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Sample records for community peer counsellors

  1. Peer Collaboration: A Model to Support Counsellor Self-Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Constance A.; Phelan, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a larger case study on how continuous learning in the workplace could be achieved through the implementation of peer collaboration, the process of how counsellors engaged in self-care within a large health care organization became clearer. This article is based on data derived from a qualitative analysis of nine transcribed…

  2. Looking in from the Outside: Community Counsellors' Opinions and Attitudes to School Counselling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Poi Kee

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the movement towards the permanent presence of counsellors within schools has gathered pace in Singapore. As counsellors were introduced into more schools, there were opportunities for their community-based counterparts such as social workers, youth workers and other counselling practitioners to work with them. Through…

  3. The Learning Community and Emotional Learning in a University-Based Training of Counsellors and Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Del; Snell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first stage in a larger international comparative project, coordinated through the International Association of Counselling, on policy determinants in the education of counsellors. It arose in part out of an interest in the cultural determinants of what is taken as evidence. As a first stage for the project, a case study approach…

  4. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  5. Counsellor Education: A Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William L.; Marks, Stephen E.

    1972-01-01

    This article examines the nature and impact of paradoxical situations in counsellor education. The counsellor educator and trainee are the focus for defining and then examining these dilemmas. (Author)

  6. Not on Our Backs: Supporting Counsellors in Navigating the Ethics of Multiple Relationships within Queer, Two Spirit, and/or Trans Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Bethan; MacFarlane, Devon A.; Reynolds, Vikki A.; Anderson, Harlene D.

    2013-01-01

    Professional ethical guidelines commonly advise counsellors to avoid dual relationships wherever possible but generally have not provided guidance for situations where this is not feasible. This leaves queer, Two Spirit, and/or trans counsellors open to negative judgements, possible accusations of unprofessionalism, and practices of…

  7. Peer Learning Community Guide. CEELO FastFact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Diane; Brown, Kirsty Clarke; Gillaspy, Kathi

    2014-01-01

    States and technical assistance centers have asked the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) for guidance on establishing and maintaining a peer learning community (PLC). This document is designed to delineate the steps to establish and sustain a Peer Learning Community (PLC). It begins with a definition of a PLC and then presents…

  8. Community Engagement in Research: Frameworks for Education and Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Ann-Gel S.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement in research may enhance a community's ability to address its own health needs and health disparities issues while ensuring that researchers understand community priorities. However, there are researchers with limited understanding of and experience with effective methods of engaging communities. Furthermore, limited guidance is available for peer-review panels on evaluating proposals for research that engages communities. The National Institutes of Health Director's Council of Public Representatives developed a community engagement framework that includes values, strategies to operationalize each value, and potential outcomes of their use, as well as a peer-review framework for evaluating research that engages communities. Use of these frameworks for educating researchers to create and sustain authentic community–academic partnerships will increase accountability and equality between the partners. PMID:20558798

  9. Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Powell, John; Englesakis, Marina; Rizo, Carlos; Stern, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compile and evaluate the evidence on the effects on health and social outcomes of computer based peer to peer communities and electronic self support groups, used by people to discuss health related issues remotely. Design and data sources Analysis of studies identified from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Electronics and Communications Abstracts, Computer and Information Systems Abstracts, ERIC, LISA, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, Web of Science. Selection of studies We searched for before and after studies, interrupted time series, cohort studies, or studies with control groups; evaluating health or social outcomes of virtual peer to peer communities, either as stand alone interventions or in the context of more complex systems with peer to peer components. Main outcome measures Peer to peer interventions and co-interventions studied, general characteristics of studies, outcome measures used, and study results. Results 45 publications describing 38 distinct studies met our inclusion criteria: 20 randomised trials, three meta-analyses of n of 1 trials, three non-randomised controlled trials, one cohort study, and 11 before and after studies. Only six of these evaluated “pure” peer to peer communities, and one had a factorial design with a “peer to peer only” arm, whereas 31 studies evaluated complex interventions, which often included psychoeducational programmes or one to one communication with healthcare professionals, making it impossible to attribute intervention effects to the peer to peer community component. The outcomes measured most often were depression and social support measures; most studies did not show an effect. We found no evidence to support concerns over virtual communities harming people. Conclusions No robust evidence exists of consumer led peer to peer communities, partly because most peer to peer communities have been evaluated only in conjunction with more complex interventions or

  10. Assisting Problem Gamblers in the Gaming Venue: A Counsellor Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hing, Nerilee; Nuske, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Governments now recognise gambling as a social and public health issue that invites a collaborative approach to responsible gambling and help-seeking involving the gambling industry, gambling help agencies and the wider community. In this paper, we report on findings from interviews with 23 counsellors working in Queensland Gambling Help agencies…

  11. Effective Clinical Supervision for Professional School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    A long-standing problem for practising professional school counsellors is the lack of clinical supervision. Many school counsellors receive supervision from inadequate sources, such as principals and guidance directors, who often lack training and experience in the field of counselling. School counsellors are more skilled in assisting students…

  12. Counsellors becoming Counsellor Educators: A New Zealand Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocket, Kathie; Kotze, Elmarie

    2012-01-01

    The international literature on adjunct faculty in higher education, including professional education, does not yet cover counsellor education in particular, although many programmes rely on the teaching services of experienced practitioners in adjunct faculty positions. This article reports on a small, exploratory study conducted with adjunct…

  13. Nurse as Counsellor: A Model for Counsellor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Laurie; Andrew, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Describes "Nurse as Counsellor," a counseling course designed at the University of Windsor for registered nurses. An experiential learning model was applied to the course design, and an example of one student's experience is presented. This experiential model could be applied to counselor education in any professional discipline. (LKS)

  14. Ideas of Influence: Counsellors' Talk about Influencing Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Sheila Jean

    2007-01-01

    The influence the counsellor has on his or her clients is problematic both theoretically and practically. This article explores how counsellors in six focus groups talked about counsellor influence in response to a series of scenarios and questions. The counsellors adopted three main, or "core", positions about influence: "counsellors shouldn't…

  15. The Group as Teacher: The Gestalt Peer-Learning Community as a Vehicle for Organisational Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paul

    The possibility of using a Gestalt-informed peer learning community to facilitate reflective learning and organizational change was explored. A peer learning community model exists that is based on two approaches to working with mental illness--therapeutic community practice (which is based on treating the community group rather than individuals…

  16. Guidance Counsellor Strategies for Handling Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power-Elliott, Michleen; Harris, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to examine how guidance counsellors in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador would handle a specific verbal-relational bullying incident. Also of interest was guidance counsellor involvement and training in bullying programmes and Positive Behaviour Supports. Data for this study was…

  17. Ethical Considerations of Social Networking for Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, William Edgar Vernon

    2010-01-01

    The use of online social networking websites has increased among Canadians in recent years. There are many professional and ethical implications for counsellors who use these sites (Boyd, 2007). Although they offer advantages to counsellors, their use can also raise issues around ethical conduct. Because the counselling literature has not yet…

  18. Cancer Screening Among Peer-Led Community Wellness Center Enrollees.

    PubMed

    Rockson, Lois E; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Pratt, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests health disparities exist in services for individuals with mental disorders served by the public mental health system. The current study assessed the use of cancer screening services among New Jersey residents in publicly funded mental health programs. Self-administered written surveys were completed by 148 adults using peer-led community wellness centers throughout New Jersey. Information was collected on (a) the use of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening services; (b) barriers to receiving preventive services; and (c) perceptions of overall health. More males than females participated in the study, with equal participation among White and African American individuals. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most common self-reported psychiatric condition. Colorectal cancers had lower screening levels compared to those of the general population. Physicians not advising patients to complete tests emerged as a main cause of low screening rates. Wellness initiatives designed by peers collaborating with health care providers may improve adherence to preventive cancer screening measures. PMID:26935189

  19. Ethics in Counsellor Education: A Sample Orientation Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Ruth Bergen

    2009-01-01

    This project draws attention to ethics in counsellor education, showing that ethics is critical to the formation of new counsellors, not simply an add-on component in counsellor training. This project demonstrates that beginning counsellors, before they commence employment, must have a strong ethical foundation. It examines both formal counsellor…

  20. The Role of Parent and Peer Support in Predicting Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…

  1. Utilizing Urban Women as Peer Trainers in Behavioral Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.

    Many more people are in need of rehabilitation, social services, and education than there are professionals available to provide help. This gap in service has led to the exploration and utilization of nonprofessionals to fill these roles. Many of these nonprofessionals are peers of the needy people. This adds the advantage of "peer relationships"…

  2. Peer education for advance care planning: volunteers’ perspectives on training and community engagement activities

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Jane E; Almack, Kathryn; Kennedy, Sheila; Froggatt, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Peer education by volunteers may aid attitudinal change, but there is little understanding of factors assisting the preparation of peer educators. This study contributes to conceptual understandings of how volunteers may be prepared to work as peer educators by drawing on an evaluation of a training programme for peer education for advance care planning (ACP). Objectives To report on volunteers’ perspectives on the peer education training programme, their feelings about assuming the role of volunteer peer educators and the community engagement activities with which they engaged during the year after training. To examine broader implications for peer education. Design Participatory action research employing mixed methods of data collection. Participants Twenty-four older volunteers and eight health and social care staff. Data collection methods Evaluative data were gathered from information provided during and at the end of training, a follow-up survey 4 months post-training; interviews and focus groups 6 and 12 months post-training. Findings Volunteers’ personal aims ranged from working within their communities to using what they had learnt within their own families. The personal impact of peer education was considerable. Two-thirds of volunteers reported community peer education activities 1 year after the training. Those who identified strongly with a community group had the most success. Conclusion We reflect on the extent to which the programme aided the development of ‘critical consciousness’ among the volunteers: a key factor in successful peer education programmes. More research is needed about the impact on uptake of ACP in communities. PMID:21615641

  3. Psychological Counseling Processes of Prospective Psychological Counsellors: An Investigation of Client-Counsellor Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanberk, Ismail; Akbas, Turan

    2015-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to investigate the client-counsellor interaction in the psychological counseling process at the verbal behavior level. The study also aims to analyze the relationship between the behaviors observed in the process with both clients and counsellors' evaluations of sessions and whether changes were observed in…

  4. Becoming a Guidance Counsellor in Ontario: Formative Influences from Counsellors' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadon, Daniel; Samson, André; Gazzola, Nicola; Thériault, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to guidance counsellors elsewhere in North America who hold a master's degree, career and guidance counselling services in secondary schools in Ontario are delivered by teachers who have completed additional undergraduate studies. Guidance counsellors are pivotal components of the school as they complete tasks that promote students'…

  5. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

  6. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  7. School Counsellors Working with Immigrant Pupils: Changes in Their Approaches after 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Counselling culturally diverse populations poses several challenges for mental health professionals in schools as well as the wider community. In 1998, the author interviewed counsellors working in Israeli schools, and categorised their approaches to immigrant pupils in four broad categories: culturally encapsulated assimilator, self-facilitator,…

  8. Building Social Capital Through a Peer-Led Community Health Workshop: A Pilot with the Bhutanese Refugee Community.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyojin; Rosenberg, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high health and mental health care needs, resettled refugees often face cultural and linguistic challenges that hinder the access to appropriate and timely interventions and services. Additionally, such concepts as preventive health or mental health treatment are foreign to this population, which creates additional burdens to the refugee community that already have difficulty navigating a complex health care system in the U.S. To address multiple and complex gaps in health and mental health support for the refugee community, requested is an innovative approach that can convey culturally responsive and effective interventions for health promotion, such as peer-based health education. Few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of peer-led community health interventions with refugee populations in the U.S. resettlement context. However, peer-led interventions have been shown to be effective when working with cultural minorities and interventions in an international context. Adopting a social capital framework, the current study conducted qualitative evaluation on the impact of a pilot peer-led community health workshop (CHW) in the Bhutanese refugee community. A hybrid thematic analysis of focus group discussion data revealed the improvement in health promotion outcomes and health practice, as well as perceived emotional health. The results also showed that the peer-led CHW provided a platform of community building and participation, while increasing a sense of community, sense of belonging and unity. The findings posit that a peer-led intervention model provides culturally responsive and effective tools for building social capital and promoting community health in the refugee community.

  9. Constructing Bridges of Support: School Counsellors' Experiences of Student Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Carley L.; Everall, Robin D.

    2008-01-01

    School counsellors are professionals with specialized training in personal counselling who work in school settings. They are usually the front-line school personnel required to deal with youth suicide. Despite the important roles of school counsellors, there is little research that explores the experiences of school counsellors who have lost…

  10. Counsellors Respond to the DSM-IV-TR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Gaete, Joaquin; Sametband, Ines N.; French, Jared; Eeson, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) is an administrative fact for many counsellors. This psychiatric approach to formulating client concerns runs counter to those used by counsellors of many approaches (e.g., systemic, feminist). Using an online survey of counsellors (N = 116), invited contributions to a website…

  11. Confidentiality and Informed Consent: School Counsellors' Perceptions of Ethical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Ron; Lehr, Andria; Sumarah, John

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of in-depth interviews with school counsellors in Nova Scotia on issues related to confidentiality and informed consent. Of the 224 school counsellors in the province, 43 counsellors, representing all school boards, agreed to a 45-minute semi-structured telephone interview focusing on their current practices…

  12. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  13. Investigating a Peer-to-Peer Community Service Learning Model for LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Heather L.; Freund, Luanne; Jantzi, Leanna; Sinanan, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the professionalization of Library and Information Science (LIS) students who participated in a peer-tutoring service, "Research Rescue." Research Rescue was a collaboration of the Chapman Learning Commons and the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies (SLAIS) at the University of British Columbia. The…

  14. DigiPlace4all: an online peer support community for digital skills.

    PubMed

    Magennis, Mark; Murphy, Esther; Lazarov, Andrean; Van Isacker, Karel; Dumnicka, Kinga; Polak, Malgorzata; Meagher, Bernadette; Penny, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The DigiPlace4all online peer support community supports people with disabilities in developing digital literacy skills needed to transition from Vocational and Educational Training (VET) to mainstream education & employment. It facilitates the development of informal one-to-one peer support relationships between members who can post and respond to requests and offers of peer support and share information on a range of associated topics. It is active in Ireland, Belgium, Poland and Bulgaria and is being spread internationally. PMID:26294478

  15. Perception of sickle cell haemoglobinopathy among 'would-be' counsellors.

    PubMed

    Omotade, O O

    1995-12-01

    Fifty-six paramedical personnel in training as Community Health Officers (CHO) and Nurse Tutors were interviewed by a self administered questionnaire as to personal information and what they know and believed about sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. Even after the normal course of lectures on the haemoglobinopathies as given for their training as CHO's, many of them still did not fully understand the topic as shown by mixed up and confusing answers given to questions. As a result of the maturity and exposure as community health workers, they are being proposed for retraining as counsellors with regards to the haemoglobinopathies. From our findings to this study it appears that using a formal lecture schedule would not be adequate in intimating this group with the problems they would likely encounter as CHO's in practice. A training programme should also include organised group discussions designed to detect biases and prejudices and correct them before certification as community health officers.

  16. Problematic Internet Use: Perceptions of Addiction Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acier, Didier; Kern, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing number of publications on problematic Internet use (PIU), there is no consensus on the nature of the phenomenon, its constituent criteria, and its clinical threshold. This qualitative study examines the perceptions of addiction counsellors who have managed individuals with PIU in Quebec (Canada). Four focus groups were conducted…

  17. Academic Procrastination: The Perspective of University Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrzek, Justine; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antecedents and consequences of academic procrastination in students who frequent university counselling in regard to this issue. To undertake this, semi-structured interviews with 12 experienced university counsellors in German universities were conducted. A qualitative content analysis resulted in…

  18. Career Counsellors and Suicide Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Recent discussions suggest that career counsellors need to be trained in more holistic frameworks in order to deal with the career and psychological issues of their clients. In particular, research shows a strong connection between employment and suicidality, including changes in socioeconomic status, disruption in employment, sudden unemployment,…

  19. Peers and Faculty as Predictors of Learning for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the extent to which student interaction with faculty, student peer teaching situations, student organization involvement, and discussion with diverse others contributed to self-reported learning for students involved in an ethnic-specific or multicultural student organization. The Community College Student Experiences…

  20. (Re)Defining Masculinity through Peer Interactions: Latino Men in Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáenz, Victor B.; Mayo, Jeff R.; Miller, Ryan A.; Rodriguez, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a phenomenological approach to examine how Latino male students at community colleges engage with their male peers. The analysis utilizes a male gender role conflict (MGRC) framework and employs cultural conceptions of masculinity, specifically machismo and caballerismo. Practitioners and researchers might leverage positive aspects…

  1. New Zealand Youth Benefit from Being Connected to Their Family, School, Peer Group and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Pryor, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Data were obtained from about 1,700 New Zealand adolescents annually for three years to assess their connectedness to family, school, peer group and community as well as other indicators of adolescent functioning. Key results were that a sense of connection predicted better psychological wellbeing over time; in turn, wellbeing predicted higher…

  2. Peer Apprenticeship Learning in Networked Learning Communities: The Diffusion of Epistemic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Shaari, Imran

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses peer apprenticeship learning (PAL) as situated within networked learning communities (NLCs). The context revolves around the diffusion of technologically-mediated learning in Singapore schools, where teachers begin to implement inquiry-oriented learning, consistent with 21st century learning, among students. As these schools…

  3. Critical Social Network Analysis in Community Colleges: Peer Effects and Credit Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Canché, Manuel S.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the importance of conducting critical social network analysis (CSNA) in higher education. To illustrate the benefits of CSNA, the authors use existing institutional data to examine peer effects in community colleges. The chapter ends with a discussion of the implications of using a CSNA approach to measure inequities in…

  4. Implementation of Peer-Assisted Learning in an Intermediate Algebra Course at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to determine how peer-assisted learning (PAL) could be implemented to support improved academic achievement, persistence, and attitudes toward math for community college students in an intermediate developmental algebra course. Students in two sections of an intermediate algebra course, with an…

  5. Six Month Outcomes of a Peer-Enhanced Community Reinforcement Approach for Emerging Adults with Substance Misuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Davis, Jordan P; Ureche, Daniel J; Dumas, Tara M

    2016-02-01

    Little substance use disorder (SUD) treatment research with emerging adults ages 18-25 has been done in community settings, and it is well-known that peers influence emerging adult substance use. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a peer-enhanced behavioral treatment for emerging adults with substance use problems. Emerging adults (n=35) received a peer-enhanced version of the Community Reinforcement Approach (Peer-CRA), in which their peers (n=34) were trained to provide alcohol-specific social support. Both identified clients and peers were interviewed at treatment intake, and again three and six months later. Six month outcomes included days of abstinence adjusted for controlled environment days, social costs due to substance use, and binge drinking days in the past 90 days. Treatments were delivered with high fidelity, and a high proportion of participants were retained in treatment and follow-up assessments. Growth curve analyses revealed that emerging adults and their peers significantly increased their days of abstinence and reduced their binge drinking over time. Larger randomized trials should a) test whether peer-enhanced treatments are efficacious relative to treatment as usual, b) investigate whether secondary benefits exist for non-treatment seeking peers supporting another's treatment, and c) examine whether proposed mechanisms of change (i.e., peer support and peer reductions in substance use) account for any differences in outcomes.

  6. ADHD Symptoms and Peer Relations of Children in a Community Sample: Examining Associated Problems, Self-Perceptions, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Henricsson, Lisbeth; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2005-01-01

    This study examined children's peer relations in relation to gender, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associated behaviour problems, prosociality, and self-perceptions, in a community sample. Six hundred and thirty-five 12-year-old children (314 girls) provided peer nominations and rated feelings of loneliness and…

  7. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most…

  8. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  9. Israeli Counsellors Facing Terrorism: Coping and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Hellman, Shoshana

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the characteristics and functioning of 12 Israeli school counsellors located at different stages of professional development who worked in schools affected by terrorist attacks. Semi-structured interviews explored the counsellors professional behaviour, activities, and coping with terror and its effects. Consensual…

  10. A Narrative Study of Counsellors' Understandings of Inuit Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah

    2005-01-01

    Eight non-Indigenous counsellors who temporarily lived in Nunavut to serve Inuit clients were interviewed regarding what they learned about Inuit spirituality during their cultural immersion experience. They were also asked about how they applied their understandings of the Inuit spiritual worldview in their professional practice. Counsellors'…

  11. Turkish School Counsellors and Counselling Students' Knowledge of Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…

  12. Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…

  13. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B.; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We evaluated a peer leader–support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. METHODS Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. RESULTS Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P <0.05) for knowledge, self-efficacy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and both fasting and 2-hour post-prandial blood glucose. The Anhui Provincial Health Bureau has extended the PLSP model to other communities and to cardiovascular disease prevention and management. CONCLUSION The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. PMID:26304972

  14. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  15. An examination of the integration of certified peer specialists into community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Grant, Emily A; Reinhart, Chrystal; Wituk, Scott; Meissen, Greg

    2012-08-01

    The formal role of Certified Peer Specialist (CPS) is a recent addition to the mental health field. CPSs are people in recovery employed within the mental health system, mostly by community mental health centers, to provide support through sharing life experiences with those working toward recovery from mental illness. This brief report examines participant's experiences being a CPS, responsibilities and activities as a CPS, and integration into community mental health centers. Findings suggest that CPSs demonstrate high levels of communal orientation, job satisfaction, workplace integration and organizational support and are well received in mental health centers. PMID:22806435

  16. Building a peer network for a community level HIV prevention program among injecting drug users in Denver.

    PubMed Central

    Simons, P Z; Rietmeijer, C A; Kane, M S; Guenther-Grey, C; Higgins, D L; Cohn, D L

    1996-01-01

    As part of a multi-site Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded initiative, a community-level HIV prevention project targeting injection drug users was implemented in the FivePoints community in Denver, Colorado. The protocol for the initiative included the use of peer networks to conduct outreach and disseminate intervention materials to injecting drug users. Since April 1993, project staff established a peer network of 119 participants who distribute approximately 3,000 materials per month. PMID:8862157

  17. Peer Mentoring Communities of Practice for Early and Mid-Career Faculty: Broad Benefits from a Research-Oriented Female Peer Mentoring Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Amanda; Shaw, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In light of recent interest in the limitations of early and mid-career mentoring (Driscoll et al 2009; Trowers 2011), this case study of a women's scholarly activity and goal setting Community of Practice (CoP) indicates that such groups can offer extensive peer mentoring at one teaching-oriented state university in the United States. Using a…

  18. PeerGAD: a peer-review-based and community-centric web application for viewing and annotating prokaryotic genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    D’Ascenzo, Mark D.; Collmer, Alan; Martin, Gregory B.

    2004-01-01

    PeerGAD is a web-based database-driven application that allows community-wide peer-reviewed annotation of prokaryotic genome sequences. The application was developed to support the annotation of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 genome sequence and is easily portable to other genome sequence annotation projects. PeerGAD incorporates several innovative design and operation features and accepts annotations pertaining to gene naming, role classification, gene translation and annotation derivation. The annotator tool in PeerGAD is built around a genome browser that offers users the ability to search and navigate the genome sequence. Because the application encourages annotation of the genome sequence directly by researchers and relies on peer review, it circumvents the need for an annotation curator while providing added value to the annotation data. Support for the Gene Ontology™ vocabulary, a structured and controlled vocabulary used in classification of gene roles, is emphasized throughout the system. Here we present the underlying concepts integral to the functionality of PeerGAD. PMID:15184545

  19. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction. PMID:27138174

  20. The emotional wellbeing of lay HIV counselling and testing counsellors.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maretha; Mabota, Princess

    2015-01-01

    The HIV testing, treatment and care programme of the South African public healthcare system depends on HIV counselling and testing (HCT) that is primarily delivered by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors are expected to educate clients about HIV/AIDS, advocate behaviour change, convey test results and support those infected and affected to cope with the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this influences the quality of services they provide. A mixed methods approach was used. The emotional wellbeing, level of burnout, depression and coping style of 50 lay HCT counsellors working at the City of Tshwane clinics were assessed. Additionally, five focus group discussions were conducted. The results showed that HCT counsellors reported average emotional wellbeing, high levels of emotional exhaustion and depression. They had a sense of personal accomplishment and positive coping skills. The results revealed that they may have difficulty dealing with clients' emotional distress without adequate training and supervision. This creates a dilemma for service delivery. In the light of the important role they play in service delivery, the role of the lay HCT counsellor needs to be reconsidered. HCT should develop as a profession with specific training and supervision to develop their emotional competencies to conduct effective counselling sessions.

  1. Changing Drug Users' Risk Environments: Peer Health Advocates as Multi-level Community Change Agents

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Convey, Mark; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Li, Jianghong; Radda, Kim; Martinez, Maria; Robles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Peer delivered, social oriented HIV prevention intervention designs are increasingly popular for addressing broader contexts of health risk beyond a focus on individual factors. Such interventions have the potential to affect multiple social levels of risk and change, including at the individual, network, and community levels, and reflect social ecological principles of interaction across social levels over time. The iterative and feedback dynamic generated by this multi-level effect increases the likelihood for sustained health improvement initiated by those trained to deliver the peer intervention. The Risk Avoidance Partnership (RAP), conducted with heroin and cocaine/crack users in Hartford, Connecticut, exemplified this intervention design and illustrated the multi-level effect on drug users' risk and harm reduction at the individual level, the social network level, and the larger community level. Implications of the RAP program for designing effective prevention programs and for analyzing long-term change to reduce HIV transmission among high-risk groups are discussed from this ecological and multi-level intervention perspective. PMID:19326208

  2. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson et al. (Counsellor Education & Supervision 41: 120-130, 1992) was administered at the end of a semester to counselling students engaged in different stages of a counsellor training program. No significant differences were found in regard to gender and age-group categories, but significant differences were found among ethnic groups. It was found that Asian and White students generally had similar and also lower counselling self-efficacy means than the other ethnic groups in the sample in regard to several counselling-specific categories. Implications for counsellor educators in training counselling students of diverse characteristics are discussed.

  3. "Peer" educator initiatives for adolescent reproductive health projects in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk

    2004-05-01

    Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.

