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Sample records for community sewage systems

  1. [Analysis of Microbial Community in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Rural Sewage Treatment System].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bing-jian; Jin, De-cai; Wu, Shang-hua; Yang, Bo; Deng, Ye; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhuang, Xu-liang

    2015-09-01

    Uncontrolled release and arbitrary irrigation reuse of rural wastewater may lead to water pollution, and the microbial pathogens could threaten the safety of freshwater resources and public health. To understand the microbial community structure of rural wastewater and provide the theory for microbial risk assessment of wastewater irrigation, microbial community diversities in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) process for rural wastewater treatment was studied by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA gene clone library. Meanwhile, changes of Arcobacter spp. and total bacteria before and after treatment were detected through real-time quantitative PCR. The clone library results showed that there were 73 positive clones included Proteobacteria (91. 80%), Firmicutes (2. 70%), Bacteroidetes (1. 40%), and uncultured bacteria (4. 10%) in the untreated wastewater. The typical pathogenic genus Arcobacter belonging to e-Proteobacteria was the dominant component of the library, accounting for 68. 5% of all clones. The main groups and their abundance in different treatments were significantly distinct. The highest values of species abundance (S), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness (E) were observed in the adjusting tank, which were 43. 0, 3. 56 and 0. 95, respectively. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the copy number of Arcobacter spp. was (1. 09 ± 0. 064 0) x 10(11) copies.L-1 in the untreated sewage, which was consistent with the result of 16S rDNA gene clone library. Compared to untreated wastewater, bacterial copy number in the treated effluent decreased 100 to 1 000 times, respectively, suggesting that MBR treatment system could remove the microbial quantity in such scale. In the recycled water, the physicochemical parameters and indicator bacteria met the water quality standard of farmland irrigation. However, further research is needed to estimate the potential health risks caused by residual pathogenic microorganisms in

  2. [Analysis of Microbial Community in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Rural Sewage Treatment System].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bing-jian; Jin, De-cai; Wu, Shang-hua; Yang, Bo; Deng, Ye; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhuang, Xu-liang

    2015-09-01

    Uncontrolled release and arbitrary irrigation reuse of rural wastewater may lead to water pollution, and the microbial pathogens could threaten the safety of freshwater resources and public health. To understand the microbial community structure of rural wastewater and provide the theory for microbial risk assessment of wastewater irrigation, microbial community diversities in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) process for rural wastewater treatment was studied by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA gene clone library. Meanwhile, changes of Arcobacter spp. and total bacteria before and after treatment were detected through real-time quantitative PCR. The clone library results showed that there were 73 positive clones included Proteobacteria (91. 80%), Firmicutes (2. 70%), Bacteroidetes (1. 40%), and uncultured bacteria (4. 10%) in the untreated wastewater. The typical pathogenic genus Arcobacter belonging to e-Proteobacteria was the dominant component of the library, accounting for 68. 5% of all clones. The main groups and their abundance in different treatments were significantly distinct. The highest values of species abundance (S), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness (E) were observed in the adjusting tank, which were 43. 0, 3. 56 and 0. 95, respectively. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the copy number of Arcobacter spp. was (1. 09 ± 0. 064 0) x 10(11) copies.L-1 in the untreated sewage, which was consistent with the result of 16S rDNA gene clone library. Compared to untreated wastewater, bacterial copy number in the treated effluent decreased 100 to 1 000 times, respectively, suggesting that MBR treatment system could remove the microbial quantity in such scale. In the recycled water, the physicochemical parameters and indicator bacteria met the water quality standard of farmland irrigation. However, further research is needed to estimate the potential health risks caused by residual pathogenic microorganisms in

  3. Study of the succession of microbial communities for sulfur cycle response to ecological factors change in sediment of sewage system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchen; Dong, Qian; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Xiaohong; Shi, Hanchang

    2015-06-01

    The biological reaction process of sulfur in biofilms and sediments causes serious problems of corrosion and odor in sewage systems. This study aims to reveal the distribution and shift of microbial diversity that survives inside the sediment in response to surrounding changes in sewage systems. The successions of microbial community were compared via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by constructing phylogenetic trees via maximum likelihood method. The results indicated that the shift of microbial diversity is not significant along the vertical layer inside the sediment. The influences of sediment accumulation time on the shift in microbial diversity are evident, particularly with the switch of the accumulation stage. Implementing a control strategy for oxygen injection and nitrate addition evidently inhibits and stimulates some dominant sulfate-reducing bacterial strains in the sediment. The diversity in the total bacteria is positively related with ORP, dissolved oxygen, and sulfide concentration. PMID:25592909

  4. Microbial community composition and dynamics of moving bed biofilm reactor systems treating municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kristi; Turner, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems are increasingly used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, yet in contrast to activated sludge (AS) systems, little is known about their constituent microbial communities. This study investigated the community composition of two municipal MBBR wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wellington, New Zealand. Monthly samples comprising biofilm and suspended biomass were collected over a 12-month period. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was determined using a full-cycle community approach, including analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Differences in microbial community structure and abundance were observed between the two WWTPs and between biofilm and suspended biomass. Biofilms from both plants were dominated by Clostridia and sulfate-reducing members of the Deltaproteobacteria (SRBs). FISH analyses indicated morphological differences in the Deltaproteobacteria detected at the two plants and also revealed distinctive clustering between SRBs and members of the Methanosarcinales, which were the only Archaea detected and were present in low abundance (<5%). Biovolume estimates of the SRBs were higher in biofilm samples from one of the WWTPs which receives both domestic and industrial waste and is influenced by seawater infiltration. The suspended communities from both plants were diverse and dominated by aerobic members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of microbial communities in full-scale MBBR systems and indicates that this process selects for distinctive biofilm and planktonic communities, both of which differ from those found in conventional AS systems.

  5. Microbial community composition and dynamics of moving bed biofilm reactor systems treating municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kristi; Turner, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems are increasingly used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, yet in contrast to activated sludge (AS) systems, little is known about their constituent microbial communities. This study investigated the community composition of two municipal MBBR wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wellington, New Zealand. Monthly samples comprising biofilm and suspended biomass were collected over a 12-month period. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was determined using a full-cycle community approach, including analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Differences in microbial community structure and abundance were observed between the two WWTPs and between biofilm and suspended biomass. Biofilms from both plants were dominated by Clostridia and sulfate-reducing members of the Deltaproteobacteria (SRBs). FISH analyses indicated morphological differences in the Deltaproteobacteria detected at the two plants and also revealed distinctive clustering between SRBs and members of the Methanosarcinales, which were the only Archaea detected and were present in low abundance (<5%). Biovolume estimates of the SRBs were higher in biofilm samples from one of the WWTPs which receives both domestic and industrial waste and is influenced by seawater infiltration. The suspended communities from both plants were diverse and dominated by aerobic members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of microbial communities in full-scale MBBR systems and indicates that this process selects for distinctive biofilm and planktonic communities, both of which differ from those found in conventional AS systems. PMID:22138984

  6. Microbial Community Composition and Dynamics of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor Systems Treating Municipal Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems are increasingly used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, yet in contrast to activated sludge (AS) systems, little is known about their constituent microbial communities. This study investigated the community composition of two municipal MBBR wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wellington, New Zealand. Monthly samples comprising biofilm and suspended biomass were collected over a 12-month period. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was determined using a full-cycle community approach, including analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Differences in microbial community structure and abundance were observed between the two WWTPs and between biofilm and suspended biomass. Biofilms from both plants were dominated by Clostridia and sulfate-reducing members of the Deltaproteobacteria (SRBs). FISH analyses indicated morphological differences in the Deltaproteobacteria detected at the two plants and also revealed distinctive clustering between SRBs and members of the Methanosarcinales, which were the only Archaea detected and were present in low abundance (<5%). Biovolume estimates of the SRBs were higher in biofilm samples from one of the WWTPs which receives both domestic and industrial waste and is influenced by seawater infiltration. The suspended communities from both plants were diverse and dominated by aerobic members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of microbial communities in full-scale MBBR systems and indicates that this process selects for distinctive biofilm and planktonic communities, both of which differ from those found in conventional AS systems. PMID:22138984

  7. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  8. Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria in hospital and community sewage in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdulhaq, Ahmed; Basode, Vinod Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Sewage samples were collected from hospital and community sewage tanks, and bacterial strains and antibiotic sensitivity patterns were analyzed using the VITEK 2 microbial identification system p(bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Three of the 12 isolates (25%) from the hospital sewage and 1 of the 13 isolates (7.69%) from the community sewage was extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria.

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a)...

  11. Bacterial pathogens and community composition in advanced sewage treatment systems revealed by metagenomics analysis based on high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wang, Zhu; Huang, Kailong; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Weigang; Tan, Yunfei; Liu, Bo; Tang, Junying

    2015-01-01

    This study used 454 pyrosequencing, Illumina high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to investigate bacterial pathogens and their potential virulence in a sewage treatment plant (STP) applying both conventional and advanced treatment processes. Pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing consistently demonstrated that Arcobacter genus occupied over 43.42% of total abundance of potential pathogens in the STP. At species level, potential pathogens Arcobacter butzleri, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumonia dominated in raw sewage, which was also confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Illumina sequencing also revealed prevalence of various types of pathogenicity islands and virulence proteins in the STP. Most of the potential pathogens and virulence factors were eliminated in the STP, and the removal efficiency mainly depended on oxidation ditch. Compared with sand filtration, magnetic resin seemed to have higher removals in most of the potential pathogens and virulence factors. However, presence of the residual A. butzleri in the final effluent still deserves more concerns. The findings indicate that sewage acts as an important source of environmental pathogens, but STPs can effectively control their spread in the environment. Joint use of the high-throughput sequencing technologies is considered a reliable method for deep and comprehensive overview of environmental bacterial virulence.

  12. Bacterial Pathogens and Community Composition in Advanced Sewage Treatment Systems Revealed by Metagenomics Analysis Based on High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wang, Zhu; Huang, Kailong; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Weigang; Tan, Yunfei; Liu, Bo; Tang, Junying

    2015-01-01

    This study used 454 pyrosequencing, Illumina high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to investigate bacterial pathogens and their potential virulence in a sewage treatment plant (STP) applying both conventional and advanced treatment processes. Pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing consistently demonstrated that Arcobacter genus occupied over 43.42% of total abundance of potential pathogens in the STP. At species level, potential pathogens Arcobacter butzleri, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumonia dominated in raw sewage, which was also confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Illumina sequencing also revealed prevalence of various types of pathogenicity islands and virulence proteins in the STP. Most of the potential pathogens and virulence factors were eliminated in the STP, and the removal efficiency mainly depended on oxidation ditch. Compared with sand filtration, magnetic resin seemed to have higher removals in most of the potential pathogens and virulence factors. However, presence of the residual A. butzleri in the final effluent still deserves more concerns. The findings indicate that sewage acts as an important source of environmental pathogens, but STPs can effectively control their spread in the environment. Joint use of the high-throughput sequencing technologies is considered a reliable method for deep and comprehensive overview of environmental bacterial virulence. PMID:25938416

  13. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

  14. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  15. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  16. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  17. [Microbial community of municipal discharges in a sewage treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ai-ling; Ren, Jie; Song, Zhi-wen; Wu, Deng-deng; Xia, Yan

    2014-09-01

    There are numerous microorganisms, especial pathogens, in the discharges. Those microorganisms are discharged into the river and sea through sewage outfalls, which results in possible health risks to coastal populations. And more attention should be paid to municipal discharges in developing countries. This study investigated the microbial community in the discharges by constructing 16S rDNA clones library and using the PCR-RFLP technology. Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria in municipal discharges showed that there were 59 species, which were divided into 11 classes. Proteobacteria accounted for 85% of all the bacteria, of which β-Proteobacteria and γ- Proteobacteria were the dominant classes. Bacteria in the waste water treating process had important influence on microbial community in municipal discharges, therefore, municipal sewage plant should choose the process according to the characteristics and purifying capacity of the receiving water body. Legionella spp. accounted for approximately 10% , the Legionnaires' disease resulted from which might be of top risk for the residents in the surrounding of the municipal discharges outfall and receiving water. Dechloromonas aromatica could make use of chlorite ( CIO - ) , which led to its survival from chlorine disinfection, and it alerted us that several disinfection methods should be used together to ensure the bacterial safety of municipal discharges. Coliform group and other pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella spp. , Shigella spp. , Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Arcobacter spp. were not detected in this study, and it indicated that we should do more work and use more methods to investigate the perniciousness of discharges.

  18. [Microbial community of municipal discharges in a sewage treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ai-ling; Ren, Jie; Song, Zhi-wen; Wu, Deng-deng; Xia, Yan

    2014-09-01

    There are numerous microorganisms, especial pathogens, in the discharges. Those microorganisms are discharged into the river and sea through sewage outfalls, which results in possible health risks to coastal populations. And more attention should be paid to municipal discharges in developing countries. This study investigated the microbial community in the discharges by constructing 16S rDNA clones library and using the PCR-RFLP technology. Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria in municipal discharges showed that there were 59 species, which were divided into 11 classes. Proteobacteria accounted for 85% of all the bacteria, of which β-Proteobacteria and γ- Proteobacteria were the dominant classes. Bacteria in the waste water treating process had important influence on microbial community in municipal discharges, therefore, municipal sewage plant should choose the process according to the characteristics and purifying capacity of the receiving water body. Legionella spp. accounted for approximately 10% , the Legionnaires' disease resulted from which might be of top risk for the residents in the surrounding of the municipal discharges outfall and receiving water. Dechloromonas aromatica could make use of chlorite ( CIO - ) , which led to its survival from chlorine disinfection, and it alerted us that several disinfection methods should be used together to ensure the bacterial safety of municipal discharges. Coliform group and other pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella spp. , Shigella spp. , Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Arcobacter spp. were not detected in this study, and it indicated that we should do more work and use more methods to investigate the perniciousness of discharges. PMID:25518668

  19. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one.

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  1. Population Screening Using Sewage Reveals Pan-Resistant Bacteria in Hospital and Community Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mileguir, Fernando; Azar, Roberto; Smollan, Gill; Belausov, Natasha; Rahav, Galia; Shamiss, Ari; Mendelson, Ella; Keller, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical samples in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Hospitals and Community sewage had similar percentage of positive samplings for blaKPC and blaNDM-1. VRE was found to be more abundant in sewage in Israel than MRSA but there were more locations positive for MRSA and VRE bacteria in Hospital sewage than in the Community. Therefore, our upgrade of the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates can be a useful tool for routine screening and monitoring of the population for pan-resistant bacteria using sewage. PMID:27780222

  2. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems. PMID:26685613

  3. Nutrient reduction evaluation of sewage effluent treatment options for small communities.

    PubMed

    Beavers, P D; Tully, I K

    2005-01-01

    Small communities that are sewered by either package sewage treatment plants or on-site sewerage facilities are finding that the ground and surface waters are being contaminated. Nitrogen, which typically is not removed in these conventional systems, is a major concern. This project evaluated the capability of four sewage treatment technologies to reduce the amount of nitrogen being discharged in the effluent to the receiving environment. The four sewage treatment processes evaluated include a recirculating sand filter, biofilter, slow sand filter and constructed subsurface flow wetland. These processes were evaluated for their capability to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD5 and TSS. The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the capability of these treatment processes to reduce nitrogen using biological processes nitrification and denitrification. This paper reports on the performance of these processes to reduce nitrogen. The study demonstrated that the biofilter was capable of removing from a primary treated influent 40% of the total nitrogen. For the same quality influent the recirculating sand filter was capable of removing 35% of the total nitrogen. Secondary treated effluent was fed to the slow sand filter and the subsurface flow wetland. There was a 52% reduction in total nitrogen through the wetland however there was virtually no reduction in total nitrogen through the slow sand filter.

  4. Microbial community of sulfate-reducing up-flow sludge bed in the SANI® process for saline sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Shi, Manyuan; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Shao, Ming-Fei; Zhang, Tong; Ekama, George A; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the microbial community of the sulfate-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) of a novel sulfate reduction, autotrophic denitrification, and nitrification integrated (SANI®) process for saline sewage treatment. The investigation involved a lab-scale SANI® system treating synthetic saline sewage and a pilot-scale SANI® plant treating 10 m(3)/day of screened saline sewage. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were the dominant population, responsible for more than 80% of the chemical oxygen demand removal, and no methane-producing archaea were detected in both SRUSBs. Thermotogales-like bacteria were the dominant SRB in the pilot-scale SRUSB while Desulforhopalus-like bacteria were the major species in the lab-scale SRUSB.

  5. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi river water.

    PubMed

    Korajkic, Asja; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; McMinn, Brian R; Baeza, Yoshiki Vazquez; VanTeuren, Will; Knight, Rob; Shanks, Orin C

    2015-02-01

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is known about how these communities change due to mixing and subsequent decomposition of the sewage contaminant. We investigated decay of sewage in upper Mississippi River using Illumina sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA gene hypervariable regions and qPCR for human-associated and general fecal Bacteroidales indicators. Mixtures of primary treated sewage and river water were placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ under ambient conditions for seven days. We assessed changes in microbial community composition under two treatments in a replicated factorial design: sunlight exposure versus shaded and presence versus absence of native river microbiota. Initial diversity was higher in sewage compared to river water for 16S sequences, but the reverse was observed for 18S sequences. Both treatments significantly shifted community composition for eukaryotes and bacteria (P < 0.05). Data indicated that the presence of native river microbiota, rather than exposure to sunlight, accounted for the majority of variation between treatments for both 16S (R = 0.50; P > 0.001) and 18S (R = 0.91; P = 0.001) communities. A comparison of 16S sequence data and fecal indicator qPCR measurements indicated that the latter was a good predictor of overall bacterial community change over time (rho: 0.804-0.814, P = 0.001). These findings suggest that biotic interactions, such as predation by bacterivorous protozoa, can be critical factors in the decomposition of sewage in freshwater habitats and support the use of Bacteroidales genetic markers as indicators of fecal pollution.

  6. Self-contained sewage treatment system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmson, Th.J.

    1985-02-26

    A self-contained sewage treatment system and method includes a first waterless treating tank operable to separate feculent solids from raw sewage influent in a suspended bio-mass for effective aerobic bacterial digestion in this tank with the outlet of the waterless tank connected to the inlet of a septic tank where sedimentation of the smaller entrained organic particles in the liquor leaving the waterless tank can occur and undergo anaerobic bacterial digestion. The system can include pipe means for distributing the clear liquor from the septic tank in a leach field where it can be disposed of in a safe, pollution-free and environmentally acceptable manner without deleterious effects. Because the method of treatment effectively removes all of the organic solids from the raw sewage influent by using aerobic digestion followed by anaerobic digestion in sequential steps, the clear liquor leaving the septic tank will be environmentally safe and free of all entrained organic matter.

  7. Alteration of a Salt Marsh Bacterial Community by Fertilization with Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett, Nancy V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cape Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed that sludge fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp. PMID:16347183

  8. Isolation of enterovirus and reovirus from sewage and treated effluents in selected Puerto Rican communities.

    PubMed Central

    Dahling, D R; Safferman, R S; Wright, B A

    1989-01-01

    Sewage treatment plant effluents were surveyed for viral contributions to gastroenteritis outbreaks in Puerto Rico. Of the 15 sewage treatment plants studied, all discharged their effluents upstream from water treatment plant intakes. No base-line data on the degree of viral challenge to these sewage treatment plants or the subsequent reduction of viruses before discharge existed. Enterovirus counts were generally much higher than those found in the continental United States. At four plants, viruses in the incoming sewage exceeded 100,000 PFU/liter, and one of these, a trickling filter plant, was discharging 24,000 PFU/liter to receiving waters. Virus identification showed that more than 80% of the enterovirus isolates were coxsackievirus B5. These overwhelming viral numbers pointed to defects in the sewage treatment processes. Without reasonable barriers to protect receiving waters, several of the downstream communities were using raw waters that posed extraordinary demands on the ability of their water treatment plants to supply virologically safe drinking water. PMID:2541664

  9. Influence of Solar Radiation and Biotic Interactions on Bacterial and Eukaryotic Communities Associated with Sewage Decomposition in Ambient Water - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, the persistence of sewage-derived pathogens in environmental waters can represent a significant public health concern. Solar radiation and biotic...

  10. Influence of solar radiation and biotic interactions on bacterial and eukaryotic communities associated with sewage decomposition in ambient water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, the persistence of sewage-derived pathogens in environmental waters can represent a significant public health concern. Solar radiation and biot...

  11. Autotrophic nitrogen removal from domestic sewage in MBR-CANON system and the biodiversity of functional microbes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Li, Dong; Liang, Yuhai; He, Yongping; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Jie

    2013-12-01

    The feasibility of completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process for treating domestic sewage was investigated in membrane bioreactor (MBR), for which conventional activated sludge was seeded at ambient temperature. By gradually decreasing hydraulic retention time under the oxygen-limited condition, CANON was successfully started-up for 78 days. Finally the MBR-CANON system was adopted for treating domestic sewage, nitrogen and COD removal achieved to 0.97 kg m(-3) d(-1), 80%, respectively, with the effluent turbidity below 1.0 NTU. DGGE profiles showed a distinct community shift of the functional bacteria after seeded to the reactor, and phylogenetic results indicated the predominance of Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis for nitrogen removal in the reactor. FISH results showed the predominance of aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in the system, both of whose proportion reduced when treated domestic sewage.

