the shift of the Internet habits of home users and the easiness to share and provide contents is changing the traffic characteristics, and breaking strong assumptions in which network design is based. As a response to concerns from network administrators and Internet Service Providers, traffic management is now a requirement instead of an option, making the traffic classification functionality into an essential administration tool. However, the evasive nature of most P2P applications renders the classification of their traffic a difficult task to achieve even through Deep Packet Inspections of the data units, mostly due to the application of encryption and randomizationmechanisms. In order to meet the demand for new and accurate methods for traffic classification in the dark, it is necessary to study and fully understand the deep nature of P2P traffic. In this chapter, the characteristics of this type of traffic are discussed and explained, and recent studies about traffic characterisation are introduced and analysed from the perspective that may enable their application for traffic classification.

  9. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caram, L. F.; Caiafa, C. F.; Ausloos, M.; Proto, A. N.

    2015-08-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agents have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations, after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to increase their capacity beyond the no-interaction case limit. In other words, when some collaborative partnership among a relatively small number of partners takes place, all agents act in good faith prioritizing the common good, when receiving a mutual benefit allowing them to surpass their capacity.

  10. Dicoogle - an open source peer-to-peer PACS.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carlos; Ferreira, Carlos; Bastião, Luís; Ribeiro, Luís; Silva, Augusto; Oliveira, José Luís

    2011-10-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) have been widely deployed in healthcare institutions, and they now constitute a normal commodity for practitioners. However, its installation, maintenance, and utilization are still a burden due to their heavy structures, typically supported by centralized computational solutions. In this paper, we present Dicoogle, a PACS archive supported by a document-based indexing system and by peer-to-peer (P2P) protocols. Replacing the traditional database storage (RDBMS) by a documental organization permits gathering and indexing data from file-based repositories, which allows searching the archive through free text queries. As a direct result of this strategy, more information can be extracted from medical imaging repositories, which clearly increases flexibility when compared with current query and retrieval DICOM services. The inclusion of P2P features allows PACS internetworking without the need for a central management framework. Moreover, Dicoogle is easy to install, manage, and use, and it maintains full interoperability with standard DICOM services.

  11. Sealed source peer review plan

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR {section} 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  12. Training Undergraduate Physics Peer Tutors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.

    2004-05-01

    The University of Wisconsin's Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program matches upper level undergraduate physics students in small study groups with students studying introductory algebra-based physics. We work with students who are potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with the course. They include students with a low exam score, learning disabilities, no high school physics, weak math backgrounds, and/or on academic probation. We also work with students from groups under represented in the sciences and who may be feeling isolated or marginal on campus such as minority, returning adult, and international students. The tutors provide a supportive learning environment, extra practice problems, and an overview of key concepts. In so doing, they help our students to build confidence and problem solving skills applicable to physics and other areas of their academic careers. The Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program is modeled after a similar program for chemistry created by the University of Wisconsin's Chemistry Learning Center. Both programs are now run in collaboration. The tutors are chosen for their academic strength and excellent communication skills. Our tutors are majoring in physics, math, and secondary-level science education. The tutors receive ongoing training and supervision throughout the year. They attend weekly discipline-specific meetings to discuss strategies for teaching the content currently being discussed in the physics course. They also participate in a weekly teaching seminar with science tutors from chemistry and biochemistry to discuss teaching methods, mentoring, and general information relating to the students with whom we work. We will describe an overview of the Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program with a focus on the teacher training program for our undergraduate tutors.

  13. Twelve tips for peer observation of teaching.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zarrin Seema; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Carr, Sandra E

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines twelve tips for undertaking peer observation of teaching in medical education, using the peer review model and the experiences of the authors. An accurate understanding of teaching effectiveness is required by individuals, medical schools, and universities to evaluate the learning environment and to substantiate academic and institutional performance. Peer Observation of Teaching is one tool that provides rich, qualitative evidence for teachers, quite different from closed-ended student evaluations. When Peer Observation of Teaching is incorporated into university practice and culture, and is conducted in a mutually respectful and supportive way, it has the potential to facilitate reflective change and growth for teachers.

  14. Leveraging Position Bias to Improve Peer Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Kristina; Hogg, Tad

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of social media and peer production, the amount of new online content has grown dramatically. To identify interesting items in the vast stream of new content, providers must rely on peer recommendation to aggregate opinions of their many users. Due to human cognitive biases, the presentation order strongly affects how people allocate attention to the available content. Moreover, we can manipulate attention through the presentation order of items to change the way peer recommendation works. We experimentally evaluate this effect using Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find that different policies for ordering content can steer user attention so as to improve the outcomes of peer recommendation. PMID:24919071

  15. On Peers, Those `Particular Friends'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larochelle, Marie; Désautels, Jacques

    2002-04-01

    As an outgrowth of the institutionalisation of science, peers have come to enjoy a prerogative making them key actors in the configuration of the exercise of science. Indeed, as referees, they have been endowed with an enormous political power in that their function no longer restricts them to merely certifying or attesting: they have to assess. Scholarly writing, as conceived of by Robert Boyle, coupled with its transformation into writing bearing an imprimatur, serves as the starting point of our discussion of this aspect which is also part and parcel of science education.

  16. iPeer2Peer program: a pilot feasibility study in adolescents with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain.

  17. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  18. 28 CFR 34.109 - Qualifications of peer reviewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 34.109 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.109 Qualifications of peer reviewers. The general reviewer qualification criteria to...). Additional details concerning peer reviewer qualifications are provided in the OJJDP “Peer Review Guideline”....

  19. 28 CFR 34.106 - Number of peer reviewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number of peer reviewers. 34.106 Section 34.106 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.106 Number of peer reviewers. The number of peer reviewers will vary by program...

  20. Federal Research: Peer Review Practices at Federal Science Agencies Vary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    traditionally relied on independent reviews by peers. This report responds to your request that we study the peer review and other quality assurance processes...by peer review , (2) describe the federal government’s peer review policy, (3) describe the peer review practices of 12 federal agencies that conduct