  4. Effect of women’s groups and volunteer peer counselling on rates of mortality, morbidity, and health behaviours in mothers and children in rural Malawi (MaiMwana): a factorial, cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Rosato, Mikey; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Mganga, Andrew; Chapota, Hilda; Malamba, Florida; Kainja, Esther; Newell, Marie-Louise; Greco, Giulia; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Vergnano, Stefania; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Women’s groups and health education by peer counsellors can improve the health of mothers and children. We assessed their effects on mortality and breastfeeding rates in rural Malawi. Methods We did a 2×2 factorial, cluster-randomised trial in 185 888 people in Mchinji district. 48 equal-sized clusters were randomly allocated to four groups with a computer-generated number sequence. 24 facilitators guided groups through a community action cycle to tackle maternal and child health problems. 72 trained volunteer peer counsellors made home visits at five timepoints during pregnancy and after birth to support breastfeeding and infant care. Primary outcomes for the women’s group intervention were maternal, perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates (MMR, PMR, NMR, and IMR, respectively); and for the peer counselling were IMR and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered as ISRCTN06477126. Findings We monitored outcomes of 26 262 births between 2005 and 2009. In a factorial model adjusted only for clustering and the volunteer peer counselling intervention, in women’s group areas, for years 2 and 3, we noted non-significant decreases in NMR (odds ratio 0·93, 0·64–1·35) and MMR (0·54, 0·28–1·04). After adjustment for parity, socioeconomic quintile, and baseline measures, effects were larger for NMR (0·85, 0·59–1·22) and MMR (0·48, 0·26–0·91). Because of the interaction between the two interventions, a stratified analysis was done. For women’s groups, in adjusted analyses, MMR fell by 74% (0·26, 0·10–0·70), and NMR by 41% (0·59, 0·40–0·86) in areas with no peer counsellors, but there was no effect in areas with counsellors (1·09, 0·40–2·98, and 1·38, 0·75–2·54). Factorial analysis for the peer counselling intervention for years 1–3 showed a fall in IMR of 18% (0·82, 0·67–1·00) and an improvement in EBF rates (2·42, 1·48–3·96). The

  5. Peer Interaction and Social Network Analysis of Online Communities with the Support of Awareness of Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Mai, Li-Jung; Lai, Yung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies related to social-context awareness (SA) and knowledge-context awareness (KA) argued that each (SA or KA) can individually enhance peer interaction in an online learning community, other studies reached opposite conclusions. These conflicting findings likely stem from different experimental settings. Most importantly, few…

  6. EFL Arab Learners' Peer Revision of Writing in a Facebook Group: Contributions to Written Texts and Sense of Online Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Saeed, Murad Abdu

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated peer writing revision among English as foreign language (EFL) Arab students in a Facebook group. Specifically, it aimed to identify the text revisions made by the learners and to determine their contributions to the learners' written texts and sense of online community outside the college classroom context.…

  7. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  8. International Students in Transnational Mobility: Intercultural Connectedness with Domestic and International Peers, Institutions and the Wider Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Ly Thi; Pham, Lien

    2016-01-01

    International students' connectedness with their peers, institutions and the broader community significantly affects their learning and wellbeing. It is important to understand their multiple desires for intercultural connectedness in order to nurture it. This paper analyses the motives and nature of international students' intercultural…

  9. An Online Peer Assisted Learning Community Model and its Application in ZJNU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaofeng, Ruan; Yeyu, Lin

    2007-01-01

    Peer coaching, or peer assisting, was established in 1970s by Joyce and Showers. Initially used in teachers' professional development, it refers to a process that two or more teacher peers evaluate current practice mutually; expand skills, extract and build new skills; share ideas, and review & solve problems of classroom teaching in a way of…

  10. The acceptability, feasibility and impact of a lay health counsellor delivered health promoting schools programme in India: a case study evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. Methods The intervention was based on the WHO’s Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility), the uptake of services (acceptability), and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact). Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility), evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Results Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students’ anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the perceived need for the

  11. Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): a new disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-02-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list control arm. Earthquake safety knowledge and preparedness supplies were assessed prior to the intervention and at 1 month after the intervention (N  =  82). Adults in the experimental arm significantly increased preparedness by 19 percentage points, from 56% to 75% completed (p < .0001), and improved their knowledge by 8 percentage points, from 79% to 87% correct (p  =  .001). This is the first peer-mentored, targeted, and tailored disaster preparedness program tested with this population.

  12. Facilitators and barriers to effective smoking cessation: counselling services for inpatients from nurse-counsellors' perspectives--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Chuan; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Chen, Chiu-Yen; Jeng, Yu-Qian; Chen, Yu-Chi

    2014-05-06

    Tobacco use has reached epidemic levels around the World, resulting in a world-wide increase in tobacco-related deaths and disabilities. Hospitalization presents an opportunity for nurses to encourage inpatients to quit smoking. This qualitative descriptive study was aimed to explore nurse-counsellors' perspectives of facilitators and barriers in the implementation of effective smoking cessation counselling services for inpatients. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 nurses who were qualified smoking cessation counsellors and who were recruited from eleven health promotion hospitals that were smoke-free and located in the Greater Taipei City Area.  Data were collected from May 2012 to October 2012, and then analysed using content analysis based on the grounded theory approach. From nurse-counsellors' perspectives, an effective smoking cessation program should be patient-centred and provide a supportive environment. Another finding is that effective smoking cessation counselling involves encouraging patients to modify their lifestyles. Time constraints and inadequate resources are barriers that inhibit the effectiveness of smoking cessation counselling programs in acute-care hospitals. We suggest that hospitals should set up a smoking counselling follow-up program, including funds, facilities, and trained personnel to deliver counselling services by telephone, and build a network with community smoking cessation resources.

  13. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  14. Preparing Counsellors for Interprofessional Collaboration through Supervision and Lateral Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is emerging as a best practice in health care. For counsellors to work effectively alongside professionals from other disciplines, they need to be educated about the value of collaborative practice and the roles, responsibilities, and expertise that they bring to interprofessional teams. Supervision practices in…

  15. An Holistic Approach for Counsellors: Embracing Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Rosslyn; O'Brien, Patrick John

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a range of therapeutic modalities used by counsellors of children and positions those modalities within Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Research by O'Brien ("Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence and its implications for the counselling of children." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of…

  16. Family Counselling--A New Frontier for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John

    1976-01-01

    Several theoretical orientations to family counselling are proposed and some ideas advanced underlying public and professional acceptance of school counsellor work with the family. A brief analysis of three family programs is undertaken as a means of promoting growth, enrichment and change in the family. (Author)

  17. Adversarial Growth in Telephone Counsellors: Psychological and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…

  18. Multicultural Counselling: Research on Perceptions of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the self-perceived multicultural counselling competencies of 106 public school counsellors working in a rural area. Self-perceptions of multicultural counselling competencies were assessed using the Multicultural Counselling Inventory. Results are discussed and recommendations are provided. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Practical Strategies for School Counsellor Leadership: The Leadership Challenge Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to the progression of the school counselling profession that counsellors-in-training receive the training, knowledge, and practice in leadership that they need to counter systemic challenges that they may face. Effective leadership practices have been shown in research to be instrumental in promoting program delivery success in the…

  20. The Evolution of Peer Run Sober Housing as a Recovery Resource for California Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Friedner D.; Polcin, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Sober living houses (SLHs) are alcohol- and drug-free living environments that offer social support to persons attempting to abstain from alcohol and drugs. They use a peer-oriented, social model approach that emphasizes mutual support, financial self-sufficiency, and resident involvement in decision making and management of the facility. Although they represent an important response to the increasing call for more services that help sustain abstinence from drugs and alcohol over time, they are an under recognized and underutilized recovery resource. The purpose of this paper is to trace the evolution of sober living houses in California from the early influences of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in the 1930’s to the establishment of current SLH associations, such as the Sober Living Network in Southern California. The paper describes key events and policies that influenced SLHs. Although initial research on outcomes of SLH residents has been very encouraging, there is a need for more research to guide improvement of structure and operations. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the growth of recovery services and for community housing policy. PMID:25477748

  1. Peer Support Training Improved the Glycemic Control, Insulin Management, and Diabetic Behaviors of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Rural Communities of Central China: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kaiqin; Ren, Yanlei; Luo, Zhongmei; Du, Kun; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of peer support in Chinese diabetes patients is still uncertain. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of a peer support program on the outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes who received community-based insulin therapy in rural communities of central China. Material/Methods Two hundred and eight eligible patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned into the traditional training group (control group, n=111) and peer support intervention group (peer group, n=97) between June 2013 and January 2014 in 2 rural communities of Jingzhou area, China. Both groups received 3-month traditional training, followed by another 4-month traditional training or peer support training, respectively. At baseline and 7 months after treatment, the blood glycemic level was evaluated by biochemical detection. Capacities of self-management and knowledge related to insulin usage were assessed by questionnaire survey. Results Ninety-seven and ninety patients completed this study in the control group and peer group, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, gender, diabetes duration, insulin usage time, and complications between the 2 groups at baseline (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, peer group patients achieved a more significant decrease in blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels (P<0.05), increase in knowledge related to insulin usage, and increase of diabetes self-management ability (P<0.05). Conclusions Peer support intervention effectively improves outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes in rural communities of central China. PMID:26808489

  2. Counsellor Education as Humanist Colonialism: Seeking Post-Colonial Approaches to Educating Counsellors by Exploring Pathways to an Indigenous Aesthetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Randolph

    2008-01-01

    This narrative reflection emerged during a time of personally reconnecting with Mi'kmaq First Nation culture and heritage while working in the mainstream roles of counsellor educator and educationalist in Australia. The essay expresses turning points along a path of increasing political and social discomfort with the status quo in counsellor…

  3. Factors Associated with Peer HIV Prevention Outreach in Drug-Using Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latkin, Carl A.; Hua, Wei; Davey, Melissa A.

    2004-01-01

    Peer education is a critical approach to HIV prevention. The current study evaluated 156 peer outreach educators 6 months after their 10-session training. Specifically, we examined factors associated with talking to network members about HIV-related topics as well as distributing risk reduction materials. Overall, current drug users were less…

  4. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the “social support” perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual’s efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. Objective The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. Methods In this paper, we describe grounded theory–based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual’s efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. Results We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include “sleepiness,” “pledge,” “patch,” “spouse,” and

  5. Peer Influence and Nonsuicidal Self Injury: Longitudinal Results in Community and Clinically-Referred Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence…

  6. Caring for Kids in Communities: Using Mentorship, Peer Support, & Student Leadership Programs in Schools. Counterpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Julia; Small-McGinley, Jan; De Fabrizio, Lucy

    This book invites schools to consider the use of mentorship, peer support, and student leadership programs to positively support the growth and learning of all students. It presents research on successful K-12 programs and case studies of individual programs and people. Eighteen chapters are: (1) "Introduction and Overview"; (2) "Five Elementary…

  7. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  8. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

  9. "I Was Overcome with Joy at that Moment": Successful Experiences of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Rosenau, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by positive psychology, the present research explores the manner in which school counsellors perceive the meaning of success in their work. Data were collected by means of a narrative questionnaire in which 66 school counsellors were requested to write a detailed description of a well-remembered successful experience and to answer two…

  10. Opportunities and Challenges: School Guidance Counsellors' Perceptions of Counselling Students Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasheen, Kevin; Campbell, Marilyn A.; Shochet, Ian

    2013-01-01

    School guidance counsellors worldwide seek ways of providing appropriate professional assistance to all students. While young people integrate online technology into their daily lives and go online for information and to communicate with each other, school counsellors in Australia are not offering online support to students. This cross-sectional…

  11. School Counsellors' Understanding of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Experiences and International Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jamie M.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; Ross, Shana

    2011-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a concern among professionals working with youth. The present study examined school counsellors' experiences, training and school preparedness, perceived knowledge, beliefs, and intervention approaches related to NSSI. Participants were 470 school counsellors (417 female, 53 male) from across North America (156…

  12. Psychopharmacology Training and Canadian Counsellors: Are We Getting What We Want and Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David; Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2008-01-01

    The psychopharmacology training experiences and attitudes of Canadian counsellors were the focus of our national Internet-based survey. This study was part of a larger investigation on Canadian counsellors' attitudes, practices, and training experiences related to clients on antidepressants. Results of the current study indicate Canadian…

  13. The Practice and Perceptions of School Counsellors: A View from Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade; Shi, Qi

    2010-01-01

    The profession of school counselling in China is in relative infancy. A qualitative analysis of in-person interviews with fourteen high school counsellors sought to identify salient factors currently facing the profession in two urban Chinese schools. The counsellors described the development and practice of school counselling as well as their own…

  14. Narratives of Developing Counsellors' Preferred Theories of Counselling Storied through Text, Metaphor, and Photographic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Reflective practice is integral for developing counsellors to maintain self-awareness and to recognize influences upon ones personal theory of counselling. In this exploratory narrative inquiry research, four doctoral level counselling psychologists participated to uncover "What are the personal stories of developing counsellors and in what ways…

  15. Feasibility of a web-based training system for peer community health advisors in cancer early detection among african americans.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sherie Lou Z; Tagai, Erin K; Wang, Min Qi; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Slade, Jimmie L; Holt, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    We describe the feasibility of a Web-based portal for training peer community health advisors (CHAs). We conducted a community-based implementation trial in African American churches between 2012 and 2014. The Web-based portal allows CHAs to log in and view 13 training videos, preparing them to deliver 3 cancer early detection workshops in their churches. Of 8 churches, 6 completed the training, each certifying 2 CHAs. These CHAs took an average of 26 days to complete the training, requiring little technical assistance. Additional technical assistance was required to implement the workshops. The Web-based system appears to be a feasible method for training lay individuals for the CHA role and has implications for increasing the reach of evidence-based interventions. PMID:25320894

  16. Feasibility of a web-based training system for peer community health advisors in cancer early detection among african americans.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sherie Lou Z; Tagai, Erin K; Wang, Min Qi; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Slade, Jimmie L; Holt, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    We describe the feasibility of a Web-based portal for training peer community health advisors (CHAs). We conducted a community-based implementation trial in African American churches between 2012 and 2014. The Web-based portal allows CHAs to log in and view 13 training videos, preparing them to deliver 3 cancer early detection workshops in their churches. Of 8 churches, 6 completed the training, each certifying 2 CHAs. These CHAs took an average of 26 days to complete the training, requiring little technical assistance. Additional technical assistance was required to implement the workshops. The Web-based system appears to be a feasible method for training lay individuals for the CHA role and has implications for increasing the reach of evidence-based interventions.

  17. Genetic counsellors in Sweden: their role and added value in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Pestoff, Rebecka; Ingvoldstad, Charlotta; Skirton, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Genetic testing is becoming more commonplace in general and specialist health care and should always be accompanied by genetic counselling, according to Swedish law. Genetic counsellors are members of the multi-disciplinary team providing genetic counselling. This study examined the role and added value of genetic counsellors in Sweden, using a cross-sectional on-line survey. The findings showed that the genetic counsellors added value in the clinical setting by acting as the 'spider-in-the-web' regarding case management, having a more holistic, ethical and psychological perspective, being able to offer continuous support and build a relationship with the patient, and being more accessible than medical geneticists. The main difference between a genetic counsellor and medical geneticist was that the doctor had the main medical responsibility. Thus genetic counsellors in Sweden contribute substantially to the care of patients in the clinical genetic setting. PMID:26014428

  18. MAppERS: a peer-produced community for emergency support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    A general trend in European governance tends to shift responsibilities in territorial management from national central authorities to local/regional levels and to the citizens as first actors of Civil Protection. Prevention is a long term goal that rests not only on the capacities of professional operators and volunteers, but that has to necessarily imply the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. In fact people often do not have chance to interact in the surveillance of the territory and only face risks when they have to bear impacts on their lives. Involvement of population creates more cost-effective and context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers citizens as "crowd-sourced mappers" through the development of a smart phone application able to collect GPS-localised and detailed parameters, that can then be sent from citizens to civil protection operators in a contest of geospatial response. The process of app design includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring of the territory as long term objective of raising public awareness and participation from the citizens, as actors in a networked disaster response community. The project proceeds from the design and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to software engineering environment (Android and Iphone SDK). Information exchange and data transfer need clearness and efficiency; thus a previous research is conducted on the cost-effectiveness of already existing practices for territorial

  19. The availability of community ties predicts likelihood of peer referral for mammography: geographic constraints on viral marketing.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Friedenberg, Laura M; Allison, Tiffany R; Nelson, Christina L

    2010-11-01

    Engaging social networks to encourage preventive health behavior offers a supplement to conventional mass media campaigns and yet we do not fully understand the conditions that facilitate or hamper such interpersonal diffusion. One set of factors that should affect the diffusion of health campaign information involves a person's community. Variables describing geographic communities should predict the likelihood of residents accepting campaign invitations to pass along information to friends, family, and others. We investigate two aspects of a community--the availability of community ties and residential stability--as potential influences on diffusion of publicly-funded breast cancer screening in the United States in 2008-2009. In a survey study of 1515 participants living in 91 zip codes across the State of Minnesota, USA, we focus on the extent to which women refer others when given the opportunity to nominate family, friends, and peers to receive free mammograms. We predicted nomination tendency for a particular zip code would be a function of available community ties, measured as religious congregation density in that zip code, and also expected the predictive power of available ties would be greatest in communities with relatively high residential stability (meaning lower turnover in home residence). Results support our hypotheses. Congregation density positively predicted nomination tendency both in bivariate analysis and in Tobit regression models, and was most predictive in zip codes above the median in residential stability. We conclude that having a local infrastructure of social ties available in a community predicts the diffusion of available health care services in that community.

  20. The availability of community ties predicts likelihood of peer referral for mammography: geographic constraints on viral marketing.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Friedenberg, Laura M; Allison, Tiffany R; Nelson, Christina L

    2010-11-01

    Engaging social networks to encourage preventive health behavior offers a supplement to conventional mass media campaigns and yet we do not fully understand the conditions that facilitate or hamper such interpersonal diffusion. One set of factors that should affect the diffusion of health campaign information involves a person's community. Variables describing geographic communities should predict the likelihood of residents accepting campaign invitations to pass along information to friends, family, and others. We investigate two aspects of a community--the availability of community ties and residential stability--as potential influences on diffusion of publicly-funded breast cancer screening in the United States in 2008-2009. In a survey study of 1515 participants living in 91 zip codes across the State of Minnesota, USA, we focus on the extent to which women refer others when given the opportunity to nominate family, friends, and peers to receive free mammograms. We predicted nomination tendency for a particular zip code would be a function of available community ties, measured as religious congregation density in that zip code, and also expected the predictive power of available ties would be greatest in communities with relatively high residential stability (meaning lower turnover in home residence). Results support our hypotheses. Congregation density positively predicted nomination tendency both in bivariate analysis and in Tobit regression models, and was most predictive in zip codes above the median in residential stability. We conclude that having a local infrastructure of social ties available in a community predicts the diffusion of available health care services in that community. PMID:20864236

  1. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

  2. Enhancing Connectedness Through Peer Training for Community-Dwelling Older People: A Person Centred Approach.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Oliver K; Bernoth, Maree; Dietsch, Elaine; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Social interaction and connectedness is important to the mental health and wellbeing of older people. The aim of this research study was to facilitate and increase opportunities for social connectedness for older people living in regional areas through the use of technology training. Weekly technology training sessions were conducted at a Seniors Citizen's Club with a peer trainer (an experienced, retired computer teacher) and sessions were attended not only by the six study participants, but also by other club members, with up to 15 club members participating in sessions. Data analysis involved all documents generated by the project, including the individual interviews, researcher observations of training sessions, reports from the peer trainer and weekly diaries maintained by participants. Findings demonstrated that computer training at the Senior Citizens Club helped participants build group cohesion and to form tiered connections with partners, family, and friends with whom they no longer live. When the trainer is seen as a peer, and training is person-centred, older people are more receptive to learning, exploring, and experimenting with technology. Although only six people were involved in the in-depth evaluation part of the study, voluntary training with the trainer in the absence of any funding continues even to this present time. The outcome of this research reinforces the potential for technology facilitated tiered connectivity to enhance the quality of life for older people living in regional and rural Australia. PMID:27050818

  3. Rural Community Characteristics, Economic Hardship, and Peer and Parental Influences in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina; Schaefer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The study explores how differences in rural community contexts relate to early adolescent alcohol use. Data were gathered from 1,424 adolescents in the sixth through eighth grades in 22 rural Northern Plains communities, as well as 790 adults, parents, teachers, and community leaders. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that community…

  4. Improving the utilisation of bilingual counsellors within a public sector mental health service.

    PubMed

    Tobin, M; Chen, L; Edwards, J L; Chan, S

    2000-01-01

    An urban, public sector Area Mental Health Program reviewed its own bilingual counsellor program as part of an Area-wide quality improvement project, and found that the counsellors' roles needed to be better defined; that mainstream staff needed to have more access to their expertise as cultural consultants; and that their function as an Area team, rather than as service based staff, needed to be encouraged. The bilingual counsellors decided to take up this challenge, and with the support of the Area Director of Mental Health, worked together to redefine their roles. PMID:11010572

  5. Role of Parent and Peer Relationships and Individual Characteristics in Middle School Children's Behavioral Outcomes in the Face of Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Feldman, Richard S.; Rosario, Margaret; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines processes linking inner-city community violence exposure to subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. Hypothesized risk and protective factors from 3 ecological domains--children's parent and peer relationships and individual characteristics--were examined for mediating, moderating, or independent roles in predicting…

  6. Successful dissemination of a community-based strength training program for older adults by peer and professional leaders: the people exercising program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of a model for disseminating community-based strength training programs for older adults through leadership training of both laypersons or "peers" and health and fitness professionals. DESIGN: Longitudinal study conducted from January 2005 to December 2006....

  7. CES4Health.info: A Web-Based Mechanism for Disseminating Peer-Reviewed Products of Community-Engaged Scholarship--Reflections on Year One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Catherine; Gelmon, Sherril; Ryan, Katharine; Seifer, Sarena D.

    2012-01-01

    CES4Health.info was launched in November 2009 as an online mechanism for peer reviewing and disseminating products of community-engaged scholarship in forms other than journal articles. One year after its launch, the authors conducted an online survey of CES4Health.info contributing authors, reviewers, and users of published products. Early…

  8. Promoting Professional Identity: A Within Group Comparison of Wiki-Based and Traditional Assignments on School Counselling Students' Learning, Sense of Community and Computer Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Pritchard, Tracey; McComb-Beverage, Shanna; Schellenberg, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare traditional and non-traditional instructional practices used in a counsellor education programme to determine their effect on pre-service school counsellors' learning and sense of community, thus leading to enhanced professional identity. Traditional and non-traditional assignments were examined: (a) a…

  9. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): Design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Methods & Research Design Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Change in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. Results A total of 1,438 patients were identified by medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Conclusions Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. PMID:24956324

  10. The Promotive and Protective Effects of Family Factors in the Context of Peer and Community Risks for Aggression.

    PubMed

    Kramer-Kuhn, Alison M; Farrell, Albert D

    2016-04-01

    A clearer understanding of the promotive factors that reduce adolescents' involvement in aggression and the protective factors that mitigate the influence of risk factors that emerge during adolescence is needed to inform prevention efforts. This study examined the promotive and protective influences of family factors on physical aggression using data collected from aggressive and socially-influential adolescents (N = 537; 35 % female) at the beginning of sixth grade and at three subsequent waves across the following 3 years. Family characteristics (i.e., better family functioning, higher perceived parental support for nonviolence, and lower parental support for fighting) at the start of the sixth grade exerted promotive effects that reduced levels of aggression at subsequent waves. Some support was also found for protective influences. A foundation of good family functioning at the start of sixth grade buffered adolescents from the risks from delinquent peers, from the spring of sixth grade to the spring of seventh grade. Low parental support for fighting reduced risks associated with witnessing community violence, from the fall to the spring of sixth grade, but at low levels of risk only. These findings suggest that interventions targeting high-risk adolescents might benefit by enhancing both promotive and protective family factors.

  11. Improving the counselling skills of lay counsellors in antiretroviral adherence settings: a cluster randomised controlled trial in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewing, Sarah; Mathews, Cathy; Schaay, Nikki; Cloete, Allanise; Simbayi, Leickness; Louw, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Little research has investigated interventions to improve the delivery of counselling in health care settings. We determined the impact of training and supervision delivered as part of the Options: Western Cape project on lay antiretroviral adherence counsellors' practice. Four NGOs employing 39 adherence counsellors in the Western Cape were randomly allocated to receive 53 h of training and supervision in Options for Health, an intervention based on the approach of Motivational Interviewing. Five NGOs employing 52 adherence counsellors were randomly allocated to the standard care control condition. Counselling observations were analysed for 23 intervention and 32 control counsellors. Intervention counsellors' practice was more consistent with a client-centred approach than control counsellors', and significantly more intervention counsellors engaged in problem-solving barriers to adherence (91 vs. 41 %). The Options: Western Cape training and supervision package enabled lay counsellors to deliver counselling for behaviour change in a manner consistent with evidence-based approaches.

  12. CES4Health.info: an online tool for peer reviewed publication and dissemination of diverse products of community-engaged scholarship.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Catherine; Seifer, Sarena D; Gelmon, Sherril B; Ryan, Katharine; McGinley, Piper

    2011-01-01

    Community-engaged scholarship (CES)-research, teaching, programmatic and other scholarly activities conducted through partnerships between academic and community partners-may result in innovative applied products such as manuals, policy briefs, curricula, videos, toolkits, and websites. Without accepted mechanisms for peer-reviewed publication and dissemination, these products often do not "count" toward faculty promotion and tenure (P&T) and have limited opportunities for broad impact. This paper reports on CES4Health.info, a unique online tool for peer-reviewed publication and dissemination of products of CES in forms other than journal articles. In its first year, CES4Health.info has published 24 products and documented the satisfaction of users, authors, and reviewers.

  13. Effects of Communities of Reflecting Peers on Student-Teacher Development--Including In-Depth Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fund, Zvia

    2010-01-01

    Despite continuing interest in teacher reflection and an extensive body of research on peer assessment, the interaction between these areas has not been sufficiently investigated. This study on reflection and peer feedback is part of an ongoing action research addressing the design and pedagogical model of a theoretically oriented teacher training…

  14. Analyzing the Latent Emotional Transfer Pattern (LETP) of a Learning Community in an Online Peer-Assessment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Cheng, Kun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Peer assessment is utilized extensively in digital learning, and many studies have examined the positive influences of online peer assessment on learning (eg, Tseng & Tsai, 2007). However, other studies indicate that this type of activity has negative influences. For example, students may question the fairness of an assessment or disagree with…

  15. Counsellors' Focus on Competitive Employment for People with Severe Mental Illness: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Vocational Rehabilitation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaeps, Jeroen; Neyens, Inge; van Weeghel, Jaap; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Although the evidence-based Individual Placement and Support programme highlights the importance of the vocational rehabilitation (VR) counsellors' focus on competitive employment during career counselling, studies have shown that counsellors do not always target such jobs. This study examines which determinants affect the counsellors' intentions…

  16. Religiosity Gap Reversed: How Religious Counsellors' Belief System Presents When Working with Clients in a Non-Religious Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motalová, Katarína; Rihácek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Most studies exploring the religiosity gap are concerned with non-religious counsellors and religious clients. Approaching this phenomenon from a reversed perspective, this study explores how counsellors' religiosity presents when working with clients in a predominantly non-religious environment. Semi-structured interviews with 11 Czech…

  17. "She's Not Going to Leave Me"--Counsellors' Feelings on Ending Therapy with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Judi; Akhurst, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of ending therapy on counsellors working with children in schools. Five counsellors were interviewed and their responses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four master themes emerged, one of which, empathic identification, is the focus of this paper. The findings of this study…

  18. Assessment in the Digital Age: An Overview of Online Tools and Considerations for School Psychologists and School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellins, Laura

    2015-01-01

    With recent developments in technology, online tests and digital tools offer school psychologists and school counsellors alternate modes of assessment. These new technologies have the potential to increase accessibility to tests (through greater portability), allow school psychologists and school counsellors to service more students (through…

  19. The Effect of Career Counsellors on the Decision to Pursue Higher Education: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon Eliophotou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the role of career counsellors in secondary education in Cyprus, with emphasis on their effect on students' career decisions. Survey research was used to collect information from 611 students and 36 career counsellors in Cyprus. Students were asked to rate the importance of several factors as influences on their career…

  20. The effects of student support services peer tutoring on learning and study strategies, grades, and retention at a rural community college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumford, Thomas J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Student Support Services peer tutoring on rural community college students' success in an Anatomy and Physiology class as measured changes in self-reported learning and study strategies, the final grade in Anatomy and Physiology class, and persistence/retention in the following semesters. A secondary goal was to assess the relative merits of two training methods: standard peer tutoring and standard peer tutoring plus introduction to attribution theory. This Anatomy and Physiology class typically has a failure rate of 50%. The federal government annually funds more than 700 Student Support Services (SSS) grants and 162 Health Career Opportunities Programs (HCOP). Nearly 94% of these SSS programs included a tutoring component, and 84% of these programs use peer tutoring. Peer tutors were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions and students were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. There were 31 students in the attribution condition and 28 students in the standard condition. Students were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of tutoring to be included in the analysis. Each tutored student was yoked to a control student who had not sought peer tutoring assistance. Participants were matched for age, marital status, number of adults in the family, number of children in the family and incoming academic skills (CPT Reading Test Results), financial status, and race. The results support peer tutoring as an effective method of increasing student success. The findings support the use of attribution training for tutors as a theoretical base of intervention. Students tutored by attribution trained tutors scored significantly higher on LASSI, had higher Anatomy and Physiology grades, and returned to college at a higher rate than their yoked controls. Standard trained tutors scored significantly higher on the LASSI Test Taking subscale and returned to college at a higher rate than their

  1. Promoting Darfuri women's psychosocial health: developing a war trauma counsellor training programme tailored to the person.