  12. Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge: Community Health and Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Mary Anne; Wing, Steve; Muhammad, Naeema

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the United States, most of the treated sewage sludge (biosolids) is applied to farmland as a soil amendment. Critics suggest that rules regulating sewage sludge treatment and land application may be insufficient to protect public health and the environment. Neighbors of land application sites report illness following land application events. Objectives: We used qualitative research methods to evaluate health and quality of life near land application sites. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with neighbors of land application sites and used qualitative analytic software and team-based methods to analyze interview transcripts and identify themes. Results: Thirty-four people in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia responded to interviews. Key themes were health impacts, environmental impacts, and environmental justice. Over half of the respondents attributed physical symptoms to application events. Most noted offensive sludge odors that interfere with daily activities and opportunities to socialize with family and friends. Several questioned the fairness of disposing of urban waste in rural neighborhoods. Although a few respondents were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials regarding sludge, many reported a lack of public notification about land application in their neighborhoods, as well as difficulty reporting concerns to public officials and influencing decisions about how the practice is conducted where they live. Conclusions: Community members are key witnesses of land application events and their potential impacts on health, quality of life, and the environment. Meaningful involvement of community members in decision making about land application of sewage sludge will strengthen environmental health protections. PMID:23562940

  13. Bacterial communities and their association with the bio-drying of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Yu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Bio-drying is a technology that aims to remove water from a material using the microbial heat originating from organic matter degradation. However, the evolution of bacterial communities that are associated with the drying process has not been researched systematically. This study was performed to investigate the variations of bacterial communities and the relationships among bacterial communities, water evaporation, water generation, and organic matter degradation during the bio-drying of sewage sludge. High-throughput pyrosequencing was used to analyze the bacterial communities, while water evaporation and water generation were determined based on an in situ water vapor monitoring device. The values of water evaporation, water generation, and volatile solids degradation were 412.9 g kg(-1) sewage sludge bio-drying material (SSBM), 65.0 g kg(-1) SSBM, and 70.2 g kg(-1) SSBM, respectively. Rarefaction curves and diversity indices showed that bacterial diversity plummeted after the temperature of the bio-drying pile dramatically increased on d 2, which coincided with a remarkable increase of water evaporation on d 2. Bacterial diversity increased when the pile cooled. During the thermophilic phase, in which Acinetobacter and Bacillus were the dominant genera, the rates of water evaporation, water generation, and VS degradation peaked. These results implied that the elevated temperature reshaped the bacterial communities, which played a key role in water evaporation, and the high temperature also contributed to the effective elimination of pathogens.

  14. Bacterial community structure in treated sewage sludge with mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Wolfram, Jan; Demnerova, Katerina; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2015-11-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge is applied to agricultural fields and farmland due to its high organic matter content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of sludge stabilization, mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), on bacterial communities in sludge, including the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial community structure and phylogenetic diversity were analyzed in four sewage sludge samples from the Czech Republic. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes showed that investigated sludge samples harbor diverse bacterial populations with only a few taxa present across all samples. Bacterial diversity was higher in sludge samples after MAD versus TAD treatment, and communities in MAD-treated sludge shared the highest genetic similarities. In all samples, the bacterial community was dominated by reads affiliated with Proteobacteria. The sludge after TAD treatment had considerably higher number of reads of thermotolerant/thermophilic taxa, such as the phyla Deinococcus-Thermus and Thermotogae or the genus Coprothermobacter. Only one operational taxonomic unit (OTU), which clustered with Rhodanobacter, was detected in all communities at a relative abundance >1 %. All of the communities were screened for the presence of 16S rRNA gene sequences of pathogenic bacteria using a database of 122 pathogenic species and ≥98 % identity threshold. The abundance of such sequences ranged between 0.23 and 1.57 % of the total community, with lower numbers present after the TAD treatment, indicating its higher hygienization efficiency. Sequences clustering with nontuberculous mycobacteria were present in all samples. Other detected sequences of pathogenic bacteria included Streptomyces somaliensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Gordonia spp., Legionella anisa, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Enterobacter aerogenes, Brucella melitensis, and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25921720

  15. Design and Research of the Sewage Treatment Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J.; Hu, W. W.

    Due to the rapid development of China's economy, the water pollution has become a problem that we have to face. In particular, how to deal with industrial wastewater has become a top priority. In wastewater treatment, the control system based on PLC has met the design requirement in real-time, reliability, precision and so on. The integration of sequence control and process control in PLC, has the characteristics of high reliability, simple network, convenient and flexible use. PLC is a powerful tool for small and medium-sized industrial automation. Therefore, the sewage treatment control system take PLC as the core of control system, can nicely solve the problem of industrial wastewater in a certain extent.

  16. Molecular characterization of anaerobic sulfur-oxidizing microbial communities in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Aida, Azrina A; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Ono, Shinya; Nakamura, Akinobu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    A novel wastewater treatment system consisting of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor with sulfur-redox reaction was developed for treatment of municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. In the UASB reactor, a novel phenomenon of anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors. The microorganisms involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation have not been elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we studied the microbial communities existing in the UASB reactor that probably enhanced anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples collected from the UASB reactor before and after sulfur oxidation were used for cloning and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of the bacterial and archaeal domains. The microbial community structures of bacteria and archaea indicated that the genus Smithella and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Caldiserica were the dominant bacteria groups. Methanosaeta spp. was the dominant group of the domain archaea. The T-RFLP analysis, which was consistent with the cloning results, also yielded characteristic fingerprints for bacterial communities, whereas the archaeal community structure yielded stable microbial community. From these results, it can be presumed that these major bacteria groups, genus Smithella and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Caldiserica, probably play an important role in sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors.

  17. Overview and system analysis of various sewage sludge drying processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kasakura, T.; Imoto, Y.; Mori, T. )

    1993-01-01

    An incineration process is routinely used in Japan to treat nearly all the generated sewage sludge. The drying process now is recognized as an important part of the pretreatment process of a incineration process. This pater provides a brief introduction to the conventionally utilized drying methods/equipment (i.e, hot gas drying fluidized bed drying, pneumatic conveyor drying, and steam drying) for treating dewatered sludge cakes. In addition, a systems analysis approach is described which is used to model various thermal processing methods which include the drying process. This allows the parameters which most significantly affect plant operation and initial construction costs and also energy recovery efficiency to be optimized and clarified.

  18. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP), Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon–Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

  19. Marine meiobenthic and nematode community structure in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong upon recovery from sewage pollution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Shou; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2011-01-01

    Sediment quality, meiofaunal and nematode communities were monitored across six time points at two inside-harbour and three outside-harbour sites over a three-year period in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, after the implementation of a sewage treatment project. Twenty-one meiofaunal groups comprising mainly free-living nematodes and harpacticoid copepods and 188 species of free-living nematodes were identified. The outside-harbour area had a more diverse and significantly different nematode community structure as compared to that in the inside-harbour area. Such spatial difference was highly correlated with the total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the sediments. Over the study period, there was no significant improvement in sediment quality within the harbour. However, in the last sampling time, an increase in meiofaunal abundance and a closer similarity in nematode composition between one of the inside- and outside-harbour sites suggested signs of recovery of the meiofauna as a response to abatement of sewage pollution. PMID:21474152

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary to the total integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the community, or (b... collection system will be for waste waters originating from the community (habitations) in existence on... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  1. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  2. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  3. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources.

  4. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    PubMed

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  5. Estimation of community-wide drugs use via stereoselective profiling of sewage.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Baker, David R

    2012-04-15

    This paper explores possibilities of applying enantiomeric profiling to solving problems related to estimation of drugs usage in communities via the sewage epidemiology approach: for the identification of whether drug residue results from consumption of illicit drug or metabolism of other drugs, verification of potency of used drugs and monitoring of changing patterns of drugs abuse. Due to the very complex nature of wastewater used in sewage epidemiology, which comes from the whole community rather than one individual, verification of the above is challenging but vital in accurate estimations of drugs abuse as well as providing comprehensive information regarding drug abuse trends. The results of this study indicated that amphetamine in raw wastewater was enriched with R(-)-enantiomer due to its abuse as racemate. Methamphetamine was found to be racemic or to be enriched with S(+)-enantiomer. MDMA was enriched with R(-)-MDMA, which was to be expected as MDMA is abused as racemate. MDA was enriched with S(+)-enantiomer, which suggests that its presence might be associated with MDMA abuse and not intentional MDA use. Out of the four possible isomers of ephedrine only natural 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine and 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine were detected in raw wastewater and their diastereomeric fractions were found to be season dependent with higher contribution from 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine over winter months and an enrichment with 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine during the spring and summer months. These findings were accompanied by a decrease of cumulative concentration of ephedrines throughout the sampling campaign between February and August. This is a very important finding indicating that non-enantioselective measurement of ephedrine concentrations cannot be a reliable indicator of actual potency of ephedrines used.

  6. Bioaugmentation of sewage sludge with Trametes versicolor in solid-phase biopiles produces degradation of pharmaceuticals and affects microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Jelić, Aleksandra; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Petrović, Mira; Alves, M Madalena; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    The use of sludge (biosolids) in land application may contribute to the spread of organic micropollutants as wastewater treatments do not completely remove these compounds. Therefore, the development of alternative strategies for sludge treatment is a matter of recent concern. The elimination of pharmaceuticals at pre-existent concentrations from sewage sludge was assessed, for the first time, in nonsterile biopiles by means of fungal bioaugmentation with Trametes versicolor (BTV-systems) and compared with the effect of autochthonous microbiota (NB-systems). The competition between the autochthonous fungal/bacterial communities and T. versicolor was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the cloning/sequencing approach. An inhibitory effect exerted by T. versicolor over bacterial populations was suggested. However, after 21 days, T. versicolor was no longer the main taxon in the fungal communities. The elimination profiles revealed an enhanced removal of atorvastatin-diclofenac-hydrochlorothiazide (during the whole treatment) and ranitidine-fenofibrate (at short periods) in the BTV biopiles in respect to NB biopiles, coincident with the presence of the fungus. For ibuprofen-clarithromycin-furosemide, the elimination profiles were similar irrespective of the system, and with carbamazepine no significant degradation was obtained. The results suggest that a fungal treatment with T. versicolor could be a promising process for the remediation of some pharmaceuticals in complex matrices such as biosolids. PMID:23030544

  7. Effect of the addition of rice straw on microbial community in a sewage sludge digester.

    PubMed

    Nakakihara, E; Ikemoto-Yamamoto, R; Honda, R; Ohtsuki, S; Takano, M; Suetsugu, Y; Watanabe, H

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw was added to a sewage sludge digester and its effects on methane production, dewatering characteristics, and microbial communities in the digested sludge were examined by a continuous digestion experiment under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Stable gas generation was monitored in all digestion experiments. Methane yield from raw sludge, chopped rice straw and softened rice straw were estimated to be 0.27, 0.18 and 0.26 NL/g total solids load, respectively. The capillary suction time of digested sludge was decreased by the addition of rice straw. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the sludge were elucidated by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) targeting 16S rRNA genes. The Shannon index of DGGE profiles indicated that bacterial diversity increased with the addition of softened rice straw. DNA sequences of significant bands of the digested sludge were most closely related to Methanosaeta concilii (97.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (100% identity). Meanwhile, those in the co-digested sludge with rice straw were most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri (98.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (99.3% identity). Although both Methanosaeta spp. and Methanosarcina spp. metabolize acetate to methane, Methanosarcina spp. have a competitive advantage at acetate concentrations of >70 mg/L. Results suggested that the quantity of acetate produced during rice straw degradation may change the archaeal community. PMID:25225928

  8. Microbial community in a pilot-scale bioreactor promoting anaerobic digestion and sulfur-driven denitrification for domestic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Saia, Flávia Talarico; Souza, Theo S O; Duarte, Rubens Tadeu Delgado; Pozzi, Eloisa; Fonseca, Débora; Foresti, Eugenio

    2016-02-01

    A pilot-scale reactor treating domestic sewage was operated to promote anaerobic digestion and denitrification using endogenous electron donors. While 55 % of organic matter was removed, nitrogen and sulfur showed a different dynamics during the operation. Pyrosequencing analysis clarified this behavior revealing that specific microbial communities inhabited the anaerobic (47.05 % of OTUs) and anoxic (31.39 % of OTUs) chambers. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene partial sequences obtained through pyrosequencing revealed a total of 1727 OTUs clustered at a 3 % distance cutoff. In the anaerobic chamber, microbial community was comprised of fermentative, syntrophic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The majority of sequences were related to Aminobacterium and Syntrophorhabdus. In the anoxic chamber, the majority of sequences were related to mixotrophic and strictly autotrophic denitrifiers Arcobacter and Sulfuricurvum, respectively, both involved in sulfur-driven denitrification. These results show that pyrosequencing was a powerful tool to investigate the microbial panorama of a complex system, providing new insights to the improvement of the system.

  9. A model for government-community partnership in building sewage systems for urban areas: the experiences of the Orangi Pilot Project--Research and Training Institute (OPP-RTI), Karachi.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Arif

    2002-01-01

    Over 20 years the Orangi Pilot Project has been working to understand the problems of Orangi, a district of Karachi largely characterised by high-density informal settlement, and enable its residents to develop and implement solutions. Sanitation was identified as the major problem and a sewerage system was built. From this work was developed the "internal-external" concept for sanitation, which has 4 levels: sanitary latrines in houses; underground sewer in lane; neighbourhood collector sewer; and trunk sewer and treatment plant. The first three components are "internal" and can be undertaken by low-income communities; the "external" fourth component has to be funded and carried out by government or similar agency. Successful and unsuccessful attempts elsewhere to replicate this model have both confirmed the effectiveness and practicality of such community-based action and shown the - largely organisational pitfalls that must be avoided.

  10. Comparison of material flows in sewage-free and sewage-generating flue-gas purification systems of municipal waste incineration plants

    SciTech Connect

    Achternbosch, M.; Richers, U.

    1998-07-01

    During incineration of waste in waste incineration plants, polluted flue gases are generated which have to be subjected to flue gas purification. Although the legal requirements are nearly unambiguous, the question of whether wet flue gas purification is to be performed in a sewage-free or sewage-generating manner is discussed controversially by experts in the Federal Republic of Germany. As a contribution to this discussion, material flow studies of sewage-free and sewage-generating flue gas purification processes in waste incineration plants were performed by ITAS in cooperation with ITC-TAB. The study covered three waste incineration plants, two of which were operated in a sewage-generating and one in a sewage-free manner. The data and information submitted by most of the plant operators are not sufficient for a comprehensive balancing of flue gas purification systems in waste incineration plants. For this reason, plant operation often is not optimally tailored to the substances prevailing. During operation, at least temporary strong superstoichiometric dosage of auxiliary chemicals cannot be excluded. By means of plausibility assumptions and model calculations, closed balancing of most plants could be achieved. Moreover, it was demonstrated by the balancing of technical-scale waste incineration plants that the material flows in wet flue gas purification re less dependent on the design of the flue gas purification section (sewage-free/sewage-generating), but considerably affected by the operation of the flue gas purification system (e.g., volume of absorption agents used). Hence, material flows can be controlled in a certain range.

  11. Sewage Decomposition in Ambient Water: Influence of Solarradiation and Biotic Interactions on Microorganism Communities and Bacteroidales Real-Time Quantitative PCR Measurements - poster/abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    AIMS: Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, solar radiation and biotic interactions (predation and competition) can influence pathogen decay based on experiments targeting indicator ...

  12. SEWAGE DECOMPOSITION IN AMBIENT WATER: INFLUENCE OF SOLARRADIATION AND BIOTIC INTERACTIONS ON MICROORGANISM COMMUNITIES AND BACTEROIDALES REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR MEASUREMENTS - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    AIMS: Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, solar radiation and biotic interactions (predation and competition) can influence pathogen decay based on experiments targeting indicator ...

  13. Impact of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on the collard arthropod community

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-08-01

    Stress effects on a terrestrial arthropod community were evident in a study of collards grown in soil amended with chemically contaminated sewage sludge. Plant growth in the contaminated sludge was significantly reduced compared with growth in plots treated with relatively uncontaminated sludge from two small towns or with mature alone. Population densities of major arthropod taxa tended to be lower in plots of contaminated sludge than they were in uncontaminated sludge and manure plots. Species richness and diversity were also reduced in contaminated-sludge plots compared with those of uncontaminated sludge and manure treatments. In general, few differences were observed in plant growth and arthropod numbers between the uncontaminated-sludge treatment, or uncontaminated sludge treated with cadmium or with the insecticide dieldrin. Because cadmium and dieldrin were applied at dosages of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in the contaminated sludge, results suggested that these two toxins were not responsible for the effects on plants and arthropods observed in the contaminated-sludge treatment. Results of this study indicated the potential for sludge-borne contaminants to suppress growth in crop plants and reduce abundance of their associated arthropods.

  14. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Cabrol, Léa; Urra, Johana; Rosenkranz, Francisca; Kroff, Pablo Araya; Plugge, Caroline M; Lesty, Yves; Chamy, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale municipal WWTP in Santiago de Chile, and fed with either primary or mixed sewage sludge. AD performance was evaluated by volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production monitoring. Archaeal community structure was characterized by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and band sequencing. In the primary sludge digester, a single PAA pulse at 200 mg L(-1) was sufficient to affect AD performance and archaeal community structure, resulting in long-term VFA accumulation, reduced biogas production and community shift from dominant acetoclastic (Methanosaeta concilii) to hydrogenotrophic (Methanospirillum hungatei) methanogens. By contrast, AD performance and archaeal community structure in the mixed sludge digester were stable and resistant to repeated PAA pulses at 200 and 600 mg L(-1). This work demonstrated that the effect of PAA pulses on methanogenic activity and archaeal community structure differed according to AD substrate, and suggests that better insights of the correlations between archaeal population dynamics and functional performance could help to better face toxic shocks in AD.

  15. A Multiple-Tracer Approach for Identifying Sewage Sources to an Urban Stream System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth Edward

    2007-01-01

    sampling approach, 149 sites were sampled at least one time for indicator tracers; 52 of these sites also were sampled for confirmatory tracers at least one time. Through the analysis of multiple-tracer levels in the synoptic samples, three major sewage sources to the Accotink Creek stream network were identified, and several other minor sewage sources to the Accotink Creek system likely deserve additional investigation. Near the end of the synoptic sampling activities, three additional sampling methods were used to gain better understanding of the potential for sewage sources to the watershed. These additional sampling methods included optical brightener monitoring, intensive stream sampling using automated samplers, and additional sampling of several storm-drain networks. The samples obtained by these methods provided further understanding of possible sewage sources to the streams and a better understanding of the variability in the tracer concentrations at a given sampling site. Collectively, these additional sampling methods were a valuable complement to the synoptic sampling approach that was used for the bulk of this study. The study results provide an approach for local authorities to use in applying a relatively simple and inexpensive collection of tracers to locate sewage sources to streams. Although this multiple-tracer approach is effective in detecting sewage sources to streams, additional research is needed to better detect extremely low-volume sewage sources and better enable local authorities to identify the specific sources of the sewage once it is detected in a stream reach.

  16. [Wastewater Quantity and Quality Fluctuation Characteristics of Typical Area of Hybrid Sewage System].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xun; Zhang, Ming-kai; Liu, Yan-chen; Shi, Han-chang

    2016-05-15

    The inflow and infiltration problems cause large fluctuation in wastewater quantity and quality in hybrid sewage system. This seriously challenges the operation and management of sewage system. A multi-point on-line simultaneous monitoring system was established in a typical hybrid sewage system. The key characteristic parameters and their variation features under different circumstances were studied. The result indicated that the daily variation rule was obvious and appeared synchronous among multiple points at normal water level under dry weather flow, but there was no synchronization in conductivity variation among multiple points at high water level under dry weather flow. The statistical distribution range of water level and conductivity was significantly impacted by the seasonal rainfall change under dry weather. The statistical distribution ranges of water level variation rate and conductivity variation rate in specific time were significantly impacted by the rainfall. The response features of water level and conductivity to rainfall intensity and pattern were significantly different under different circumstances. The response sensitivity of conductivity was higher than water level at normal water level and lower at high water level. The database which could support the optimization of operation and management in the hybrid sewage system was proposed based on the distribution law of wastewater quality and quantity fluctuation under dry and wet weather, as well as the variation rate features of wastewater quality and quantity during rainfall obtained using the multi-point on-line simultaneous monitoring system. PMID:27506039

  17. Solar assisted sludge and energy recycling disposal system utilizing the old Princeton sewage treatment and solid waste incineration facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, S.M.

    1980-12-01

    Princeton, New Jersey, a town of 30,000 people is in a unique position to utilize solid waste and sewage sludge as supplementary energy sources. The Stony Brook Sewage Authority recently constructed a new twenty million dollar sewage treatment plant next to the old sewage treatment plant which served the community of Princeton for forty years. On the site of the old plant is an abandoned incinerator plant which presently is being used as a transfer station. The new sewage treatment plant is disposing of its sludge by burning it in multiple hearth furnaces using sixty gallons of precious oil to do this. The proposed Princeton Energy Recycling Center is designed to be retrofitted with solar sludge dryers to dry the sewage sludge which would be transported by conveyer to the old incinerator plant where it would be mixed with garbage and be burned in rehabilitated furnaces which would be retrofitted for steam generators, a steam engine driven electric generator and air pollution control equipment. It is estimated that the proposed energy recycling center would fulfill all electrical needs of the new sewage treatment plant in addition to solving the solid waste and sludge disposal problems of the Princeton community. The paper presents a detailed discussion on the proposed Princeton Energy Recycling Center.

  18. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  19. Performance of a single stage vertical flow constructed wetland system treating raw domestic sewage in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lana, L C O; Moraes, D C; von Sperling, M; Morato, M L N; Vasconcellos, G R; Paraense, M O; Moreira, T P A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the behaviour of two intermittently fed vertical flow constructed wetlands (one planted with Tifton 85 and the other unplanted) working in parallel, treating raw municipal sewage in Brazil for a population equivalent around 100 inhabitants. Based on a monitoring programme of over 2 years, the following items were evaluated: influence of batch frequency and the presence of Tifton 85 on the wetlands performance in terms of several physico-chemical and biological constituents. The unit with plants performed better than the one without, indicating a positive influence of the presence of plants. More attachment by total and volatile solids and larger amount of bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle were observed in the planted filter medium, which can explain its higher nitrification and solids removal. The application of a smaller influent volume with a higher batch frequency improved the performance of both units. No signs of medium clogging have been observed in both units. The system simplicity and the good removal efficiency of organic matter, suspended solids, ammonia and helminth eggs indicate its high applicability in small communities in developing countries such as Brazil.

  20. Structural and metabolic responses of microbial community to sewage-borne chlorpyrifos in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Liping; Xu, Dong; Liu, Biyun; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-06-01

    Long-term use of chlorpyrifos poses a potential threat to the environment that cannot be ignored, yet little is known about the succession of substrate microbial communities in constructed wetlands (CWs) under chlorpyrifos stress. Six pilot-scale CW systems receiving artificial wastewater containing 1mg/L chlorpyrifos were established to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos and wetland vegetation on the microbial metabolism pattern of carbon sources and community structure, using BIOLOG and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. Based on our samples, BIOLOG showed that Shannon diversity (H') and richness (S) values distinctly increased after 30days when chlorpyrifos was added. At the same time, differences between the vegetated and the non-vegetated systems disappeared. DGGE profiles indicated that H' and S had no significant differences among four different treatments. The effect of chlorpyrifos on the microbial community was mainly reflected at the physiological level. Principal component analysis (PCA) of both BIOLOG and DGGE showed that added chlorpyrifos made a difference on test results. Meanwhile, there was no difference between the vegetation and no-vegetation treatments after addition of chlorpyrifos at the physiological level. Moreover, the vegetation had no significant effect on the microbial community at the genetic level. Comparisons were made between bacteria in this experiment and other known chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria. The potential chlorpyrifos-degrading ability of bacteria in situ may be considerable.

  1. Structural and metabolic responses of microbial community to sewage-borne chlorpyrifos in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Liping; Xu, Dong; Liu, Biyun; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-06-01

    Long-term use of chlorpyrifos poses a potential threat to the environment that cannot be ignored, yet little is known about the succession of substrate microbial communities in constructed wetlands (CWs) under chlorpyrifos stress. Six pilot-scale CW systems receiving artificial wastewater containing 1mg/L chlorpyrifos were established to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos and wetland vegetation on the microbial metabolism pattern of carbon sources and community structure, using BIOLOG and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. Based on our samples, BIOLOG showed that Shannon diversity (H') and richness (S) values distinctly increased after 30days when chlorpyrifos was added. At the same time, differences between the vegetated and the non-vegetated systems disappeared. DGGE profiles indicated that H' and S had no significant differences among four different treatments. The effect of chlorpyrifos on the microbial community was mainly reflected at the physiological level. Principal component analysis (PCA) of both BIOLOG and DGGE showed that added chlorpyrifos made a difference on test results. Meanwhile, there was no difference between the vegetation and no-vegetation treatments after addition of chlorpyrifos at the physiological level. Moreover, the vegetation had no significant effect on the microbial community at the genetic level. Comparisons were made between bacteria in this experiment and other known chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria. The potential chlorpyrifos-degrading ability of bacteria in situ may be considerable. PMID:27266297

  2. The use of human sewage screening for community surveillance of hepatitis E virus in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Paddy, Julius O.; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus sequences were detected by RT‐PCR in 14/15 (93%) of untreated sewage samples from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons at limiting dilution revealed the co‐circulation of multiple variants of HEV‐3, with a pattern of diversity matching that observed in a local cohort of HEV‐infected hepatitis patients. J. Med. Virol. 88:915–918, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26461450

  3. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting chemicals in simplified sewage treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Emanuel M F; de Queiroz, Fernanda B; Afonso, Robson J C F; Aquino, Sérgio F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L

    2013-10-15

    This work assessed the behaviour of nine pharmaceuticals and/or endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in demo-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB reactors) coupled to distinct simplified post-treatment units (submerged bed, polishing ponds, and trickling filters) fed on raw sewage taken from a municipality in Brazil. The dissolved concentration of the studied micropollutants in the raw and treated sewage was obtained using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis in a liquid chromatography system coupled to a hybrid high resolution mass spectrometer consisting of an ion-trap and time of flight (LC-MS-IT-TOF). The UASB reactors demonstrated that they were not appropriate for efficiently removing the assessed compounds from the sewage. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was an important parameter for the removal of the hydrophilic and less biodegradable compounds, such as trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. The post-treatment units substantially increased the removal of most target micropollutants present in the anaerobic effluents, with a greater removal of micropollutants in simplified systems that require a large construction area, such as the submerged bed and polishing ponds, probably because of the higher HRT employed. Alternatively, compact post-treatment systems, such as trickling filters, tended to be less effective at removing most of the micropollutants studied, and the type of packing proved to be crucial for determining the fate of such compounds using trickling filters. PMID:23850766

  4. Biological sulphide removal from anaerobically treated domestic sewage: reactor performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Graziella Patrício Pereira; Diniz, Renata Côrtes Oliveira; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Franco, Vitor Araujo de Souza; Gontijo, Eider Max de Oliveira; Toscano, Rodrigo Argolo; Canhestro, Kenia Oliveira; Santos, Merly Rita Dos; Carmo, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Dias; Lobato, Livia Cristina S; Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Calabria de Araujo, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    We developed a biological sulphide oxidation system and evaluated two reactors (shaped similar to the settler compartment of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactor) with different support materials for biomass retention: polypropylene rings and polyurethane foam. The start-up reaction was achieved using microorganisms naturally occurring on the open surface of UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater. Sulphide removal efficiencies of 65% and 90% were achieved with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24 and 12 h, respectively, in both reactors. However, a higher amount of elemental sulphur was formed and accumulated in the biomass from reactor 1 (20 mg S(0) g(-1) VTS) than in that from reactor 2 (2.9 mg S(0) g(-1) VTS) with an HRT of 24 h. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that the the pink and green biomass that developed in both reactors comprised a diverse bacterial community and had sequences related to phototrophic green and purple-sulphur bacteria such as Chlorobium sp., Chloronema giganteum, and Chromatiaceae. DGGE band patterns also demonstrated that bacterial community was dynamic over time within the same reactor and that different support materials selected for distinct bacterial communities. Taken together, these results indicated that sulphide concentrations of 1-6 mg L(-1) could be efficiently removed from the effluent of a pilot-scale UASB reactor in two sulphide biological oxidation reactors at HRTs of 12 and 24 h, showing the potential for sulphur recovery from anaerobically treated domestic wastewater.

  5. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  6. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial community differences in composting and vermicomposting on the stabilization of mixed sewage sludge and cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Liangbo

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the microbial community structures and compositions in composting and vermicomposting processes. We applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria obtained from bio-stabilization of sewage sludge and cattle dung. Results demonstrated that vermicomposting process presented higher operational taxonomic units and bacterial diversity than the composting. Analysis using weighted UniFrac indicated that composting exhibited higher effects on shaping microbial community structure than the vermicomposting. The succession of dominant bacteria was also detected during composting. Firmicutes was the dominant bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting and shifted to Actinomycetes in the maturing stage. By contrast, Proteobacteria accounted for the highest proportions in the whole process of the vermicomposting. Furthermore, vermicomposting contained more uncultured and unidentified bacteria at the taxonomy level of genus than the composting. In summary, the bacterial community during composting significantly differed from that during vermicomposting. These two techniques played different roles in changing the diversity and composition of microbial communities.

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial community differences in composting and vermicomposting on the stabilization of mixed sewage sludge and cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Liangbo

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the microbial community structures and compositions in composting and vermicomposting processes. We applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria obtained from bio-stabilization of sewage sludge and cattle dung. Results demonstrated that vermicomposting process presented higher operational taxonomic units and bacterial diversity than the composting. Analysis using weighted UniFrac indicated that composting exhibited higher effects on shaping microbial community structure than the vermicomposting. The succession of dominant bacteria was also detected during composting. Firmicutes was the dominant bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting and shifted to Actinomycetes in the maturing stage. By contrast, Proteobacteria accounted for the highest proportions in the whole process of the vermicomposting. Furthermore, vermicomposting contained more uncultured and unidentified bacteria at the taxonomy level of genus than the composting. In summary, the bacterial community during composting significantly differed from that during vermicomposting. These two techniques played different roles in changing the diversity and composition of microbial communities. PMID:26318447

  8. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area...

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area...

  10. Environmental Assessment for the sewage lagoon system: Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1026), to evaluate the potential impacts of constructing a sanitary waste sewage lagoon system in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The proposed system would replace an existing septic system. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 USC 4321 et seq.). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  11. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  12. Multivariant statistical analysis of PCDD/FS in sewage sludges from different areas of the Valencian Community (Spain).

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M Jesús; Font, Rafael; Gómez-Rico, M Francisca; Moltó, Julia

    2007-04-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 31 sewage sludges from different wastewater treatment plants corresponding to rural, urban and industrial areas in the Valencian Community (Spain) were analysed. Values of 5.1-346.2 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (dry weight) were detected for sewage sludge with the highest value in one sample from an industrial area. Therefore the majority of the samples did not exceed the limit proposed (100 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)) by the [EU, 2000. Working document on sludge, 3rd draft. Brussels. Available from: http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/waste/sludge/sludge_en.pdf] for use in agriculture. The dominant congeners for each family of compounds were 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and OCDD from PCDDs, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF from PCDFs. The total concentrations of PCDD/Fs were evaluated statistically through SPPS 11.0 for Windows. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract two PCs as a linear combination of the original variables, one of them associated to urban+highly industrial areas and the other one to urban+low industrial areas. The linear regression method was applied and an efficient correlation was obtained between the total I-TEQ values for each sample and two of most abundant congeners (OCDF and OCDD). This expression was obtained with the results of the 31 samples analysed and a variety of data from other authors. Furthermore, several bilateral correlations between the different congeners completed the statistical analysis.

  13. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  14. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M M

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2-3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7-1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  15. Data report. The fate of human enteric viruses in a natural sewage recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-09-01

    A two-year study was conducted to determine the virus-removing capacity of two man-made ecosystems designed for the treatment of raw domestic wastewater. The first treatment system consisted of two meadows followed by a marsh-pond unit (M/M/P). The second system contained individual marsh and pond units (M/P). All systems demonstrated moderate virus removal, with the marsh/pond system yielding the most consistent removal rates. Within this system, the greater potential for virus removal appeared to occur in the marsh unit. In addition to the production of system-oriented data, improved techniques for the concentration and enumeration of human viruses from sewage-polluted aquatic systems were developed.

  16. Small sewage treatment system with an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic combined biofilter.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Jun, H B; Hong, S P; Kwon, J C

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a small sewage treatment system that could improve nitrogen and BOD5 removal efficiency as well as generate less solid using an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic biofiltration system. Wastewater temperature was in the range of 14-25 degrees C, and hydraulic residual times were 12 h for each reactor. The upflow anaerobic digester equipped with anoxic filter was fed with both raw sewage and recycled effluent from the aerobic filter to induce denitrification and solid reduction simultaneously. In the subsequent aerobic filter, residual organic carbon and ammonia might be oxidized and finally nitrate formed. In the anaerobic reactor, about 71% of influent TCOD was removed by sedimentation of the un-filterable COD at the recycle ratio of 300%. Another 20% of influent TCOD was removed in the anoxic filter by denitrification of the recycled nitrate. After 100 days operation, solid reduction and nitrification efficiency were about 30% and 95%, respectively. Overall removal efficiencies of COD and total nitrogen (T-N) were above 94% and 70% at the recycle ratio of 300%, respectively. Total wasted solid from the system after 100 days operation was about 316 g, which was only 44% of the solid generated from a controlled activated sludge system operated at sludge retention time of 8 days.

  17. Consideration of online rainfall measurement and nowcasting for RTC of the combined sewage system.

    PubMed

    Rouault, P; Schroeder, K; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Reimer, E

    2008-01-01

    In Berlin, Germany, the demand for enhanced protection of the environment and the growing economic pressure have led to an increased application of control concepts within the sewage system. A global control strategy to regulate the pumpage of the combined sewage system to the treatment plant was developed and evaluated in a theoretical study. The objective was to reduce CSO. In this paper an extension of the existing control algorithm by information from online rainfall measurement and radar nowcasting is described. The rainfall information is taken into account by two additive terms describing the predicted volume from rainfall runoff. On the basis of numerical simulation the potential of these two complementary forecast terms in the global control algorithm to further reduce CSO is evaluated. The investigations are based on long-time simulations that are conducted with the dynamic flow routing model InfoWorks for three subcatchments of the Berlin drainage system. The results show that at the current Berlin system a CSO reduction of only 0.8% is possible. The effect of the forecast terms is limited by operational constraints. Limits are set to both, the delivery from each individual pump station and the total pumpage to the treatment plant. PMID:18547933

  18. Hybrid community energy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Karvelas, D. E.; Energy Systems

    2000-01-01

    The availability of efficient, economical, and reliable energy supplies can help attract industry and commercial businesses to a municipality or a region. Efficient use of energy can also improve the air quality and reduce pollution. Therefore, municipalities should explore and encourage the development and implementation of efficient energy systems. Integrated hybrid energy systems can be designed to meet the total energy requirements of large and small communities. These systems can yield significant energy and cost savings when compared with independent systems serving individual units or when compared with the conventional practice of buying power from a utility and producing thermal energy on-site. To maximize energy and cost savings, the design engineer should look beyond the conventional when designing such systems.

  19. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  20. [Matching study on treatment of sewage from highway service area by ecological soil system in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Zhi-Min; He, Juan

    2011-04-01

    The osmotic coefficient by clear water and sewage, static adsorption, dynamic and water penetration tests were conducted to determine the parameters, which including materials matching, hydraulic loading, and wet to dry ratio, in the treatment of sewage from highway service area (SHSA) in Chongqing by ecological soil system. The results showed that, according to principles of easier getting, high and stable hydraulic load, large decontamination capability, the materials matching of working layer SHSA was made of 30.67% soil, 61.33% sand and 8.00% cinder in Chongqing, and the supporting layer was consisted of 0.20 m cable and 0.10 m broken stone (height). The total height of the ecological soil system was 1.6 m, at which 1.00, 1.20, 1.40, 1.60 m department of hydraulic loading were 0.344, 0.322, 0.307, 0.298 m x d(-1), respectively. The flooding period of working layer was 1 d and the drying period 1.5 d, i. e, the ratio of wet to dry was 1:1.5.

  1. Co-treatment of septage in a municipal sewage treatment pond system.

    PubMed

    Kurup, B; Kurup, R; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the characteristics and treatment options of septage. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the effects of co-treatment of 50 MLD of septage in a sewage treatment pond system. The treatment efficiency of the pond system for BOD5 and Fecal Coliform (FC) has been estimated using a first order kinetics model. The model has predicted that the treatment pond system has a maximum capacity of 8.5 MLD and will have a reserve of 28.3% of its total capacity even after the proposed addition of 50 MLD of septage. Separation of oil and grease from septage prior to discharge into the pond system is recommended.

  2. Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Ghangrekar, M M; Mitra, A; Brar, S K

    2012-06-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage.

  3. Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Ghangrekar, M M; Mitra, A; Brar, S K

    2012-06-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage. PMID:22856320

  4. Design of sewage treatment system by applying fuzzy adaptive PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liang-Ping; Li, Hong-Chan

    2013-03-01

    In the sewage treatment system, the dissolved oxygen concentration control, due to its nonlinear, time-varying, large time delay and uncertainty, is difficult to establish the exact mathematical model. While the conventional PID controller only works with good linear not far from its operating point, it is difficult to realize the system control when the operating point far off. In order to solve the above problems, the paper proposed a method which combine fuzzy control with PID methods and designed a fuzzy adaptive PID controller based on S7-300 PLC .It employs fuzzy inference method to achieve the online tuning for PID parameters. The control algorithm by simulation and practical application show that the system has stronger robustness and better adaptability.

  5. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  6. Optimization and microbial community analysis of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge based on microwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junya; Lv, Chen; Tong, Juan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Wang, Yawei; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of microwave pretreatment (MW) on co-digestion of food waste (FW) and sewage sludge (SS) have never been investigated. In this study, a series of mesophilic biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the optimized ratio of FW and SS based on MW, and the evolution of bacterial and archaeal community was investigated through high-throughput sequencing method. Results showed that the optimized ratio was 3:2 for co-digestion of FW and SS based on MW, and the methane production was 316.24 and 338.44mLCH4/gVSadded for MW-FW and MW-SS, respectively. The MW-SS was superior for methane production compared to MW-FW, in which accumulation of propionic acid led to the inhibition of methanogenesis. Proteiniborus and Parabacteroides were responsible for proteins and polysaccharides degradation for all, respectively, while Bacteroides only dominated in co-digestion. Methanosphaera dominated in MW-FW at the active methane production phase, while it was Methanosarcina in MW-SS and mono-SS. PMID:26496214

  7. Optimization and microbial community analysis of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge based on microwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junya; Lv, Chen; Tong, Juan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Wang, Yawei; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of microwave pretreatment (MW) on co-digestion of food waste (FW) and sewage sludge (SS) have never been investigated. In this study, a series of mesophilic biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the optimized ratio of FW and SS based on MW, and the evolution of bacterial and archaeal community was investigated through high-throughput sequencing method. Results showed that the optimized ratio was 3:2 for co-digestion of FW and SS based on MW, and the methane production was 316.24 and 338.44mLCH4/gVSadded for MW-FW and MW-SS, respectively. The MW-SS was superior for methane production compared to MW-FW, in which accumulation of propionic acid led to the inhibition of methanogenesis. Proteiniborus and Parabacteroides were responsible for proteins and polysaccharides degradation for all, respectively, while Bacteroides only dominated in co-digestion. Methanosphaera dominated in MW-FW at the active methane production phase, while it was Methanosarcina in MW-SS and mono-SS.

  8. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage.

  9. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage. PMID:27243933

  10. Influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soil-groundwater systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Li, Jiale; Xu, Liang; Liu, Ming; Du, Bin; Wang, Yanxin

    2013-07-01

    Serious shortage of water resources is one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of cropland and pasture land in northern and northwestern China. Although the reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation becomes a well established practice in these regions, many contaminants have been also introduced into the soil-groundwater systems such as persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To study the influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems, the groundwater flow field was investigated and 31 topsoil samples, 9 boreholes, 11 sewage effluents and 34 groundwater samples were collected in Xiaodian, Taiyuan city, one of the largest sewage irrigation districts, China. During sampling, three representative types of regions were considered including effluent-irrigated area, groundwater-irrigated area served as the control field and no-irrigated area as reference "background". The results showed over-exploitation of groundwater had changed the flow field of groundwater and wherever in soil or in groundwater, the concentration of OCPs in effluent-irrigation area presented the highest value, which indicated that the sewage irrigation had a strong influence on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems. Principal component analysis for OCPs content in groundwater showed that the major influence factors on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in groundwater systems attribute to the flow field of groundwater and to the current pesticide use.

  11. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities.

    PubMed

    Imam, Emad H; Elnakar, Haitham Y

    2014-09-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows.

  12. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Emad H.; Elnakar, Haitham Y.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows. PMID:25685521

  13. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities.

    PubMed

    Imam, Emad H; Elnakar, Haitham Y

    2014-09-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows. PMID:25685521

  14. Earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and quantification of earthworm feeding in vermifiltration system for sewage sludge stabilization using stable isotopic natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-07-15

    Previous studies showed that the presence of earthworm improves treatment performance of vermifilter (VF) for sewage sludge stabilization, but earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and effects in VF were not fully investigated. In this study, earthworm population, enzymatic activity, gut microbial community and stable isotopic abundance were investigated in the VF. Results showed that biomass, average weight, number and alkaline phosphatase activity of the earthworms tended to decrease, while protein content and activities of peroxidase and catalase had an increasing tendency as the VF depth. Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the percentages arrived to 76-92% of the microbial species detected. (15)N and (13)C natural abundance of the earthworms decreased with operation time, and increased as the VF depth. Quantitative analysis using δ(15)N showed that earthworm feeding and earthworm-microorganism interaction were responsible for approximately 21% and 79%, respectively, of the enhanced volatile suspended solid reduction due to the presence of earthworm. The finding provides a quantitative insight into how earthworms influence on sewage sludge stabilization in vermifiltration system.

  15. A modular diagnosis system based on fuzzy logic for UASB reactors treating sewage.

    PubMed

    Borges, R M; Mattedi, A; Munaro, C J; Franci Gonçalves, R

    2016-01-01

    A modular diagnosis system (MDS), based on the framework of fuzzy logic, is proposed for upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating sewage. In module 1, turbidity and rainfall information are used to estimate the influent organic content. In module 2, a dynamic fuzzy model is used to estimate the current biogas production from on-line measured variables, such as daily average temperature and the previous biogas flow rate, as well as the organic load. Finally, in module 3, all the information above and the residual value between the measured and estimated biogas production are used to provide diagnostic information about the operation status of the plant. The MDS was validated through its application to two pilot UASB reactors and the results showed that the tool can provide useful diagnoses to avoid plant failures.