    PubMed

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Eltayeb, Shahla; Van den Borne, Hw

    2013-01-01

    Women are considered special groups who are uniquely vulnerable in the context of war exposures. To effectively target the resources aimed at mitigating mental health consequences and optimising and maximising the use of mental health provisions, culturally relevant war trauma counsellor training is required. The objectives of this study are to promote a new philosophy in the Sudanese mental health care by introducing an integrative approach for targeted prevention and tailored treatments to the Darfuri person in a cost-effective way. Furthermore, the study provides evidence- and theory-based guidelines for developing a war trauma counsellor training programme in Sudan, mainly based on qualitative and quantitative studies among war-affected Darfuri female students. Cultural conceptualisations such as gender roles and religious expectations as well as theories that emphasise resilience and other psychosocial adaptation skills have been operationalised to reflect the totality of the Darfuri women's experiences. Furthermore, the results of four interrelated studies among war-traumatised undergraduate Darfuri women who are internally displaced provide the basis that guides an outline for qualification development, capacity building and skills consolidation among Sudanese mental health care providers. Explicit war-related psychosocial needs assessment tools, specific war-related trauma counsellor training and particular counsellor characteristics, qualities and awareness that pertain to strengthening the efficacy of war trauma Sudanese counsellors are recommended. The aim is to produce expertly trained war trauma counsellors working with war-affected Darfuri women in particular and with regards to their helpfulness in responding to the psychosocial needs of war-exposed Sudanese in general. PMID:23531430

  2. Peer-to-peer accountability.

    PubMed

    Guidi, M A

    1995-10-01

    Peer-to-peer accountability is an essential component of empowerment-based management models. To foster this environment, skills such as conflict resolution, team building, communication and group dynamics need to be identified and supported. The lack of peer-to-peer accountability can seriously hinder the development of management models. PMID:7566813

  3. Impact of Community Based Peer Support in Type 2 Diabetes: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of Individual and/or Group Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, David; Prevost, A. Toby; Bunn, Chris; Holman, Daniel; Parker, Richard A.; Cohn, Simon; Donald, Sarah; Paddison, Charlotte A. M.; Ward, Candice; Robins, Peter; Graffy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes peer support, where one person with diabetes helps guide and support others, has been proposed as a way to improve diabetes management. We have tested whether different diabetes peer support strategies can improve metabolic and/or psychological outcomes. Methods People with type 2 diabetes (n = 1,299) were invited to participate as either ‘peer’ or ‘peer support facilitator’ (PSF) in a 2x2 factorial randomised cluster controlled trial across rural communities (130 clusters) in England. Peer support was delivered over 8–12 months by trained PSFs, supported by monthly meetings with a diabetes educator. Primary end point was HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, diabetes distress, blood pressure, waist, total cholesterol and weight. Outcome assessors and investigators were masked to arm allocation. Main factors were 1:1 or group intervention. Analysis was by intention-to-treat adjusting for baseline. Results The 4 arms were well matched (Group n = 330, 1:1(individual) n = 325, combined n = 322, control n = 322); 1035 (79•7%) completed the mid-point postal questionnaire and 1064 (81•9%) had a final HbA1c. A limitation was that although 92.6% PSFs and peers were in telephone contact, only 61.4% of intervention participants attended a face to face session. Mean baseline HbA1c was 57 mmol/mol (7•4%), with no significant change across arms. Follow up systolic blood pressure was 2•3mm Hg (0.6 to 4.0) lower among those allocated group peer-support and 3•0mm Hg (1.1 to 5.0) lower if the group support was attended at least once. There was no impact on other outcomes by intention to treat or significant differences between arms in self-reported adherence or medication. Conclusions Group diabetes peer support over 8–12 months was associated with a small improvement in blood pressure but no other significant outcomes. Long term benefits should be investigated. Trial Registration ISRCTN.com ISRCTN6696362166963621 PMID

  4. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation to Adolescent Girls and Boys through Peer Educators at Community Level in the Tribal Area of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093

  5. Abusive Partner Relationships in Secondary Schools: Identification and Intervention Strategies for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protivnak, Jake J.; McRoberts, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    School counsellors occasionally encounter students who are involved in abusive partner relationships that negatively impact their academic, career, and personal/social development. This article will briefly discuss the prevalence and types of abusive student relationships, strategies to assess for both victim and perpetrator, and professional…

  6. Training to Be a Volunteer Rape Crisis Counsellor: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…

  7. Randomised controlled trial of support from volunteer counsellors for mothers considering breast feeding

    PubMed Central

    Graffy, Jonathan; Taylor, Jane; Williams, Anthony; Eldridge, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether offering volunteer support from counsellors in breast feeding would result in more women breast feeding. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 general practices in London and south Essex. Participants 720 women considering breast feeding. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was prevalence of any breast feeding at six weeks. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of women giving any breast feeds, or bottle feeds at four months, duration of any breast feeding, time to introduction of bottle feeds, and satisfaction with breast feeding. Results Offering support in breast feeding did not significantly increase the prevalence of any breast feeding to six weeks (65% (218/336) in the intervention group and 63% (213/336) in the control group; relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.24). Survival analysis up to four months confirmed that neither duration of breast feeding nor time to introduction of formula feeds differed significantly between control and intervention groups. Not all women in the intervention group contacted counsellors postnatally, but 73% (123/179) of those who did rated them as very helpful. More women in the intervention group than in the control group said that their most helpful advice came from counsellors rather than from other sources. Conclusions Women valued the support of a counsellor in breast feeding, but the intervention did not significantly increase breastfeeding rates, perhaps because some women did not ask for help. PMID:14703543

  8. From the Didactic to the Dialectic-Intercultural Exchanges in Contemporary Counsellor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moir-Bussy, Ann; Sun, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Within the context of the growing development of intercultural counsellor education, the question of how different cultures reconceptualize and transform Western counselling theories for their own context is an important one. In this intercultural exchange in education, concepts such as "globalization", "indigenization" and "universalization" have…

  9. School Counsellors' Perceptions on Working with Student High-Risk Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Jeffery, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The current exploratory-descriptive study used a survey design method to examine guidance counsellors' and educational psychologists' perceptions of their preparation, motivation, and effectiveness in preventing, assessing, and intervening into student high-risk behaviour. The study also explored training associated with addressing high-risk…

  10. Spirituality and Counselling: Are Counsellors Prepared to Integrate Religion and Spirituality into Therapeutic Work with Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of 341 Registered Clinical Counsellors in British Columbia was used to understand how therapists view and integrate spirituality and religion in their practice. Therapists were asked about their education and training in this realm, and about their perceived abilities, comfort, and competence when working with religious and/or…

  11. Reconsidering Sexual Identities: Intersectionality Theory and the Implications for Educating Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Liane C.

    2013-01-01

    Counselling programs in Canada provide minimal training relating to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues and cultures. This article presents a theoretical argument proposing that counselling programs move away from educating counsellors about LGB issues through specialized courses based on multicultural approaches of difference and diversity…

  12. Establishing Best Practice in School Counselling via Collaborative Leadership in the Counsellor-School Administrator Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reavie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    School counselling services in Canada are inconsistent due to differing provincial guidelines. The lack of a national school counselling model and inconsistent provincial guidelines results in limited awareness of best practice and inconsistent services for students. Administrators and school counsellors have differing perspectives related to the…

  13. Experiences of Burnout, Self-Care, and Recovery of Female University Counsellors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the burnout, self-care, and recovery experiences of female university counsellors working at a university counselling centre in Taiwan. The 9 participants had an average age of 42.44 years and had worked at the centre for an average of 11.3 years. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth…

  14. Support and Self-Care: Professional Reflections of Six New Zealand High School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Yvonne A.; Payne, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    In many Western societies there is increasing demand for counselling; in turn, heightened levels of support needs have been identified for counsellors themselves. Despite calls for practitioners to adopt a more proactive approach to self-care, research suggests many still pay insufficient attention to alleviating on-the-job stress or achieving…

  15. Supervision and the Management of Vicarious Traumatisation among Australian Telephone and Online Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Taylor, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supervision on the management of vicarious traumatisation among telephone and online counsellors on BoysTown Helplines. BoysTown Helplines include Kids Helpline, a 24-hour national counselling service for young people aged 5-25 years of age, and Parentline (PL), a counselling service for parents in…

  16. Working with Clients Who Engage in Self-Harming Behaviour: Experiences of a Group of Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…

  17. The Role of the School Counsellor in the Singapore Secondary School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Jin Kuan

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study from Singapore. The purpose of the study is to critically enquire into the ways in which school counsellors working in Singapore's secondary school system describe and experience their role, and to identify key themes arising from the study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants, and an adapted grounded…

  18. Suffering Loves and Needs Company: Buddhist and Daoist Perspectives on the Counsellor as Companion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Avraham; Bai, Heesoon

    2008-01-01

    Mindful of living in a multicultural and cross-cultural society, this article introduces and presents Buddhist and Daoist philosophy, psychology, and practice along with the potential for their application in psychotherapy within the context of the theme of the psychotherapist or counsellor accompanying the suffering person. The theoretical…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Behaviour by School Counsellors and Their Need for Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine a statewide sample of school counsellors' reporting behaviour of suspected cases of child sexual abuse, and their need for further education in this area. Design: A questionnaire using four hypothetical vignettes on child sexual abuse requested information on the degree of suspicion, reporting behaviour and familiarity with…

  20. The Life Story Board: A Feasibility Study of a Visual Interview Tool for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Robert M.; Medina, Maria Fernanda; Mignone, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the findings of a pilot study of the Life Story Board (LSB), a novel visual information system with a play board and sets of magnetic cards designed to be a practical clinical tool for counsellors, therapists, and researchers. The LSB is similar to a multidimensional genogram, and serves as a platform to depict personal…

  1. Assessing Risk: Confrontation or Avoidance?What Is Taught on Counsellor Training Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Andrew; Wheeler, Sue; Bowl, Ric

    2004-01-01

    Recent mental health policy development has focused on the assessment and management of risk in vulnerable clients. Counsellors have a significant role to play in delivering mental health care in a range of settings, with clients sometimes presenting with suicidal ideation, self-injury and a risk of violence. The aim of this research was to…

  2. Teacher and Counsellor Perceptions of a School-Based Counselling Service in South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton-Roberts, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study, based in a semi-rural South Wales Local Authority, sought to explore how both school-based counsellors and link-teachers perceive their school-based counselling services. The research aimed to answer three research questions: 1) what are the perceived impacts of the service? 2) what are the perceived attributes of the…

  3. Emotions Experienced by Learners and Their Development through Communication with the Tutor-Counsellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogiannakis, Michail; Touvlatzis, Sotiris

    2015-01-01

    The effective communication between the learners and the tutor-counsellor has been proved to significantly promote the positive emotions, reduce the negative ones and reinforce the learners' participation in a distance learning program. The main purpose of our research is to investigate the emotions experienced by the learners of the Hellenic Open…

  4. The Role of School Counsellors and Psychologists in Supporting Transgender People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Damien W.; Bartholomaeus, Clare

    2015-01-01

    As growing numbers of transgender people--including students, parents, and educators--become visible within schools, so comes with this the requirement that schools ensure their full inclusion. This article suggests that school counsellors and psychologists have an important role to play in supporting transgender people within schools. As an…

  5. Empathy and Emotional Intelligence among Eastern and Western Counsellor Trainees: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Kaelber, Kara A.; Schwartz, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored degree of empathy and emotional intelligence among Thai (n?=?48) and American (n?=?53) counsellor trainees to determine if differences in Eastern and Western cultural orientations (e.g., interdependent versus independent self-construals) affect foundational counselling skills. Results indicated that Western trainees showed…

  6. Enhancing the Reading of Peer-Reviewed Research in the Teaching English as a Second Language Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.; Hatami, Sarvenaz

    2013-01-01

    Adult ESL instructors' engagement with research can enhance instruction but is "a minority activity in our field" (Borg, 2010, p391). We explored instructors' engagement with research; applied linguists' and instructors' conceptions of teacher-friendly, peer-reviewed research articles; and academics' commitment…

  7. Demotivating infant feeding counselling encounters in southern Africa: do counsellors need more or different training?

    PubMed

    Buskens, I; Jaffe, A

    2008-03-01

    Ethnographic research was conducted in eleven low-resource settings across Swaziland, Namibia and South Africa to explore how the perceptions and experiences of counselling health workers, pregnant women and recent mothers could be used to improve infant feeding counselling in the context of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. We found many counselling encounters to be demotivating. Mothers often reported feeling judged, stigmatised and shamed. Counsellors complained of mothers' poor compliance and passive resistance and reported suffering from stress, depression and burnout. We observed a rift between the mothers and counselling nurses, with both parties holding opposing agendas grounded in conflicting realities, expectations, experiences and needs. While the clients framed the visit as a consultation, counsellors framed it as health education, towards one exclusive purpose; to save the baby. Two communication modes prevailed in the counselling encounter: in theory, the counselling format was non-directive and client-centred but, in practice, most encounters reverted to information-based health education. Neither counselling format enabled the counsellors to acknowledge the reality of the two opposing agendas in the conversation and manage its dynamics. In order to achieve success - which, for the health service, is framed as persuading mothers to test for HIV and disclose the result - counsellors often felt compelled to be prescriptive and authoritative and reverted at times to confronting, judging and shaming mothers. Yet to adhere to their feeding choice consistently, mothers need to be motivated towards the significant behaviour change that this implies: to change their traditional roles and identities as women. For infant feeding counselling in the context of HIV/AIDS to become effective in southern Africa, a different format is therefore required; one that can acknowledge and manage these opposing agendas and conflicting realities and also enable

  8. Two Year Virologic Outcomes of an Alternative AIDS Care Model: Evaluation of a Peer Health Worker and Nurse-Staffed Community-Based Program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Larry W.; Alamo, Stella; Guma, Samuel; Christopher, Jason; Suntoke, Tara; Omasete, Richard; Montis, Jennifer P.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Juncker, Margrethe; Reynolds, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing concern about the human resources needed to care for increasing numbers of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. We evaluated an alternative model, community-based, comprehensive antiretroviral program staffed primarily by peer health workers and nurses. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy during the first 10 months of program enrollment beginning in late 2003. Virologic, immunologic, clinical, and adherence data were collected. Results Of 360 patients started on treatment, 258 (72%) were active and on therapy approximately two years later. Viral load testing demonstrated that 86% of active patients (211 of 246 tested) had a viral load <400 copies/mL. The median CD4 increase for active patients was 197 cells/mm3 (IQR, 108–346). Patients with either a history of antiretroviral use or lack of CD4 response were more likely to experience virologic failure. Survival was 84% at one year and 82% at two years. WHO stage 4 was predictive of both not sustaining therapy and increased mortality. Conclusions A community-based antiretroviral treatment program in a resource-limited setting can provide excellent AIDS care over at least a two year period. A comprehensive program based upon peer health workers and nurses provides an effective alternative model for AIDS care. PMID:19194316

  9. Let’s talk about sex: helping substance abuse counsellors address HIV prevention with men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Anya Y.; Pinto, Rogério M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors’ work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse. PMID:21308577

  10. Peer assessment of social reputation in community samples of disruptive and nondisruptive children: utility of the revised class play method.

    PubMed

    Realmuto, G M; August, G J; Sieler, J D; Pessoa-Brandao, L

    1997-03-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Class Play (RCP), a peer assessment measure of social reputation, in epidemiological samples of disruptive (n = 220) and nondisruptive (n = 104) children in Grades 2 through 5. Principal components analyses yielded a four-factor solution that was similar for disruptive and nondisruptive children and to previous research with this instrument. Discriminative function analyses demonstrated that the four RCP dimensions were each successful in predicting group membership, with the leadership and social etiquette dimensions best able to differentiate disruptive and nondisruptive groups. Regression modeling showed that the variance accounted for by the four RCP dimensions was large and varied for specific dimensions based on the criterion variable chosen. The advantages of the RCP as a devise for tracking social competence and peer reputation in high-risk disruptive children are discussed.

  11. Chicago community-based asthma intervention trial: feasibility of delivering peer education in an inner-city population.

    PubMed

    Persky, V; Coover, L; Hernandez, E; Contreras, A; Slezak, J; Piorkowski, J; Curtis, L; Turyk, M; Ramakrishnan, V; Scheff, P

    1999-10-01

    The most effective means of educating children with asthma and their families has not been clearly demonstrated in previous studies. Peer education is uniquely suited to the complex problems encountered in underserved populations. The purpose of this study was to show the feasibility of delivering a peer education program for children with asthma and the effect of the program on indoor allergen levels in an inner-city population in Chicago. Overall, the program was well received. Baseline allergen levels were consistent with some previous studies in showing low levels of mite allergens and high levels of cockroach allergens, with 79.6% of samples having levels > 8 U/g. A total of 28.2% of samples had cat allergen levels > 2 microg/g, although only 9.7% of homes had cats, confirming previous reports that cat allergen is ubiquitous. Mold levels were seasonal, with the highest levels in the summer. Results from this study suggest that intervention programs should focus more on elimination of cockroaches than was previously appreciated, while minimizing the use of pesticides, and on identification of the sources of cat allergen. Structural and psychosocial issues in homes need to be addressed in future studies. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of delivering peer education in a inner-city population and highlighted the need for comprehensive intervention strategies addressing complex issues facing underserved neighborhoods.

  12. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  13. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  14. The role of the community psychiatric nurse.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, P; Hawksworth, J; Hobbs, R; Jackson, D

    1990-06-01

    The community psychiatric nurse is an essential element in a comprehensive mental health service. At present each nurse is expected to be a trained counsellor and psychotherapist, a skilled behaviour therapist and an expert assessor of clinical status. This superhuman role is unrealistic; a more appropriate one is outlined.

  15. Mother's perceptions and experiences of infant feeding within a community-based peer counselling intervention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nor, Barni; Ahlberg, Beth Maina; Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Yanga; Jackson, Debra; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2012-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has the potential to significantly reduce infant mortality, but is frequently not practiced in low-income settings where infants are vulnerable to malnutrition and infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study explores mothers' experiences of infant feeding after receiving peer counselling promoting exclusive breast or formula feeding. This qualitative study was embedded in a cluster randomized peer counselling intervention trial in South Africa that aimed to evaluate the effect of peer counselling on EBF. Participants were selected from the three districts that were part of the trial reflecting different socio-economic conditions, rural-urban locations and HIV prevalence rates. Seventeen HIV-positive and -negative mothers allocated to intervention clusters were recruited. Despite perceived health and economic benefits of breastfeeding, several barriers to EBF remained, which contributed to a preference for mixed feeding. The understanding of the promotional message of 'exclusive' feeding was limited to 'not mixing two milks': breast or formula and did not address early introduction of foods and other liquids. Further, a crying infant or an infant who did not sleep at night were given as strong reasons for introducing semi-solid foods as early as 1 month. In addition, the need to adhere to the cultural practice of 'cleansing' and the knowledge that this practice is not compatible with EBF appeared to promote the decision to formula feed in HIV-positive mothers. Efforts to reduce barriers to EBF need to be intensified and further take into account the strong cultural beliefs that promote mixed feeding.

  16. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  17. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  18. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.

  19. Outcomes of a Peer Support Program in Multiple Sclerosis in an Australian Community Cohort: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives. This pilot study evaluated the impact of a peer support program on improving multiple sclerosis (MS) related psychological functions (depression, anxiety, and stress) and enhancing quality of life. Methodology. Participants (n = 33) were recruited prospectively and received an 8-week group face-to-face peer support program. Assessments were at baseline (T1), 6 weeks after program (T2), and 12 months after program (T3), using validated questionnaires: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), McGill Quality of Life (MQOL), and Brief COPE. Results. Participants' mean age was 52; the majority were female (64%) and married (64%). Median time since MS diagnosis was 16 years. At T2, participants reported improved psychological functioning (DASS “depression,” “anxiety,” and “stress” subscales, z values −2.36, −2.22, and −2.54, moderate effect sizes (r) 0.29, 0.28, and 0.32, resp.) and quality of life (MQOL SIS z score −2.07, r = 0.26) and were less likely to use “self-blame” as a coping mechanism (Brief COPE z score −2.37, r = 0.29). At T3, the positive improvements in stress (DASS stress subscale z score −2.41, r = 0.31) and quality of life were maintained (MQOL SIS, z score −2.30, r = 0.29). There were no adverse effects reported. PMID:26316989

  20. Exploring the Meso-System: The Roles of Community, Family, and Peers in Adolescent Delinquency and Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Faulk, Monique; Sizer, Monteic A.

    2016-01-01

    Community contexts are important ecological settings related to problem behavior and positive youth development (PYD). While substantial work has focused on neighborhood disadvantage, the current study explores the role of community assets, specifically linkages to important institutional resources and people in those settings. These concepts are…

  1. Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners to consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance of other equal-status learners. Products to be assessed can include writing, oral presentations, portfolios, test performance, or other skilled behaviors. Peer assessment can be summative or formative. A formative view is…

  2. [Peer Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppenbrouwers, Toke; And Others

    Six graduate students responsible for the creation of a peer-counseling walk-in clinic discuss the training techniques used for peer counselors at UCLA. A psychology course featuring didactic and informational lectures, small laboratory sessions, and personal growth groups was instrumental in generating three basic attributes in the peer…

  3. The establishment of core competencies for canadian genetic counsellors: validation of practice based competencies.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Raechel Ann; Connolly-Wilson, Mary; Fitzpatrick, Jennifer; Grewal, Sonya; Robb, Laura; Rutberg, Julie; Lilley, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    Numerous groups of health professionals have undertaken the task of defining core competencies for their profession. The goal of establishing core competencies is to have a defined standard for such professional needs as practice guidelines, training curricula, certification, continuing competency and re-entry to practice. In 2006, the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors (CAGC) recognized the need for uniform practice standards for the profession in Canada, given the rapid progress of genetic knowledge and technologies, the expanding practice of genetic counsellors and the increasing demand for services. We report here the process by which the CAGC Practice Based Competencies were developed and then validated via two survey cycles, the first within the CAGC membership, and the second with feedback from external stakeholders. These competencies were formally approved in 2012 and describe the integrated skills, attitudes and judgment that genetic counsellors in Canada require in order to perform the services and duties that fall within the practice of the profession responsibly, safely, effectively and ethically.

  4. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? The Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Karakos, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes of peer support are discussed in terms of positive peer support, negative peer influence, peer relationships, and sense of community. In general, recovery school staff members discuss peers in the school as sources of positive support and peers outside the schools as sources of risky influence. Themes and quotes are presented to highlight the diverse ways that staff members discussed peer influence. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24839335

  5. The Relationship Between Perceived Influence Measures and Member Attitudes of (A) Policy Agreement, (B) Superior-Subordiante Relations, and (C) Peer Relations in Selected Community College Departments in Maryland -- A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gordon

    An investigation was made of influence in 77 academic departments of 11 community colleges in Maryland. The purposes of the investigation were to examine the relationship of perceived measures of influence to member attitudes of (a) policy agreement, (b) superior-subordinate relations, (c) peer relations; to examine the aslopes of the distribution…

  6. Contributions of Peer Support to Health, Health Care, and Prevention: Papers from Peers for Progress

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edwin B.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Ibarra, Leticia; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Elder, John P.; Tang, Tricia S.; Heisler, Michele; Safford, Monika M.; Simmons, David

    2015-01-01

    SUBSTANTIAL evidence documents the benefits of peer support provided by community health workers, lay health advisors, promotores de salud, and others. The papers in this supplement, all supported by the Peers for Progress program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, contribute to the growing body of literature addressing the efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and adoption of peer support for diabetes self-management. They and additional papers supported by Peers for Progress contribute to understanding how peer support can be implemented in real world settings. Topics include examination of the peers who provide peer support, reaching the hardly reached, success factors in peer support interventions, proactive approaches, attention to emotions, peer support in behavioral health, dissemination models and their application in China, peer support in the patient-centered medical home, research challenges, and policy implications. PMID:26304968

  7. Contributions of Peer Support to Health, Health Care, and Prevention: Papers from Peers for Progress.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ibarra, Leticia; Cherrington, Andrea L; Elder, John P; Tang, Tricia S; Heisler, Michele; Safford, Monika M; Simmons, David

    2015-08-01

    SUBSTANTIAL: evidence documents the benefits of peer support provided by community health workers, lay health advisors, promotores de salud, and others. The papers in this supplement, all supported by the Peers for Progress program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, contribute to the growing body of literature addressing the efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and adoption of peer support for diabetes self-management. They and additional papers supported by Peers for Progress contribute to understanding how peer support can be implemented in real world settings. Topics include examination of the peers who provide peer support, reaching the hardly reached, success factors in peer support interventions, proactive approaches, attention to emotions, peer support in behavioral health, dissemination models and their application in China, peer support in the patient-centered medical home, research challenges, and policy implications. PMID:26304968

  8. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    PubMed

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context.

  9. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    PubMed

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context. PMID:27595811

  10. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  11. Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... and behaviors. This is often positive — it's human nature to listen to and learn from other people ... Responding to peer pressure is part of human nature — but some people are more likely to give ...

  12. The Role of Community, Family, Peer, and School Factors in Group Bullying: Implications for School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael J.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. Methods: We used…

  13. Promoting Darfuri women’s psychosocial health: developing a war trauma counsellor training programme tailored to the person

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Women are considered special groups who are uniquely vulnerable in the context of war exposures. To effectively target the resources aimed at mitigating mental health consequences and optimising and maximising the use of mental health provisions, culturally relevant war trauma counsellor training is required. The objectives of this study are to promote a new philosophy in the Sudanese mental health care by introducing an integrative approach for targeted prevention and tailored treatments to the Darfuri person in a cost-effective way. Furthermore, the study provides evidence- and theory-based guidelines for developing a war trauma counsellor training programme in Sudan, mainly based on qualitative and quantitative studies among war-affected Darfuri female students. Cultural conceptualisations such as gender roles and religious expectations as well as theories that emphasise resilience and other psychosocial adaptation skills have been operationalised to reflect the totality of the Darfuri women’s experiences. Furthermore, the results of four interrelated studies among war-traumatised undergraduate Darfuri women who are internally displaced provide the basis that guides an outline for qualification development, capacity building and skills consolidation among Sudanese mental health care providers. Explicit war-related psychosocial needs assessment tools, specific war-related trauma counsellor training and particular counsellor characteristics, qualities and awareness that pertain to strengthening the efficacy of war trauma Sudanese counsellors are recommended. The aim is to produce expertly trained war trauma counsellors working with war-affected Darfuri women in particular and with regards to their helpfulness in responding to the psychosocial needs of war-exposed Sudanese in general. PMID:23531430

  14. Being "chill" with teachers and "frozen" by peers in science: overcoming social and educational barriers in a learning community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hannah; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    This forum discusses the issue of `othering' and how intersectionality is a useful analytical framework for understanding the students' immigrant experiences in, and out of, the science classroom. We use a feminist perspective to discuss Minjung's study because gender is a key aspect of one's identity other aspects such as race, religion, socio-economic status, and age have assumed a significant status in gender studies. Lastly we examine the supports and barriers that cliques can produce and propose the importance of building a learning community in the science classroom to engage all students.

  15. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  16. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure ... Let's talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you ...

  17. Peer education and advocacy through recreation and leadership.

    PubMed

    Gammonley, D; Luken, K

    2001-01-01

    Peer Education and Advocacy through Recreation and Leadership (PEARL) is an intervention based on principles of peer helping and psychosocial rehabilitation. Trained peers working as recreation advocates provided support to peers in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Advocates promoted peer involvement in recreation and community activities as a strategy to enhance social support, independence, community inclusion, and quality of life. Evaluation findings indicate positive impacts on quality of life, empowerment, employment and educational preparedness among advocates. Outcomes of the PEARL project included developing a peer training curriculum, expanded leadership roles for participants, and improved quality of recreation services available within psychosocial rehabilitation programs.

  18. Digital Divide in the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Counsellor Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyo, Mfon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated digital divide in the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in counsellor education in Nigerian universities. It had two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a survey design and used ICT Utilization Questionnaire (IUQ) in gathering data from the…

  19. "Have You Talked with a Teacher Yet?": How Helpline Counsellors Support Young Callers Being Bullied at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danby, Susan; Butler, Carly W.; Emmison, Michael

    2011-01-01

    When seeking help and support about being bullied, children and young people weigh up the benefits and risks of talking to their friends, parents, teachers and counsellors about their experiences. The focus of this article is calls to an Australian helpline for children and young people where the strategy of "talking to the teacher" is discussed…

  20. Stress Coping Strategies among Guidance Counsellors in the Performance of Their Jobs in Secondary Schools Delta North Senatorial District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The study was set out to investigate stress coping strategies among Guidance Counsellors in the performance of their jobs. One research question and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study. One hundred and ten copies of the instruments were administered on one hundred and ten…

  1. International Registry of Counsellor Education Programs: CACREP's Contribution to the Development of Counseling as a Global Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanard, Rebecca Powell

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issues and challenges involved in the development of the counseling profession internationally and the role that quality assurance plays in its development. It chronicles the development of the International Registry for Counsellor Education Programs and its contributions, a critical analysis of the strengths and…

  2. Psycho-Educational Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities: Views and Practices of Australian Psychologists and Guidance Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyard, John D.; Gilmore, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of the views and practices of 203 Australian psychologists and guidance counsellors with respect to psycho-educational assessment of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Results from an online survey indicated that practitioners draw upon a wide range of theoretical perspectives when…

  3. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  4. Dimensions of Cognitive Dissonance and the Level of Job Satisfaction among Counsellors in Delta and Edo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduh, William Akporobaroh

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the dimensions of cognitive dissonance and the extent to which cognitive dissonance could influence the level of job satisfaction of guidance counsellors. The study was guided by three research questions and one null hypothesis. The design of the study was correlational survey. The population of the study was 158 practising…

  5. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  6. Buying into the Profession: Looking at the Impact on Students of Expert Videotape Demonstrations in Counsellor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, Patrice A.

    2008-01-01

    From analysing qualitative questionnaires, a group interview, and instructor interviews, this study explores the impact of viewing expert demonstration videotapes on students' learning processes, their identification as counsellors, and understanding of the counselling profession. Commonly, students selectively choose what they see and how they…

  7. Counselling teenage girls on problems related to the 'protection of family honour' from the perspective of school nurses and counsellors.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Venus; Törnkvist, Lena; Hylander, Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Approximately 1,500 young immigrant women living in Sweden sought help from various public organisations during 2004 due to problems related to Protection of Family Honour (PFH). Often they seek help from school nurses and counsellors. Information on how the school nurses and counsellors manage this complex PFH phenomenon is limited in Sweden. The aim was to generate a theoretical model that illuminates the experiences of school counsellors and school nurses counselling teenage girls, who worry about problems related to protection of family honour. Data were collected through individual interviews of the school welfare staff. The study subjects included welfare staff from six upper-secondary schools consisting of four nurses and six counsellors. Grounded theory methods were used to generate new knowledge as this is a new field of research. The staff's main goal was to provide the best support and help for the teenage girls. In addition, they wanted to be true to their professional ethics and values. However, this was difficult and created professional dilemmas because some teenage girls prevented them from doing what they thought was needed to support the teenage girls and protect them from violence. As a result, staff sometimes felt hampered, unable to help or able to help only in ways hidden from the teenage girls' families.

  8. The School Counsellor and Students' Career Choice in High School: The Assessor's Perspective in a Ghanaian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoah, Samuel Asare; Kwofie, Isaac; Kwofie, Faustina Akosua Agyeiwaa

    2015-01-01

    School counsellors play significant role in the total development of students in respect to career choices. In view of that career development interventions are provide to support the provision of information to guide students make well informed choices in personal, academic and social aspects. This study thus, aimed to examine whether the role of…

  9. Peer Relations in Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Hanne; Samara, Akylina; Lillejord, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, much research on peer learning practices has been conducted. Quantitative, experimental designs focusing on problems of cause and effect dominate. Consequently, effects on achievement are well documented, as is the influence of different conditions on the effect rate. In spite of the general acknowledgment of the importance…

  10. Recommendations for peer-to-peer support for NICU parents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J; Grubbs, L

    2015-01-01

    Peer-to-peer support provided by ‘veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer training and program operation are discussed. Recommendations for offering peer support to all NICU parents as an integral component of family-centered care and comprehensive family support are presented. PMID:26597805

  11. Recommendations for peer-to-peer support for NICU parents.

    PubMed

    Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J; Grubbs, L

    2015-12-01

    Peer-to-peer support provided by 'veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer training and program operation are discussed. Recommendations for offering peer support to all NICU parents as an integral component of family-centered care and comprehensive family support are presented. PMID:26597805

  12. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  13. Writing Quality Peer Reviews of Research Manuscripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Phillip; Graber, Kim C.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of…

  14. The "Peer" in "Peer Review"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  15. EMPATHY : A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF PROFESSIONALS AND TRAINED LAY COUNSELLORS USING HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L.S.S.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was conducted on 12 professionals and 12 trained lay counsellors. The two groups were matched for sex (7 males and 5 females) and their mean age was 27.5 and 32.25 years respectively. Ten hypothetical problem situationts were given and empathy was assessed using, accurate empathy rating scale by two independent raters. The inter rater reliability was found to be quite high (.61 significant at .01 level). There was no significant difference between the two groups and the sex groups. On comparing the results with the scores on audiotaped interview, there, was no significant correlations obtained between the two methods. Problems involved in assessing empathy from questionnaire and suggestions for further research are also discussed. PMID:21927433

  16. The uncertain future of lay counsellors: continuation of HIV services in Lesotho under pressure.

    PubMed

    Bemelmans, Marielle; Goux, Delphine; Baert, Saar; van Cutsem, Gilles; Motsamai, Mabaruti; Philips, Mit; van Damme, Wim; Mwale, Hilary; Biot, Marc; van den Akker, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Between 2006 and 2011, when antiretroviral therapy (ART) was scaled up in a context of severe human resources shortages, transferring responsibility for elements in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care from conventional health workers to lay counsellors (LCs) contributed to increased uptake of HIV services in Lesotho. HIV tests rose from 79 394 in 2006 to 274 240 in 2011 and, in that same period, the number of people on ART increased from 17 352 to 83 624. However, since 2012, the jobs of LCs have been at risk because of financial and organizational challenges. We studied the role of LCs in HIV care in Lesotho between 2006 and 2013, and discuss potential consequences of losing this cadre. Methods included a case study of LCs in Lesotho based on: (1) review of LC-related health policy and planning documents, (2) HIV programme review and (3) workload analysis of LCs. LCs are trained to provide HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and ART adherence support. Funded by international donors, 487 LCs were deployed between 2006 and 2011. However, in 2012, the number of LCs decreased to 165 due to a decreasing donor funds, while administrative and fiscal barriers hampered absorption of LCs into the public health system. That same year, ART coverage decreased from 61% to 51% and facility-based HTC decreased by 15%, from 253 994 in 2011 to 215 042 tests in 2012. The workload analysis indicated that LCs work averagely 77 h per month, bringing considerable relief to the scarce professional health workforce. HIV statistics in Lesotho worsened dramatically in the recent era of reduced support to LCs. This suggests that in order to ensure access to HIV care in an under-resourced setting like Lesotho, a recognized and well-supported counsellor cadre is essential. The continued presence of LCs requires improved prioritization, with national and international support. PMID:26546581

  17. Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation: Pathways to Safer Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines conflict resolution and peer mediation and reviews the theoretical base for conflict resolution research. Examines the goals and activities of several peer mediation programs, and discusses the benefits of such programs. Notes that conflict resolution and peer mediation offer feasible opportunities for an entire school community to create…

  18. A Qualitative Assessment of a Community Antiretroviral Therapy Group Model in Tete, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Rasschaert, Freya; Telfer, Barbara; Lessitala, Faustino; Decroo, Tom; Remartinez, Daniel; Biot, Marc; Candrinho, Baltazar; Mbofana, Francisco; Van Damme, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Background To improve retention on ART, Médecins Sans Frontières, the Ministry of Health and patients piloted a community-based antiretroviral distribution and adherence monitoring model through Community ART Groups (CAG) in Tete, Mozambique. By December 2012, almost 6000 patients on ART had formed groups of whom 95.7% were retained in care. We conducted a qualitative study to evaluate the relevance, dynamic and impact of the CAG model on patients, their communities and the healthcare system. Methods Between October 2011 and May 2012, we conducted 16 focus group discussions and 24 in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders involved in the CAG model. Audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Six key themes emerged from the data: 1) Barriers to access HIV care, 2) CAG functioning and actors involved, 3) Benefits for CAG members, 4) Impacts of CAG beyond the group members, 5) Setbacks, and 6) Acceptance and future expectations of the CAG model. The model provides cost and time savings, certainty of ART access and mutual peer support resulting in better adherence to treatment. Through the active role of patients, HIV information could be conveyed to the broader community, leading to an increased uptake of services and positive transformation of the identity of people living with HIV. Potential pitfalls included limited access to CAG for those most vulnerable to defaulting, some inequity to patients in individual ART care and a high dependency on counsellors. Conclusion The CAG model resulted in active patient involvement and empowerment, and the creation of a supportive environment improving the ART retention. It also sparked a reorientation of healthcare services towards the community and strengthened community actions. Successful implementation and scalability requires (a) the acceptance of patients as partners in health, (b) adequate resources, and (c) a well-functioning monitoring and management

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of Peer Leaders and Community Health Workers in Diabetes Self-management Support: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tricia S.; Funnell, Martha; Sinco, Brandy; Piatt, Gretchen; Palmisano, Gloria; Spencer, Michael S.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Heisler, Michele

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare a peer leader (PL) versus a community health worker (CHW) telephone outreach intervention in sustaining improvements in HbA1c over 12 months after a 6-month diabetes self-management education (DSME) program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS One hundred and sixteen Latino adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a federally qualified health center and randomized to 1) a 6-month DSME program followed by 12 months of weekly group sessions delivered by PLs with telephone outreach to those unable to attend or 2) a 6-month DSME program followed by 12 months of monthly telephone outreach delivered by CHWs. The primary outcome was HbA1c. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular disease risk factors, diabetes distress, and diabetes social support. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS After DSME, the PL group achieved a reduction in mean HbA1c (8.2–7.5% or 66–58 mmol/mol, P < 0.0001) that was maintained at 18 months (−0.6% or −6.6 mmol/mol from baseline [P = 0.009]). The CHW group also showed a reduction in HbA1c (7.8 vs. 7.3% or 62 vs. 56 mmol/mol, P = 0.0004) post–6 month DSME; however, it was attenuated at 18 months (−0.3% or −3.3 mmol/mol from baseline, within-group P = 0.234). Only the PL group maintained improvements achieved in blood pressure at 18 months. At the 18-month follow-up, both groups maintained improvements in waist circumference, diabetes support, and diabetes distress, with no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS Both low-cost maintenance programs led by either a PL or a CHW maintained improvements in key patient-reported diabetes outcomes, but the PL intervention may have additional benefit in sustaining clinical improvements beyond 12 months. PMID:24722495

  20. Counselling, Suicide Risk Assessment, and Retention in a Community College (2004-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on Suicide Risk Assessment (SRA) protocols completed by counsellors for 153 students who presented with suicidal ideation at a community college counselling centre during a five year period. This study sought to: determine the number of students presenting with suicidal ideation annually; identify the types of interventions used…

  1. Reflections on Ideological Consistency between Community-Based Research and Counselling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based research (CBR) and counselling practice share multiple skill sets and ideological tenets. In addition, CBR offers an approach to research that can be highly conducive to effective counselling-related research. Despite these consistencies and benefits, counsellors and counselling students have underutilized this approach to…

  2. Assessment of Special Educational Needs Integration by the Educational Community in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchesi, Alvaro; Martin, Elena; Echeita, Gerardo; Perez, Eva M.

    2005-01-01

    The study collected and contrasted the opinions of different sectors of the educational community about the functioning and integration of students with special educational needs. In order to do this, a broad questionnaire was sent to teachers of diverse educational stages, to counsellors, parents and to students, both with and without special…

  3. A qualitative evaluation of a breastfeeding peer counselor program.

    PubMed

    Meier, Emily R; Olson, Beth H; Benton, Patricia; Eghtedary, Kobra; Song, Won O

    2007-08-01

    The Breastfeeding Initiative program is a collaboration between the Michigan Department of Community Health (Women, Infants, and Children Division) and Michigan State University Extension. It aims to increase breastfeeding rates among low-income women through the use of peer counselors. The study's purpose was to identify the program's strengths, operation procedures, and improvement areas from participants' and peer counselors' perspectives. Six focus groups were conducted: 3 of peer counselors and 3 of program participants. Findings revealed that peer counselors and participants were satisfied with the quality of services due to emotional and practical assistance and breast pumps provided by peer counselors. Peer counselors' job satisfaction was explained positively by the intrinsic rewards of helping others and negatively by perceived inadequate resources and recognition. Operating procedures varied greatly. Possible improvements include expanding services, providing peer counselors with additional support, and standardizing peer counselor operating procedures. The peer counselor model can effectively support low-income breastfeeding women.

  4. Adaptive search in mobile peer-to-peer databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Ouri (Inventor); Xu, Bo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Information is stored in a plurality of mobile peers. The peers communicate in a peer to peer fashion, using a short-range wireless network. Occasionally, a peer initiates a search for information in the peer to peer network by issuing a query. Queries and pieces of information, called reports, are transmitted among peers that are within a transmission range. For each search additional peers are utilized, wherein these additional peers search and relay information on behalf of the originator of the search.

  5. Straddling the Gap: How Second-Year Peers Empower First-Year Students to Participate in a Community of Independent Learning by Means of the Educative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Transition from school or college to university is a time of great anxiety for many first-year undergraduates: some studies illustrate the emphasis which students place on finding new friends and securing a consistent social life; the importance of which resonates more with peers than with parents or lecturers. This has to be accomplished…

  6. Early Adolescent Peer Ecologies in Rural Communities: Bullying in Schools that Do and Do Not Have a Transition during the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Leung, Man-Chi; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    The transition to middle school is considered to be a heightened period for involvement in bullying because the lack of a defined dominance hierarchy is thought to promote jockeying for social positions among students. Accordingly, this study examined bullying in peer ecologies at the beginning of the middle grade years in rural schools that did…

  7. Youth Who are "Disconnected" and Those Who Then Reconnect: Assessing the Influence of Family, Programs, Peers and Communities. Research Brief. Publication #2009-37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Moore, Kristin A.; Ling, Thomson J.; McPhee-Baker, Cameron; Brown, Brett V.

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood can be a turbulent time. To succeed in this transition, adolescents and emerging adults must advance in several areas of development, such as education, work, financial autonomy, romantic relationships, peer involvement, citizenship, and avoidance of destructive health behaviors. However, some young people who have…

  8. Improving Students' Social Interaction with Adults and Peers by Creating a Caring Community: Strategies for Resolving Conflict in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Lena Allegro

    This practicum was designed to provide 237 elementary school students with strategies to improve their social interactions with adults and peers. The professional staff included 12 full-time teachers and 8 itinerant teachers who traveled to schools within the district. Workshops in conflict resolution strategies were presented for teachers to…

  9. Trends in Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2005-01-01

    Developments in forms of peer learning 1981-2006 are reviewed, focusing mainly on peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and peer assessment. Types and definitions of peer learning are explored, together with questions of implementation integrity and consequent effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Benefits to helpers are now emphasised at least as…

  10. Peer-review thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Bill; Goodman, Maurice

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the news article on challenges for peer-review by Michael Banks “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial by Matin Durrani “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too fast (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17).

  11. Medical journal peer review: process and bias.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Scientific peer review is pivotal in health care research in that it facilitates the evaluation of findings for competence, significance, and originality by qualified experts. While the origins of peer review can be traced to the societies of the eighteenth century, it became an institutionalized part of the scholarly process in the latter half of the twentieth century. This was a response to the growth of research and greater subject specialization. With the current increase in the number of specialty journals, the peer review process continues to evolve to meet the needs of patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The peer review process itself faces challenges. Unblinded peer review might suffer from positive or negative bias towards certain authors, specialties, and institutions. Peer review can also suffer when editors and/or reviewers might be unable to understand the contents of the submitted manuscript. This can result in an inability to detect major flaws, or revelations of major flaws after acceptance of publication by the editors. Other concerns include potentially long delays in publication and challenges uncovering plagiarism, duplication, corruption and scientific misconduct. Conversely, a multitude of these challenges have led to claims of scientific misconduct and an erosion of faith. These challenges have invited criticism of the peer review process itself. However, despite its imperfections, the peer review process enjoys widespread support in the scientific community. Peer review bias is one of the major focuses of today's scientific assessment of the literature. Various types of peer review bias include content-based bias, confirmation bias, bias due to conservatism, bias against interdisciplinary research, publication bias, and the bias of conflicts of interest. Consequently, peer review would benefit from various changes and improvements with appropriate training of reviewers to provide quality reviews to maintain the quality and integrity of

  12. Adolescents' attitudes toward confidentiality between the school counsellor and the adolescent client.

    PubMed

    Collins, N; Knowles, A D

    1995-11-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that confidentiality is relative rather than absolute in any counselling relationship. This is particularly the case for minors receiving counselling at school, where third parties such as parents and teachers frequently have access to information about an adolescent client. The Australian Psychological Society's Code of Professional Conduct (1986) states that minors are unable to provide voluntary, informed consent in consulting relationships, although current research does not necessarily support this view. The current study investigated adolescents' attitudes to confidentiality in situations that may commonly arise in school counselling. The study also investigated the third parties to whom adolescents believed information should be disclosed by a counsellor. Respondents were 303 male and 254 female students attending three single-sex nongovernment schools. Ages ranged from 13 to 18 years. Results suggested that the adolescents' attitudes to confidentiality generally corresponded with adult views. Many adolescents wanted more autonomy regarding disclosure of information obtained in a counselling situation than the APS code provides. Parents were the only third party to whom the adolescents generally believed disclosure should be made. There were few age differences, but a wide range of opinions were evident, with female adolescents consistently more strongly in favor of confidentiality than males. PMID:17144046

  13. Looking for sufficient change: Evaluation of counsellor training for STI syndromic management in India.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Melita; Kadyan, Nisha; Chalil, Sumitha; Prasad, Turlapati L N; Singh, Aman Kumar

    2016-10-01

    In India, public health care of Sexually Transmitted Infections is delivered through Designated STI/RTI Clinics (DSRCs) using syndromic management. This paper describes efforts, over three years, to improve in-service training for counsellors positioned at DSRCs-using a data approach. The programme managers realised, through rigorous monitoring of initial induction training reports that, while knowledge and attitudes of most trainees had improved as evident from t-tests, at least one-quarter scored worse on post-training assessments (n=859). Therefore, they undertook a survey using a competency approach to diagnose what critical competencies are influenced through training: counselling skills, risk reduction suggestions, labelling male and female anatomy, record-keeping and STI patient education (n=132). Survey results demonstrated that trainees failed to pass a two-thirds cutoff score in most competencies. These findings led the programme managers to modify training and implement tighter quality measures. In the second round of training - refresher training - outcomes on competency assessments before and after training showed more acceptable performance (n=833). The paper describes how programme managers, after an acceptance of such initial short-comings, developed customized assessments when literature provided limited guidance and how they worked to achieve change that was acceptable for programme needs.

  14. Rehabilitation counsellors: incorporation of assistive technology device selection and referrals into professional practice.

    PubMed

    Barzegarian, Behnush; Sax, Caren L

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to determine how well graduates of a rehabilitation counselling master programme were prepared to work with clients in assistive technology (AT) device selection or referral of resources. Specifically, inquiry was conducted as to how graduates have incorporated AT into their professional practice, their level of comfort with exploring AT solutions, and whether they felt additional training was needed. METHODS. The methodology used was an online survey of multiple choice and text boxes sent to rehabilitation counselling graduates. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to provide the range of responses. Trends were analysed to highlight differences between various factors. RESULTS. Responses indicated that graduates did find the dedicated AT course helpful in learning about the AT process. However, a number of respondents were not comfortable in participating in the AT process and were not incorporating the AT process into their work. CONCLUSIONS. Future studies should explore the role of AT acquisition from the perspective of rehabilitation counsellors and also examine why graduates are not incorporating the AT process. Respondents indicated the need for continuing education and professional development in this area. PMID:21561317

  15. 2006 Annual Merit Review & Peer Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2006 Annual Merit Review, held May 16-19, 2006 in Arlington, Va., showcased approximately 250 projects. Principal investigators presented their project status and results in oral and poster presentations, which are available in the 2006 Annual Merit Review Proceedings. A panel of more than 150 community experts peer reviewed two-t

  16. Enriching Patient-Centered Medical Homes Through Peer Support

    PubMed Central

    Daaleman, Timothy P.; Fisher, Edwin B.

    2015-01-01

    Peer supporters are recognized by various designations—community health workers, promotores de salud, lay health advisers—and are community members who work for pay or as volunteers in association with health care systems or nonprofit community organizations and often share ethnicity, language, and socioeconomic status with the mentees that they serve. Although emerging evidence demonstrates the efficacy of peer support at the community level, the adoption and implementation of this resource into patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) is still under development. To accelerate that integration, this article addresses three major elements of peer support interventions: the functions and features of peer support, a framework and programmatic strategies for implementation, and fiscal models that would support the sustained viability of peer support programs within PCMHs. Key functions of peer support include assistance in daily management of health-related behaviors, social and emotional support, linkage to clinical care, and longitudinal or ongoing support. An organizational model of innovation implementation provides a useful framework for determining how to implement and evaluate peer support programs in PCMHs. Programmatic strategies that can be useful in developing peer support programs within PCMHs include peer coaching or mentoring, group self-management training, and programs designed around the telephone and information technology. Fiscal models for peer support programs include linkages with hospital or health care systems, service- or community-based nonprofit organizations, and partnerships between health care systems and community groups. Peer support promises to enrich PCMHs by activating patients in their self-care, providing culturally sensitive outreach, and opening the way for partnerships with community-based organizations. PMID:26304975

  17. o'Peer: open peer review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    I have built a "demonstration" website at http://oPeer.org to illustrate how peer review and publication might be improved relative to the current model, which was designed and implemented in an era when scientific communication was either face-to-face or relied upon human delivery of ink marks on dead trees.

  18. Peer-to-Peer Science Data Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, J. B.; Holland, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of P2PSDE is to provide a convenient and extensible Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network architecture that allows: distributed science-data services-seamlessly incorporating collaborative value-added services with search-oriented access to remote science data. P2PSDE features the real-time discovery of data-serving peers (plus peer-groups and peer-group services), in addition to the searching for and transferring of science data. These features are implemented using "Project JXTA", the first and only standardized set of open, generalized P2P protocols that allow arbitrary network devices to communicate and collaborate as peers. The JXTA protocols standardize the manner in which peers discover each other, self-organize into peer groups, advertise and discover network services, and securely communicate with and monitor each other-even across network firewalls. The key benefits include: Potential for dramatic improvements in science-data dissemination; Real-time-discoverable, potentially redundant (reliable), science-data services; Openness/Extensibility; Decentralized use of small, inexpensive, readily-available desktop machines; and Inherently secure-with ability to create variable levels of security by group.

  19. A Study of the Effects of the Implementation of Small Peer Led Collaborative Group Learning on Students in Developmental Mathematics Courses at a Tribal Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Dianna Dawn Tiahrt

    2010-01-01

    College students needing remediation in mathematics are a problem at nearly all colleges and universities but are immense at community colleges where large numbers of students enroll in developmental mathematics courses. This issue for Native American students at Tribal Community Colleges has an enormous effect on future opportunities in…

  20. Simple Peer-to-Peer SIP Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskela, Joakim; Tarkoma, Sasu

    In this paper, we introduce a model for enhancing privacy in peer-to-peer communication systems. The model is based on data obfuscation, preventing intermediate nodes from tracking calls, while still utilizing the shared resources of the peer network. This increases security when moving between untrusted, limited and ad-hoc networks, when the user is forced to rely on peer-to-peer schemes. The model is evaluated using a Host Identity Protocol-based prototype on mobile devices, and is found to provide good privacy, especially when combined with a source address hiding scheme. The contribution of this paper is to present the model and results obtained from its use, including usability considerations.

  1. Nuevo Amanecer: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Community-Based, Peer-Delivered Stress Management Intervention to Improve Quality of Life in Latinas With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz, Carmen; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L.; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E.; Durón, Ysabel; McGuire, Peggy; Luce, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a community-based, translational stress management program to improve health-related quality of life in Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer. Methods. We adapted a cognitive–behavioral stress management program integrating evidence-based and community best practices to address the needs of Latinas with breast cancer. Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual-care control group. Trained peers delivered the 8-week intervention between February 2011 and February 2014. Primary outcomes were breast cancer–specific quality of life and distress, and general symptoms of distress. Results. Of 151 participants, 95% were retained at 6 months (between May 2011 and May 2014). Improvements in quality of life from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention than the control group on physical well-being, emotional well-being, breast cancer concerns, and overall quality of life. Decreases from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention group on depression and somatization. Conclusions. Results suggest that translation of evidence-based programs can reduce psychosocial health disparities in Latinas with breast cancer. Integration of this program into community-based organizations enhances its dissemination potential. PMID:25905829

  2. Peer Influence and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal; Simpson, Shelly; Najera, John; Weiner, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that peer influence can be negative, by increasing the likelihood that a youth will engage in high-risk behaviors and make risky decisions. However, peer influence can also be positive and protect a youth from these same high-risk activities. This article examines the extent of peer influence and then describes the Alternative…

  3. Harcum's Peer Resource Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    This paper describes the Peer Resource Program established by Harcum Junior College. It is designed to provide, in addition to professional guidance personnel, student peer leadership and student personnel services to other students. The approach is based on the assumption that adolescents are generally more responsive to peer influences,…

  4. Peer Leadership Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula

    This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…

  5. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  6. PEER REVIEW PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    MOGHISSI, A ALAN; LOVE, BETTY R; STRAJA, SORIN R

    2007-09-29

    The Institute for Regulatory Science (RS) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) jointly estab lished a peer-review program. As the program evolved, four types of review were established. A process for stakeholder participation in peer review eetings was also developed. While a committee established by the ASME provided oversight to the peer-review process, the RSI managed the day-to-day operations of peer review panels. In addition to the reports resulting from peer review of specific projects, several documents were prepared to facilitate the review process, all of which were widely distributed.