  16. A modular diagnosis system based on fuzzy logic for UASB reactors treating sewage.

    PubMed

    Borges, R M; Mattedi, A; Munaro, C J; Franci Gonçalves, R

    2016-01-01

    A modular diagnosis system (MDS), based on the framework of fuzzy logic, is proposed for upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating sewage. In module 1, turbidity and rainfall information are used to estimate the influent organic content. In module 2, a dynamic fuzzy model is used to estimate the current biogas production from on-line measured variables, such as daily average temperature and the previous biogas flow rate, as well as the organic load. Finally, in module 3, all the information above and the residual value between the measured and estimated biogas production are used to provide diagnostic information about the operation status of the plant. The MDS was validated through its application to two pilot UASB reactors and the results showed that the tool can provide useful diagnoses to avoid plant failures. PMID:27438234

  17. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  18. A study of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems for distributed rural sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Dou, Junfeng; Ding, Aizhong; Xie, En; Zheng, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Three types of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWIS) were developed to study the efficiency of organic pollutant removal from distributed rural sewage under various conditions. Of the three different layered substrate systems, the one with the greatest amount of decomposed cow dung (5%) and soil (DCDS) showed the highest removal efficiency with respect to total nitrogen (TN), where the others showed no significant difference. The TN removal efficiency was increased with an increasing filling height of DCDS. Compared with the TN removal efficiency of 25% in the system without DCDS, the removal efficiency of the systems in which DCDS filled half and one fourth of the height was increased by 72% and 31%, respectively. Based on seasonal variations in the discharge of the typical rural family, the SWIS were run at three different hydraulic loads of 6.5, 13 and 20 cm/d. These results illustrated that SWIS could perform well at any of the given hydraulic loads. The results of trials using different inlet configurations showed that the effluent concentration of the contaminants in the system operating a multiple-inlet mode was much lower compared with the system operated under single-inlet conditions. The effluent concentration ofa pilot-scale plant achieved the level III criteria specified by the Surface Water Quality Standard at the initial stage. PMID:24956806

  19. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions.

  20. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions. PMID:25714630

  1. Evaluation of air pollution abatement systems for multiple-hearth sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Annamraju, G.; Gerstle, R.W.; Shah, Y.M.; Arora, M.L.

    1986-09-01

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for the application of six different air-pollution-control system options to municipal sewage-sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air-pollution equipment - wet scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators - applied to three different plant sizes (plants incinerating 36, 72, and 300 tons of dry sludge per day in one, two, and eight multiple-hearth furnaces, respectively). The six options were: (1) venturi/tray scrubber with a 40-inch pressure drop, (2) fabric filter system operating at 500 deg and equipped with an upstream temperature control, (3) fabric filter system operating at 500 deg and equipped with a heat exchanger and a scrubber for SO/sub 2/ reduction, (4) electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with upstream limited temperature and humidity control, (5) same as Option 4 but with an additional downstream wet scrubber for SO/sub 2/ reduction, and (6) ESP with upstream temperature control and an SO/sub 2/ scrubber. Technical feasibility studies indicated that all three types of controls could achieve a total particulate removal efficiency of 99 percent. The venturi/tray scrubber option entailed the lowest capital cost, but annual operating costs were highest because of the high pressure drops and increased energy use.

  2. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel.

  3. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel. PMID:26876971

  4. POTENTIAL OF ENERGY GENERATION BY INTRODUCTION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC AND SMALL WIND POWER SYSTEM IN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Sites of sewage treatment plants are available as s ites for renewable power generation, while the plants are large energy consumers. This study estimated generation potential of renewable energy by introducing photovoltaic power generation system and small wind power generation system at the sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities. As a result of estimation, 31% of power consumed in the targeted plants were generated by the solar and wind power generation systems when they were intalled in all the plants in the targeted cities. The generated power corresponds to 274,000 t-CO2/year. Approximately 50% of total generated power was generated at 25 plan ts of the 121 of targeted plants.

  5. Efficiency of an emissions payment system for nitrogen in sewage treatment plants - a case study.

    PubMed

    Malmaeus, J Mikael; Ek, Mats; Åmand, Linda; Roth, Susanna; Baresel, Christian; Olshammar, Mikael

    2015-05-01

    An emissions payment system for nitrogen in Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) was evaluated using a semi-empirical approach. The system was based on a tariff levied on each unit of nitrogen emitted by STPs, and profitable measures to reduce nitrogen emissions were identified for twenty municipal STPs. This was done through direct involvement with the plant personnel and the results were scaled up to cover all treatment plants larger than 2000 person equivalents in the Swedish tributary areas of the Kattegat and the Baltic Proper. The sum of costs and nitrogen reductions were compared with an assumed command-and-control regulation requiring all STPs to obtain 80% total nitrogen reduction in their effluents. Costs for the latter case were estimated using a database containing standard estimates for reduction costs by six specified measures. For both cases a total reduction target of 3000 tonnes of nitrogen was set. We did not find that the emissions payment system was more efficient in terms of total reduction costs, although some practical and administrative advantages could be identified. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate the performance of policy instruments on a case-by-case basis since the theoretical efficiency is not always reflected in practice.

  6. SMALL COMMUNITY WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This brochure is part of a series of information packages prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Aimed at the international community, the packages focus on key environmental and public health issues being investigated by EPA. The products highlight...

  7. Domestic sewage treatment in a pilot system composed of UASB and SBR reactors.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Foresti, E

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained from the operation of a treatment system composed of an anaerobic (up-flow sludge blanket-UASB) reactor followed by an aerobic (sequencing batch-SBR) reactor treating domestic sewage are presented and discussed. The pilot plant was monitored during 6 months, aiming to obtain performance data on organic matter, nitrogen and phosphate removal under different operating conditions. The UASB reactor was operated at a constant hydraulic detention time (0) of 6 h while the SBR performance was monitored in four different duration cycles (24, 12, 6 and 4 h) corresponding to aeration times (AT) of 22, 10, 4 and 2 h, respectively. COD and TSS overall removal efficiencies (Eo) up to 91% and 84%, respectively, were achieved independently on the aeration time applied to the SBR. In respect to nitrification and phosphate removal, AT was found to be a determining operating parameter. TKN removal of approximately 90% was achieved for AT equal to or higher than 10 h; complete nitrification occurred for AT higher than 4 h; significant phosphate removal (72%) occurred only at the AT of 2 h. It was not possible to achieve simultaneous efficient removal of nitrogen and phosphate, under the operating conditions imposed on the treatment system. PMID:11575090

  8. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  9. Treating sewage using coimmobilized system of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Z H; Ma, H J; Huang, G L; Pan, H; Sun, C Z

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa was coimmobilized with activated sludge to produce algae-bacteria beads for sewage treatment. Hydrolysis/acidogenesis pretreatment could improve the symbiotic microenvironment of coimmobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa and activated sludge, and as a result, promote the removal of nutrients (COD(cr), inorganic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus) in the sewage. A photo-bioreactor combining hydrolysis/acidogenesis pretreatment and coimmobilized technique was designed to treat sewage continuously. The results show that, the removal efficiencies of COD(cr), NH4(+)-N and TP reached steady state after 4-days of experiment. The removal efficiencies of COD(cr), NH4(+)-N and TP were 59.6%, 59.0% and 60.3% respectively.

  10. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and

  11. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  12. Could sewage epidemiology be a strategy to assess lifestyle and wellness of a large scale population?

    PubMed

    Santos, Julia M; Jurban, Michael; Kim, Hyesook

    2015-10-01

    The use of sewage epidemiology to estimate the behavior of a large scale population has mainly been used to assess illicit drug use within a community. The systemic oxidative stress marker, 8-isoprostane, is a wildly accepted biomarker for various diseases such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. 8-Isoprostane is detected in urine and, as with illicit drugs, is excreted into urban sewer networks. Initially, we tested the hypothesis that differential 8-isoprostane levels are detected in wastewater of different communities and that 8-isoprostane values adjusted for the flow rate and population size will remain constant over a 2 months period. Sewage samples were collected from three sewage collection points supplied by different communities located in the Detroit metropolitan area and concentration of 8-isoprostane and synthetic plastic component, bisphenol A (BPA), were measured. Levels of 8-isoprostane were constant during the two measured months at each collection point in oppose to BPA levels. When the levels were compared among communities, 8-isoprostane levels in 24h flow and their concentrations per capita in each community varied by more than 5-fold among them. Considering the fact that 8-isoprostane is a biomarker of several diseases, we hypothesize that measurement of 8-isoprostane levels in sewage may serve as a risk assessment tool of oxidative stress-related diseases in a large scale population. Thus, sewage epidemiology can be utilized to obtain an early warning in a community to facilitate intervention for improvement of the community health. PMID:26146131

  13. Comparative study of heavy metals in "soil-wheat" systems between sewage-irrigated areas and clean-water-irrigated areas in suburban Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Han, Sha-Sha; Chen, Zhi-Fan; Liu, Jing; Hu, Honq-Xia

    2015-01-01

    After years of irrigating farmland with wastewater, concern is increasing about health risks from heavy metals contaminating wheat grown in sewage-irrigated soils in suburban areas of Beijing, China. The study discussed in this article aimed to compare the characteristics of heavy metal distribution in a sewage-irrigated "soil-wheat" system with those from a clean-water-irrigated area by collecting and analyzing samples from both areas. The results indicated that the average concentrations of copper, chromium, lead, and zinc in sewage-irrigated soil were higher than the values in the clean-water-irrigated region. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to increased bioconcentration factors. Therefore, issues of food contamination caused by sewage irrigation deserve more attention.

  14. Thermophilic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes with FOG wastes from a sewage treatment plant: reactor performance and microbial community monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martín-González, Lucia; Castro, Rita; Pereira, M Alcina; Alves, M Madalena; Font, Xavier; Vicent, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    Working at thermophilic conditions instead of mesophilic, and also the addition of a co-substrate, are both the ways to intend to improve the anaerobic digestion of the source-collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Addition of sewage treatment plant fat, oil and grease wastes (STP-FOGW), that are nowadays sent to landfill, would represent an opportunity to recover a wasted methane potential and, moreover, improve the whole process. In this study, after a first period feeding only SC-OFMSW, a co-digestion step was performed maintaining thermophilic conditions. During the co-digestion period enhancements in biogas production (52%) and methane yield (36%) were achieved. In addition, monitoring of microbial structure by using PCR-DGGE and cloning techniques showed that bacterial community profiles clustered in two distinct groups, before and after the extended contact with STP-FOGW, being more affected by the STP-FOGW addition than the archaeal one.

  15. Diversity and population structure of sewage-derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent.

    PubMed

    McLellan, S L; Huse, S M; Mueller-Spitz, S R; Andreishcheva, E N; Sogin, M L

    2010-02-01

    The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernible human faecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae genera. The faecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human faecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in faecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI--servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS--servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human faecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure.

  16. Sewage contamination of sediments from two Portuguese Atlantic coastal systems, revealed by fecal sterols.

    PubMed

    Rada, Jesica P A; Duarte, Armando C; Pato, Pedro; Cachada, Anabela; Carreira, Renato S

    2016-02-15

    Fecal sterols in sediments were used to assess the degree of sewage contamination in Ria de Aveiro lagoon and Mondego River estuary for the first time. Coprostanol, the major fecal sterol, averaged 1.82 ± 4.12 μg g(-1), with maxima of 16.6 μg g(-1). The northwestern sector of the Ria and a marina at Mondego estuary showed the highest level of sewage contamination. This scenario was confirmed by several diagnostic ratios based on fecal sterols and other phytosterols. Our data revealed that in spite of the improvements achieved in the last decades, there is still a need for control the organic inputs into the aquatic environment in the studied regions. PMID:26778497

  17. Occurrence and removal of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater and rural domestic sewage treatment systems in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Mingmei

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants and pose a threat to public health. In this study, four tetracycline resistance genes (tetM, tetO, tetQ and tetW) and two sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI and sulII) were evaluated in 4 municipal wastewater and 8 rural domestic sewage treatment systems with different wastewater handling abilities and treatment processes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In the influents, the relative abundance of different ARGs showed significant variations among the sampling sites. In addition, significant correlations (tetQ: R(2)=0.712, P<0.05; tetO: R(2)=0.394, P<0.05) between the gene copy numbers and wastewater-receiving capacity were observed. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation (R(2)=0.756, P<0.05) between the gene copy numbers of sulI and intI1, whereas the gene numbers of tetM and sulI were strongly correlated with 16S rDNA. Significant reductions (1-3 orders of magnitude) in ARGs were observed in municipal wastewater treatment systems, but a smaller reduction was found in the rural domestic sewage treatment systems. These results provide insights into the occurrence and removal of ARGs in wastewater treatment systems in both rural and urban areas in eastern China.

  18. Synergistic wetland treatment of sewage and mine water: pollutant removal performance of the first full-scale system.

    PubMed

    Younger, Paul L; Henderson, Robin

    2014-05-15

    Wetland systems are now well-established unit processes in the treatment of diverse wastewater streams. However, the development of wetland technology for sewage treatment followed an entirely separate trajectory from that for polluted mine waters. In recent years, increased networking has led to recognition of possible synergies which might be obtained by hybridising approaches to achieve co-treatment of otherwise distinct sewage and mine-derived wastewaters. As polluted discharges from abandoned mines often occur in or near the large conurbations to which the former mining activities gave rise, there is ample scope for such co-treatment in many places worldwide. The first full-scale co-treatment wetland anywhere in the world receiving large inflows of both partially-treated sewage (∼100 L s(-)(1)) and mine water (∼300 L s(-1)) was commissioned in Gateshead, England in 2005, and a performance evaluation has now been made. The evaluation is based entirely on routinely-collected water quality data, which the operators gather in fulfillment of their regulatory obligations. The principal parameters of concern in the sewage effluent are suspended solids, BOD5, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) and phosphate (P); in the mine water the only parameter of particular concern is total iron (Fe). Aerobic treatment processes are appropriate for removal of BOD5, NH4-N and Fe; for the removal of P, reaction with iron to form ferric phosphate solids is a likely pathway. With these considerations in mind, the treatment wetland was designed as a surface-flow aerobic system. Sample concentration level and daily flow rate date from April 2007 until March 2011 have been analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods. This has revealed sustained, high rates of absolute removal of all pollutants from the combined wastewater flow, quantified in terms of differences between influent and effluent loadings (i.e. mass per unit time). In terms of annual mass retention rates, for instance

  19. Effects of organic loading rate on reactor performance and archaeal community structure in mesophilic anaerobic digesters treating municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eddie; Martin, Jay; Michel, Frederick C

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the organic loading rate (OLR) of a high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) system was increased from 3.4 to 5.0 gVS L(-1) day(-1) and reactor stability, performance and microbial community structure were determined. Laboratory simulations (3.5 L) of the full-scale process (500 dry ton year(-1)) were conducted using continuously stirred-tank mesophilic reactors. OLRs of 3.4 gVS L(-1)day(-1) (equal to the full-scale HSAD), 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 gVS L(-1)day(-1) were evaluated. Biochemical parameters and archaeal community dynamics were measured over 42 days of steady state operation. Results showed that increasing OLR increased the amount of organic matter conversion and resulted in higher organic matter removal and volumetric methane (CH₄) production (VMP) rates. The highest volatile solids (VS) removal and VMP results of 54 ± 2% and 1.4 ± 0.1 L CH₄ L(-1)day(-1) were observed for 5.0 gVS L(-1) day(-1). The efficiency of reactor conversion of organic matter to CH(4) was found to be similar in all the treatments with an average value of 0.57 ± 0.07 LCH(4) gVS(-1) (removed). 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses revealed that archaeal TRFs remained stable during the experiment accounting for an average relative abundance (RA) of 81 ± 1%. Archaea consistent with multiple terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) included members of the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota phyla, including acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic groups. In conclusion, this laboratory-scale study suggests that performance and stability as well as the archaeal community structure in this HSAD system was unaffected by increasing the OLR by nearly 50% and that this increase resulted in a similar increase in the amount of CH(4) gas generated.

  20. Options and limits of quantitative and qualitative online-monitoring of industrial discharges into municipal sewage systems.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, H; Messmann, S; Giga, A; Grüning, H

    2009-01-01

    In some cities, industrial enterprises' discharges into municipal sewage systems have a major impact on the quantity and quality of inflows to the municipal treatment plants. In many cases, industrial discharges stand out on account of the great fluctuations in their volumetric rates of flow, pollution loads and temperatures. As a result, these discharges put a great strain on the sewage system, the treatment plant, and ultimately the receiving waters. The enterprises concerned have to pay the treatment plant operators fees based on the load and/or volume discharged. In most cases, qualitative monitoring operations merely consist of spot checks. This means that continuously surveillance is not possible and infringements of the permissible limit values are only discovered by accident. If impermissible discharges are carried out that may be susceptible to causing a treatment plant failure, the rapid initiation of countermeasures is not possible. Hence, spectrometer probes and mobile flowmeters were used in order to determine volumetric rates of flow, COD concentrations, and ultimately the loads discharged. The possibilities for, and limits to, online monitoring as well as shortcomings of spot-checks are discussed in the course of this paper, which also includes an uncertainty analysis. PMID:19700824

  1. Prospects for a self-sustainable sewage treatment system: a case study on full-scale UASB system in India's Yamuna River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Onodera, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2006-08-01

    The government of India decided to launch a project to implement 16 full-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors (with a total capacity of 598,000 m(3)/d) in the Yamuna River basin under its Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). A polishing pond called the Final Polishing Unit (FPU) was utilized for post-treatment. This paper evaluates the sewage treatment efficiency of the combined system of full-scale UASB reactors and polishing ponds under Indian climatic conditions. Results have shown that the effluent from the sewage treatment plants (STPs) investigated failed to comply with applicable discharge standards in terms of BOD, SS, and fecal coliform removal. Therefore, it is proposed that such proper operation and maintenance as removing excess sludge and scum be conducted in order to increase treatment efficiency. Moreover, trained and experienced workers are also required to operate and maintain the systems, along with a scientific approach. PMID:16338055

  2. Prospects for a self-sustainable sewage treatment system: a case study on full-scale UASB system in India's Yamuna River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Onodera, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2006-08-01

    The government of India decided to launch a project to implement 16 full-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors (with a total capacity of 598,000 m(3)/d) in the Yamuna River basin under its Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). A polishing pond called the Final Polishing Unit (FPU) was utilized for post-treatment. This paper evaluates the sewage treatment efficiency of the combined system of full-scale UASB reactors and polishing ponds under Indian climatic conditions. Results have shown that the effluent from the sewage treatment plants (STPs) investigated failed to comply with applicable discharge standards in terms of BOD, SS, and fecal coliform removal. Therefore, it is proposed that such proper operation and maintenance as removing excess sludge and scum be conducted in order to increase treatment efficiency. Moreover, trained and experienced workers are also required to operate and maintain the systems, along with a scientific approach.

  3. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  4. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  5. EXPECTED EFFECTS OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE AND NITROGEN IN SEWAGE EFFLUENT ON THE ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM OF GREENWICH COVE, RI: AN ENERGY SYSTEMS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical, toxicological, and energy systems modeling were combined to make estimates of likely ecosystem-level effects due to residual chlorine in sewage effluent. The energy systems model also allowed us to make estimates of the effects of nutrient loading on the estuary both se...

  6. Operation of an integrated algae pond system for the treatment of municipal sewage: a South African case study.

    PubMed

    Mambo, Prudence M; Westensee, Dirk K; Render, David S; Cowan, A Keith

    2014-01-01

    Integrated algae pond systems (IAPS) combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. In the present work, the performance of IAPS was evaluated to determine the efficiency of this technology for treatment of municipal sewage under South African conditions. Composite samples were analysed over an 8 month period before and after tertiary treatment. Spectrophotometric assays indicated that the treated water from this IAPS was compliant with the discharge limits for phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate/nitrite-N, and mean values were: 5.3, 2.9 and 12.4 mg L(-1), respectively. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), however, fluctuated significantly and was dependent on full function of the IAPS. Mean COD of the final treated water was 72.2 mg L(-1). Although these results suggest that the treated water discharged from this IAPS operating under South African conditions meets the standard for discharge, mean total suspended solids (TSS) was routinely above the limit at 34.5 ± 13 mg L(-1) and faecal coliforms were higher than expected. Tertiary treatment using a maturation pond series (MPS), slow sand filtration (SSF), or a controlled rock filter (CRF) ensured that the final treated water from the IAPS was of a quality suitable for discharge to the environment with CRF > SSF > MPS.