  7. The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, J. A.; Aschbrenner, K. A.; Marsch, L. A.; Bartels, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims People with serious mental illness are increasingly turning to popular social media, including Facebook, Twitter or YouTube, to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health conditions. This emerging form of unsolicited communication among self-forming online communities of patients and individuals with diverse health concerns is referred to as peer-to-peer support. We offer a perspective on how online peer-to-peer connections among people with serious mental illness could advance efforts to promote mental and physical wellbeing in this group. Methods In this commentary, we take the perspective that when an individual with serious mental illness decides to connect with similar others online it represents a critical point in their illness experience. We propose a conceptual model to illustrate how online peer-to-peer connections may afford opportunities for individuals with serious mental illness to challenge stigma, increase consumer activation and access online interventions for mental and physical well-being. Results People with serious mental illness report benefits from interacting with peers online from greater social connectedness, feelings of group belonging and by sharing personal stories and strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of living with a mental illness. Within online communities, individuals with serious mental illness could challenge stigma through personal empowerment and providing hope. By learning from peers online, these individuals may gain insight about important health care decisions, which could promote mental health care seeking behaviours. These individuals could also access interventions for mental and physical wellbeing delivered through social media that could incorporate mutual support between peers, help promote treatment engagement and reach a wider demographic. Unforeseen risks may include exposure to misleading information, facing hostile or derogatory comments from others, or

  8. The Healthy Activity Program lay counsellor delivered treatment for severe depression in India: systematic development and randomised evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Neerja; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; Shinde, Sachin; Weobong, Benedict; Balaji, Madhumitha; Hollon, Steven D.; Rahman, Atif; Wilson, G. Terence; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; King, Michael; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Fairburn, Christopher; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the global treatment gap for mental disorders requires treatments that are economical, effective and culturally appropriate. Aims To describe a systematic approach to the development of a brief psychological treatment for patients with severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary healthcare. Method The treatment was developed in three stages using a variety of methods: (a) identifying potential strategies; (b) developing a theoretical framework; and (c) evaluating the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the psychological treatment. Results The Healthy Activity Program (HAP) is delivered over 6–8 sessions and consists of behavioral activation as the core psychological framework with added emphasis on strategies such as problem-solving and activation of social networks. Key elements to improve acceptability and feasibility are also included. In an intention-to-treat analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial (55 participants), the prevalence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II ⩾19) after 2 months was lower in the HAP than the control arm (adjusted risk ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.94, P = 0.01). Conclusions Our systematic approach to the development of psychological treatments could be extended to other mental disorders. HAP is an acceptable and effective brief psychological treatment for severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care. PMID:26494875

  9. Position statement on opportunistic genomic screening from the Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors (UK and Ireland).

    PubMed

    Middleton, Anna; Patch, Chris; Wiggins, Jennifer; Barnes, Kathy; Crawford, Gill; Benjamin, Caroline; Bruce, Anita

    2014-08-01

    The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics released recommendations for reporting incidental findings (IFs) in clinical exome and genome sequencing. These suggest 'opportunistic genomic screening' should be available to both adults and children each time a sequence is done and would be undertaken without seeking preferences from the patient first. Should opportunistic genomic screening be implemented in the United Kingdom, the Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors (AGNC), which represents British and Irish genetic counsellors and nurses, feels strongly that the following must be considered (see article for complete list): (1) Following appropriate genetic counselling, patients should be allowed to consent to or opt out of opportunistic genomic screening. (2) If true IFs are discovered the AGNC are guided by the report from the Joint Committee on Medical Genetics about the sharing of genetic testing results. (3) Children should not be routinely tested for adult-onset conditions. (4) The formation of a list of variants should involve a representative from the AGNC as well as a patient support group. (5) The variants should be for serious or life-threatening conditions for which there are treatments or preventative strategies available. (6) There needs to be robust evidence that the benefits of opportunistic screening outweigh the potential harms. (7) The clinical validity and utility of variants should be known. (8) There must be a quality assurance framework that operates to International standards for laboratory testing. (9) Psychosocial research is urgently needed in this area to understand the impact on patients.

  10. "It's important to take your medication everyday okay?" An evaluation of counselling by lay counsellors for ARV adherence support in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewing, S; Mathews, C; Schaay, N; Cloete, A; Louw, J; Simbayi, L

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in standard care programmes for antiretroviral (ARV) adherence support. In South Africa, individual counselling following ARV initiation is a main strategy for supporting adherence in the public sector. Egan's client-centred "Skilled Helper" counselling model is the predominant model used in HIV counselling in this context. This study evaluated counselling delivered by lay ARV adherence counsellors in Cape Town in terms of adherence to Egan's model. Thirty-eight transcripts of counselling sessions with non-adherent patients were analysed based on the methods of content analysis. These sessions were conducted by 30 counsellors. Generally counsellors' practice adhered neither to Egan's model nor a client-centred approach. Inconsistent with evidence-based approaches to counselling for ARV adherence support, counsellors mainly used information-giving and advice as strategies for addressing clients' non-adherence. Recommendations for improving practice are made. The question as to how appropriate strategies from developed countries are for this setting is also raised.

  11. An Assessment of the Professional Capacity Needs of Counsellors to Cope with Poverty-Prone at Risk Secondary School Students in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adefunke, Ehindero Serifat

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the professional capacity needs of counselor and difference in the capacity needs to cope with at risk students in terms of their sex, age and years of professional experience with a view to assisting the counsellors to improve service delivery in secondary schools. The study adopted survey design. The population for the study…

  12. "The Weight of Class": Clients' Experiences of How Perceived Differences in Social Class between Counsellor and Client Affect the Therapeutic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmforth, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a difference in social class on the therapeutic relationship has received less attention than other differences between counsellor and client, such as gender, race and sexual orientation. In this qualitative research study six clients who identified as working class were interviewed about their experience of a therapeutic…

  13. As They Like It--Culture-Centred Counsellor Education in the Context of Aotearoa New Zealand: A Play on Bicultural Pluralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Steve K. W.; Gardiner, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Against a backdrop of social struggles to rebalance power between colonisers and indigenous peoples, counsellor education at a university in Aotearoa New Zealand is undergoing a transformation. This article explores the creation and application of a framework that results from listening to the voices of indigenous peoples and counselling…

  14. Re-Evaluating the Significance of Phonemic Awareness and Phonics in Literacy Teaching: The Shared Role of School Counsellors and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Julie; Colmar, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article examines recent research and developments relating to the role of phonemic awareness and phonics in early literacy education and the relevance of these findings for school counsellors and teachers. It defines and reviews the role of phonemic awareness and phonics in theoretical models of reading processes, including whole-language,…

  15. Lay Counsellor-Based Risk Reduction Intervention with HIV Positive Diagnosed Patients at Public HIV Counselling and Testing Sites in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…

  16. "At Risk of Harm"? An Exploratory Survey of School Counsellors in the UK, Their Perceptions of Confidentiality, Information Sharing and Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter; Palmer, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore perceptions of UK school counsellors of confidentiality and information sharing in therapeutic work with children and young people, using qualitative methods. The research design employed a two-stage process, using questionnaires and follow-up interviews, with a small, non-random sample of school…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Psychological Counsellors Working at Different Institutions and Their Attitudes and Behaviours as a Response to These Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolay Akfert, Serpil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ethical dilemmas experiencing by the counsellors who work at different conditions and what they do to solve these dilemmas as well as the obstacles they have to deal with while resolving the dilemmas. This is a qualitative study in which multi-state pattern was used. For this research, 40 counsellors…

  18. Defining Peer-to-Peer Learning--From an Old "Art of Practice" to a New Mode of Forest Owner Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamunen, Katri; Appelstrand, Marie; Hujala, Teppo; Kurttila, Mikko; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah; Vilkriste, Lelde; Westberg, Lotten; Tikkanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the concept of peer-to-peer learning (P2PL) in the context of North-European small-scale forest owners. The aim is to develop a framework for initiating new and evaluating already existing forest owners' P2PL communities. Design: Previous studies of peer-learning are used to determine and justify eight dimensions for…

  19. Professionalizing the Role of Peer Leaders in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Bethany; Doyle, Maureen; Taylor, Jennifer; Antes, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors frequently utilize peer mentors and/or leaders. At Northern Kentucky University, the STEM Ambassador (SA) program involves students in the creation of a STEM community through multifaceted roles as mentors, peer-learning facilitators, and social…

  20. Academic Peer Instruction: Reference and Training Manual (with Answers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaritsky, Joyce; Toce, Andi

    2013-01-01

    This manual consists of an introduction to our Academic Peer Instruction (API) program at LaGuardia Community College, a compilation of the materials we have developed and use for training of our tutors (with answers), and a bibliography. API is based on an internationally recognized peer tutoring program, Supplemental Instruction. (Contains 6…

  1. Parents and Peers as Social Influences to Deter Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Henson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Growth curve analyses were used to investigate parents' and peers' influence on adolescents' choice to abstain from antisocial behavior in a community-based sample of 416 early adolescents living in the Southeastern United States. Participants were primarily European American (91%) and 51% were girls. Both parents and peers were important…

  2. Building Literacy Communities. The Thirty-Second Yearbook: A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Morrison, Timothy, Ed.; Martin, Linda, Ed.; Boggs, Merry, Ed.; Raine, I. LaVerne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For its 53rd annual meeting, the Association of Educators and Researchers met in Charlotte, North Carolina at the Marriott Charlotte City Center. This year's conference theme was "Building Literacy Communities", which was also used as the title for this year's Yearbook, Volume 32. This organization has long been the home of some of the nation's…

  3. A Case Study of an Undergraduate Engineering Peer Tutoring Group: An Investigation of the Structure of a Community of Practice and the Value Members Gain from Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke Douglas, Tameka Sharona

    2010-01-01

    "Shaping the Future", the 1996 report to the National Science Foundation (NSF), called for the research community to identify and characterize practical solutions for developing "supportive" and "excellent" learning experiences for all students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (SME). The recommendation was that we "start with…

  4. Literacy and Community. The Twentieth Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association, 1998. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 1997].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturtevant, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Dugan, JoAnn, Ed.; Linder, Patricia, Ed.; Linek, Wayne M., Ed.

    This 20th Yearbook of the College Reading Association reflects the theme of "community" again and again, in diverse ways. First in the yearbook are the Presidential Address by Marino C. Alvarez, "Adolescent Literacy: Are We in Contact?" and the three Keynote Addresses: "My Life in Reading" (J. Chall); "A Social-Constructivist View of Family…

  5. Developing Internet Communication and Peer Support in a Statewide Child Care Community for Participants in a Child Development Associate (CDA) Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven

    This applied dissertation project was designed to improve communication systems among child care providers previously and currently enrolled in a statewide Child Development Associate (CDA) training program as a pilot project to promote communication among the statewide child care community as a whole. Communications systems within the CDA…

  6. Reducing Agitated-Disruptive Behavior of Mentally Retarded Residents of Community Group Homes: The Role of Self-Recording and Peer-Prompted Self-Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Matthew; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Agitated-disruptive behavior from three mentally retarded adults in community group homes was reduced using procedures that included a self-recorded differential reinforcement of other behavior point fines for agitated-disruptive behavior, social skills training, and relaxation training. (Author/CL)

  7. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll Project" (Anami Naths); (3)…

  8. What is the role of a case manager in community aged care? A qualitative study in Australia.

    PubMed

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the perceptions of case managers about their roles in providing community aged care in Australia. Purposeful sampling was used and 33 qualitative semi-structured interviews with 47 participants were conducted. Participants were drawn from a list of all case managers working in aged care organisations that provided publicly funded case-managed community aged care programmes in the State of Victoria, Australia. Participant selection criteria included age, gender, job titles, professional backgrounds, practice locations, organisational attributes and organisational size. Data collection was implemented between September 2012 and March 2013. Thematic analysis was performed. Participants believed that case managers performed diverse roles based on clients' needs. They also articulated 16 important roles of case managers, including advisors, advocates, carers, communicators, co-ordinators, educators, empowering clients, engaging clients and families, liaising with people, managing budgets, navigators, negotiators, networking with people, facilitators, problem solvers and supporters. However, they were concerned about brokers, mediators and counsellors in terms of the terminology or case managers' willingness to perform these roles. Moreover, they perceived that neither gatekeepers nor direct service provision was case managers' role. The findings of this study suggest that case managers working in community aged care sectors may be more effective if they practised the 16 roles aforementioned. With the value of helping rather than obstructing clients to access services, they may not act as gatekeepers. In addition, they may not provide services directly as opposed to their peers working in medical care settings. The findings will also assist organisations to design job descriptions specifying case managers' roles and associated job responsibilities. Clear job descriptions will further benefit the organisations in staff recruitment, orientation

  9. Reviewing post-publication peer review

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Post-publication peer review (PPPR) is transforming how the life sciences community evaluates published manuscripts and data. Unsurprisingly, however, PPPR is experiencing growing pains, and some elements of the process distinct from standard pre-publication review remain controversial. I discuss the rapid evolution of PPPR, its impact, and the challenges associated with it. PMID:25851694

  10. A Fresh Approach to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John

    2013-01-01

    Bullying often persists in spite of formal programs targeting this problem. Supportive school and classroom communities enlist brave peers in consoling, encouraging, and befriending victims, which removes the status that fuels bullies. For the past 18 years, this author has worked in multiple children's agencies and schools, studying bullying…

  11. Integrating Infrastructure Building with Peer-Focused Approaches to HIV Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax, Johnnie L.; Clark, Marc D.; Wright, Linda S.; Ford, Denyce S.; Shepperd, Billie T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the District of Columbia Public Schools' collaborative approach to HIV/AIDS prevention education centered on peer education. The program is part of a broader school health project that addresses many health risk areas. It links peer programs to local networks, training teachers and peer educators and offering special community training…

  12. Peer-Led Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Barnett, Jessica Penwell

    2010-01-01

    One approach in HIV prevention programming targeting youth is to use peer leaders in what is referred to as peer education programming. This paper critically reviews and synthesizes the results and lessons learned from 24 evaluated peer-led programs with an HIV/AIDS risk reduction component that target youth in the communities where they live and…

  13. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  14. Peer Leadership Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Margaret E.; And Others

    Presented are two documents focusing on a peer leadership training program which pairs better students and leaders with younger high-risk students. One document briefly describes the peer leadership training program as a program in which students traveled to an environmental education center for 3 days of competitive and challenging activities,…

  15. Peer Review Undergoing Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Established in the 142,000-student Montgomery County, Maryland, district in 1999, peer assistance and review (PAR)--or "peer review," as it is occasionally called--is actually an old idea. In 1981, the then-president of the Toledo Federation of Teachers, Dal Lawrence, helped create the first PAR program. Almost 30 years later, only a handful of…

  16. Improving PMTCT uptake and retention services through novel approaches in peer-based family-supported care in the clinic and community: a 3-arm cluster randomized trial (PURE Malawi).

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Nora E; van Lettow, Monique; Tweya, Hannock; Kapito-Tembo, Atupele; Bourdon, Cassandre Man; Cataldo, Fabian; Chiwaula, Levison; Sampathkumar, Veena; Trapence, Clement; Kayoyo, Virginia; Kasende, Florence; Kaunda, Blessings; Speight, Colin; Schouten, Erik; Eliya, Michael; Hosseinipour, Mina; Phiri, Sam

    2014-11-01

    In July 2011, Malawi introduced an ambitious public health program known as "Option B+," which provides all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women with lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy, regardless of clinical stage or CD4 count. Option B+ is expected to have benefits for HIV-infected women, their HIV-exposed infants, and their HIV-uninfected male sex partners. However, these benefits hinge on early uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission, good adherence, and long-term retention in care. The Prevention of mother-to-child transmission Uptake and REtention (PURE) study is a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether clinic- or community-based peer support will improve care-seeking and retention in care by HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women, their HIV-exposed infants, and their male sex partners, and ultimately improve health outcomes in all 3 populations. We describe the PURE Malawi Consortium, the initial work conducted to inform the trial and interventions, the trial design, and the analysis plan. We then discuss concerns and expected contributions to Malawi and the region.

  17. Improving PMTCT uptake and retention services through novel approaches in peer-based family-supported care in the clinic and community: a 3-arm cluster randomized trial (PURE Malawi).

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Nora E; van Lettow, Monique; Tweya, Hannock; Kapito-Tembo, Atupele; Bourdon, Cassandre Man; Cataldo, Fabian; Chiwaula, Levison; Sampathkumar, Veena; Trapence, Clement; Kayoyo, Virginia; Kasende, Florence; Kaunda, Blessings; Speight, Colin; Schouten, Erik; Eliya, Michael; Hosseinipour, Mina; Phiri, Sam

    2014-11-01

    In July 2011, Malawi introduced an ambitious public health program known as "Option B+," which provides all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women with lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy, regardless of clinical stage or CD4 count. Option B+ is expected to have benefits for HIV-infected women, their HIV-exposed infants, and their HIV-uninfected male sex partners. However, these benefits hinge on early uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission, good adherence, and long-term retention in care. The Prevention of mother-to-child transmission Uptake and REtention (PURE) study is a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether clinic- or community-based peer support will improve care-seeking and retention in care by HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women, their HIV-exposed infants, and their male sex partners, and ultimately improve health outcomes in all 3 populations. We describe the PURE Malawi Consortium, the initial work conducted to inform the trial and interventions, the trial design, and the analysis plan. We then discuss concerns and expected contributions to Malawi and the region. PMID:25310116

  18. Improving PMTCT Uptake and Retention Services through Novel Approaches in Peer-Based Family-Supported Care in the Clinic and Community: A three-arm cluster randomized trial (PURE Malawi)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Nora E.; van Lettow, Monique; Tweya, Hannock; Kapito-Tembo, Atupele; Bourdon, Cassandre Man; Cataldo, Fabian; Chiwaula, Levison; Sampathkumar, Veena; Trapence, Clement; Kayoyo, Virginia; Kasende, Florence; Kaunda, Blessings; Speight, Colin; Schouten, Erik; Eliya, Michael; Hosseinipour, Mina; Phiri, Sam

    2014-01-01

    In July 2011, Malawi introduced an ambitious public health program known as “Option B+” which provides all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women with lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy, regardless of clinical stage or CD4 count. Option B+ is expected to have benefits for HIV-infected women, their HIV-exposed infants, and their HIV-uninfected male sex partners. However, these benefits hinge on early uptake of PMTCT, good adherence, and long-term retention in care. The PMTCT Uptake and REtention (PURE) study is a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether clinic- or community-based peer-support will improve care-seeking and retention in care by HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women, their HIV-exposed infants, and their male sex partners, and ultimately improve health outcomes in all three populations. We describe the PURE Malawi Consortium, the initial work conducted to inform the trial and interventions, the trial design, and the analysis plan. We then discuss concerns and expected contributions to Malawi and the region. PMID:25310116

  19. Peer-to-Peer Magnetron Locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Edward Jeffrey

    The viability of coherent power combination of multiple high-efficiency, moderate power magnetrons requires a thorough understanding of frequency and phase control. Injection locking of conventional magnetrons, and other types of oscillators, employing a master-to-slave configuration has been studied theoretically and experimentally. This dissertation focuses on the peer-to-peer locking, where each oscillator acts as a master of and slave to all others, between two conventional magnetrons, where the general condition for locking was recently derived. The experiments performed on peer-to-peer locking of two 1-kW magnetrons verify the recently developed theory on the condition under which the two nonlinear oscillators may be locked to a common frequency and relative phase. This condition reduces to Adler's classical locking condition (master-slave) if the coupling is one way. Dependent on the degree of coupling, the frequency of oscillation when locking occurs was found to not necessarily lie between the two magnetrons' free running frequencies. Likewise, when the locking condition was violated, the beat of the spectrum was not necessarily found to be equal to the difference between the free running frequencies. The frequency of oscillation and relative phase between the two magnetrons when locking did occur were found to correspond to one of two solution modes given by the recent theory. The accessibility of the two possible modes is yet to be determined. This work was supported by ONR, AFRL, AFOSR, L-3 Communications Electron Devices Division and Northrop-Grumman Corporation.

  20. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  1. Avoiding Greediness in Cooperative Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Matthias R.; Ribeiro, Carlos H. C.; Mesit, Jaruwan

    In peer-to-peer networks, peers simultaneously play the role of client and server. Since the introduction of the first file-sharing protocols, peer-to-peer networking currently causes more than 35% of all internet network traffic— with an ever increasing tendency. A common file-sharing protocol that occupies most of the peer-to-peer traffic is the BitTorrent protocol. Although based on cooperative principles, in practice it is doomed to fail if peers behave greedily. In this work-in-progress paper, we model the protocol by introducing the game named Tit-for-Tat Network Termination (T4TNT) that gives an interesting access to the greediness problem of the BitTorrent protocol. Simulations conducted under this model indicate that greediness can be reduced by solely manipulating the underlying peer-to-peer topology.

  2. Ethical challenges in a randomized controlled trial of peer education among veterans service organizations.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Jeff; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ertl, Kristyn; Patterson, Leslie; Jensen, Wayne; Schapira, Marilyn M

    2010-12-01

    Efforts to increase community members' involvement in research may create novel ethical challenges. We describe an ongoing randomized trial of a peer-delivered intervention to encourage hypertension self-management. Community members serving as peer leaders participate in subject recruitment, the informed consent process, and intervention. We describe our experience with several ethical issues that may arise when conducting research in similar settings: (1) coercion of community members, by the community, to participate either as leaders or as study subjects; (2) threats to the privacy of health information; and (3) conflict between peer leaders' roles as community members and study team members.

  3. EERE Peer Review Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  4. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  5. Fairness in peer review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bob

    2014-06-01

    In reply to Penny Gowland's article “Turning a double-blind eye” (Forum, May p17), which argued that a paper's authors, as well as its reviewers, should be anonymous during the peer-review process.

  6. Peer Assessments in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randall

    2004-01-01

    Peer assessments are recommended for overcoming the difficulties that teachers have with providing individual feedback and assessing student progress in physical education classes. A peer assessment can be used as a learning task (in a progression) or a formative assessment. A peer assessment is a variation of peer teaching, an instructional…

  7. The Peer Counselor's Pocket Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturkie, Joan; Gibson, Valerie

    Peer counselors are individuals who have been trained in communication skills and who have learned how to apply these skills in helping another person. This booklet was written by a peer counselor and peer counseling teacher to fill a frequently expressed need for a quick, easy-to-read reference. Its purpose is to make available to peer counselors…

  8. Analysis of online social networking peer health educators.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether peer leaders can be recruited to deliver a community-based health intervention using social media. African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited as peer leaders for either an HIV prevention or general health intervention using social networking technologies. Peer leaders attended 3 training sessions on how to use social media for health behaviour change. Baseline and post-training questionnaires were given to ensure that peer leaders were qualified in using social media to communicate health information. Repeated measures ANOVA models and χ2 tests assessed differences in peer leader knowledge and comfort using social networking technologies pre- and post-training. Post-training, peer leaders were significantly more comfortable using social media to discuss sexual positions. Almost all peer leaders reported being comfortable using social media. There were no significant pre- and post-training differences on other knowledge or comfort measures. Results suggest that peer leaders can be recruited to conduct health interventions using social networking technologies. The discussed training plan can be adapted to health domains to ensure that peer leaders are qualified to conduct health interventions using social media.

  9. Promoting Physical Understanding through Peer Mentoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, S. M.; Huesmann, A.; Hooper, E.; Moore, C.; Watson, L.; Trestrail, A.; Weber, J.; Timbie, P.; Jacob, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a supportive learning community for students studying introductory physics, as well as teaching and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors who receive extensive training and supervision. Many of our Peer Tutors were former Physics Learning Center participants. A central goal of the Physics Learning Center is to address achievement/equity gaps (e.g. race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, age, transfer status, etc.) for undergraduate students pursuing majors and coursework in STEM fields. Students meet twice a week in small learning teams of 3-8 students, facilitated by a trained Peer Mentor Tutor or staff member. These active learning teams focus on discussing core physical concepts and practicing problem-solving. The weekly training of the tutors addresses both teaching and mentoring issues in science education such as helping students to build confidence, strategies for assessing student understanding, and fostering a growth mindset. A second weekly training meeting addresses common misconceptions and strategies for teaching specific physics topics. For non-science majors we have a small Peer Mentor Tutor program for Physics in the Arts. We will discuss the Physics Learning Center's approaches to promoting inclusion, understanding, and confidence for both our participants and Peer Mentor Tutors, as well as examples from the geosciences that can be used to illustrate introductory physics concepts.

  10. Inspiring peer-to-peer educations with film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Oceans are vast, complicated, often inaccessible, three-dimensional and dark (for the most part). The value, vulnerabilities and dynamics of marine systems are quite far removed from the consciousness of many people. However, these reasons are not alibis for not understanding and appreciating oceans deep-rooted influences on our lives. Currently, the Nereus Program, a fellowship of climate, fisheries and computer modeling scientists, are accessing school systems in person and virtually, motivating teens to tell stories about their local understanding of the ocean's influence on their communities (even if they live in a landlocked location). In it's first iteration, we are soliciting youth to communicate through the popular medium of film. These films will be assembled into an on-line digital field guide. In part, this program is designed to be a peer-to-peer educational technique, where civilians are teaching other civilians about local or regional ocean dynamics. Additionally, the act of teaching through film is a proven method for deepening engagement, learning and empowerment of the individuals producing the films.

  11. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  12. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  13. Peer influence processes for youth delinquency and depression.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew D; Crea, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the multiple factors that account for peer influence processes of adolescent delinquency and depression using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Random-effects longitudinal negative binomial models were used to predict depression and delinquency, controlling for social connection variables to account for selection bias. Findings suggest peer depression and delinquency are both predictive of youth delinquency, while peer influences of depression are much more modest. Youth who are more connected to parents and communities and who are more popular within their networks are more susceptible to peer influence, while self-regulating youth are less susceptible. We find support for theories of popularity-socialization as well as weak-ties in explaining social network factors that amplify or constrain peer influence. We argue that practitioners working with youth should consider network-informed interventions to improve program efficacy and avoid iatrogenic effects.

  14. Peer Review and Surgical Innovation: Robotic Surgery and Its Hurdles

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Cronin, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The peer review processes as outlined in the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) is meant ensure quality standard of care through a self-policing mechanism by the medical community. This process grants immunity for people filing a peer review, which is meant to protect whistleblowers. However, it also creates a loophole that can be used maliciously to hinder competition. This is accentuated when surgeons are integrating new technologies, such as robotic surgery, into their practice. With more than 2000 da Vinci robots in use and more than 300 new units being shipped each year, robotic surgery has become a mainstay in the surgical field. The applications for robots continue to expand as surgeons discover their expanding capability. We need a better peer review process. That ensures the peer review is void of competitive bias. Peer reviewers need to be familiar with the procedure and the technology. The current process could stymie innovation in the name of competition. PMID:27517092

  15. Peer-to-Peer Feedback: A Novel Approach to Nursing Quality, Collaboration, and Peer Review.

    PubMed

    LeClair-Smith, Colleen; Branum, Brandi; Bryant, Lindsay; Cornell, Betty; Martinez, Heather; Nash, Erin; Phillips, Lacy

    2016-06-01

    This article describes how an acute care organization in Texas, a peer review mandated state, created a nonpunitive peer feedback structure and process for nursing staff. Strategies were targeted to improve patient outcomes. A peer feedback committee designed, implemented, and evaluated the feedback model to coexist with the state-required formal peer review committee structure. Peer feedback provided opportunities to advance skill development, enhance quality improvement, improve patient outcomes, and support a culture of safety within the healthcare environment. PMID:27163874

  16. Living in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landesman-Dwyer, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    The literature review about deinstitutionalization and normalization of the retarded highlights findings about the relationship between successful programs and size, staff-to-resident ratio, cost, client characteristics, program type, community support, family involvement, and peer relationships. (Author/SB)

  17. Testing the effects of peer socialization versus selection on alcohol and marijuana use among treated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community studies, there was evidence of both peer socialization and peer selection for alcohol use, and only evidence of peer selection for marijuana use. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  18. Alternatives to Peer Review: Novel Approaches for Research Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Birukou, Aliaksandr; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Bartolini, Claudio; Casati, Fabio; Marchese, Maurizio; Mirylenka, Katsiaryna; Osman, Nardine; Ragone, Azzurra; Sierra, Carles; Wassef, Aalam

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities. PMID:22174702

  19. Peer advocacy in a personalized landscape: The role of peer support in a context of individualized support and austerity.

    PubMed

    Power, Andrew; Bartlett, Ruth; Hall, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Whilst personalization offers the promise of more choice and control and wider participation in the community, the reality in the United Kingdom has been hampered by local council cuts and a decline in formal services. This has left many people with intellectual disabilities feeling dislocated from collective forms of support (Needham, 2015). What fills this gap and does peer advocacy have a role to play? Drawing on a co-researched study undertaken with and by persons with intellectual disabilities, we examined what role peer advocacy can play in a context of reduced day services, austerity and individualized support. The findings reveal that peer advocacy can help people reconnect in the face of declining services, problem-solve issues and informally learn knowledge and skills needed to participate in the community. We argue that peer advocacy thus offers a vital role in enabling people to take up many of the opportunities afforded by personalization.

  20. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  1. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  2. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara; Adeli, Khosrow

    2014-10-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current article

  3. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  4. The Developmental Pattern of Resistance to Peer Influence in Adolescence: Will the Teenager Ever Be Able to Resist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumter, Sindy R.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Steinberg, Laurence; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2009-01-01

    Common folklore seems to suggest that adolescents are particularly susceptible to peer influence. However, from the literature the exact age differences in susceptibility to peer influence remain unclear. The current study's main focus was to chart the development of general susceptibility to peer pressure in a community sample of 10-18 year olds…

  5. Navigating Two Worlds: Experiences of Counsellors Who Integrate Aboriginal Traditional Healing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulanova, Olga; Moodley, Roy

    2010-01-01

    There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present…

  6. Analysis of peer-to-peer locking of magnetrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pengvanich, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Cruz, E.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B.; Luginsland, J. W.

    2008-10-15

    The condition for mutual, or peer-to-peer, locking of two magnetrons is derived. This condition reduces to Adler's classical phase-locking condition in the limit where one magnetron becomes the 'master' and the other becomes the 'slave.' The formulation is extended to the peer-to-peer locking of N magnetrons, under the assumption that the electromagnetic coupling among the N magnetrons is modeled by an N-port network.

  7. Reflections on Peer Teaching and Peer Assessment: An Undergraduate Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineman, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    A study of 14 students in a business administration course shows that peer teaching and peer evaluation may enhance student motivation, satisfaction, and achievement. Learning about oneself is found to be a valuable outcome of peer teaching. Student involvement in determining evaluation criteria is encouraged. (MSE)

  8. Empowering Peer Group Leaders for HIV Prevention in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    McCreary, Linda L.; Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Davis, Kristina; Kalengamaliro, Mary; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Behavioral change interventions using peer group leaders are effective and widely used, but few studies have examined how being a peer group leader affects the leaders. This study describes how participants felt being a peer group leader affected their lives. Design This descriptive qualitative study interviewed 18 experienced peer group leaders who had conducted a multisession human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention peer group intervention in rural Malawi. Methods We used inductive content analysis and comparisons within and between cases. Findings: Three major themes were identified. All leaders said they experienced personal changes in their knowledge, attitudes, or HIV prevention behaviors. They described interacting with family, neighbors, and friends, and speaking at church or community meetings, to discuss HIV prevention issues. They increased their self-efficacy to engage others in sensitive HIV prevention issues, developed a self-identity as a change agent, and came to be recognized in their community as trustworthy advisors about HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. These three themes, taken together, form the meta-theme of psychological empowerment. Conclusion Being a peer group leader empowered the leaders as change agents for HIV prevention and had impacts in the community after the intervention ended, potentially increasing the long-term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of peer group interventions. Clinical Relevance Healthcare workers and community volunteers who led HIV prevention sessions continued HIV prevention activities in the community and workplace after the program ended. Training health workers as volunteer HIV prevention leaders offers a strategy to bring HIV prevention to limited-resource settings, despite health worker shortages. PMID:23590557

  9. Peer Crowds in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yeo, Geck Hong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined peer crowds in the Singapore context. A total of 598 Secondary 1 and 2 adolescents were asked to identify the crowds they perceived to exist in their schools and to describe these crowds' characteristics. The adolescents had no difficulty identifying crowds, generating a total of 1,534 crowds. Among the crowds identified, seven…

  10. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  11. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  12. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  13. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-03-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  14. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  15. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-12-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  16. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  17. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-12-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  18. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  19. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  20. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-12-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. A list of the reviewers is given in the attached PDF.

  1. Peer Mentoring Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Marinda; Colvin, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Because students starting college are not always prepared to succeed, colleges and universities frequently offer courses designed to help students who need remediation in mathematics, reading, and writing. At Utah Valley University (UVU), peer mentors are integrated into the University Student Success course to help first-year students learn the…

  2. Pathways to Peer Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Dulcie

    Peer mediation programs in schools are an effective way for children to learn the cooperative skills of conflict solving. This paper outlines the implementation of an action research based mediation program within a primary school setting. It examines both the characteristics of successful implementation and the dilemmas of change agentry. A model…

  3. The Power of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traver, Rob

    2016-01-01

    "Students are naturally inclined to watch one another, to make suggestions and support their peers, to avoid mistakes, to copy what works and modify what doesn't, and to learn from one another," writes Rob Traver in this article. To prove his point, Traver brings readers into three classrooms where teachers tap into students' intrinsic…

  4. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  5. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  6. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  7. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-08-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  8. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  9. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-12-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  10. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  11. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  12. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-08-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  13. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  14. Water Peer Review

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-02

    All programs with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) are required to undertake rigorous, objective peer review of their funded projects on a yearly basis in order to ensure and enhance the management, relevance, effectiveness, and productivity of those projects.

  15. Further thoughts on peer review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottey, Alan; noamsoker

    2016-04-01

    In reply to the news article “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12–13), the editorial “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too quickly (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17, http://ow.ly/Ya9gg).

  16. Further thoughts on peer review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottey, Alan; noamsoker

    2016-04-01

    In reply to the news article “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too quickly (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17, http://ow.ly/Ya9gg).

  17. Peer Review in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianguo; Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike; Taylor, William W.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the importance of peer assessment in professional life and describes a course using peer review processes to teach modeling in natural resource management. Uses a typical scientific research protocol and assigns students to review peer proposals considering their expertise and area of interest. Presents guidelines for proposal review,…

  18. The Politics of Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The use of peer groups to respond to student papers is a long-established practice in the composition classroom, so well entrenched, that they may sometimes employ peer response without thoroughly evaluating underlying assumptions and beliefs about how such groups operate. As a central tenet of the writing process movement, peer response was…

  19. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  20. Inspiring Students with Peer Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brandy

    2007-01-01

    Peer tutoring is essentially peers teaching each other. Many teachers already incorporate this idea into their classrooms in other curricular areas and appreciate the benefits that come from this type of teaching. Teachers can implement peer tutoring by teaching a small group of students a subject, or using a group that already understands the…

  1. Secure Service Invocation in a Peer-to-Peer Environment Using JXTA-SOAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghi, Maria Chiara; Amoretti, Michele; Conte, Gianni

    The effective convergence of service-oriented architectures (SOA) and peer-to-peer (P2P) is an urgent task, with many important applications ranging from e-business to ambient intelligence. A considerable standardization effort is being carried out from both SOA and P2P communities, but a complete platform for the development of secure, distributed applications is still missing. In this context, the result of our research and development activity is JXTA-SOAP, an official extension for JXTA enabling Web Service sharing in peer-to-peer networks. Recently we focused on security aspects, providing JXTA-SOAP with a general security management system, and specialized policies that target both J2SE and J2ME versions of the component. Among others, we implemented a policy based on Multimedia Internet KEYing (MIKEY), which can be used to create a key pair and all the required parameters for encryption and decryption of service messages in consumer and provider peers running on resource-constrained devices.

  2. Developing an intervention to facilitate family communication about inherited genetic conditions, and training genetic counsellors in its delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eisler, Ivan; Ellison, Matthew; Flinter, Frances; Grey, Jo; Hutchison, Suzanne; Jackson, Carole; Longworth, Louise; MacLeod, Rhona; McAllister, Marion; Metcalfe, Alison; Murrells, Trevor; Patch, Christine; Pritchard, Stuart; Robert, Glenn; Rowland, Emma; Ulph, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Many families experience difficulty in talking about an inherited genetic condition that affects one or more of them. There have now been a number of studies identifying the issues in detail, however few have developed interventions to assist families. The SPRinG collaborative have used the UK Medical Research Council's guidance on Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions, to work with families and genetic counsellors (GCs) to co-design a psycho-educational intervention to facilitate family communication and promote better coping and adaptation to living with an inherited genetic condition for parents and their children (<18 years). The intervention is modelled on multi-family discussion groups (MFDGs) used in psychiatric settings. The MFDG was developed and tested over three phases. First focus groups with parents, young people, children and health professionals discussed whether MFDG was acceptable and proposed a suitable design. Using evidence and focus group data, the intervention and a training manual were developed and three GCs were trained in its delivery. Finally, a prototype MFDG was led by a family therapist and co-facilitated by the three GCs. Data analysis showed that families attending the focus groups and intervention thought MFDG highly beneficial, and the pilot sessions had a significant impact on their family' functioning. We also demonstrated that it is possible to train GCs to deliver the MFDG intervention. Further studies are now required to test the feasibility of undertaking a definitive randomised controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness in improving family outcomes before implementing into genetic counselling practice. PMID:26443265

  3. Peer Relationships of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Predictors of Peer Entry and Peer Interaction Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one…

  4. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Homer, Jenny F; French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C

    2011-09-01

    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers) and popularity at school. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich and nationally-representative survey with detailed information on social networks. Our findings suggest that adolescents are socially rewarded for conforming to their peers' alcohol use and penalized (to a lesser degree) for increasing their consumption above that of their peers. Male adolescents are rewarded for keeping up with their peers' drinking and for getting drunk. Female adolescents are rewarded for drinking per se, but not necessarily for keeping up with their peers. The results offer new information on peer influence and have implications for substance abuse interventions at school and in the community.

  5. MELCOR Peer Review

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Dhir, V.K.; Gieseke, J.A.; Haste, T.J.; Kenton, M.A.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Leonard, M.T.; Viskanta, R.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.

  6. Appreciation of Peer Reviewers for 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, David; Hauck, Steven A., II; Stanley, Sabine; Wieczorek, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Scientific publishing relies heavily on the process of peer review to ensure that the most well-founded and clearly described science is communicated to our colleagues and beyond. Papers published in JGR Planets benefit from the time, effort, and talents of the reviewers who provide thoughtfully considered advice on each manuscript. This role is critical to the advancement of planetary science as these reviews lead to even clearer and higher-quality papers. In 2014, papers submitted to JGR Planets were the beneficiaries of more than 520 reviews provided by 340 members of the planetary science community. To everyone who volunteers their time and intellect to peer reviewing, thank you for helping us share the best science possible.

  7. Structure of peer-to-peer social networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Moreno, Yamir; Sun, Yaoru

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of the structure of peer-to-peer (P2P) social networks that captures social associations of distributed peers in resource sharing. Peer social networks appear to be mainly composed of pure resource providers that guarantee high resource availability and reliability of P2P systems. The major peers that both provide and request resources are only a small fraction. The connectivity between peers, including undirected, directed (out and in) and weighted connections, is scale-free and the social networks of all peers and major peers are small world networks. The analysis also confirms that peer social networks show in general disassortative correlations, except that active providers are connected between each other and by active requesters. The study presented in this paper gives a better understanding of peer relationships in resource sharing, which may help a better design of future P2P networks and open the path to the study of transport processes on top of real P2P topologies.

  8. ESL Students' Perceptions of Their English Writing Proficiency and the Effects of Peer Review Training among Three Types of Students in a Community College ESL Composition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldburg, Maxine E.

    2012-01-01

    Learner-centered methodology like peer review is problematic in the pluralism of the ESL classroom when teaching academic English composition. A distinct complication is the form writing instruction should take given the interaction and variations between ESL students' L1 background, experiences, schema, and the meaning of academic literacy…

  9. Peer-assisted learning in medical school: tutees’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Audrey; Burgess, Annette; Clarke, Antonia J; Mellis, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 66 of 101 (65%) Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40%) students as tutors. The tutees’ response rate was 53% (35/66). Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and gaining practical skills and advice through a small-group format. The community of practice framework was useful in identifying these areas of benefit, demonstrating that a peer tutoring program such as this can provide an enhanced learning

  10. Key Features Of Peer Support In Chronic Disease Prevention And Management.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Ballesteros, Juana; Bhushan, Nivedita; Coufal, Muchieh M; Kowitt, Sarah D; McDonough, A Manuela; Parada, Humberto; Robinette, Jennifer B; Sokol, Rebeccah L; Tang, Patrick Y; Urlaub, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Peer support from community health workers, promotores de salud, and others through community and health care organizations can provide social support and other assistance that enhances health. There is substantial evidence for both the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of peer support, as well as for its feasibility, reach, and sustainability. We discuss findings from Peers for Progress, a program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, to examine when peer support does not work, guide dissemination of peer support programs, and help integrate approaches such as e-health into peer support. Success factors for peer support programs include proactive implementation, attention to participants' emotions, and ongoing supervision. Reaching those whom conventional clinical and preventive services too often fail to reach; reaching whole populations, such as people with diabetes, rather than selected samples; and addressing behavioral health are strengths of peer support that can help achieve health care that is efficient and of high quality. Challenges for policy makers going forward include encouraging workforce development, balancing quality control with maintaining key features of peer support, and ensuring that underresourced organizations can develop and manage peer support programs. PMID:26355054

  11. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…

  12. Establishing an Online HIV Peer Helping Programme: A Review of Process Challenges and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Corcoran, Valerie; Myles, Adam; Lundrigan, Philip; White, Robert; Greidanus, Elaine; Savage, Stephanie L.; Pope, Leslie; McDonald, James; Yetman, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Online peer support can be a valuable approach to helping people living with HIV, especially in regions with large rural populations and relatively centralised HIV services. Design: This paper focuses on a community-university partnership aimed at developing an online peer support programme in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and…

  13. Using Your WITS: A 6-Year Follow-Up of a Peer Victimization Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L.; Hosan, Naheed E.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of a community-based, whole-school peer victimization prevention program (WITS Primary Program), implemented from Grades 1 to 3, on trajectories of child-reported peer victimization and help-seeking and teacher-reported social-emotional adjustment from Grades 1 to 6. This quasi-experimental design followed a…

  14. Immigrant Children's Peer Acceptance and Victimization in Kindergarten: The Role of Local Language Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Grunigen, Renate; Perren, Sonja; Nagele, Christof; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates peer acceptance and victimization of immigrant and Swiss children in kindergarten classes. Our first aim is to compare peer acceptance and victimization of Swiss and immigrant children. Secondly, we explore the role of their local language competences (LLCs). The sample was drawn from kindergartens in communities in the…

  15. Residents' Interaction with Their College Living-Learning Peer Mentor: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Jonathan Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study used Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory model to describe and explain the stories of residents' interactions with their peer mentor, in a health, education, and human development living-learning community (LLC). The question answered in this study was: What is the impact of the interaction between a peer mentor and…

  16. Student Peer Review of Diagnostic Tests at the Medical College of Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mohan L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    In an effort to encourage cost-conscious behavior and quality assurance, students in community medicine clerkships at the Medical College of Ohio were required to conduct retrospective reviews of their peers' laboratory usage patterns using information generated by these peers during internal medicine and pediatrics rotations. (Author/JMD)

  17. Peer deviance, social support, and symptoms of internalizing disorders among youth exposed to Hurricane Georges.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Sonia L; Vernberg, Eric M; Felix, Erika D; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of peers in meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder in adolescents exposed to Hurricane Georges. Participants included a representative community sample of 905 youth (n = 476 boys) ages 11-17, residing in Puerto Rico. Data were gathered on hurricane exposure, symptoms of internalizing disorders, peer social support, peer violence, and peer substance use through in-person structured interviews with adolescents and caretakers from 1999 to 2000 in Puerto Rico, 12-27 months after Hurricane Georges. Hurricane exposure, peer violence, and peer substance use predicted whether adolescents met DSM-IV symptom criteria for a measured internalizing disorder. An interaction was found between hurricane exposure and peer violence, which indicated that hurricane exposure was significantly related to meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder among adolescents who do not report associating with violent peers. However, for participants who reported high levels of peer violence, hurricane exposure did not convey additional risk for meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder. With the increasing role peers play in adolescents' lives, understanding the influence of peers on the development of internalizing symptoms following hurricane exposure may assist in planning developmentally sensitive response plans.

  18. Peer support groups, mobile phones and refugee women in Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Koh, Lee; Wollersheim, Dennis; Walker, Rae

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we discuss qualitative findings basing on the experiences of refugee women living in Melbourne, Australia, who participated in a peer support training programme and received a free mobile phone. We pay attention to social support as a health enhancing strategy and empowerment that occurred among the participants. Participation in peer support groups and access to a mobile phone were beneficial for the women. Peer support functioned as social support among group members. The programme allowed the women to be connected to their families and the wider communities and assisted them to access health care and other settlement aspects with greater ease. It also increased personal empowerment among the women. Our programme shows that by tapping on community resources to ameliorate personal or resettlement issues, the burden on service providers can be reduced. Our findings also offer a model for future research and programmes regarding refugee people elsewhere.

  19. Deviancy training and association with deviant peers in young children: ocurrence and contribution to early-onset conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James; Schrepferman, Lynn; Oeser, Jessica; Patterson, Gerald; Stoolmiller, Mike; Johnson, Kassy; Snyder, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    The relationships of deviant talk and role taking during peer interaction, association with deviant peers, and growth in overt and covert conduct problems during kindergarten and first grade were examined in a community sample of 267 boys and girls. At entry to kindergarten, high levels of overt and covert conduct problems predicted association with deviant peers, and deviant peer association predicted deviant talk and role taking during peer interaction during kindergarten. Association with deviant peers, and deviant talk and role taking predicted growth in overt and covert conduct problems on the playground, in the classroom, and at home during kindergarten and first grade. Peer processes associated with growth in conduct problems that escalate rapidly during late childhood and adolescence appear to occur in earlier childhood. These peer processes may play a central role in the evolution of conduct problems to include covert as well as overt forms.

  20. On Valuing Peers: Theories of Learning and Intercultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajander, Asa; Daniels, Mats; McDermott, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the links between the "contributing student pedagogy" and other forms of peer-mediated learning models, e.g. "open-ended group projects" and "communities of practice." We find that a fundamental concern in each of these models is the attribution of "value"; specifically, recognition of the value of learning that is enabled…

  1. Bringing Boys and Girls Together: Supporting Preschoolers' Positive Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaster, Hillary; Jobe, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Children thrive in inclusive settings where each child is an important part of the community. When differences are celebrated and similarities discovered, children learn to value themselves, appreciate their peers, and develop meaningful and significant relationships with one another. A sizable body of research indicates that promoting positive…

  2. Peer Partnership to Enhance Scholarship of Teaching: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Alan; Croft, Waveney; Irons, Rosemary; Cuffe, Natalie; Bandara, Wasana; Rowntree, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the outcomes of a peer partnership program trialled at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Australia. The program was designed based on a community of practice methodology to bring together academic staff for the purpose of advancing teaching practice. The program encouraged professional and supportive environments…

  3. Peer Counseling. CAPS Capsule. Volume 3, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Judith, Ed.

    This issue features the area of peer counseling in the two main articles and a bibliography. Two programs are described -- one at the college level, and one in a high school setting. In addition, regular features include: FOCUS on Community Colleges; Innovative Programs (this time devoted to post high school employment or training placement); a…

  4. Peer Educators in a Theoretical Context: Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennett, Carolyn G.; Azar, James A.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the role and experience of a peer educator, it is imperative to examine the developmental issues and concerns associated with this stage of a student's life as well as the demands and challenges of a higher education community. For years, student affair professionals have used a breadth of theories to guide their efforts in…

  5. Student Perceptions of Peer Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…

  6. Interracial Panjabi in a British Adolescent Peer Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampton, M. B. H.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration of the use of Panjabi by British Black adolescents and White adolescents in a mixed peer group, analyzing contexts of Panjabi occurrence and crossing, showed that Panjabi was important in managing the divisions that cross-cut youth community and in extending horizons beyond the confines of local neighborhood experience. (31…

  7. Improving Teaching through a Peer Support "Teacher Consultation Process."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin, Mike; Rhoads, Judith

    The Teaching Consultation Program (TCP) is one of the most popular faculty development programs offered in the University of Kentucky Community Colleges (UKCC's), having trained over 500 faculty since its implementation in 1977. The TCP is a confidential, peer consulting program available to faculty who wish to analyze their teaching behaviors and…

  8. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  9. Estimating peer effects in networks with peer encouragement designs

    PubMed Central

    Eckles, Dean; Kizilcec, René F.; Bakshy, Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Peer effects, in which the behavior of an individual is affected by the behavior of their peers, are central to social science. Because peer effects are often confounded with homophily and common external causes, recent work has used randomized experiments to estimate effects of specific peer behaviors. These experiments have often relied on the experimenter being able to randomly modulate mechanisms by which peer behavior is transmitted to a focal individual. We describe experimental designs that instead randomly assign individuals’ peers to encouragements to behaviors that directly affect those individuals. We illustrate this method with a large peer encouragement design on Facebook for estimating the effects of receiving feedback from peers on posts shared by focal individuals. We find evidence for substantial effects of receiving marginal feedback on multiple behaviors, including giving feedback to others and continued posting. These findings provide experimental evidence for the role of behaviors directed at specific individuals in the adoption and continued use of communication technologies. In comparison, observational estimates differ substantially, both underestimating and overestimating effects, suggesting that researchers and policy makers should be cautious in relying on them. PMID:27382145

  10. Peer Power. Book 2, Applying Peer Helper Skills. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, Judith A.

    A step-by-step model for training peer counselors forms the basis of the trainer's manual and accompanying exercises for trainees which are organized into two books for effective skill building. Designed for peer counseling trainees, this document presents the second of these two exercise books. The book begins with a brief introduction to…

  11. Peer-Assessing Peers' Contribution to EFL Group Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is three-fold: (1) to examine the similarities and differences between instructor and peer assessments of EFL group presentations; (2) to understand the utility of peer assessment for discriminating each group member's contribution to group presentations in college EFL classrooms; and (3) to investigate the relationship…

  12. Incentive Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    The increasing popularity of high-bandwidth Internet connections has enabled new applications like the online delivery of high-quality audio and video content. Conventional server-client approaches place the entire burden of delivery on the content provider's server, making these services expensive to provide. A peer-to-peer approach allows end…

  13. Active Minds: Creating Peer-to-Peer Mental Health Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Willliam A.; Abelson, Sara; Malmon, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing student peers is one vital avenue for improving the prevention, detection, and treatment of mental health disorders on college campuses (The Campus Suicide Prevention Center of Virginia, 2011). This article will briefly review research findings indicating the importance of student peers and then focus on a promising model and growing…

  14. Estimating peer effects in networks with peer encouragement designs.

    PubMed

    Eckles, Dean; Kizilcec, René F; Bakshy, Eytan

    2016-07-01

    Peer effects, in which the behavior of an individual is affected by the behavior of their peers, are central to social science. Because peer effects are often confounded with homophily and common external causes, recent work has used randomized experiments to estimate effects of specific peer behaviors. These experiments have often relied on the experimenter being able to randomly modulate mechanisms by which peer behavior is transmitted to a focal individual. We describe experimental designs that instead randomly assign individuals' peers to encouragements to behaviors that directly affect those individuals. We illustrate this method with a large peer encouragement design on Facebook for estimating the effects of receiving feedback from peers on posts shared by focal individuals. We find evidence for substantial effects of receiving marginal feedback on multiple behaviors, including giving feedback to others and continued posting. These findings provide experimental evidence for the role of behaviors directed at specific individuals in the adoption and continued use of communication technologies. In comparison, observational estimates differ substantially, both underestimating and overestimating effects, suggesting that researchers and policy makers should be cautious in relying on them. PMID:27382145

  15. Peer to Peer: Youth Preventing HIV Infection Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    To meet the challenge of teaching safer sexual behavior to teens, peer education--individuals teaching others in their own or similar age group--is an effective teaching method. Teenagers report that they are more likely to listen and talk to their peers about sexuality issues than to their parents, guardians, or health care providers. Effective…

  16. CONTAIN independent peer review

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Denning, R.S.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  17. Changing the Peer Review or Changing the Peers--Recent Development in Assessment of Large Research Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Finn; Monsted, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of research programmes is changing. The problem is discussed through detailed study of a selection process to a call for collaborations in the energy sector for the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. The authors were involved in the application for a Knowledge Innovation Community. Through the analysis of the case the…

  18. Austin Community College Benchmarking Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX. Office of Institutional Effectiveness.

    Austin Community College contracted with MGT of America, Inc. in spring 1999 to develop a peer and benchmark (best) practices analysis on key indicators. These indicators were updated in spring 2002 using data from eight Texas community colleges and four non-Texas institutions that represent large, comprehensive, urban community colleges, similar…

  19. A qualitative study of roles performed by peer workers in the context of HIV in India.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    While peer interventions have been shown to be effective in HIV prevention and support amongst intravenous drug users, women, youth, and other high-risk populations, less is known about the particular roles peers play in disenfranchised and non-Western contexts. This study examined the various roles peer workers played in the context of HIV in Karnataka, a southern Indian state. In-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-infected peer workers engaged in providing counseling, outreach, and health education to other people living with HIV. Grounded analysis revealed five roles: role model, persuader, maven, going the extra mile, and micro-level advocacy. In the Discussion section, these roles are used to explore the relationship between peer work and empowerment. Findings showed that in addition to personal empowerment, peers were crucial to building social capital and challenging existing social norms in the community.