  7. Operation of an integrated algae pond system for the treatment of municipal sewage: a South African case study.

    PubMed

    Mambo, Prudence M; Westensee, Dirk K; Render, David S; Cowan, A Keith

    2014-01-01

    Integrated algae pond systems (IAPS) combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. In the present work, the performance of IAPS was evaluated to determine the efficiency of this technology for treatment of municipal sewage under South African conditions. Composite samples were analysed over an 8 month period before and after tertiary treatment. Spectrophotometric assays indicated that the treated water from this IAPS was compliant with the discharge limits for phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate/nitrite-N, and mean values were: 5.3, 2.9 and 12.4 mg L(-1), respectively. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), however, fluctuated significantly and was dependent on full function of the IAPS. Mean COD of the final treated water was 72.2 mg L(-1). Although these results suggest that the treated water discharged from this IAPS operating under South African conditions meets the standard for discharge, mean total suspended solids (TSS) was routinely above the limit at 34.5 ± 13 mg L(-1) and faecal coliforms were higher than expected. Tertiary treatment using a maturation pond series (MPS), slow sand filtration (SSF), or a controlled rock filter (CRF) ensured that the final treated water from the IAPS was of a quality suitable for discharge to the environment with CRF > SSF > MPS. PMID:24960021

  8. Influence of applied voltage on the performance of bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and planktonic microbial communities at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qing; Song, Young-Chae; Bae, Byung-Uk

    2016-11-01

    The influence of applied voltage on the bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was studied at ambient temperature (25±2°C). The stability of the bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion was considerably good in terms of pH, alkalinity and VFAs at 0.3V and 0.5V, but VFA accumulation occurred at 0.7V. The specific methane production rate (370mLCH4/L.d) was the highest at 0.3V, but the methane content (80.6%) in biogas and the methane yield (350mLCH4/gCODr) were higher at 0.5V, significantly better than those of 0.7V. The VS removal efficiency was 64-66% at 0.3V and 0.5V, but only 31% at 0.7V. The dominant species of planktonic microbial communities was Cloacamonas at 0.3V and 0.5V, but the percentage of hydrolytic bacteria species such as Saprospiraceae, Fimbriimonas, and Ottowia pentelensis was much higher at 0.7V. The optimal applied voltage for bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion was 0.3-0.5V according to digestion performance and planktonic microbial communities. PMID:27611033

  9. [Degradation Characteristics of Three Aniline Compounds in Simulated Aerobic Sewage Treat System].

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Chen, Guo-song; Shi, Li-li; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    The removal rates of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) were tested by employing a simulation method of aerobic biochemical sewage treatment technology in this study. The results showed that when HRT was 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, the removal rates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were 70.2%, 80.3% and 88.3%, the removal rates of 4-nitroaniline were 48%, 64.7% and 75%; and the removal rates of 4-isopropyl aniline were 66%, 76% and 91%, respectively. It was concluded that increasing HRT could promote the removal rates of DOC and aniline chemicals. In contrast, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline was difficult to be removed. The removal rates were less than 20% under all tested conditions. The kinetics analysis showed that the biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline in aerobic activated sewage (3 g x L(-1)) accorded with the first order kinetics and the regression coefficients were > 0.95. The half-life time of biodegradation was 6.01 h, 16.16 h, 123.75 h, respectively. In general, functional groups such as isopropyl had a positive effect on the biodegradation of aniline chemicals, whereas substituents such as nitro group and chlorine atom had an inhibitory effect.

  10. Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoretti, R. P.; Sonoda, K. C.; Ferraz, E.

    2005-05-01

    As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage treatment station is a man-made wetland system, situated 30m nearby the Piracicaba River. It treats the sewage from an urban area with 3000 inhabitants. The sewage discharge varies from 133 to 186L/s/ha. The samples were taken on the ending of the rainy season with a D-frame net. The material was washed (210mm mesh size), sorted and preserved in 70% alcohol. Chironomidae had a low participation in the community, with 14.9% of the specimens. Goeldichironomus serratus (47.8% from total Chironomidae), G. holoprasinus (43.5%) and Chironomus decorus (8.7%) were identified. Those species are worldwide recognized as pollution-resistant, used as indicators of environmental water quality. The wetland studied showed low dissolved oxygen (1.5mg/L) on the sampling period and the presence of those Chironomidae species should be expected. The low diversity and high dominance are common features for those impacted environments.

  11. Digester performance and microbial community changes in thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors fed with the fine sieved fraction of municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Ghasimi, Dara S M; Tao, Yu; de Kreuk, Merle; Abbas, Ben; Zandvoort, Marcel H; van Lier, Jules B

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates the start-up and operation of bench-scale mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) digesters treating the fine sieved fraction (FSF) from raw municipal sewage. FSF was sequestered from raw municipal wastewater, in the Netherlands, using a rotating belt filter equipped with a 350 micron mesh. For the given wastewater, the major component of FSF was toilet paper, which is estimated to be 10-14 kg per year per average person in the western European countries. A seven months adaptation time was allowed for the thermophilic and mesophilic digesters in order to adapt to FSF as the sole substrate with varying dry solids content of 10-25%. Different SBR cycle durations (14, 9 and 2 days) were applied for both temperature conditions to study methane production rates, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) dynamics, lag phases, as well as changes in microbial communities. The prevailing sludge in the two digesters consisted of very different bacterial and archaeal communities, with OP9 lineage and Methanothermobacter being pre-dominant in the thermophilic digester and Bacteroides and Methanosaeta dominating the mesophilic one. Eventually, decreasing the SBR cycle period, thus increasing the FSF load, resulted in improved digester performances, particularly with regard to the thermophilic digester, i.e. shortened lag phases following the batch feedings, and reduced VFA peaks. Over time, the thermophilic digester outperformed the mesophilic one with 15% increased volatile solids (VS) destruction, irrespective to lower species diversity found at high temperature.

  12. Digester performance and microbial community changes in thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors fed with the fine sieved fraction of municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Ghasimi, Dara S M; Tao, Yu; de Kreuk, Merle; Abbas, Ben; Zandvoort, Marcel H; van Lier, Jules B

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates the start-up and operation of bench-scale mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) digesters treating the fine sieved fraction (FSF) from raw municipal sewage. FSF was sequestered from raw municipal wastewater, in the Netherlands, using a rotating belt filter equipped with a 350 micron mesh. For the given wastewater, the major component of FSF was toilet paper, which is estimated to be 10-14 kg per year per average person in the western European countries. A seven months adaptation time was allowed for the thermophilic and mesophilic digesters in order to adapt to FSF as the sole substrate with varying dry solids content of 10-25%. Different SBR cycle durations (14, 9 and 2 days) were applied for both temperature conditions to study methane production rates, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) dynamics, lag phases, as well as changes in microbial communities. The prevailing sludge in the two digesters consisted of very different bacterial and archaeal communities, with OP9 lineage and Methanothermobacter being pre-dominant in the thermophilic digester and Bacteroides and Methanosaeta dominating the mesophilic one. Eventually, decreasing the SBR cycle period, thus increasing the FSF load, resulted in improved digester performances, particularly with regard to the thermophilic digester, i.e. shortened lag phases following the batch feedings, and reduced VFA peaks. Over time, the thermophilic digester outperformed the mesophilic one with 15% increased volatile solids (VS) destruction, irrespective to lower species diversity found at high temperature. PMID:25976021

  13. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  14. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  15. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  16. Modelling the catchment-scale environmental impacts of wastewater treatment in an urban sewage system for CO₂ emission assessment.

    PubMed

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Water shortages and water pollution are a global problem. Increases in population can have further acute effects on water cycles and on the availability of water resources. Thus, wastewater management plays an important role in mitigating negative impacts on natural ecosystems and human environments and is an important area of research. In this study, we modelled catchment-scale hydrology, including water balances, rainfall, contamination, and urban wastewater treatment. The entire water resource system of a basin, including a forest catchment and an urban city area, was evaluated synthetically from a spatial distribution perspective with respect to water quantity and quality; the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique was applied to optimize wastewater treatment management with the aim of improving water quality and reducing CO₂ emissions. A numerical model was developed to predict the water cycle and contamination in the catchment and city; the effect of a wastewater treatment system on the urban region was evaluated; pollution loads were evaluated quantitatively; and the effects of excluding rainwater from the treatment system during flooding and of urban rainwater control on water quality were examined. Analysis indicated that controlling the amount of rainwater inflow to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in an urban area with a combined sewer system has a large impact on reducing CO₂ emissions because of the load reduction on the urban sewage system.

  17. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  18. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis.

  19. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis. PMID:21090294

  20. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  1. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING 304, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Plant & Tanks, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  2. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  3. Effectiveness of bulking agents for co-composting penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) and sewage sludge in pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Wang, Wenyan; Zheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) has a distinguishing characteristic of the high content of penicillin residue and nutrients. The existing handling of PMD used as feed additive of livestock and poultry is facing a direct challenge of penicillin transportation into environment due to the inadequate absorption through the digestive system. This work aims at examining the feasibility of co-composting of PMD with sewage sludge (SWS) in a pilot-scale system and evaluating the effect of four bulking agents. Seven treatments were co-composted over a 32-day period in 390-L reactors using the same PMD and SWS with different bulking agents, corresponding to the seven formulas (T-1: PMD + SWS + RS; T-2: PMD + SWS + WS; T-3: PMD + SWS + RS + SD; T-4: PMD + SWS + WS + SD; T-5: PMD + SWS + SD; T-6: PMD + SWS + RS + WS; control: PMD + SWS). The parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter (OM), TN, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, pH, EC, penicillin residue, as well as germination index (GI). The results showed that co-composting PMD and SWS with BA is feasible. The highest rate of OM mineralization was observed in T-3, while below 30% for T-2, T-4, and T-5. Furthermore, the SD addition resulted in both the increase in the duration of thermophilic stage and maximum temperature and the decrease in TN losses, particularly in T-3, suggesting that the formula of the T-3 is very suitable option for the co-composting of PMD and SWS.

  4. Effectiveness of bulking agents for co-composting penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) and sewage sludge in pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Wang, Wenyan; Zheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) has a distinguishing characteristic of the high content of penicillin residue and nutrients. The existing handling of PMD used as feed additive of livestock and poultry is facing a direct challenge of penicillin transportation into environment due to the inadequate absorption through the digestive system. This work aims at examining the feasibility of co-composting of PMD with sewage sludge (SWS) in a pilot-scale system and evaluating the effect of four bulking agents. Seven treatments were co-composted over a 32-day period in 390-L reactors using the same PMD and SWS with different bulking agents, corresponding to the seven formulas (T-1: PMD + SWS + RS; T-2: PMD + SWS + WS; T-3: PMD + SWS + RS + SD; T-4: PMD + SWS + WS + SD; T-5: PMD + SWS + SD; T-6: PMD + SWS + RS + WS; control: PMD + SWS). The parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter (OM), TN, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, pH, EC, penicillin residue, as well as germination index (GI). The results showed that co-composting PMD and SWS with BA is feasible. The highest rate of OM mineralization was observed in T-3, while below 30% for T-2, T-4, and T-5. Furthermore, the SD addition resulted in both the increase in the duration of thermophilic stage and maximum temperature and the decrease in TN losses, particularly in T-3, suggesting that the formula of the T-3 is very suitable option for the co-composting of PMD and SWS. PMID:26362639

  5. Efficient performance and the microbial community changes of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor in treatment of sewage containing cellulose suspended solid at 25°C.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryoya; Nie, Yulun; Takahashi, Shintaro; Wakahara, Shinichiro; Li, Yu-You

    2016-09-01

    Influence of cellulose as suspended solid (SS) on the performance of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) was evaluated at 25°C using two types of synthetic sewage (SS contained or not). During the 110days operation, COD and BOD removal, CH4 gas recovery and cellulose accumulation were investigated in detail. The influence of cellulose as SS in sewage on the SAnMBR performance was not significant at HRT longer than12h and 65-72% of the influent COD was recovered as methane gas at HRT of 12h. At HRT of 6h, the quality of effluent got worse and the accumulation of cellulose was found in reactor. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that the microbial diversity distribution including Archaea and Bacteria changed due to the addition of SS in sewage and specific microbe for cellulose degradation such as Proteobacteria was detected. Sludge in SAnMBR could acclimate to characteristics of sewage by self-adaptation. PMID:27235975

  6. Performance evaluation of subsurface wastewater infiltration system in treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hua; Li, Hai-Bo; Pan, Jing; Wang, Xin; Sun, Tie-Heng

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate domestic treatment efficiency of a subsurface wastewater infiltration (SWI) system over time. The performances of a young SWI system (in Shenyang University, China, fully operated for one year) and a mature SWI system (in Shenyang Normal University, China, fully operated for seven years) under the same operation mode were contrasted through field-scale experiments for one year. The performance assessment for these systems is based on physical and chemical parameters collected. The removal efficiencies within the young system were relatively high if compared with the mature one: for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were 95.0, 89.1, 98.1, 87.6 and 98.4%, respectively. However, the removal efficiencies decreased over time. The mean removal efficiencies for the mature SWI system were as follows: BOD (89.6%), COD (87.2%), SS (82.6%), NH(3)-N (69.1%) and TP (74.4%). The results indicate that the mature SWI system successfully removed traditional pollutants such as BOD from domestic wastewater. However, the nutrient reduction efficiencies (including NH(3)-N and TP) decreased after seven years of operation of the mature SWI system. Meanwhile, the SWI system did not decrease the receiving surface water quality.

  7. Species-Specific Identification of Human Adenoviruses in Sewage.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Krzysztoszek, Arleta; Witek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) diversity in sewage was assessed by species-specific molecular methods. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December 2011, in Poland. HAdVs were detected in 92.1% of the analysed sewage samples and was significantly higher at cities of over 100 000 inhabitants. HAdV DNA was detected in sewage during all seasons. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-F (average 89.6%) and -A (average 19.6%), which are associated with intestine infections. Adenoviruses from B species were not detected. The result of the present study demonstrate that human adenoviruses are consistently present in sewage in Poland, demonstrating the importance of an adequate treatment before the disposal in the environment. Multiple HAdV species identified in raw sewage provide new information about HAdV circulation in the Polish population. PMID:26094312

  8. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-01

    The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20days. The SS-OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1kgCODm(-3)d(-1) (1.9kgVSm(-3)d(-1)), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20mm to 8mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  9. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  10. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-01

    The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20days. The SS-OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1kgCODm(-3)d(-1) (1.9kgVSm(-3)d(-1)), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20mm to 8mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system. PMID:26139136

  11. Biochemical Fingerprinting of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Sewage and Hospital in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Fateh; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known as a common pathogen in nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Sewage acts as an environmental reservoir and may have a significant role in development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiological relatedness between the MRSA isolated from sewage and human infections. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from a referral hospital and also a sewage treatment plant in Tehran, Iran, during 2010. All the MRSA isolates were identified at the species level and typed using Phene plate (PhP) system and SCCmec typing. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: Of the 1142 isolates, 200 MRSA strains from the sewage (n = 100) and the clinic (n = 100) were isolated. Distinct PhP types, consisting of 16 common types and 13 single types, and also 3 different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (III, IVa and IVc) were found amongst the MRSA isolated from the two different sources. The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing showed an increased resistance to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. In addition, none of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin, quinupristin -dalfopristin and linezolid. Conclusions: The presence of common PhP types and also SCCmec type III, as an indicator for hospital strains, among the isolates, may indicate an epidemiological link between clinical and sewage MRSA isolates in Tehran. PMID:26421131

  12. Danish guidelines for small-scale constructed wetland systems for onsite treatment of domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Brix, H; Arias, C A

    2005-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy has passed new legislation that requires the wastewater from single houses and dwellings in rural areas to be treated adequately before discharge into the aquatic environment. Therefore official guidelines for a number of onsite treatment solutions have been produced. These include guidelines for soakaways, biological sand filters, technical systems as well as different types of constructed wetland systems. This paper summarises briefly the guidelines for horizontal flow constructed wetlands, vertical flow constructed wetlands, and willow systems with no outflow and with soil infiltration. There is still a lack of a compact onsite solution that will fulfil the treatment classes demanding 90% removal of phosphorus. Therefore work is presently being carried out to identify simpler and robust P-removal solutions. PMID:16042237

  13. Ecological risks associated with the application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Sample, B.E.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Tharp, M.L.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Daniel, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Water Act of 1977 directed EPA to establish standards for use and disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). The application of biosolids to non-agricultural lands is becoming increasingly important as a method of waste disposal. Ecological endpoints at the population, community, and/or ecosystem level have not previously been emphasized in the development of regulatory standards for municipal sewage sludge. This risk assessment focuses on terrestrial endpoints in four ecosystem types to which substantial quantities of sludge have been applied or are expected to be applied in the future: northwest Douglas-fir forest, southeastern loblolly pine plantation, eastern deciduous forest, and semi-arid rangeland. Conceptual models suitable for all ecosystems were developed that depict the links among assessment endpoints. Estimates of risks to wildlife from contaminants and simulations of impacts of nitrogen in sewage sludge on the structure and function of forest communities are presented in detail elsewhere at this conference. This project overview integrates these two assessment components and adds contaminant risks to plants, soil invertebrates, and microbial processes and risk of leaching and erosion altered by biosolids application. Management practices and empirical measures of bioavailability are considered for each ecosystem. Concentrations of constitutents of sewage sludge used for the analyses have been obtained from the 1988 USEPA National Sewage Sludge Survey. Existing regulatory standards that are primarily human health-based are also evaluated for the adequacy of protection of ecological systems and populations. Predicted impacts of sewage sludge applications are presented, even if they may be regarded as benefits rather than risks.

  14. Distribution of coliphages against four e. Coli virotypes in hospital originated sewage sample and a sewage treatment plant in bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muntasir; Farzana, Tasmia; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Nessa, Jamalun

    2011-06-01

    The distribution of coliphages infecting different Escherichia coli virotypes (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC) and an avirulent strain (K-12) in sewage system of a hospital and a sewage treatment plant (STP) was investigated by culture-based agar overlay methods. Coliphages were found in all the samples except stool dumping site in the sewage system of the hospital and lagoon of the STP. Bacteriophage count (pfu/ml) infecting E. coli strains showed the following ascending pattern (EHEC < EIEC < EPEC < ETEC < E coli K-12) in all the collected samples except one. Phages capable of infecting avirulent E. coli K-12 strains were present in the highest number among all the examined locations. Phages specific for E. coli K-12 presented high diversity in plaque size on the bacterial lawn. Virulent E. coli specific coliphages rarely produced plaques with diameter of 1-2 mm or over. Conventional agar overlay method was found to be not satisfactory for phage community analysis from primary stool dumping site of the hospital, probably due to the presence of high concentration of antimicrobial substances. The gradual decrease seen in the five groups of coliphage quantity with the ongoing treatment process and then the absolute absence of coliphages in the outlet of the examined treatment plant is indicative of the usefulness of the treatment processes practiced there. PMID:22654163

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Aina; Kühn, Inger; Franklin, Anders; Möllby, Roland

    2002-01-01

    In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n = 118) were screened for VRE. Surprisingly, VRE were isolated from 21 of 35 untreated sewage samples (60%), from 5 of 14 hospital sewage samples (36%), from 6 of 32 treated sewage samples (19%), and from 1 of 37 surface water samples. Thirty-five isolates from 33 samples were further characterized by geno- and phenotyping, MIC determination, and PCR analysis. Most isolates (30 of 35) carried the vanA gene, and the majority (24 of 35) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium. Most of the VRE were multiresistant. The typing revealed high diversity of the isolates. However, one major cluster with seven identical or similar isolates was found. These isolates came from three different sewage treatment plants and were collected at different occasions during 1 year. All VRE from hospital sewage originated from one of the two hospitals studied. That hospital also had vancomycin consumption that was 10-fold that of the other. We conclude that VRE were commonly found in sewage samples in Sweden. The origin might be both healthy individuals and individuals in hospitals. Possibly, antimicrobial drugs or chemicals released into the sewage system may sustain VRE in the system. PMID:12039740

  17. Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.

    PubMed

    Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2012-01-01

    Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide.

  18. Illumina sequencing-based analyses of bacterial communities during short-chain fatty-acid production from food waste and sewage sludge fermentation at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Yan, ShuHai; Su, Jianqiang

    2014-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be produced by primary and waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation. The yield and product spectrum distribution of SCFAs can be significantly affected by different initial pH values. However, most studies have focused on the physical and chemical aspects of SCFA production by waste activated sludge fermentation at different pH values. Information on the bacterial community structures during acidogenic fermentation is limited. In this study, comparisons of the bacterial communities during the co-substrate fermentation of food wastes and sewage sludge at different pH values were performed using the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing method. The results showed that different pH environments harbored a characteristic bacterial community, including sequences related to Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Mitsuokella, Treponema, Clostridium, and Ureibacillus. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the different pH environments were those related to carbohydrate-degrading bacteria, which are associated with constituents of co-substrate fermentation. Further analyses showed that during organic matter fermentation, a core microbiota composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes existed. Comparison analyses revealed that the bacterial community during fermentation was significantly affected by the pH, and that the diverse product distribution was related to the shift in bacterial communities.