  20. Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…

  1. Peer Learning in Virtual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sam Catherine; Greer, Diana; Smith, Sean Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article examines peer-to-peer learning--in virtual schools--among the most vulnerable of students. As a description of a comprehensive case study focused on three different students with disabilities, their parents, their teachers, and their school administrators, this article examines the effects of three kinds of variables on the prevalence…

  2. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  3. Cultivating Change through Peer Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Jonathan J.; Cano, Jamie; Whittington, M. Susie; Wolf, Kattlyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe the impact of peer teaching on both the students and the classroom environment. Students, enrolled in two Introduction to Teaching courses in agricultural and extension education, were asked to engage in peer teaching activities. The researchers utilized discourse analysis, textual…

  4. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  5. Peer Relationships in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Thomas J., Ed.; Ladd, Gary W., Ed.

    Although hypotheses about the consequences of peer relationships for children's development have served as the foundation for much of the research into children and adolescent peer relationships, direct assessment of the impact of such relationships on children's personality, social behavior, or cognition has rarely been done. This book discusses…

  6. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  7. Toddlers' Understanding of Peers' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their…

  8. Peer Mediation in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angaran, Sally; Beckwith, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Minor disagreements can quickly escalate when a child feels threatened with losing face or fears retaliation. Peer-mediation programs can help students refocus their energies while learning communication skills they can use in other situations. The benefits of an Oregon elementary school's peer-mediation program are discussed. (MLH)

  9. Changing Peer Support for Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitel, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a better form of peer support for superintendents. Old models of peer support--guest speakers, war stories, and a culture of protected and isolated practice--cannot provide what superintendents need. Today, in a major cultural change, dozens of superintendents in small groups share real problems, improve their practice and…

  10. Developing Peer Mentoring through Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ralph; Jaugietis, Zarni

    2011-01-01

    Peer mentoring programs are an important component in the strategy to enhance the first year undergraduate experience. The operation of these programs needs to be informed by evidence as to their effectiveness. In this article we report on a six-year study of the development of a peer mentoring program in which feedback is used to improve program…

  11. Peer Review: The CHAMPUS Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, George

    This paper examines the use of the peer review system in evaluating out-patient clinical services for a third-party payer seeking justification for payment of services. Peer review is defined as a process by which one professional, in an official capacity, makes a judgment about a co-professional in a matter involving professional functioning. The…

  12. Peer Effects in Academic Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; Malmstrom, Frederick V.; West, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Using self-reported academic cheating from the classes of 1959 through 2002 at the three major United States military service academies (Air Force, Army, and Navy), we measure how peer cheating influences individual cheating behavior. We find higher levels of peer cheating result in a substantially increased probability that an individual will…

  13. Gendered Performances during Peer Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the ways gender is accomplished in varied social contexts during the peer revision process in a secondary English classroom. Using a post-structural feminist theoretical framework, an analysis of classroom discourse provided a basis for understanding the performance of gender during peer revision, the effects of gender…

  14. Embodied Work: Insider Perspectives on the Work of HIV/AIDS Peer Counselors

    PubMed Central

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Moneyham, Linda; Vyavaharkar, Medha; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Phillips, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Our aim in this study was to explore HIV/AIDS peer counseling from the perspective of women actively engaged in this work within the context of a community-based program in rural areas of the southeastern United Sates. Based on this research we suggest that the embodied work of HIV/AIDS peer counselors is constructed around their personal identities and experiences. This work involves gaining entry to other HIV-positive women's lives, building relationships, drawing on personal experiences, facing issues of fear and stigma, tailoring peer counseling for diversity, balancing risks and benefits, and terminating relationships. Peer counselors recognize the personal and collective value of their work, which, like much of women's work within the context of family and community, lacks public visibility and acknowledgement. We discuss implications for the training and support of peer-based interventions for HIV and other women's health issues across diverse contexts and settings. PMID:19492204

  15. Embodied work: insider perspectives on the work of HIV/AIDS peer counselors.

    PubMed

    Hilfinger Messias, Deanne K; Moneyham, Linda; Vyavaharkar, Medha; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2009-07-01

    Our aim in this study was to explore HIV/AIDS peer counseling from the perspective of women actively engaged in this work within the context of a community-based program in rural areas of the southeastern United States. Based on this research we suggest that the embodied work of HIV/AIDS peer counselors is constructed around their personal identities and experiences. This work involves gaining entry to other HIV-positive women's lives, building relationships, drawing on personal experiences, facing issues of fear and stigma, tailoring peer counseling for diversity, balancing risks and benefits, and terminating relationships. Peer counselors recognize the personal and collective value of their work, which, like much of women's work within the context of family and community, lacks public visibility and acknowledgment. We discuss implications for the training and support of peer-based interventions for HIV and other women's health issues across diverse contexts and settings. PMID:19492204

  16. Quality assurance in radiology: peer review and peer feedback.

    PubMed

    Strickland, N H

    2015-11-01

    Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record

  17. Beyond Music Sharing: An Evaluation of Peer-to-Peer Data Dissemination Techniques in Large Scientific Collaborations

    SciTech Connect

    Ripeanu, Matei; Al-Kiswany, Samer; Iamnitchi, Adriana; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2009-03-01

    The avalanche of data from scientific instruments and the ensuing interest from geographically distributed users to analyze and interpret it accentuates the need for efficient data dissemination. A suitable data distribution scheme will find the delicate balance between conflicting requirements of minimizing transfer times, minimizing the impact on the network, and uniformly distributing load among participants. We identify several data distribution techniques, some successfully employed by today's peer-to-peer networks: staging, data partitioning, orthogonal bandwidth exploitation, and combinations of the above. We use simulations to explore the performance of these techniques in contexts similar to those used by today's data-centric scientific collaborations and derive several recommendations for efficient data dissemination. Our experimental results show that the peer-to-peer solutions that offer load balancing and good fault tolerance properties and have embedded participation incentives lead to unjustified costs in today's scientific data collaborations deployed on over-provisioned network cores. However, as user communities grow and these deployments scale, peer-to-peer data delivery mechanisms will likely outperform other techniques.

  18. Peer mentoring of telescope operations and data reduction at Western Kentucky University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Joshua; Carini, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Peer mentoring plays an important role in the astronomy program at Western Kentucky University. I will describe how undergraduates teach and mentor other undergraduates the basics of operating our 0.6m telescope and data reduction (IRAF) techniques. This peer to peer mentoring creates a community of undergraduate astronomy scholars at WKU. These scholars bond and help each other with research, coursework, social, and personal issues. This community atmosphere helps to draw in and retain other students interested in astronomy and other STEM careers.

  19. Sex workers in HIV prevention: From Social Change Agents to Peer Educators.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M; Biradavolu, Monica R; Dhungana, Nimesh; Tankasala, Nehanda

    2015-01-01

    We utilised a comparative ethnographic approach to study the implementation of a community mobilisation intervention addressing HIV risk among female sex workers (FSWs) in India, as implemented first by an non-governmental organisation and after oversight of the intervention was transitioned to the government. We demonstrate that the work of peer outreach workers changed from Social Change Agents within a community-led structural intervention (CLSI) to Peer Educators within a targeted intervention (TI). In the CLSI approach, built on the assumption that FSW risk for HIV is rooted in power inequality and structural vulnerability, peer outreach workers mobilised their peers through community-based organisations to address underlying conditions of inequality and vulnerability. In contrast, the TI approach, which views FSW risk as a function of limited knowledge and barriers to services, addressed peers' access to information and health services. Analysis of changes in the function of peer outreach workers reveals critical differences of which we discuss four: assumptions about conditions that produce HIV risk; degree of emphasis placed on collective mobilising and building collective power; extent to which community mobilisation and HIV prevention goals are linked; and the intervention's use of peer input. We discuss the implications of these findings for HIV prevention programming.

  20. NIH Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    Vancea, Adrian; Chen, Mei-Ching; Chacko, George

    2015-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest source of funding for biomedical research in the world. Funding decisions are made largely based on the outcome of a peer review process that is intended to provide a fair, equitable, timely, and unbiased review of the quality, scientific merit, and potential impact of the research. There have been concerns about the criteria reviewers are using, and recent changes in review procedures at the NIH now make it possible to conduct an analysis of how reviewers evaluate applications for funding. This study examined the criteria and overall impact scores recorded by assigned reviewers for R01 grant applications. The results suggest that all the scored review criteria, including innovation, are related to the overall impact score. Further, good scores are necessary on all five scored review criteria, not just the score for research methodology, in order to achieve a good overall impact score. PMID:27239158

  1. Thanking our peer reviewers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Contributing reviewers As 2013 commences I would like to take a moment to reflect and recognize the peer reviewers that made the previous year possible. Listed below are those people who reviewed for Molecular Cancer last year. All are generous individuals who donated their time to assessing and improving our authors’ submissions. Your combined efforts have been invaluable to the editorial staff in maintaining the continued success of the journal in the Open Access forum. The editors of Molecular Cancer would like to thank all the reviewers who contributed to the journal in Volume 11 (2012) by participating in the review process - taking time out of your busy schedules and even to volunteer - without your critical insights, hard work and support for the journal we wouldn’t be able to do what we do.

  2. Effects of collateral peer supportive behaviors within the classwide peer tutoring program.

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, F W; Greenwood, C R

    1990-01-01

    A classwide peer tutoring procedure was implemented in an urban elementary school classroom to improve students' spelling performance. Three students combined untrained or collateral tutoring behaviors with the core behaviors initially taught. To explore the function of these natural and spontaneous behaviors, a multielement single-subject experiment with replications was conducted. Results indicated that the additional tutoring behaviors increased (a) the academic response frequencies of 3 tutees and (b) the weekly spelling achievement of 1 target tutee. The remaining class members were successfully taught and continued to use these behaviors over the final 3 weeks of the school year. These findings are discussed with regard to academic instruction, natural communities of peer reinforcement, and the social validation of intervention procedures. PMID:2249967

  3. 48 CFR 215.270 - Peer Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 215.270 Peer Reviews. Agency officials shall conduct Peer Reviews...

  4. Government funded breastfeeding peer support projects: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Government, Department of Health in England, UK established the Infant Feeding Initiative. As part of this initiative, 79 1-year infant feeding projects were selected for funding. The funded projects specifically centred upon practice innovation and evaluation in relation to promoting breastfeeding and supporting breastfeeding women in socially excluded communities. The DH recently commissioned a comprehensive evaluation of the 79 projects (DH 2003). This paper focuses upon the evaluation of the 26 DH funded projects that specifically focused upon breastfeeding peer support schemes. The evaluation illuminated many of the challenges involved in implementing community based breastfeeding peer support schemes. Lessons learnt from the most effective projects in terms of: potential to increase breastfeeding initiation and continuation rates; uptake of the service; comprehensive evaluation; and sustainability are presented here, as a series of steps required for successful operationalization of breastfeeding peer support schemes. When these steps are followed, peer support schemes offer exciting prospects for supporting breastfeeding women and increasing breastfeeding initiation and continuation rates, while respecting diversity, ensuring inclusivity and stimulating community empowerment.

  5. Proximal Peer-Level Effects of a Small-Group Selected Prevention on Aggression in Elementary School Children: An Investigation of the Peer Contagion Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Guerra, Nancy G.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Morales, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Examined peer contagion in small group, selected prevention programming over one school year. Participants were boys and girls in grades 3 (46 groups, 285 students) and 6 (36 groups, 219 students) attending school in low-resource, inner city communities or moderate resource urban communities. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling (observations…

  6. Editorial behaviors in peer review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis. PMID:27386349

  7. Toddlers' understanding of peers' emotions.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Sara R; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their own behavior with the toys. They found that 12-month-olds decreased their play with toys toward which a peer had expressed either positive or negative emotion compared with play following a peer's neutral attention toward a toy. Also, 18-month-olds did not respond systematically, but 24-month-old children increased their toy play after watching a peer display negative affect toward the toy. Regardless of their age, children with siblings decreased their play with toys toward which they had seen a peer display fear, the typical social-referencing response. The authors discuss results in the context of developmental changes in social understanding and peer interaction over the second year of life. PMID:20333894

  8. The Counsellor as Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hett, Geoffrey G.; Davies, Alan

    A survey (Jevne, 1981) conducted to determine Canadian counselor competencies revealed that, of the nine areas considered important for counselor training, the 304 respondents in the field of counseling ranked training in consulting as sixth in importance. Prompted by these results, a literature review was conducted to determine if consulting was…

  9. Encouraging Counsellor Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, David; Asch, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Describes the evolution and testing of an "attributes checklist" tool for assisting counselor development. These attributes relate to characteristics of case notes that indicate evidence of counselor reflection and consideration of the counseling process. (Author/GCP)

  10. An Analysis of Peer-Submitted and Peer-Reviewed Answer Rationales, in an Asynchronous Peer Instruction Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Sameer; Lasry, Nathaniel; Desmarais, Michel; Dugdale, Michael; Whittaker, Chris; Charles, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an analyis of data from a novel "Peer Instruction" application, named DALITE. The Peer Instruction paradigm is well suited to take advantage of peer-input in web-based learning environments. DALITE implements an asynchronous instantiation of peer instruction: after submitting their answer to a multiple-choice…

  11. Peering into peer-review at GigaScience.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    Fostering and promoting more open and transparent science is one of the goals of GigaScience. One of the ways we have been doing this is by throwing light on the peer-review process and carrying out open peer-review as standard. In this editorial, we provide our rationale for undertaking this policy, give examples of our positive experiences to date, and encourage others to open up the normally opaque publication process. PMID:23587291

  12. Surfing Peer-to-Peer IPTV: Distributed Channel Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermarrec, A.-M.; Le Merrer, E.; Liu, Y.; Simon, G.

    It is now common for IPTV systems attracting millions of users to be based on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. In such systems, each channel is typically associated with one P2P overlay network connecting the users. This significantly enhances the user experience by relieving the source from dealing with all connections. Yet, the joining process resulting in a peer to be integrated in channel overlay usually requires a significant amount of time. As a consequence, switching from one channel to another is far to be as fast as in IPTV solutions provided by telco operators. In this paper, we tackle the issue of efficient channel switching in P2P IPTV system. This is to the best of our knowledge the first study on this topic. First, we conducted and analyzed a set of measurements of one of the most popular P2P systems (PPlive). These measurements reveal that the set of contacts that a joining peer receives from the central server are of the utmost importance in the start-up process. On those neigbors, depends the speed to acquire the first video frames to play. We then formulate the switching problem, and propose a simple distributed algorithm, as an illustration of the concept, which aims at leveraging the presence of peers in the network to fasten the switch process. The principle is that each peer maintains as neighbors peers involved in other channels, providing peers with good contacts upon channel switching. Finally, simulations show that our approach leads to substantial improvements on the channel switching time. As our algorithmic solution does not have any prerequisite on the overlays, it appears to be an appealing add-on for existing P2P IPTV systems.

  13. Peer Victimization and Effortful Control

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report, peer-report, and teacher-report questionnaires at three points in time: twice during the initial year of the study when children were in first and third grades and once in the fall of their second-grade and fourth-grade years, respectively. Findings showed that peer victimization was negatively correlated with effortful control; however, longitudinal analyses conducted to examine causal priority were inconclusive. Results from structural equation modeling were consistent with the hypotheses that school engagement mediated the relations between peer victimization and academic achievement, as well as between effortful control and academic achievement. PMID:23105166

  14. 2011 OBP Peer Review Portal

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-04

    The Biomass Program conducted detailed biennial peer review meetings of its activities throughout the first half of 2011. This Web page houses information from the reviews. The final reports will be available in 2012.

  15. 45 CFR 1388.9 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must...

  16. 45 CFR 1388.9 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must...

  17. Peer Review: Has It a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Although its history is short, peer review has fast become a fixture of journal publications acquiring the status of a ritual in the academia. Many relevant and important issues have been raised leading to doubts about the value of peer review. The advent of electronic publishing further threatens the future of peer review. For peer review to…

  18. 45 CFR 1388.9 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must...

  19. A narrative review of undergraduate peer-based healthcare ethics teaching

    PubMed Central

    Allikmets, Silvia; Knights, Felicity

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study explores the literature in establishing the value of undergraduate peer-based healthcare ethics teaching as an educational methodology. Methods A narrative review of the literature concerning peer-based ethics teaching was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases, and the Cochrane Library, were systematically searched for studies of peer-based ethics or professionalism teaching. Selected studies related peer-based teaching to ethics education outcomes. Results Ten publications were identified. Selected studies were varied in their chosen intervention methodology and analysis. Collectively, the identified studies suggest peer-based ethics education is an effective and valued educational methodology in training healthcare professionals. One paper suggests peer-based ethics teaching has advantages over traditional didactic methods. Peer-based ethics teaching also receives positive feedback from student participants. However, the limited literature base demonstrates a clear need for more evaluation of this pedagogy. Conclusions The current literature base suggests that undergraduate peer based healthcare ethics teaching is valuable in terms of efficacy and student satisfaction. We conclude that the medical community should invest in further study in order to capitalise upon the potential of peer-based ethics teaching in undergraduate healthcare education. PMID:26668050

  20. Process evaluation of HIV prevention peer groups in Malawi: a look inside the black box.

    PubMed

    McCreary, Linda L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Kafulafula, Ursula K; Ngalande, Rebecca C; Kumbani, Lily C; Jere, Diana L N; Norr, James L; Norr, Kathleen F

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the process evaluation of a peer group intervention for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention which had positive outcomes for three target groups in Malawi: rural adults, adolescents and urban hospital workers. The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10-12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer leaders working in pairs. A descriptive, observational mixed methods design was used with a convenience sample of 294 intervention sessions. Using project records and a conceptually based observation guide, we examined five aspects of the implementation process. The context was favorable, but privacy to discuss sensitive issues was a concern for some groups. In study communities, program reach was 58% of rural adults, 70% of adolescents and nearly all hospital workers. Session records confirmed that all peer groups received the intended six sessions (dose delivered). The dose received was high, as evidenced by high participant engagement in peer group activities. Peer leaders were rated above the median for three indicators of peer group content and process fidelity: session management skills, interpersonal facilitation skills and whether more like a peer group than classroom. Documenting that this HIV prevention peer group intervention was delivered as intended by trained peer volunteers supports widespread dissemination of the intervention.

  1. Perception and Management of Risk in Internet-Based Peer-to-Peer Milk-Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribble, Karleen D.

    2014-01-01

    The perception and management of the risks of peer-to-peer milk sharing was explored via a written questionnaire administered to 97 peer milk donors and 41 peer milk recipients who were recruited via Facebook. All recipients' respondents were aware that there were risks associated with using peer-shared milk and took action to mitigate these…

  2. Peer relationships of deaf children with cochlear implants: predictors of peer entry and peer interaction success.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one situations compared to interactions including two other hearing children and better performance among girls than boys. In addition, longer duration of implant use and higher self-esteem were associated with better performance on the Peer Task, which was in turn related to parental reports of children's social functioning outside the experimental situation. These findings contribute to the growing literature describing the benefits of cochlear implantation in the areas of communication and socialization, while pointing to interventions that may enhance deaf children's social competence.

  3. The Association between Violence Exposure and Aggression and Anxiety: The Role of Peer Relationships in Adaptation for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodearl, Anna Ward; Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how peer relationships contribute to young adolescents' adaptation in the face of exposure to community and family violence. It tested hypotheses about peers' role in processes relating exposure to behavioral and psychological outcomes, specifically, aggression and anxiety. Data were collected from 667 middle school…

  4. Exploring Students' Emotional Responses and Participation in an Online Peer Assessment Activity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the social interactions among individuals of learning communities, including those individuals engaged in peer assessment activities, emotion may be a key factor in learning. However, research regarding the emotional response of learners in online peer assessment activities is relatively scarce. Detecting learners' emotion when they make…

  5. Outcomes of Project Wall Talk: An HIV/AIDS Peer Education Program Implemented within the Texas State Prison System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael W.; Harzke, Amy Jo; Scott, Deborah P.; McCann, Kelly; Kelley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We report select outcomes from an evaluation of Project Wall Talk, a community-based, peer-led HIV prevention education program implemented in 36 Texas State prison units. Peer educators completed questionnaires prior to receipt of a 40-hour intensive training (N = 590) and at 9-month follow-up (N = 257). Students (N = 2506) completed…

  6. Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218…

  7. Circles of Care: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Peer Support Model for African Americans with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Laura C.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Green, Melissa A.; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliot-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses V.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Earp, Jo Anne

    2013-01-01

    Peer support interventions extend care and health information to underserved populations yet rarely address serious illness. Investigators from a well-defined academic-community partnership developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for African Americans facing advanced cancer. Evaluation methods used the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption,…

  8. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  9. Utilizing Video Feedback to Increase Appropriate Social Behaviors When Used in Conjunction with Peer Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Levita Yen

    2013-01-01

    The ability to integrate, adapt and strive in the community has become a focal point in research with individuals who have an intellectual disability. However, research regarding teaching social skills to adults who are preparing to transition into the community is limited. The purpose of this study is to utilize peer tutoring with adults who have…

  10. Peer Mentoring for International Students in a UK Law School: Lessons from a Pilot Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragavan, Shamini K.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study discusses the impact of a support network for international students of culturally diverse backgrounds using a peer mentoring scheme. The scheme focused on facilitating cultural integration in the international student community in Newcastle and sought to engender a cooperative community among new students. Data obtained…

  11. The Socialization Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippitt, Ronald O.

    This paper develops a conceptual framework as a guide for research analysis and the designing of experimental interventions aimed at the improvement of the socialization process of the community. Socialization agents are the parents, older and like-age peers, formal education agencies, churches, leisure time child and youth serving agencies, legal…

  12. Creating Community through Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Deborah E.; Travick-Jackson, Cecelia

    2006-01-01

    This research studies a doctoral program that includes a cohort component. Candidates engage in active learning and in the skill of mentoring. Research on peer mentoring has shown to support graduate students as they progress in their study (Luna & Cullen, 1998). Analysis of the data found themes relating to mentoring and community: candidates…

  13. The role of peer assessment and peer review in nursing.

    PubMed

    Gopee, N

    With the implementation of clinical governance and professional self-regulation, substantial responsibility is devolved on to clinical nurses. Central to these two concepts is accountability for practice. We are accountable for our professional competence and knowledge to various parties such as the professional statutory body, the employer, society as well as ourselves. Although self-assessment provides each individual with a medium for ascertaining his/her own level of performance and, therefore, identifying his/her learning needs, peer review and peer assessment provide healthy means for obtaining feedback and external perceptions. They also bring with them several other benefits and meet other recommended professional requirements. Peer review is an intrinsic component of clinical governance, and it can be initiated and implemented at one-to-one, departmental or organizational level.

  14. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the International Technical Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Yulin WU Tsinghua University China François AVELLAN EPFL-LMH Switzerland (principal) Xingqi LUO Xi'an University of Sci & Tech China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS Arts et Métiers ParisTech France Luca D'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia Wei YANG China Agriculture University China YinLu YOUNG University of Michigan USA Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain Baoshan ZHU Tsinghua University China Hongxun CHEN Shanghai University China Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Zhenyue MA Dalian University of Sci & Tech China Honggang FAN Tsinghua University China François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Pengcheng GUO Xian University of Technology China Leqing WANG Zhejiang University China Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Jiandong YANG Wuhan University China Jianzhong ZHOU Huazhong University of Sci & Tech China Jinwei LI NULL China Rennian LI Lanzhou University of Sci & Tech China Houlin LIU NULL China Juan LIU Tsinghua University China Shuhong LIU Tsinghua University China Xianwu LUO Tsinghua University China Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua

  15. Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Peer to Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylios, Georgios; Tsolis, Dimitrios

    Peer to Peer Networks are oftenly used by internet users to share and distribute digital content (images, audio and video) which is in most of cases protected by the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) legislation. This fact threatens e-inclusion and Internet democracy as a whole as it forces organizations to block access to valuable content. This paper claims that IPR protection and P2P can be complementary. Specifically, a P2P infrastructure is presented which allows broad digital content exchange while on the same time supports data and copyright protection through watermarking technologies.

  16. Optimization of routing strategies for data transfer in peer-to-peer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Atsushi; Igarashi, Akito

    2014-03-01

    Since peer-to-peer file-sharing systems have become familiar recently, the information traffic in the networks is increasing. Therefore it causes various traffic problems in peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we model some features of the peer-to-peer networks, and investigate the traffic problems. Peer-to-peer networks have two notable characters. One is that each peer frequently searches for a file and download it from a peer who has the requested file. To decide whether a peer has the requested file or not in modelling of the search and download process, we introduce file-parameter Pj, which expresses the amount of files stored in peer j. It is assumed that if Pj is large, peer j has many files and can meet other peers' requests with high probability. The other character is that peers leave and join into the network repeatedly. Many researchers address traffic problems of data transfer in computer communication networks. To our knowledge, however, no reports focus on those in peer-to-peer networks whose topology changes with time. For routing paths of data transfer, generally, the shortest paths are used in usual computer networks. In this paper, we introduce a new optimal routing strategy which uses weights of peers to avoid traffic congestion. We find that the new routing strategy is superior to the shortest path strategy in terms of congestion frequency in data transfer.

  17. On valuing peers: theories of learning and intercultural competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajander, Åsa; Daniels, Mats; McDermott, Roger

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates the links between the contributing student pedagogy and other forms of peer-mediated learning models, e.g. open-ended group projects and communities of practice. We find that a fundamental concern in each of these models is the attribution of value; specifically, recognition of the value of learning that is enabled by peer interaction, and the way in which value is created and assessed within a learning community. Value is also central to theories of intercultural competence. We examine the role that the concept of value plays in the development cycle of intercultural competence and relate it to its function in peer-mediated learning models. We also argue that elements of social learning theory, principally recent work on value creation in communities of practice, are very relevant to the construction and assessment of the type of activities proposed within the contributing student pedagogy. Our theoretical analysis is situated within the context of a globally distributed open-ended group project course unit and our conclusions are illustrated with reference to student practice in this environment.

  18. “Someone like us”: Delivering maternal mental health through peers in two South Asian contexts

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Daisy; Lazarus, Anisha; Atif, Najia; Sikander, Siham; Bhatia, Urvita; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Nisar, Anum; Khan, Sonia; Fuhr, Daniela; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peer-led psychosocial interventions are one solution to address the great paucity of skilled mental health human resources in South Asia. The aim of this study was to explore peer-delivered care for maternal depression in two diverse contexts in South Asia. METHODS The study was carried out in the urban setting of Goa, India and a rural setting in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. In total, 61 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 3 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 38 IDIs and 10 FGDs, were conducted with multiple stakeholders in urban Goa and rural Rawalpindi respectively. We used the framework approach to analyze data. RESULTS Peers, from the same community were the most preferred delivery agents of a community-based psychosocial intervention in both sites. There were contextual similarities and differences between the two sites. Preferred characteristics among peers included local, middle-aged, educated mothers with similar experiences, good communication skills and a good character. Key differences between the two contexts included a greater emphasis on the peer's family social standing in rural Rawalpindi and financial incentives as motivators for individual peers in urban Goa. LIMITATIONS Generalizability of our findings is limited to two specific contexts in a vast and diverse region. DISCUSSION Our study demonstrates that peers have the potential to deliver maternal psychosocial interventions in low-income settings. There are contextual differences in the preferred characteristics and motivators between the sites, and these should be carefully considered in program implementation. PMID:25113958

  19. Mobile peer support in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chomutare, Taridzo; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    As in other domains, there has been unprecedented growth in diabetesrelated social media in the past decade. Although there is not yet enough evidence for the clinical benefits of patient-to-patient dialogue using emergent social media, patient empowerment through easier access to information has been proven to foster healthy lifestyles, and to delay or even prevent progression of secondary illnesses. In the design of diabetes-related social media, we need access to personal health data for modelling the core disease-related characteristics of the user. We discuss design aspects of mobile peer support, including acquisition of personal health data, and design artefacts for a healthcare recommender system. We also explore mentoring models as a tool for managing the transient relationships among peers with diabetes. Intermediate results suggest acquiring health data for modelling patients' health status is feasible for implementing a personalized and mobile peer-support system.