  19. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  20. Community Interests and Indicator System Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Meg

    2009-01-01

    Testing the validity of indicator systems is a task almost always left to the scientific community, in standard practice and in keeping with the quest for objectivity prevalent in politics and in society as a whole. This paper calls for a reinvigorated agenda within indicators research to question this practice and develop alternative…

  1. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  2. [Process Optimization of Aerobic Granular Sludge Continuous-Flow System for the Treatment of Low COD/N Ratio Sewage].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Xin, Xin; Lu, Hang; Zhu, Liao-dong; Xie, Si-jian; Wu, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The mature aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was inoculated in a continuous-flow joint constructor reactor to treat low chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio sewage. The effects of aeration intensity and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the denitrification and phosphorus removal efficiencies and the granular sludge stabilization were investigated. When the aeration intensity was 300 mL x min(-1) (superficial air upflow velocity of 1.2 cm x s(-1)) and the HRT was 7.5 h, the average removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP were 76.34%, 51.23% and 53.70%, respectively. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was only about 2 000 mg x L(-1), the sludge volume index ( SVI) was below 50 mL x g(-1), and the AGS exhibited complete forms and good settling performances. Additionally, the low COD/N ratios sewage could promote the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of AGS, and the PN proteins in EPS played a pivotal role in the maintenance of AGS stabilization. PMID:26841612

  3. Foetal Hypothalamic and Pituitary Expression of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone and Galanin Systems is Disturbed by Exposure to Sewage Sludge Chemicals via Maternal Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Bellingham, Michelle; Fowler, Paul A.; Amezaga, Maria R.; Whitelaw, Christine M.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Sharpe, Richard M.; Evans, Neil P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and humans are chronically exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are ubiquitous in the environment. There are strong circumstantial links between environmental EDC exposure and both declining human/wildlife reproductive health and the increasing incidence of reproductive system abnormalities. Verification of such links, however, is difficult and requires animal models exposed to 'real life', environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of environmental contaminants (ECs), particularly in- utero, when sensitivity to EC exposure is high. The aim of this study was to determine whether the fetal sheep reproductive neuroendocrine axis, particularly GnRH and galaninergic systems were affected by maternal exposure to a complex mixture of chemicals, applied to pasture, in the form of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains high concentrations of a spectrum of EDCs and other pollutants, relative to environmental concentrations but is frequently recycled to land as a fertiliser. We found that foetuses exposed, to the EDC mixture in-utero through their mothers, had lower GnRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and lower GnRHR and galanin receptor (GALR) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Strikingly, this, treatment had no significant effect on maternal GnRH or GnRHR mRNA expression although GALR mRNA expression within the maternal hypothalamus and pituitary gland was reduced. This study clearly demonstrates that the developing foetal neuroendocrine axis is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals. Given the important role of GnRH and GnRHR in the regulation of reproductive function, its known in-utero programming role, and the role of galanin in the regulation of many physiological/neuroendocrine systems, in-utero changes in the activity of these systems are likely to have long term consequences in adulthood and represent a novel pathway through which EC mixtures could perturb normal reproductive function

  4. Microbial and metabolic characterization of a denitrifying phosphorus-uptake/side stream phosphorus removal system for treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhan; Ji, Fang-Ying; Xu, Xuan; Xu, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Qing-Kong; Li, Qi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, an advanced wastewater treatment process, the denitrifying phosphorus/side stream phosphorus removal system (DPR-Phostrip), was developed for the purpose of enhancing denitrifying phosphorus removal. The enrichment of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and the microbial community structure of DPR-Phostrip were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the metabolic activity of seed sludge and activated sludge collected after 55 days of operation were evaluated by Biolog™ analysis. This experimental study of DPR-Phostrip operation showed that nutrients were removed effectively, and denitrifying phosphorus removal was observed during the pre-anoxic period. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip supported DPAO growth while inhibiting PAOs and GAOs. The major dominant species in DPR-Phostrip were Bacteroidetes bacterium, Saprospiraceae bacterium, and Chloroflexi bacterium. Moreover, the functional diversity indices calculated on the basis of Biolog analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip had almost no effect on microbial community diversity but was associated with a shift in the dominant species, which confirms the results of the PCR-DGGE analysis. The results for average well color development, calculated via Biolog analysis, showed that DPR-Phostrip had a little impact on the metabolic activity of sludge. Further principal component analysis suggested that the ability to utilize low-molecular-weight organic compounds was reduced in DPR-Phostrip.

  5. Microbial and metabolic characterization of a denitrifying phosphorus-uptake/side stream phosphorus removal system for treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhan; Ji, Fang-Ying; Xu, Xuan; Xu, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Qing-Kong; Li, Qi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, an advanced wastewater treatment process, the denitrifying phosphorus/side stream phosphorus removal system (DPR-Phostrip), was developed for the purpose of enhancing denitrifying phosphorus removal. The enrichment of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and the microbial community structure of DPR-Phostrip were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the metabolic activity of seed sludge and activated sludge collected after 55 days of operation were evaluated by Biolog™ analysis. This experimental study of DPR-Phostrip operation showed that nutrients were removed effectively, and denitrifying phosphorus removal was observed during the pre-anoxic period. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip supported DPAO growth while inhibiting PAOs and GAOs. The major dominant species in DPR-Phostrip were Bacteroidetes bacterium, Saprospiraceae bacterium, and Chloroflexi bacterium. Moreover, the functional diversity indices calculated on the basis of Biolog analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip had almost no effect on microbial community diversity but was associated with a shift in the dominant species, which confirms the results of the PCR-DGGE analysis. The results for average well color development, calculated via Biolog analysis, showed that DPR-Phostrip had a little impact on the metabolic activity of sludge. Further principal component analysis suggested that the ability to utilize low-molecular-weight organic compounds was reduced in DPR-Phostrip. PMID:25073616

  6. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Transformation and utilization of slowly biodegradable organic matters in biological sewage treatment of anaerobic anoxic oxic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q H; Jin, P K; Ngo, H H; Shi, X; Guo, W S; Yang, S J; Wang, X C; Wang, X; Dzakpasu, M; Yang, W N; Yang, L

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the distribution of carbon sources in two anaerobic anoxic oxic (AAO) sewage treatment plants in Xi'an and investigated the transformation characteristics and utilization potential of slowly biodegradable organic matters (SBOM). Results indicated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, SBOM could be transformed at a rate of 65% in 8h into more readily biologically utilizable substrates such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), polysaccharides and proteins. Additionally, non-biodegradable humus-type substances which are difficult to biodegrade and readily accumulate, were also generated. These products could be further hydrolyzed to aldehyde and ketone compounds and then transformed into substances with significant oxygen-containing functional groups and utilized subsequently. The molecular weights of proteinoid substances had a wide distribution and tended to decrease over time. Long hours of microbial reaction increased the proportion of micromolecular substances. This particular increase generated significant bioavailability, which can greatly improve the efficiency of nitrogen removal. PMID:27347798

  8. Reclamation of acid waters using sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Davison, W; Reynolds, C S; Tipping, E; Needham, R F

    1989-01-01

    An exhausted sand quarry which had filled with acid water (pH 3) from the oxidation of pyrite was treated with calcium hydroxide to neutralize the water (pH 8), and sewage sludge to prevent further ingress of acid. The water remained neutral for 2 years, an appreciable quantity of base being generated by the reduction of sulphate to sulphide in the anoxic sediment formed by the sewage sludge. After this time the water reverted to acid conditions, chiefly because the lake was too shallow to retain the sewage sludge over a sufficiently large area of its bed. Incubation experiments showed that the sewage sludge had a large capacity for sulphate reduction, which was equally efficient in acid or neutral waters and that the areal rate of consumption was sufficiently fast to neutralize all incoming acid, if at least 50% of the lake bed was covered with sludge. Throughout the course of the field investigations there was no foul smell and the lake was quickly colonized by phytoplankton, macrophytes and insects. Although nutrients associated with the sewage sludge stimulated photosynthesis and so caused the generation of additional organic matter, they were exhausted within two years. To ensure permanent reclamation, phosphate fertilizer could be added once the initial supply has been consumed. Neutralization removed trace metals from the system, presumably due to formation of insoluble oxyhydroxide and carbonates. The solubility of aluminium was apparently controlled by a basic aluminium sulphate (jurbanite).

  9. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  10. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  11. Two Community Protective Service Systems: Comparative Evaluation of Systems Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clara L.

    Presented are the findings of a study conducted to evaluate two community protective service systems in terms of the mechanisms for identifying and handling child abuse and neglect cases and the effectiveness of intervention. It is noted that data was collected in two sites: Site I (Nashville, Tennessee), which has an emergency reporting system…

  12. System Intervention in a School Community Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Gilbert; Stein, David D.

    1970-01-01

    During the New York City school strike, staff members of a community mental health center, with members of a local community group, help plan and execute a Forum in school community relations to channel conflicts toward long term benefit of the community. The significance stems from factors not typical of applied Behavioral science interventions.…

  13. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  14. Learning Resources for Community Education: Design Notes on Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    A comprehensive and adaptable system of organizational arrangements is proposed in this document that will enable educational planners in Latin American countries to develop and deliver learning resources for community education and community action programs. A three-tier system of learning resources centers for community education is described.…

  15. Spatial changes in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of sludge and associated organisms in a biological sewage treatment system.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Kanaya, Gen; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Miyaoka, Yuma; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N) have been utilized as powerful tools for tracing energy or material flows within food webs in a range of environmental studies. However, the techniques have rarely been applied to the study of biological wastewater treatment technologies. We report on the spatial changes in δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N in sludge and its associated biotic community in a wastewater treatment system. This system consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) which is a novel type of trickling filter. The results showed clear spatial changes in the δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N of suspended solids (SS), retained sludge, and macrofauna (oligochaetes and fly larvae) in the system. The δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N was used as a natural tracer to determine the SS dynamic throughout the system. The results imply that SS in the DHS effluent was mainly eluted from the retained sludge in the lower section of the DHS reactor. The δ¹⁵N of the retained sludge in the DHS reactor increased drastically from the inlet towards to the outlet, from -0.7‰ to 10.3‰. This phenomenon may be attributed to nitrogen conversion processes (i.e. nitrification and denitrification). The δ¹⁵N of oligochaetes also increased from the inlet to the outlet, which corresponded well to that of the retained sludge. Thus, the δ¹⁵N of the oligochaetes might simply mirror the δ¹⁵N of the retained sludge. On the other hand, the δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N of sympatric fly larvae differed from those of the oligochaetes sampled, indicating dietary differences between the taxa. Therefore δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N reflected both treatment and dietary characteristics. We concluded that δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values are potentially useful as alternative indicators for investigating microbial ecosystems and treatment characteristics of biological wastewater treatment systems. PMID:25462745

  16. The CUAHSI Community Hydrologic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Ames, D. P.; Goodall, J. L.; Hooper, R. P.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrologic information is collected by many individuals and organizations in government and academia for many purposes, including general monitoring of the condition of the water environment and specific investigations of hydrologic processes. Comprehensive understanding of hydrology requires integration of this information from multiple sources. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) has developed a Hydrologic Information System (HIS) to provide better access to data by enabling the publication, cataloging, discovery and retrieval of hydrologic data using web services. This paper describes HIS capability developed to promote data sharing and interoperability in the Hydrologic Sciences with the purpose of enabling hydrologic analyses that integrate data from multiple sources. The CUAHSI HIS is an Internet based system comprised of hydrologic databases and servers connected through web services as well as software for data publication, discovery and access. The system that has been developed provides new opportunities for the water research community to approach the management, publication, and analysis of their data systematically. The system's flexibility in storing and enabling public access to similarly formatted data and metadata has created a community data resource from public and academic data that might otherwise have been confined to the private files of agencies or individual investigators. Additionally, HIS provides an analysis environment within which data from multiple sources can be discovered, accessed and integrated. The CUAHSI HIS serves as a prototype for the infrastructure to support a network of large scale environmental observatories or research watersheds, and indeed, components of the CUAHSI HIS have now been adopted or modified for use within the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network. Software and further information may be obtained from http://his.cuahsi.org.

  17. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  18. Community systems strengthening for HIV care: experiences from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Gitau; Oxenham, Danielle; Hodgson, Ian; Nakiyemba, Alice; Seeley, Janet; Bermejo, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The growing HIV burden on families and health systems is exerting a shift toward community caregivers, and is increasing the demand for functional community systems. In Uganda, where the number of people with HIV is increasing against a background of weak health systems, the role of community systems is poorly understood. We investigated the role of community systems in palliative care and the system elements required for an effective community response in Uganda. Qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among providers and recipients of palliative care, their family members, and governmental and community stakeholders in Mbale and Jinja, Uganda. Results showed that community systems play an important role in many aspects of palliative care--including personal, livelihood, nutritional and bereavement support--and often strengthen care linkages and referrals. For community systems to fulfill these roles effectively, multiple system elements--including leadership, training, partnerships, and enabling policies--are essential. Strengthening community systems could be an effective strategy to alleviate HIV burden on families and health systems. A systems approach could be a potent mechanism for determining which community structures to strengthen in order to maximize the impact of palliative care programs, and for guiding investments in HIV and health. PMID:24295101

  19. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  20. The Community Climate System Model: CCSM3

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W D; Blackmon, M; Bitz, C; Bonan, G; Bretherton, C S; Carton, J A; Chang, P; Doney, S; Hack, J J; Kiehl, J T; Henderson, T; Large, W G; McKenna, D; Santer, B D; Smith, R D

    2004-12-27

    A new version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) has been developed and released to the climate community. CCSM3 is a coupled climate model with components representing the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface connected by a flux coupler. CCSM3 is designed to produce realistic simulations over a wide range of spatial resolutions, enabling inexpensive simulations lasting several millennia or detailed studies of continental-scale climate change. This paper will show results from the configuration used for climate-change simulations with a T85 grid for atmosphere and land and a 1-degree grid for ocean and sea-ice. The new system incorporates several significant improvements in the scientific formulation. The enhancements in the model physics are designed to reduce or eliminate several systematic biases in the mean climate produced by previous editions of CCSM. These include new treatments of cloud processes, aerosol radiative forcing, land-atmosphere fluxes, ocean mixed-layer processes, and sea-ice dynamics. There are significant improvements in the sea-ice thickness, polar radiation budgets, equatorial sea-surface temperatures, ocean currents, cloud radiative effects, and ENSO teleconnections. CCSM3 can produce stable climate simulations of millenial duration without ad hoc adjustments to the fluxes exchanged among the component models. Nonetheless, there are still systematic biases in the ocean-atmosphere fluxes in western coastal regions, the spectrum of ENSO variability, the spatial distribution of precipitation in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the continental precipitation and surface air temperatures. We conclude with the prospects for extending CCSM to a more comprehensive model of the Earth's climate system.

  1. Criticality and Chaos in Systems of Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostilli, Massimo; Figueiredo, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    We consider a simple model of communities interacting via bilinear terms. After analyzing the thermal equilibrium case, which can be described by an Hamiltonian, we introduce the dynamics that, for Ising-like variables, reduces to a Glauber-like dynamics. We analyze and compare four different versions of the dynamics: flow (differential equations), map (discretetime dynamics), local-time update flow, and local-time update map. The presence of only bilinear interactions prevent the flow cases to develop any dynamical instability, the system converging always to the thermal equilibrium. The situation is different for the map when unfriendly couplings are involved, where period-two oscillations arise. In the case of the map with local-time updates, oscillations of any period and chaos can arise as a consequence of the reciprocal “tension” accumulated among the communities during their sleeping time interval. The resulting chaos can be of two kinds: true chaos characterized by positive Lyapunov exponent and bifurcation cascades, or marginal chaos characterized by zero Lyapunov exponent and critical continuous regions.

  2. Community metabolism of aquatic closed ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taub, Frieda B.

    Ecological systems have certain properties in common, and by studying small, easily replicated units, we may be able to better understand the earth's biosphere and assist in the development of ecosystems with desirable properties. Results from small, simple systems can suggest hypotheses that can be tested, often with existing data. Ecological systems consisting of a chemically defined medium, primary producers (3 species of algae), grazers (Daphnia magna) and associated (unidentified) microbes developed selforganizing and self-sustaining (months to year) communities. Oxygen and pH were measured by internal sensors, algal abundance was estimated by in vivo fluorescence, and animal abundances were counted directly and imaged for confirmation. In these systems, there were strong algae-grazer interactions. If grazers were abundant and increasing, algae became overgrazed, pH was 6, and CO2 was abundant; when grazer populations declined and eventually died out, pH became ˜ 10, and carbon became limiting (as estimated from pH and alkalinity). Even without grazers (including systems to which grazers had not been introduced), the systems continued having diurnal oxygen and pH cycles. The oxygen measurements showed a strong linkage between day and night responses; changes that reduced day-time oxygen production (such as shading, shorter lighted periods), also reduced night-time oxygen uptake. This linkage suggests that there may be internal feedbacks that (within limits) maintain more stable oxygen concentrations than would be expected. By studying whole, interacting ecosystems, we may learn properties that would not be obvious from studying isolated sub-components.

  3. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  4. Biogeochemistry and community ecology in a spring-fed urban river following a major earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wells, Naomi S; Clough, Tim J; Condron, Leo M; Baisden, W Troy; Harding, Jon S; Dong, Y; Lewis, G D; Lear, Gavin

    2013-11-01

    In February 2011 a MW 6.3 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand inundated urban waterways with sediment from liquefaction and triggered sewage spills. The impacts of, and recovery from, this natural disaster on the stream biogeochemistry and biology were assessed over six months along a longitudinal impact gradient in an urban river. The impact of liquefaction was masked by earthquake triggered sewage spills (~20,000 m(3) day(-1) entering the river for one month). Within 10 days of the earthquake dissolved oxygen in the lowest reaches was <1 mg l(-1), in-stream denitrification accelerated (attenuating 40-80% of sewage nitrogen), microbial biofilm communities changed, and several benthic invertebrate taxa disappeared. Following sewage system repairs, the river recovered in a reverse cascade, and within six months there were no differences in water chemistry, nutrient cycling, or benthic communities between severely and minimally impacted reaches. This study highlights the importance of assessing environmental impact following urban natural disasters.

  5. Illinois Community College System Results Report, Fiscal Year 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report details the ways in which the Illinois Community College System is addressing its strategic plan, "Promise for Illinois," for fiscal year 2002. Illinois has 39 community college districts and one multi-community college center that serve nearly one million students a year. The report identifies the following six goals: (1) economic…

  6. The Community Climate System Model Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Peter R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Donner, Leo J.; Holland, Marika M.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Jayne, Steve R.; Lawrence, David M.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Worley, Patrick; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-10-01

    The fourth version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) was recently completed and released to the climate community. This paper describes developments to all the CCSM components, and documents fully coupled pre-industrial control runs compared to the previous version, CCSM3. Using the standard atmosphere and land resolution of 1{sup o} results in the sea surface temperature biases in the major upwelling regions being comparable to the 1.4{sup o} resolution CCSM3. Two changes to the deep convection scheme in the atmosphere component result in the CCSM4 producing El Nino/Southern Oscillation variability with a much more realistic frequency distribution than the CCSM3, although the amplitude is too large compared to observations. They also improve the representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and the frequency distribution of tropical precipitation. A new overflow parameterization in the ocean component leads to an improved simulation of the deep ocean density structure, especially in the North Atlantic. Changes to the CCSM4 land component lead to a much improved annual cycle of water storage, especially in the tropics. The CCSM4 sea ice component uses much more realistic albedos than the CCSM3, and the Arctic sea ice concentration is improved in the CCSM4. An ensemble of 20th century simulations runs produce an excellent match to the observed September Arctic sea ice extent from 1979 to 2005. The CCSM4 ensemble mean increase in globally-averaged surface temperature between 1850 and 2005 is larger than the observed increase by about 0.4 C. This is consistent with the fact that the CCSM4 does not include a representation of the indirect effects of aerosols, although other factors may come into play. The CCSM4 still has significant biases, such as the mean precipitation distribution in the tropical Pacific Ocean, too much low cloud in the Arctic, and the latitudinal distributions of short-wave and long-wave cloud forcings.

  7. Effects of multi-metal toxicity on the performance of sewage treatment system during the festival of colors (Holi) in India.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Bhatia, Akanksha; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Khan, Abid Ali; Ali, Muntajir; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb) toxicity on the performance of 18 MLD activated sludge process-based sewage treatment plant (STP) during celebration of Holi (festival of colors in India). The composite sampling (n = 32) was carried out during the entire study period. The findings show a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency (20%) of activated sludge system, after receiving the heavy metals laden wastewater. A significant reduction of 40% and 60% were observed in MLVSS/MLSS ratio and specific oxygen uptake rate, which eventually led to a substantial decrease in biomass growth yield (from 0.54 to 0.17). The toxic effect of metals ions was also observed on protozoan population. Out of the 12 mixed liquor species recorded, only two ciliates species of Vorticella and Epistylis exhibited the greater tolerance against heavy metals toxicity. Furthermore, activated sludge shows the highest metal adsorption affinity for Cu, followed by Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd (Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd). Finally, this study proves the robustness of activated sludge system against the sudden increase in heavy metal toxicity since it recovered the earlier good quality performance within 5 days. PMID:22270594

  8. Effects of multi-metal toxicity on the performance of sewage treatment system during the festival of colors (Holi) in India.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Bhatia, Akanksha; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Khan, Abid Ali; Ali, Muntajir; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb) toxicity on the performance of 18 MLD activated sludge process-based sewage treatment plant (STP) during celebration of Holi (festival of colors in India). The composite sampling (n = 32) was carried out during the entire study period. The findings show a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency (20%) of activated sludge system, after receiving the heavy metals laden wastewater. A significant reduction of 40% and 60% were observed in MLVSS/MLSS ratio and specific oxygen uptake rate, which eventually led to a substantial decrease in biomass growth yield (from 0.54 to 0.17). The toxic effect of metals ions was also observed on protozoan population. Out of the 12 mixed liquor species recorded, only two ciliates species of Vorticella and Epistylis exhibited the greater tolerance against heavy metals toxicity. Furthermore, activated sludge shows the highest metal adsorption affinity for Cu, followed by Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd (Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd). Finally, this study proves the robustness of activated sludge system against the sudden increase in heavy metal toxicity since it recovered the earlier good quality performance within 5 days.

  9. Towards a community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Community Climate System Model, version 2 (CCSM2), was released in June 2002. CCSM2 has several new components and features, which I will discuss briefly. I will also show a few results from a multi-century equilibrium run with this model, emphasizing the improvements over the earlier simulation using the original CSM. A few flaws and inadequacies in CCSM2 have been identified. I will also discuss briefly work underway to improve the model and present results, if available. CCSM2, with improvements, will be the basis for the development of a Community Earth System Model (CESM). The highest priority for expansion of the model involves incorporation of biogeosciences into the coupled model system, with emphasis given to the carbon, nitrogen and iron cycles. The overall goal of the biogeosciences project within CESM is to understand the regulation of planetary energetics, planetary ecology, and planetary metabolism through exchanges of energy, momentum, and materials among atmosphere, land, and ocean, and the response of the climate system through these processes to changes in land cover and land use. In particular, this research addresses how biogeochemical coupling of carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles affects climate and how human perturbations of these cycles alter climate. To accomplish these goals, the Community Land Model, the land component of CCSM2, is being developed to include river routing, carbon and nitrogen cycles, emissions of mineral aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds, dry deposition of various gases, and vegetation dynamics. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are being implemented using parameterizations developed as part of a state-of-the-art ecosystem biogeochemistry model. The primary goal of this research is to provide an accurate net flux of CO2 between the land and the atmosphere so that CESM can be used to study the dynamics of the coupled climate-carbon system. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are also based on a

  10. The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida.

    PubMed

    Corbet, D Reide; Dillon, Kevin; Burnett, William; Schaefer, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited island. Silicate, which was significantly higher in the imported drinking water relative to the surficial aquifer on St. George Island (12.2+/-1.9 mg Si l(-1) and 2.9+/-0.2 mg Si l(-1), respectively), was used as a natural conservative tracer. Our observations showed that nitrogen concentrations were attenuated to a greater extent than that of phosphorus relative to the conservative tracer. At the current setback distance (23 m), both nitrogen and phosphate concentrations are still elevated above natural levels by as much as 2 and 7 times, respectively. Increasing the setback distance to 50 m and raising the drainfields 1 m above the ground surface could reduce nutrient levels to natural concentrations (1.1+/-0.1 mg N l(-1), 0.20+/-0.02 mg P l(-1)).

  11. A comparison of the extent and impacts of sewage contamination on urban groundwater in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Barrett, M; Howard, G; Pedley, S; Taylor, R; Nalubega, M

    2000-01-01

    In much of the world urban groundwater is an important resource for domestic and industrial use. In many developing countries, groundwater taken directly (untreated) from individual springs and wells is the only option available to communities where comprehensive, reliable reticulated supply systems are absent. A common feature of urban groundwater in both developing and developed countries is contamination by sewage. Current and recent research is presented that shows sewer leakage impacts groundwater in developed countries whilst on-site sanitation contaminates groundwater in developing countries. In the latter case, the competing demands of sanitation and groundwater protection must be addressed. Limitations on the usefulness of accepted standard sewage indicator species in groundwater are also highlighted. As sewage contamination of groundwater is usually addressed only if an actual health risk is posed, it is vital both to developed and developing countries to understand the movement of actual pathogens in groundwater in the context of groundwater management. Further research is required on microbial survival and health risks posed by sewage contamination.

  12. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  13. Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease. PMID:23438335

  14. Houston Community College System Fact Book, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Community Coll. System, TX. Office of Institutional Research.

    The Houston Community College System (HCCS) (Texas) is the third largest community college system in the state of Texas. Its five regional colleges offer workforce training programs, academic transfer courses, and continuing education. HCCS is the state-mandated workforce trainer for the city of Houston. More than 22% of the area's adult…

  15. Automatic Thesaurus Generation for an Electronic Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This research reports an algorithmic approach to the automatic generation of thesauri for electronic community systems. The techniques used include term filtering, automatic indexing, and cluster analysis. The Worm Community System, used by molecular biologists studying the nematode worm C. elegans, was used as the testbed for this research.…

  16. Therapeutic Communities and Mental Health System Reform

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Barbara; Ware, Norma C.

    2009-01-01

    Topic The contemporary relevance of therapeutic communities as a treatment modality in mental health is described. Methods This paper builds upon on a qualitative study to provide a case illustration of a working therapeutic community for persons with serious mental illness. Sources Used The data are seventeen interviews conducted with staff and residents and observations carried out during four days of field work by the research team. Conclusions Studies are needed to determine whether therapeutic communities strengthen consumer capacity for social integration and thus contribute to empowerment and the larger recovery agenda. PMID:18840564

  17. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  18. College/Community Partnerships. An Overview of the University of Kentucky Community College System, Part Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Community Coll. System.

    The Commission to Study the Future of Community Colleges in Kentucky was established in 1988 to review the accomplishments of the Kentucky Community College System (KCCS), to assess its current status, and to provide direction for the KCCS towards the year 2000. Developed as part of a collection of articles and reports on the KCCS for use by the…

  19. Facilitating Community Information Seeking Using the Internet: Findings from Three Public Library-Community Network Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Karen E.; Durrance, Joan C.; Unruh, Kenton T.

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings from a study that investigated how public libraries are using online community networks to facilitate the public's information-seeking and use in everyday situations. Highlights include barriers to using community information systems; the public's online information behavior, including social connectedness; the use of sense-making…

  20. College Transfer: Community College to University. United States Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuay, Paul L.

    This paper, which was presented at the Meeting of the Inter-American Bank Countries at Harvard Graduate School of Education in September 2000, discusses the United States Community College System. There are three types of education at American community colleges: university parallel programs, career education, and continuing education. The…

  1. Absolute dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in full-scale anaerobic sewage sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Woong; Lee, Changsoo

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is gaining increasing attention due to the ability to covert organic pollutants into energy-rich biogas and, accordingly, growing interest is paid to the microbial ecology of AD systems. Despite extensive efforts, AD microbial ecology is still limitedly understood, especially due to the lack of quantitative information on the structures and dynamics of AD microbial communities. Such knowledge gap is particularly pronounced in sewage sludge AD processes although treating sewage sludge is among the major practical applications of AD. Therefore, we examined the microbial communities in three full-scale sewage sludge digesters using qualitative and quantitative molecular techniques in combination: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eight out of eleven bacterial sequences retrieved from the DGGE analysis were not affiliated to any known species while all eleven archaeal sequences were assigned to known methanogen species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that, based on the 16S rRNA gene abundance, the hydrogenotrophic order Methanomicrobiales is the most dominant methanogen group (> 94% of the total methanogen population) in all digesters. This corresponds well to the prevailing occurrence of the DGGE bands related to Methanolinea and Methanospirillum, both belonging to the order Methanomicrobiales, in all sludge samples. It is therefore suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogens, especially Methanomicrobiales strains, are likely the major players responsible for biogas production in the digesters studied. Our observation is contrary to the conventional understanding that aceticlastic methanogens generally dominate methanogen communities in stable AD environments, suggesting the need for further studies on the dominance relationship in various AD systems.

  2. Single application of sewage sludge--impact on the quality of an alluvial agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Suhadolc, Metka; Schroll, Reiner; Hagn, Alexandra; Dörfler, Ulrike; Schloter, Michael; Lobnik, Franc

    2010-12-01

    The effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to its nutrient and heavy metal content, microbial community structure and ability to maintain specific soil function (degradation of herbicide glyphosate) were investigated in a three months study using an alluvial soil (Eutric Fluvisol). Dehydrated sewage sludge significantly increased soil organic matter (up to 20.6% of initial content), total and available forms of N (up to 33% and 220% of initial amount, respectively), as well as total and plant available forms of P (up to 11% and 170% of initial amount, respectively) and K (up to 70% and 47% of initial amount, respectively) in the upper 2 cm soil layer. The increase of organic matter was most prominent 3d after the application of sewage sludge, after 3 months it was no longer significant. Contents of nutrients kept to be significantly higher in the sewage sludge treated soil till the end of experiment. Contents of some heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb) increased as well. The highest increase was found for Zn (up to 53% of initial amount), however it was strongly bound to soil particles and its total content was kept below the maximum permissible limit for agricultural soil. Based on molecular fingerprinting of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS fragment on 3rd day and 3rd month after sewage sludge amendment, significant short term effects on bacterial and fungal communities were shown due to the sewage sludge. The effects were more pronounced and more long-term for bacterial than fungal communities. The mineralization of (14)C-glyphosate in the sewage sludge soil was 55.6% higher than in the control which can be linked to (i) a higher glyphosate bioavailability in sewage sludge soil, which was triggered by the pre-sorption of phosphate originating from the sewage sludge and/or (ii) beneficial alterations of the sewage sludge to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil.

  3. A Systems Approach to Community Family Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynson, Lawrence M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper sets forth a community family life education model within the structure-functional framework. Attention is first focused on societal and family needs, followed by the model, its goals, organization, and implementation. Finally, several recommendations and a challenge are given to family educators. (Author)

  4. Life cycle assessment of two emerging sewage sludge-to-energy systems: evaluating energy and greenhouse gas emissions implications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yucheng; Pawłowski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    A "cradle-to-grave" life cycle assessment was conducted to examine the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission footprints of two emerging sludge-to-energy systems. One system employs a combination of anaerobic digestion (AD) and fast pyrolysis for bioenergy conversion, while the other excludes AD. Each system was divided into five process phases: plant construction, sludge pretreatment, sludge-to-bioenergy conversion, bioenergy utilizations and biochar management. Both systems achieved energy and GHG emission benefits, and the AD-involving system performed better than the AD-excluding system (5.30 vs. 0.63 GJ/t sludge in net energy gain and 0.63 vs. 0.47 t CO(2)eq/t sludge in emission credit for base case). Detailed contribution and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify how and to what degree the different life-cycle phases are responsible for the energy and emission impacts. The energy and emission performances were significantly affected by variations in bioenergy production, energy requirement for sludge drying and end use of bioenergy. PMID:23131626

  5. Kentucky Community and Technical College System Fact Book, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Community and Technical Coll. System, Lexington.

    The fact book provides information about the Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS), which consists of 13 community colleges and 15 technical colleges. It presents the strategic plan, core functions, timeline, statistical facts, Board of Regents, President's cabinet, and instructional programs. The mission of KCTCS is to improve…

  6. The Fact Book: Report for the Florida Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Community Colleges.

    The Florida Community College System fact book includes statistical information for fall 2000-2001 about students, employees, and finances at Florida's 28 community colleges. This document contains statistics on headcount enrollment, full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment, program enrollment, program completions, employment, and financial data.…

  7. Accountability and Productivity: Report for the Illinois Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Within the Illinois Community College System (ICCS), each of the 50 member colleges reports to the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB) on their productivity improvements. This report summarizes the productivity reports of the ICCS colleges, examines the results of a series of analyses of productivity conducted by the ICCB from a statewide…

  8. Bringing Systems Thinking into Community-based Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s ‘Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program’ is developing methods and tools to assist communities in making decisions that lead to more just and environmentally sustainable outcomes. Work includes collaborative development of system...

  9. Entrepreneurship Education in the Virginia Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Richard L.; Mallory, Walter D.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the extent of credit and non-credit offerings in entrepreneurship and small-business management in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). Indicates that entrepreneurship training and education is not a priority at all Virginia community colleges. Finds that there is strong demand for such offerings from students enrolled in the…

  10. The Louisiana Community and Technical College System: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Curtis

    2004-01-01

    The Louisiana Community and Technical College System (LCTCS) was created in 1999 to bring together into one governance body almost all of the state's community and technical colleges. Driven primarily by the need for increased workforce training capabilities, Governor M.J. "Mike" Foster and other top governmental officials promoted the idea as a…

  11. The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, R W

    Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

  12. Benefits of the Use of Sewage Sludge over EDTA to Remediate Soils Polluted with Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ana J; Gutiérrez-Ginés, María J; Pastor, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Sewage sludges from urban wastewater treatment plants are often used to remediate degraded soils. However, the benefits of their use in metal-polluted soils remain unclear and need to be assessed in terms of factors besides soil fertility. This study examines the use of thermal-dried sewage sludge (TDS) as an amendment for heavy metal-polluted soil in terms of its effects on soil chemical properties, leachate composition, and the growth of native plant communities. To assess the response of the soil and its plant community to an increase in metal mobilization, the effects of TDS amendment were compared with those of the addition of a chelating agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]). The experimental design was based on a real-case scenario in which soils from of an abandoned mine site were used in a greenhouse bioassay. Two doses of TDS and EDTA were applied to a soil containing high Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd levels (4925, 5675, 404, and 25 mg kg, respectively). Soil pH was 6.4, and its organic matter content was 5.53%. The factors examined after soil amendment were soil fertility and heavy metal contents, leachate element losses, the plant community arising from the seed bank (plant cover, species richness and biodiversity, above/below ground biomass), and phytotoxic effects (chemical contents of abundant species). Thermal-dried sewage sludge emerged as a good phytostabilizer of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd given its capacity to reduce the plant uptake of metals and achieve rapid plant cover. This amendment also enhanced the retention of other elements in the plant root system and overall showed a better capacity to remediate soils polluted with several heavy metals. The addition of EDTA led to plant productivity losses and nutritional imbalances because it increased the mobility of several elements in the soil and its leachates.

  13. Benefits of the Use of Sewage Sludge over EDTA to Remediate Soils Polluted with Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ana J; Gutiérrez-Ginés, María J; Pastor, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Sewage sludges from urban wastewater treatment plants are often used to remediate degraded soils. However, the benefits of their use in metal-polluted soils remain unclear and need to be assessed in terms of factors besides soil fertility. This study examines the use of thermal-dried sewage sludge (TDS) as an amendment for heavy metal-polluted soil in terms of its effects on soil chemical properties, leachate composition, and the growth of native plant communities. To assess the response of the soil and its plant community to an increase in metal mobilization, the effects of TDS amendment were compared with those of the addition of a chelating agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]). The experimental design was based on a real-case scenario in which soils from of an abandoned mine site were used in a greenhouse bioassay. Two doses of TDS and EDTA were applied to a soil containing high Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd levels (4925, 5675, 404, and 25 mg kg, respectively). Soil pH was 6.4, and its organic matter content was 5.53%. The factors examined after soil amendment were soil fertility and heavy metal contents, leachate element losses, the plant community arising from the seed bank (plant cover, species richness and biodiversity, above/below ground biomass), and phytotoxic effects (chemical contents of abundant species). Thermal-dried sewage sludge emerged as a good phytostabilizer of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd given its capacity to reduce the plant uptake of metals and achieve rapid plant cover. This amendment also enhanced the retention of other elements in the plant root system and overall showed a better capacity to remediate soils polluted with several heavy metals. The addition of EDTA led to plant productivity losses and nutritional imbalances because it increased the mobility of several elements in the soil and its leachates. PMID:26436275

  14. Apparatus for the treatment of sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, J.

    1980-12-09

    An apparatus is described for treating sewage to obtain substantially complete organic matter substrate and biological sludge oxidation prior to effluent discharge in a treatment system comprising a series of treatment chambers in a single unit; each treatment chamber has a generally circular peripheral crosssectional configuration, conduit means in each treatment chamber for directing the flow of mixed liquor in each chamber, and gas supply means for supplying an oxygen containing gas to each treatment chamber so as to cause a continuous flow pattern of mixed liquor in the treatment chamber. Inlet means are provided for supplying raw sewage to the first treatment chamber of the series. Outlet means are provided for withdrawing clarified effluent from the last treatment chamber of the series. Fluid communication means are described for providing fluid communication between an intermediate top portion of each successive treatment chamber of the series. The system is preferably designed to provide environments suitable for microorganism growth and development through sewage organic matter consumption in the first treatment of the series, microorganism population maintenance in the next successive treatment chamber of the series and microorganism autodigestion in latter treatment chambers of the series, thereby providing an effluent substantially free of digestable organic matter and biological sludge.

  15. Indirect methods of dried sewage sludge contamination assessments.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz; Grübel, Klaudiusz

    2016-07-28

    Thermal conversion (combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) appears to be the most promising alternative for sewage sludge management in the future. Nevertheless, safe and ecological usage of sewage sludge as a fuel requires information about their contamination. The aim of this paper is to present the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) as a good method for contamination assessments of dried sewage sludge. Two types of granular sewage sludge: Sewage sludge 1 (SS1) taken from Polish wastewater treatment plant operating in the mechanical-biological system and sewage sludge 2 (SS2) taken from mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment plant with phosphorus precipitation were analysed. The spectrophotometer FTIR Nicolet 6700 equipped with photoacoustic cell (Model 300, MTEC, USA) was used. The comparison with the most popular analytical methods (GC-MS) was also done. The results of PAS studies confirm the difference between the SS1 and SS2 which is in agreement with the GC-MS analysis. Higher absorbance was observed at each wavelength characteristics for the oscillator of chemical moieties for the SS1 with respect to the SS2. PMID:27149560

  16. Networked Community Change: Understanding Community Systems Change through the Lens of Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Jennifer A; Neal, Zachary P

    2016-06-01

    Addressing complex problems in communities has become a key area of focus in recent years (Kania & Kramer, 2013, Stanford Social Innovation Review). Building on existing approaches to understanding and addressing problems, such as action research, several new approaches have emerged that shift the way communities solve problems (e.g., Burns, 2007, Systemic Action Research; Foth, 2006, Action Research, 4, 205; Kania & Kramer, 2011, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1, 36). Seeking to bring clarity to the emerging literature on community change strategies, this article identifies the common features of the most widespread community change strategies and explores the conditions under which such strategies have the potential to be effective. We identify and describe five common features among the approaches to change. Then, using an agent-based model, we simulate network-building behavior among stakeholders participating in community change efforts using these approaches. We find that the emergent stakeholder networks are efficient when the processes are implemented under ideal conditions. PMID:27221668

  17. Networked Community Change: Understanding Community Systems Change through the Lens of Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Jennifer A; Neal, Zachary P

    2016-06-01

    Addressing complex problems in communities has become a key area of focus in recent years (Kania & Kramer, 2013, Stanford Social Innovation Review). Building on existing approaches to understanding and addressing problems, such as action research, several new approaches have emerged that shift the way communities solve problems (e.g., Burns, 2007, Systemic Action Research; Foth, 2006, Action Research, 4, 205; Kania & Kramer, 2011, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1, 36). Seeking to bring clarity to the emerging literature on community change strategies, this article identifies the common features of the most widespread community change strategies and explores the conditions under which such strategies have the potential to be effective. We identify and describe five common features among the approaches to change. Then, using an agent-based model, we simulate network-building behavior among stakeholders participating in community change efforts using these approaches. We find that the emergent stakeholder networks are efficient when the processes are implemented under ideal conditions.

  18. Evaluating community engagement as part of the public health system.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Phillips, Gemma

    2014-07-01

    Community participation and leadership is a central tenet of public health policy and practice. Community engagement approaches are used in a variety of ways to facilitate participation, ranging from the more utilitarian, involving lay delivery of established health programmes, to more empowerment-oriented approaches. Evaluation methods within public health, adapted from clinical medicine, are most suited to evaluating community engagement as an 'intervention', in the utilitarian sense, focusing on the health impacts of professionally determined programmes. However, as communities are empowered and professional control is relinquished, it is likely to be harder to capture the full effects of an intervention and so the current evidence base is skewed away from knowledge about the utility of these approaches. The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate on the evaluation of community engagement. Building on current understandings of evaluation within complex systems, the paper argues that what is needed is a paradigm shift from viewing the involvement of communities as an errant form of public health action, to seeing communities as an essential part of the public health system. This means moving from evaluation being exclusively focused on the linear causal chain between the intervention and the target population, to seeking to build understanding of whether and how the lay contribution has impacted on the social determinants of health, including the system through which the intervention is delivered. The paper proposes some alternative principles for the evaluation of community engagement that reflect a broader conceptualisation of the lay contribution to public health.

  19. Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Sewage After an Outbreak on a French Island.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takayuki; Lhomme, Sébastien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Le Mehaute, Philippe; Guillois, Yvonnick; Couturier, Elizabeth; Izopet, Jacques; Abranavel, Florence; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2016-09-01

    A hepatitis E outbreak, which occurred on a small isolated island, provided an opportunity to evaluate the association between the number of hepatitis E cases in the community and the concentration of virus detected in sewage. Samples were collected from the different sewage treatment plants from the island and analyzed for the presence of hepatitis E (HEV) virus using real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that if 1-4 % of inhabitants connected to a WWTP were infected with HEV, raw sewage contained HEV at detectable levels. The finding that such a small number of infected people can contaminate municipal sewage works raises the potential of the further distribution of the virus. Indeed, investigating the routes of transmission of HEV, including the potential for sewage effluent to contain infectious HEV, may help us to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen, which is considered to be an emerging concern in Europe. PMID:27165600

  20. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate.

  1. The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, Jim; Holland, Marika M.; Gent, Peter R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Kay, Jennifer; Kushner, P.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Large, William G.; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Lipscomb, William; Long , Matthew; Mahowald, N.; Marsh, D.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Bader, David C.; Collins, William D.; Hack, James; Kiehl, J. T.; Marshall, Shawn

    2013-09-30

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model is a natural evolution from its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, following the incorporation of new earth system capabilities. These include the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, ice sheets, and a high-top atmosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new predictive capabilities and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broader community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for earth system studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth modeling system, its various possible configurations, and illustrate its capabilities with a few science highlights.