  20. Researcher Perspectives on Publication and Peer Review of Data

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data “publication” seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences– asking what expectations“data publication” raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data’s documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data. PMID:25706992

  1. Researcher perspectives on publication and peer review of data.

    PubMed

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data "publication" seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences- asking what expectations"data publication" raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data's documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data.

  2. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    PubMed

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R; Noblet, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior.

  3. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E.; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R.; Noblet, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner’s management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of ‘harvest readiness’ and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior. PMID:26562429

  4. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    PubMed

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R; Noblet, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior. PMID:26562429

  5. Using Peer Feedback to Improve Learning via Online Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of various forms of peer observation and feedback on student learning. We recruited twelve graduate students enrolled in a course entitled, Statistics in Education and Psychology, at a university in northern Taiwan. Researchers adopted the case study method, and the course lasted for ten weeks. Students were…

  6. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  7. Cultural factors related to the peer review of teaching.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, D S; Dieckman, B C; Heiss, M A

    1998-01-01

    Since 1994, the American Association for Higher Education Peer Review of Teaching Project has sought to popularize the notion that teaching is both a scholarly activity and community property to be shared with and critiqued by the larger academic community. In order to accomplish these goals, each of the three academic units at the twelve participating universities developed a pilot project that conformed to its own institutional, academic unit, and disciplinary culture. At a large Midwestern university, the academic units of mathematics, history, and nursing developed different projects. Each of these projects took account of the unit's specific culture, and this fact helps to account, in large part, for each project's success.

  8. Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE): Integrating C-POL and Social Media to Train Peer Leaders in HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K.; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D.

    2011-01-01

    Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA HOPE [Harnessing Online Peer Education] study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups. PMID:22149081

  9. Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE): integrating C-POL and social media to train peer leaders in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D

    2012-01-01

    Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA Harnessing Online Peer Education study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African-American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups.

  10. 2009 Water Power Peer Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael; Higgins, Mark; Reed, Mike

    2011-04-01

    This report contains the findings of the 2009 Water Power Peer Review Panel, as well as the Water Power Program's responses to those findings. This Peer Review focused on the Program's marine and hydrokinetic energy projects.

  11. Peer Counselor Training with the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Stephanie B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a peer counselor training program for five older adult volunteers. Presents suggestions for advertising, screening, program format, and development of practica, and examines the role and helpfulness of the peer counselors who provided in-home counseling services. (JAC)

  12. Peer Tutoring in Conceptual Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleyer, G. K.; Langdon, G. S.; James, S.

    2005-01-01

    A peer tutoring scheme has been introduced into the Department of Engineering at the University of Liverpool to help 2nd year undergraduate students tackle conceptual design problems. Conceptual design is an iterative process consisting of a series of generative and evaluative stages, which gradually converge on a preferred conceptual solution.…

  13. The Dedisciplining of Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodeman, Robert; Briggle, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The demand for greater public accountability is changing the nature of ex ante peer review at public science agencies worldwide. Based on a four year research project, this essay examines these changes through an analysis of the process of grant proposal review at two US public science agencies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the…

  14. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  15. Peer Culture in the Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Children's joint production and maintenance of a peer culture in preschool settings is crucial to their development of a social identity. Theoreticians and researchers should consider what it is actually like to be a child to understand better how children's activities model and prepare them for the adult world. (Author/JL)

  16. Peer Observation Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandt, Fred-Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the initial findings of an action research project that focuses on the possible contribution of peer observation to a more collaborative environment and teachers' professional growth at The University High School. The research component played a significant part as previous attempts to change the culture at the school were…

  17. School Composition and Peer Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrupp, Martin; Lauder, Hugh; Robinson, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Despite over 30 years of research into the effects of school composition or "mix," there is remarkably little consensus over the nature and size of school compositional and peer effects. Developing an analytical review of international research in this area, this chapter begins by discussing conceptual and methodological problems related to…

  18. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  19. Team Projects and Peer Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin; Meeker, Ralph D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assign semester- or quarter-long team-based projects in several Computer Science and Finance courses. This paper reports on our experience in designing, managing, and evaluating such projects. In particular, we discuss the effects of team size and of various peer evaluation schemes on team performance and student learning. We report…

  20. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

    2013-01-01

    Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

  1. Maintaining Live Discussion in Two-Stage Open Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    Sandewall, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Open peer review has been proposed for a number of reasons, in particular, for increasing the transparency of the article selection process for a journal, and for obtaining a broader basis for feedback to the authors and for the acceptance decision. The review discussion may also in itself have a value for the research community. These goals rely on the existence of a lively review discussion, but several experiments with open-process peer review in recent years have encountered the problem of faltering review discussions. The present article addresses the question of how lively review discussion may be fostered by relating the experience of the journal Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence (ETAI) which was an early experiment with open peer review. Factors influencing the discussion activity are identified. It is observed that it is more difficult to obtain lively discussion when the number of contributed articles increases, which implies difficulties for scaling up the open peer review model. Suggestions are made for how this difficulty may be overcome. PMID:22363282

  2. Using the IPEDS Peer Analysis System in Peer Group Selection. Professional File Number 110, Winter 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Compared to traditional classification methods, developing a peer group using the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Systems (IPEDS) data allows institutions to add comparative dimensions, to update the peer group, and to track changes at peer institutions over time. Peer selection and…

  3. What Positive Impacts Does Peer Tutoring Have upon the Peer Tutors at SQU?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al kharusi, Dhafra

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide an answer to the question: What positive impacts does peer tutoring have upon the peer tutors at SQU? It is conducted in the LC Tutorial Centre at Sultan Qaboos University where senior English language students are hired to tutor their peers who are struggling with the language. It sheds light on the peer tutors'…

  4. Longitudinal Associations among Youth Depressive Symptoms, Peer Victimization, and Low Peer Acceptance: An Interpersonal Process Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochel, Karen P.; Ladd, Gary W.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal investigation was conducted to explicate the network of associations between depressive symptoms and peer difficulties among 486 fourth through sixth graders (M = 9.93 years). Parent and teacher reports of depressive symptoms; peer, self, and teacher reports of victimization; and peer reports of peer acceptance were obtained. A…

  5. Which Peers Matter: How Social Ties Affect Peer-Group Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poldin, Oleg; Valeeva, Diliara; Yudkevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals' social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence of peers' performance from that of peers'…

  6. Training the Peer Facilitator: Using Participatory Theatre to Promote Engagement in Peer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Sarah Hunter

    2015-01-01

    "Training the peer facilitator: using participatory theatre to promote engagement in peer education" examines the role of participatory theatre in a peer education setting in relation to the goal of young people engaging and empowering their peers to create new knowledge together. Extending research about the use of applied theatre…

  7. A Peer Review Training Workshop: Coaching Students to Give and Evaluate Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Trained peer review, as illustrated in a plethora of peer review or peer response scholarship, has a positive effect on students' writing in general and on improved revision quality in particular (Berg, 1999; Hu, 2005; Min, 2006; Paulus, 1999; Stanley, 1992). From these studies, it is evident that trained peer feedback does have a significant role…

  8. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  9. Peer-to-Peer Teaching Using Multi-Disciplinary Applications as Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Souhan, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Most educators know that the best way to truly understand new material is to teach it. The use of students as peer educators provides numerous benefits to the student teacher and his or her classmates. Student-led instruction or peer-to-peer teaching is not a new concept or teaching technique. Peer teaching traces its roots back to the ancient…

  10. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate...

  11. 48 CFR 215.270 - Peer Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 215.270 Section 215.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... of Proposals and Information 215.270 Peer Reviews. Agency officials shall conduct Peer Reviews...

  12. 48 CFR 215.270 - Peer Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 215.270 Section 215.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... of Proposals and Information 215.270 Peer Reviews. Agency officials shall conduct Peer Reviews...

  13. 48 CFR 201.170 - Peer reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peer reviews. 201.170... OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 201.170 Peer reviews. (a) DoD peer reviews. (1) The Office of the Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition...

  14. 48 CFR 215.270 - Peer Reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 215.270 Section 215.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... of Proposals and Information 215.270 Peer Reviews. Agency officials shall conduct Peer Reviews...

  15. 48 CFR 201.170 - Peer reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peer reviews. 201.170... OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 201.170 Peer reviews. (a) DoD peer reviews. (1) The Office of the Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition...

  16. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate...

  17. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  18. Peer Tutoring at Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the important roles of peer tutoring and peer tutoring services that utilize student tutors in higher education. First, the roles and potential benefits of peer tutoring are identified and reviewed as they apply to various dimensions of student development. Second, the impacts, benefits, and extended beneficiaries of peer…

  19. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate...

  20. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate...

  1. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  2. Peervention: Training Peer Facilitators for Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Robert D.; Folk, Betsy E.

    This book introduces students to the helping relationship and appropriate methods of responding to others through a variety of experiential training activities. The first chapter discusses the need for peer facilitators. The peer facilitator movement is traced to the 1970s, and the power of peer relationships is described. Four basic helping roles…

  3. Peer Assessment Accounting for Student Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neus, Jordan L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer assessment has been gaining significant ground as a means of fostering an environment of accountability and responsibility for group projects in higher education. A popular peer assessment method assigns individual grades via a linear relationship to peer assessment scores. Using this method, a group member who receives his or her group's…

  4. Peer-Mediated Learning beyond the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havnes, Anton

    2008-01-01

    In higher education, there is an increasing interest in student interaction in the form of peer learning. In the literature, peer learning is mainly presented as a pedagogical tool used to promote curriculum learning. This article is based on observations of peer learning that expand beyond learning of the curriculum. It particularly addresses the…

  5. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  6. Understanding Peer Influence in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…

  7. Peer Education in Campus Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.

    2013-01-01

    Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a campus…

  8. Peer Counselor Training for Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlach, Andrew E.

    1988-01-01

    Designed model program designed to increase social support for newly admitted nursing home residents through a structured program of peer counseling. Found residents (N=15) receiving peer counseling improved somewhat on measures of social conditioning; peer counselors (N=15) improved with regard to appearance and grooming. (Author/ABL)

  9. Peer Tutoring: An Economical Instructional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Kerth T.; Brown, William E.

    1979-01-01

    A peer tutoring model is described and suggestions for implementing peer tutoring programs are provided. The seven steps in the development of a peer tutoring program are: establishing a need, considering curriculum, assessing, selecting learners, selecting tutors, monitoring, and coordinating. (PHR)

  10. Does Peer Ability Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Kain, John F.; Markman, Jacob M.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    Empirical analysis of peer effects on student achievement has been open to question because of the difficulties of separating peer effects from other confounding influences. While most econometric attention has been directed at issues of simultaneous determination of peer interactions, this paper argues that issues of omitted and mismeasured…

  11. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  12. Peer Review of Teaching: Sharing Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golparian, Shaya; Chan, Judy; Cassidy, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we share examples of best peer review of teaching practices, drawing on our involvement in the design and implementation of the Peer Review of Teaching program at the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology. We review the history of the Peer Review of Teaching Initiative at the University of British Columbia and explain key…

  13. Advancing Kinesiology through Improved Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We…

  14. The Academy for Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture [PPC] creates a pro-social climate in schools and youth programs by enlisting youth in helping their peers. Research and training in PPC is coordinated by the Academy for Positive Peer Culture. Established in 2006, the Academy provides networking and is a clearinghouse for resources, training, and consultation for PPC. It…

  15. Constant connections: piloting a mobile phone-based peer support program for Nuer (southern Sudanese) women.

    PubMed

    Wollersheim, Dennis; Koh, Lee; Walker, Rae; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Refugee women have poor psychosocial health as a result of past trauma and difficulties associated with settlement. This study was a pilot to find out how to use mobile phone-based peer support to improve the psychosocial health of, and facilitate settlement in a group of nine Nuer refugee women in Melbourne, Australia. Nine participants recruited by a community leader received peer support training over two five-week periods. They were further provided with mobile phone recharge vouchers to call one another to practice peer support techniques. The fifth and final sessions were focus groups to evaluate the intervention. Notes from the focus groups were thematically analysed. The women reported greater confidence and empowerment as they received more support, had better connections within the group and better access to information. Relationships with friends, family and the community became richer as they adopted and experienced more functional communication patterns. Using mobile phones for peer support helped to re-create community by bridging the geographical distance that separates refugee women. It allowed the women, from similar backgrounds and with similar experiences, to provide mutual support and exchange information through a verbal channel, the form of communication they are most comfortable with. The program demonstrates the positive psychosocial effect of peer support in a refugee community, and provides a viable model for using mobile phones in health promotion interventions. The successful outcomes, as perceived by the participants, are indicative of the potential of using technology to bridge health inequities in a marginalised group.

  16. Hierarchical Data Distribution Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Shashi; Dave, M.; Patel, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    In the past few years, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become an extremely popular mechanism for large-scale content sharing. P2P systems have focused on specific application domains (e.g. music files, video files) or on providing file system like capabilities. P2P is a powerful paradigm, which provides a large-scale and cost-effective mechanism for data sharing. P2P system may be used for storing data globally. Can we implement a conventional database on P2P system? But successful implementation of conventional databases on the P2P systems is yet to be reported. In this paper we have presented the mathematical model for the replication of the partitions and presented a hierarchical based data distribution scheme for the P2P networks. We have also analyzed the resource utilization and throughput of the P2P system with respect to the availability, when a conventional database is implemented over the P2P system with variable query rate. Simulation results show that database partitions placed on the peers with higher availability factor perform better. Degradation index, throughput, resource utilization are the parameters evaluated with respect to the availability factor.

  17. Improving healthcare quality through organisational peer-to-peer assessment: lessons from the nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Hudson, Daniel W

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare has made great efforts to reduce preventable patient harm, from externally driven regulations to internally driven professionalism. Regulation has driven the majority of efforts to date, and has a necessary place in establishing accountability and minimum standards. Yet they need to be coupled with internally driven efforts. Among professional groups, internally-driven efforts that function as communities of learning and change social norms are highly effective tools to improve performance, yet these approaches are underdeveloped in healthcare. Healthcare can learn much from the nuclear power industry. The nuclear power industry formed the Institute of Nuclear Power Operators following the Three Mile Island accident to improve safety. That organization established a peer-to-peer assessment program to cross-share best practices, safety hazards, problems and actions that improved safety and operational performance. This commentary explores how a similar program could be expanded into healthcare. Healthcare needs a structured, clinician-led, industry-wide process to openly review, identify and mitigate hazards, and share best practices that ultimately improve patient safety. A healthcare version of the nuclear power program could supplement regulatory and other strategies currently used to improve quality and patient safety. PMID:22562877

  18. Moving from outsider to insider: peer status and partnerships between electricity utilities and residential consumers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  19. Moving from outsider to insider: peer status and partnerships between electricity utilities and residential consumers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure.

  20. Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  1. The ethics of peer review in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin

    2014-10-01

    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved.

  2. The ethics of peer review in bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved. PMID:24131903

  3. Peer harassment and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing literature regarding peer harassment and its association with a range of weight-related attitudes and behaviors. We conceptualize peer harassment to include traditionally defined bullying behavior, other social and relational forms of bullying, as well as teasing and other verbal harassment. Weight-based teasing is particularly relevant to weight-related issues and has been associated with clinical eating disorders, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and weight-related attitudes, such as body dissatisfaction. Studies using both clinical samples of eating disorder patients and general samples of college students or adolescents have demonstrated these relations. Emerging issues in this field, including teasing by family members, research with males, teasing and weight-related issues in developing countries, and the measurement of teasing experience are also discussed. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors. PMID:18714553

  4. Building blocks for peer success: lessons learned from a train-the-trainer program.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Carol R; Downes, Alicia; Eddens, Shalini; Ruiz, John

    2012-01-01

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) calls for a reduction in health disparities, a reduction in new HIV infections, and improved retention in HIV care and treatment. It acknowledges that HIV-positive peers can play an important role in supporting these aims. However, peer training must be comprehensive enough to equip peers with the knowledge and skills needed for this work. This article describes the development of a national train the trainer (TTT) model for HIV peer educators, and the results of its implementation and replication. A mixed methods evaluation identified who was trained locally as a result of TTT implementation, what aspects of the TTT were most useful to trainers in implementing local training sessions, and areas for improvement. Over the course of 1 year, 91 individuals were trained at 1 of 6 TTT sessions. These individuals then conducted 26 local training sessions for 272 peers. Factors that facilitated local replication training included the teach-back/feedback model, faculty modeling of facilitation styles, financial support for training logistics, and faculty support in designing and implementing the training. The model could be improved by providing instruction on how to incorporate peers as part of the training team. TTT programs that are easily replicable in the community will be an important asset in developing a peer workforce that can help implement the National AIDS Strategy.

  5. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  6. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  7. Emergence of Virtual Communities as Means of Communication: A Case Study on Virtual Health Care Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.

    2011-01-01

    Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…

  8. Adaptive Peer Sampling with Newscast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölgyesi, Norbert; Jelasity, Márk

    The peer sampling service is a middleware service that provides random samples from a large decentralized network to support gossip-based applications such as multicast, data aggregation and overlay topology management. Lightweight gossip-based implementations of the peer sampling service have been shown to provide good quality random sampling while also being extremely robust to many failure scenarios, including node churn and catastrophic failure. We identify two problems with these approaches. The first problem is related to message drop failures: if a node experiences a higher-than-average message drop rate then the probability of sampling this node in the network will decrease. The second problem is that the application layer at different nodes might request random samples at very different rates which can result in very poor random sampling especially at nodes with high request rates. We propose solutions for both problems. We focus on Newscast, a robust implementation of the peer sampling service. Our solution is based on simple extensions of the protocol and an adaptive self-control mechanism for its parameters, namely—without involving failure detectors—nodes passively monitor local protocol events using them as feedback for a local control loop for self-tuning the protocol parameters. The proposed solution is evaluated by simulation experiments.

  9. A Developmental Perspective on Peer Rejection, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Conduct Problems Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Diane; Drabick, Deborah A G; Burgers, Darcy E

    2015-12-01

    Peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are linked consistently to the development and maintenance of conduct problems. Two proposed models may account for longitudinal relations among these peer processes and conduct problems: the (a) sequential mediation model, in which peer rejection in childhood and deviant peer affiliation in adolescence mediate the link between early externalizing behaviors and more serious adolescent conduct problems; and (b) parallel process model, in which peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are considered independent processes that operate simultaneously to increment risk for conduct problems. In this review, we evaluate theoretical models and evidence for associations among conduct problems and (a) peer rejection and (b) deviant peer affiliation. We then consider support for the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Next, we propose an integrated model incorporating both the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Future research directions and implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  10. Temperament, peer victimization, and nurturing parenting in child anxiety: a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Geronimi, Elena M C; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2014-08-01

    Research has linked fearful temperament and childhood anxiety. Yet there remain numerous factors that moderate and mediate this relation. Two specific factors, identified in separate lines of research, are peer victimization and parenting. The current study tested a moderated mediational model to investigate the respective effects of peer victimization and nurturing parenting on the relation between fearful temperament and child anxiety. Participants were 124 parent-child dyads recruited from the community. Children were between the ages of 7 and 12 (56.5% male, 93.5% Caucasian) and most parents were mothers. Overall the data fit the model well. Analyses indicated that peer victimization was a mediator of the temperament to child anxiety relation, while nurturing parenting moderated this mediated effect. Nurturing parenting did not mediate the temperament to child anxiety relation directly. The findings suggest that nurturing parenting may be a specific, rather than global, protective factor for peer victimization in child anxiety.

  11. Peer relationships and self-esteem among children who have been maltreated.

    PubMed

    Bolger, K E; Patterson, C J; Kupersmidt, J B

    1998-08-01

    A prospective longitudinal design was employed to assess risks associated with maltreatment in a representative community sample of 107 maltreated children and an equal number of nonmaltreated comparison children. Heightened difficulties in peer relationships and self-esteem were associated with greater severity and chronicity of maltreatment. For example, children who experienced chronic maltreatment were less well-liked by peers. Type of maltreatment was also related to specific aspects of children's adjustment. For instance, sexual abuse predicted low self-esteem, but not problems in peer relationships. Emotional maltreatment, on the other hand, was related to difficulties in peer relationships, but not to low self-esteem. Thus, the best predictions of specific aspects of children's adjustment were provided by considering timing, type, and severity of maltreatment. For some groups of maltreated children, having a good friend was associated with improvement over time in self-esteem.

  12. Advancing kinesiology through improved peer review.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane V; Morrow, James R; Thomas, Jerry R

    2014-06-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We reviewed the literature on the characteristics of peer review in scientific journals and describe the status of peer review in kinesiology journals. Although the majority of scholars and editors strongly support the peer-review process, systematic research in several disciplines has shown somewhat positive but mixed results for the efficacy of peer review in evaluating the quality of and improving research reports. Past recommendations for improvement have focused on agreement between reviewers, standards for evaluating quality, and clarification of the editorial team roles. Research on interventions, however, indicates that improving reviewer performance is difficult. The specific research on peer review in kinesiology is limited. Six recommendations to improve peer review are proposed: publishing clear evaluation standards, establishing collaborative evaluation procedures and editorial team roles, utilizing online submission data to help improve reviewer comments, creating author appeals procedures, protecting reviewer time commitments, and improving reviewer recognition. There is considerable variation in peer-review criteria and procedures in kinesiology, and implementing several reasonable improvements may advance knowledge development and the field of kinesiology.

  13. Multi-Stage Open Peer Review: Scientific Evaluation Integrating the Strengths of Traditional Peer Review with the Virtues of Transparency and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pöschl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to all demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public. The advantages of open access, public peer review, and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP, www.atmos-chem-phys.net) and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) and the open access publisher Copernicus (www.copernicus.org). The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. Key features and achievements of this approach are: top quality and impact, efficient self-regulation and low rejection rates, high attractivity and rapid growth, low costs, and financial sustainability. In fact, ACP and the EGU interactive open access sister journals are by most if not all standards more successful than comparable scientific journals with traditional or alternative forms of peer review (editorial statistics, publication statistics, citation statistics, economic costs, and sustainability). The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including

  14. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.

  15. Peer Support Programs To Promote Independent Living and Career Development of People with Disabilities. Proceedings of the National Forum (1st, Louisville, Kentucky, November 14, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akridge, Robert L., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 18 papers presented at a conference designed to increase practitioners' understanding of disability issues and peer support strategies, with emphasis on peer support in such practice settings as independent living centers, community-based employment programs, medical programs, and secondary and higher education. The papers…

  16. Adolescent substance use and peer use: a multilevel analysis of cross-sectional population data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists concerning the importance of social contexts in adolescent substance use prevention. In addition to the important role schools play in educating young people, they are important ecological platforms for adolescent health, development and behaviors. In this light, school community contexts represent an important, but largely neglected, area of research in adolescent substance use and prevention, particularly with regard to peer influences. This study sought to add to a growing body of literature into peer contexts by testing a model of peer substance use simultaneously on individual and school community levels while taking account of several well established individual level factors. Method We analyzed population-based data from the 2009 Youth in Iceland school survey, with 7,084 participants (response rate of 83.5%) nested within 140 schools across Iceland. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Results School-level peer smoking and drunkenness were positively related to adolescent daily smoking and lifetime drunkenness after taking account of individual level peer smoking and drunkenness. These relationships held true for all respondents, irrespective of socio-economic status and other background variables, time spent with parents, academic performance, self-assessed peer respect for smoking and alcohol use, or if they have substance-using friends or not. On the other hand, the same relationships were not found with regard to individual and peer cannabis use. Conclusions The school-level findings in this study represent context effects that are over and above individual-level associations. This holds although we accounted for a large number of individual level variables that studies generally have not included. For the purpose of prevention, school communities should be targeted as a whole in substance use prevention programs in addition to reaching to individuals of particular concern. PMID:23902743

  17. A comparison of well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Matt D; Loughead, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction. A total of 444 intercollegiate athletes (272 well-peer mentored and 172 non-peer mentored) from a variety of sport teams participated in the study. Athletes from both well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored groups reported their satisfaction levels using the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results of a MANOVA and follow-up post hoc ANOVAs showed that well-peer mentored athletes were significantly more satisfied than their non-peer mentored counterparts in terms of individual performance, personal dedication, team task contribution, team social contribution, team integration, ethics, ability utilisation and training and instruction. Overall, the findings suggest that athletes who are well-peer mentored by a teammate perceive higher satisfaction levels with various aspects of their athletic experience than athletes who are not peer mentored by a teammate. Given these positive findings, practitioners (i.e., coaches, sport psychology consultants) should inform athletes on the benefits of peer-to-peer mentoring. The practical implications of the results and strategies to promote peer athlete mentoring relationships in sport are highlighted. PMID:26069999

  18. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caram, L. F.; Caiafa, C. F.; Ausloos, M.; Proto, A. N.

    2015-08-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agents have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations, after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to increase their capacity beyond the no-interaction case limit. In other words, when some collaborative partnership among a relatively small number of partners takes place, all agents act in good faith prioritizing the common good, when receiving a mutual benefit allowing them to surpass their capacity.

  19. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent-based systems.

    PubMed

    Caram, L F; Caiafa, C F; Ausloos, M; Proto, A N

    2015-08-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agents have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations, after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to increase their capacity beyond the no-interaction case limit. In other words, when some collaborative partnership among a relatively small number of partners takes place, all agents act in good faith prioritizing the common good, when receiving a mutual benefit allowing them to surpass their capacity.

  20. Inflammablog: peer-to-peer online learning in immunology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Zoë; Cohen, J John

    2013-03-01

    Is it possible for students in different courses, at different academic levels, and at different universities to learn immunology together using the Internet? We teach a colloquium on inflammation for undergraduates at the University of Arizona and a lecture course on human immunology for graduate students and clinical and basic science fellows at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Students in these programs, being scattered about large campuses, have little time for student-directed discussion and peer interactions, and they never have the opportunity to meet students in the course in the other state. Instead of requiring the usual essays and term papers, we set up a blog (an online discussion group) for the two courses, and required all students to post, and comment on other posts, within and between the courses. Student writing is normally directed at a single reader, the instructor, which seems like a waste of talent; we encouraged peer exchanges. Furthermore, we were interested in observing the interactions between the Colorado students, who were older and sometimes experienced professionals, and the younger Arizonans. We used a blog because it is administratively impossible to enroll the students in two universities in a single courseware (learning management system) site. Blogging has offered insights into students' comfort with this form of social medium, and into the potential for this approach in light of the rapid adoption of blended and massively open online courses. PMID:22971987