  2. Nutrient removal through autumn harvest of Phragmites australis and Thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Toet, Sylvia; Bouwman, Meike; Cevaal, Annechien; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy and feasibility of annual harvesting of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia shoots in autumn for nutrient removal was evaluated in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Aboveground biomass and nutrient dynamics nutrient removal through harvest were studied in parallel ditches with stands of Phragmites or Typha that were mown in October during two successive years. The inflow rate of STP effluent to the ditches was experimentally varied, resulting in pairs of ditches with mean hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 0.3, 0.8, 2.3, and 9.3 days, corresponding to N and P mass loading rates of 122-4190 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 28.3-994 g P m(-2) yr(-1). Nitrogen and P removal efficiency by harvest of Phragmites and Typha shoots in October increased with increasing HRT, despite the opposite HRT effect on N and P standing stocks. This removal through harvest appeared to be useful in treatment wetlands with N and P mass loading rates lower than approximately 120 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 30 g P m(-2) yr(-1), corresponding to a HRT of roughly 9 days in the ditches of this wetland system. At the HRT of 9.3 days, the annual mass input to the ditches was reduced through the harvest by 7.0-11% and 4.5 -9.2% for N and P, respectively. At the higher nutrient mass loading rates, the nutrient removal through harvest was insignificant compared to the mass inputs. The vitality of Phragmites and Typha, measured as maximum aboveground biomass, was not affected by the annual cutting of the shoots in autumn over two years. The Typha stands yielded higher N and P removal efficiencies through shoot harvest than the Phragmites stands, which was largely the result of lower decreases in N and P standing stocks between August and October. This difference in nutrient standing stocks between the two species was caused by a combined effect of greater decreases in nutrient concentrations largely due to higher nutrient retranslocation efficiencies of

  3. Emergency medicine systems advancement through community-based development.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings. PMID:24429185

  4. Emergency medicine systems advancement through community-based development.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings.

  5. Feasibility of using an organic substrate in a wetland system treating sewage sludge: Impact of plant species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Runying; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Prudent, Pascale; Domeizel, Mariane; Rolando, Christiane; Bonin, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    A vertical-flow wetland system was tested for treatment of liquid sludge with high organic concentrations using an organic substrate (peat/crushed pine bark, 1/1) as growing medium. Mesocosms (1 m(3)) were planted with either Phragmites australis Cav., Typha latifolia L., or Iris pseudacorus L. The aim of the work was to determine the feasibility of using an organic substrate in treatment wetlands, through the study of its temporal patterns and of its impact on the water output quality. Results confirmed that the organic substrate can be used in such wetlands treating highly organic sludge, without clogging phenomena for the experimental period. The organic substrate released soluble organic matter but few mineral elements. Over the experimental period, substrate TOC concentration did not change while N concentration increased. Plants showed positive impact on substrate temporal patterns and also on the outflow water quality. Overall, Phragmites seemed to be more beneficial than Typha and Iris.

  6. Community control of health services. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Health Center's community management system.

    PubMed

    Tichy, N M; Taylor, J I

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the case of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Health Center's unique community management system in which neighborhood workers have been developed to assume managerial responsibilities and are directing the Center. The Martin Luther King Center experience is instructive because the Center was able to achieve significant community control by focusing primarily on the internal dimension of control, namely, management, without experiencing destructive conflicts and the deterioration of health services.

  7. Evolution of the Nebraska Technical Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas S.; Simpson, Mary Margaret

    An overview is provided of the historical development, organizational structure, and programs and services of the Nebraska Technical Community College (TCC) System. First, statutory provisions establishing the TCC system and defining its priorities are cited, explaining that the system was established to create locally governed and supported…

  8. Audit Trail Management System in Community Health Care Information Network.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoki; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nakaya, Jun; Tominaga, Teiji; Suganuma, Takuo; Shiratori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake we constructed a community health care information network system. Focusing on the authentication server and portal server capable of SAML&ID-WSF, we proposed an audit trail management system to look over audit events in a comprehensive manner. Through implementation and experimentation, we verified the effectiveness of our proposed audit trail management system.

  9. Removal of sulfa drugs by sewage treatment in aqueous solution systems: activated carbon treatment and ozone oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the activated carbon (AC) treatment and ozone oxidation of the sulfa drugs--sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfadimidine (SDD), and sulfadimethoxine (SDM)--in aqueous solution systems. Three AC samples were prepared from Shirasagi (AC1 and AC2) and coal (AC3), and the surface functional groups, solution pH, specific surface areas, pore volumes, and morphologies of the three samples were evaluated. The specific surface areas were in the following order: AC1 (1391 m²/g) > AC2 (1053 m²/g) > AC3 (807 m²/g). The pore volume and mean pore diameter of AC3 were greater than those of AC1 and AC2. The concentration of sulfa drugs adsorbed onto the AC samples reached equilibrium within 150 h. Experimental data of the adsorption rate were fitted to a pseudo-second-order model. The amount of sulfa drugs adsorbed onto the AC samples was in the order of SDM < SMM < SDD < SMX; the mechanism of adsorption of the sulfa drugs onto the AC samples depended on the hydrophobicity of the AC surface. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir models. Ozone was generated from oxygen gas using an A-27 ozone generator, and the complete degradation of the sulfa drugs by ozone treatment at 60 mL/min was achieved within 50 min. Ozone treatment caused the structure of the sulfa drugs to decompose via ozone oxidation. PMID:22450123

  10. Determinants of bacterial communities in Canadian agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samiran; Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bissett, Andrew; Richardson, Alan E; Siddique, Tariq; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change is one of the most important factors influencing soil microbial communities, which play a pivotal role in most biogeochemical and ecological processes. Using agroforestry systems as a model, this study examined the effects of land uses and edaphic properties on bacterial communities in three agroforestry types covering a 270 km soil-climate gradient in Alberta, Canada. Our results demonstrate that land-use patterns exert stronger effects on soil bacterial communities than soil zones in these agroforestry systems. Plots with trees in agroforestry systems promoted greater bacterial abundance and to some extent species richness, which was associated with more nutrient-rich soil resources. While Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla and subphyla across land uses, Arthrobacter, Acidobacteria_Gp16, Burkholderia, Rhodanobacter and Rhizobium were the keystone taxa in these agroforestry systems. Soil pH and carbon contents emerged as the major determinants of bacterial community characteristics. We found non-random co-occurrence and modular patterns of soil bacterial communities, and these patterns were controlled by edaphic factors and not their taxonomy. Overall, this study highlights the drivers and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbial communities in agroforestry systems.

  11. Monitoring systems for community water supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Brooks, R. R.; Jeffers, E. L.; Linton, A. T.; Poel, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring system includes equipment and techniques for waste water sampling sensors for determining levels of microorganisms, oxygen, chlorine, and many other important parameters. System includes data acquisition and display system that allows computation of water quality information for real time display.

  12. A Public Community College in a System of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehnline, William A.

    1978-01-01

    In theory, Illinois community colleges are governed and controlled by local boards; in reality, much of this control has shifted to state agencies such as the Illinois Community College Board and the Illinois Board of Higher Education. Specific areas affected by this shift are budget, courses and curriculum, leases, and renovations. (LS)

  13. Marine sewage disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.W.

    1981-03-03

    An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

  14. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: "Omic" Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the "Omic" technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. "Omic" technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current "Omic" tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems.

  15. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryan P; Brown, Shannon R; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO(x) gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  16. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  17. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: "Omic" Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the "Omic" technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. "Omic" technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current "Omic" tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems. PMID:26509157

  18. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryan P; Brown, Shannon R; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO(x) gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  19. Assessment of the use of selected chemical and microbiological constituents as indicators of wastewater in curtain drains from home sewage-treatment systems in Medina County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2006-01-01

    Many home sewage-treatment systems (HSTS) in Ohio use curtain or perimeter drains to depress the level of the subsurface water in and around the systems. These drains could possibly intercept partially untreated wastewater and release potential pathogens to ground-water and surface-water bodies. The quality of water in curtain drains from two different HSTS designs in Medina County, Ohio, was investigated using several methods. Six evaporation-transpiration-absorption (ETA) and five leach-line (LL) systems were investigated by determining nutrient concentrations, chloride/bromide ratios (Cl/Br), Escherichia coli (E. coli ) concentrations, coliphage genotyping, and genetic fingerprinting of E. coli. Water samples were collected at 11 sites and included samples from curtain drains, septic tanks, and residential water wells. Nitrate concentrations in the curtain drains ranged from 0.03 to 3.53 mg/L (milligrams per liter), as N. Concentrations of chloride in 10 of the 11 curtain drains ranged from 5.5 to 21 mg/L; the chloride concentration in the eleventh curtain drain was 340 mg/L. Bromide concentrations in 11 curtain drains ranged from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L. Cl/Br ratios ranged from 86 to 2,000. F-specific coliphage were not found in any curtain-drain samples. Concentrations of E. coli in the curtain drains ranged from 1 to 760 colonies per 100 milliliters. The curtain-drain water-quality data were evaluated to determine whether HSTS-derived water was present in the curtain drains. Nutrient concentrations were too low to be of use in the determination. The Cl/Br ratios appear promising. Coliphage was not detected in the curtain drains, so genotyping could not be attempted. E. coli concentrations in the curtain drains were all less than those from the corresponding HSTS; only one sample exceeded the Ohio secondary-contact water-quality standard. The genetic fingerprinting data were inconclusive because multiple links between unrelated sites were found. Although the

  20. Performance evaluation of the sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor system for municipal sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Hatamoto, Masashi; Ohtsuki, Kota; Maharjan, Namita; Ono, Shinya; Dehama, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    A sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system, combined with an anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor (A2SBR), has been used for municipal sewage treatment for over 2 years. The present system achieved a removal rate of 95±14% for BOD, 74±22% for total nitrogen, and 78±25% for total phosphorus, including low water temperature conditions. Sludge conversion rates during the operational period were 0.016 and 0.218 g-VSS g-COD-removed(-1) for the UASB, and DHS, respectively, which are similar to a conventional UASB-DHS system, which is not used of sulfur-redox-reaction, for sewage treatment. Using the sulfur-redox reaction made advanced treatment of municipal wastewater with minimal sludge generation possible, even in winter. Furthermore, the occurrence of a unique phenomenon, known as the anaerobic sulfur oxidation reaction, was confirmed in the UASB reactor under the winter season. PMID:26773951

  1. Performance evaluation of the sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor system for municipal sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Hatamoto, Masashi; Ohtsuki, Kota; Maharjan, Namita; Ono, Shinya; Dehama, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    A sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system, combined with an anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor (A2SBR), has been used for municipal sewage treatment for over 2 years. The present system achieved a removal rate of 95±14% for BOD, 74±22% for total nitrogen, and 78±25% for total phosphorus, including low water temperature conditions. Sludge conversion rates during the operational period were 0.016 and 0.218 g-VSS g-COD-removed(-1) for the UASB, and DHS, respectively, which are similar to a conventional UASB-DHS system, which is not used of sulfur-redox-reaction, for sewage treatment. Using the sulfur-redox reaction made advanced treatment of municipal wastewater with minimal sludge generation possible, even in winter. Furthermore, the occurrence of a unique phenomenon, known as the anaerobic sulfur oxidation reaction, was confirmed in the UASB reactor under the winter season.

  2. Effects of vegetation and sewage load on mangrove crab condition using experimental mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Valter; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Constructed wetlands, especially mangroves, have been studied for their usefulness in sewage treatment but the effects of mangrove vegetation and a sewage load on mangrove macrofauna have been given little attention. Ocypodid crabs are important components of mangrove forests and constitute good bioindicators of the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. In constructed mangrove mesocosms, three vegetation treatments (bare substratum, and Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata seedlings) were subjected to 0, 20, 60 and 100% sewage loads from a nearby hotel. The physiological condition of introduced Uca annulipes and Uca inversa was evaluated in terms of their RNA/DNA ratio after one, five and twelve months, and used as an indicator of ecological function in the system. Crab condition in 0% sewage load was similar to that of wild crabs throughout, suggesting no significant effects of the mesocosms on their RNA/DNA ratio. Overall, both species coped well with the administered sewage loads, suggesting good ecological function in the system. Both species manifested similar patterns in RNA/DNA ratio, being more affected by seasonal fluctuations than by sewage load and vegetation presence and type. Higher RNA/DNA ratios were recorded in the long compared to the short rainy season. Sewage enhanced crab condition in the bare substratum and R. mucronata treatments, especially after one year, probably as a result of enhanced food availability. Uca inversa may be more sensitive to sewage pollution than U. annulipes. In A. marina, no difference in crab condition was observed between sewage loads, and this mangrove yielded the best reduction in sewage impacts. Our results support the usefulness of constructed mangrove areas in sewage treatment, especially if planted with A. marina and inhabited by physiologically healthy ocypodid crabs to enhance the system's performance.

  3. 75 FR 29757 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... sanitary removal and treatment of sewage from all vessels are reasonably available for the waters of the... facilities for the safe and sanitary removal and treatment of sewage from all vessels are reasonably available for the waters of the New York State (NYS) Canal System, including the 524 linear miles...

  4. Sewage treatment costs and economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the costs and economics for developing technologies and the systems for sewage treatment, sludge disposal, and sewer lines. Most of the studies cover the overall construction and operating costs of sewage treatment plants. Other studies cover rate structures, financing, user charges, and benefits of regionalized plants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Single application of Sewage Sludge to an Alluvial Agricultural Soil - impacts on Soil Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhadolc, M.; Graham, D. B.; Hagn, A.; Doerfler, U.; Schloter, M.; Schroll, R.; Munch, J. C.; Lobnik, F.

    2009-04-01

    Limited information exists on the effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to their ability to maintain soil functions. We studied effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure and microbial degradation of the herbicide glyphosate. Three months soil column leaching experiment has been conducted using alluvial soils (Eutric Fluvisol) with no prior history of sludge application. The soil was loamy with pH 7,4 and organic matter content of 3,5%. Soil material in the upper 2 cm of columns was mixed with dehydrated sewage sludge which was applied in amounts corresponding to the standards governing the use of sewage sludge for agricultural land. Sludge did increase some nutrients (total N, NH4+, available P and K, organic carbon) and some heavy metals contents (Zn, Cu, Pb) in soil. However, upper limits for heavy metals in agricultural soils were not exceeded. Results of heavy metal availability in soil determined by sequential extraction will be also presented. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of 16s/18s rDNA, using universal fungal and bacterial primers, revealed clear shifts in bacterial and fungal community structure in the upper 2 cm of soils after amendment. Fungal fingerprints showed greater short term effects of sewage sludge, whereas sewage sludge seems to have prolonged effects on soil bacteria. Furthermore, sewage sludge amendment significantly increased glyphosate degradation from 21.6±1% to 33.6±1% over a 2 months period. The most probable reasons for shifts in microbial community structure and increased degradation of glyphosate are beneficial alterations to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil. Negative effects of potentially toxic substances present in the sewage sludge on soil microbial community functioning were not observed with the methods used in our study.

  6. North Carolina Community College System Information Resources and Technology Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Community Coll. System, Raleigh.

    The North Carolina Community College System engaged in a strategic planning process in 1998 that was the basis for the information resources and technology plans for the entire System. A focus of the planning was technology, and a technology environmental scanning team developed a set of planning assumptions, which led to the creation of 15 goals…

  7. University and Community College System of Nevada Master Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) has created the following seven interrelated goals that establish a roadmap for the growth of higher education in Nevada: (1) Student-Focused System; (2) Reputation for Excellence; (3) Quality Education; (4) A Prosperous Economy; (5) P-16 Education; (6) Building Quality of Life; and (7)…

  8. Accessing the Food Systems in Urban and Rural Minnesotan Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chery; Miller, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Explore how urban and rural Minnesotans access the food system and to investigate whether community infrastructure supports a healthful food system. Design: Eight (4 urban and 4 rural) focus groups were conducted. Setting and Participants: Eight counties with urban influence codes of 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10. Fifty-nine (urban, n = 27;…

  9. AB 1725 Model Accountability System. California Community Colleges. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Board of Governors.

    This report proposes a model accountability system for the California community colleges to comply with the directives of Assembly Bill 1725 (AB 1725). The purpose of the accountability system is to provide colleges and districts, the board of governors, and the California legislature with information that will allow for the continued improvement…

  10. A System Dynamics Approach to Understanding Cost and Revenue Interactions in the Community College Financial System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, James E.

    After identifying the components of a community college financial system as enrollment, costs, revenues and tuition, this paper addresses the need for a system dynamics analysis of a California community college district. This systems approach would assess the possible effects of alternative policies on the characteristic behavior modes of the…

  11. Recreation as a component of the community youth development system.

    PubMed

    Outley, Corliss; Bocarro, Jason N; Boleman, Chris T

    2011-01-01

    In an era of fragmented school systems and budget cuts, many educators and youth leaders seeking to solve the problems that youth face are turning to out-of-school-time programs. In many communities, these programs are seen as essential in the development of youth into fully functioning adults. One such area of the out-of-school-time sector is the provision of recreation services. Recreational services have a vital role in connecting youth to their communities, as well as enabling youth and adult allies to improve challenging conditions. This chapter outlines the historical role that recreation has played in community youth development programs and shows how community youth development has evolved. It then looks at how organizations in three communities--the Youthline Outreach Mentorship program in Minneapolis, a 4-H initiative in Parker City, Texas, and the Hockey Is for Everyone program--have successfully applied the theoretical knowledge. Best practices from these programs illustrate that the role of recreation in community youth development is changing. No longer are recreation programs about providing just "fun and games." Recreation organizations are now placing more value on the development of the community as a whole, in addition to the individual well-being of young people.

  12. Sewage treatment method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, J.A.

    1982-07-13

    A method and apparatus for treating sewage and converting the sewage into organic fertilizer which utilizes equipment for converting the solid material of the sewage into patties and a mixing apparatus for mixing the patties with bulking agents. The mixture of patties and bulking agents is stored in a pile and subjected to a supply of air to enhance the self-combustion or oxidation of the organic material in the patties. The bulking agents provide the patty-bulking agent mixture with air passages and pockets and minimize compaction of the patties. The selfcombustion of the patties continues until the organic material is burned out, leaving a residual ash. A shaker separator having an elongated longitudinal perforated member is reciprocated to separate the ash from the bulking agents. The ash is collected and utilized as organic fertilizer. The bulking agents are recycled back to the mixing apparatus.

  13. Integrated alternative energy systems for use in small communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the principles and conceptual design of an integrated alternative energy system for use in typical farming communities in developing countries. A system is described that, utilizing the Sun and methane produced from crop waste, would supply sufficient electric and thermal energy to meet the basic needs of villagers for water pumping, lighting, and cooking. The system is sized to supply enough pumping capacity to irrigate 101 ha (249 acres) sufficiently to optimize annual crop yields for the community. Three economic scenarios were developed, showing net benefits to the community of $3,578 to $15,547 anually, payback periods of 9.5 to 20 years, and benefit-to-cost ratios of 1.1 to 1.9.

  14. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  15. Community Resource Coordinator's Guide. Washington State Community Resource System for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This handbook includes suggestions, guidelines, and techniques for helping a school or school district in planning and managing a system for involving the local community in career education activities for students in grades K-12. Guidelines cover initial planning and organization through implementation and evaluation. A coordinated, systematic…

  16. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  17. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  18. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  19. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  20. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  1. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  2. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  3. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  4. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  5. Improving Small Community Wastewater Treatment: Extension Trains Local Officials to Survey Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancl, Karen

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1989 and 1990 to determine whether local officials would be an appropriate group to conduct surveys of community residents regarding their home sewage system and attitudes toward the public wastewater treatment. Responses from 578 people indicated that trained local officials can collect information effectively using…

  6. Effect of copper in the protistan community of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Ana; Martins, Maria João; Mota, Manuel; Lima, Nelson

    2005-02-01

    Protists have proved to be an interesting tool for assessing the occurrence of pollution in wastewater treatment systems along with its role in the control of pollution itself through grazing of dispersed bacteria and maintenance of a healthy trophic web in those artificial ecosystems. Two sets of assays were carried on in a bench scale pilot plant in order to study the response of the activated sludge community of protists to the exposure of copper: the first set was carried on with synthetic sewage and the second one with real sewage. The results emphasize the ability of activated sludge biological communities to survive and to react to toxicants and highlight the role of protistan communities as indicators of toxicants entrance in treatment systems.

  7. Sewage reuse for aquaculture after treatment in oxidation and duckweed pond.

    PubMed

    Ghangrekar, M M; Kishor, N; Mitra, A

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of treating sewage by pond systems offer, through a simple and low-cost technology, social and commercial benefits, from the waste raw materials. The objective of this work was to demonstrate an effective treatment of the sewage by using natural treatment systems, and use of treated wastewater for aquaculture. The study was conducted for the sewage generated from the IIT Kharagpur campus. After characterization of the sewage, laboratory scale experiments were conducted for treatment using oxidation pond and duckweed pond. Survival and growth of fishes were observed in the experimental ponds using treated sewage. Based on the experimental results, full-scale treatment plant was designed to meet the aquaculture water quality. From the economics of the proposed full-scale plant, and utilization of the treated sewage for aquaculture, it is estimated that, the amount of Rs. 20,0000 can be generated every year. This amount recovered from the aquaculture will be more than the operating cost of the treatment plant, hence, making the operation of sewage treatment plant self sufficient. Use of a UASB reactor as the first stage treatment before sewage passes to the oxidation pond, can be a more attractive alternative because of less land requirement as compared to the oxidation pond alone, and additional land can be made available for aquaculture to increase revenue.

  8. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

  9. Systems modeling approaches for microbial community studies: from metagenomics to inference of the community structure

    PubMed Central

    Hanemaaijer, Mark; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Olivier, Brett G.; Khandelwal, Ruchir A.; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities play important roles in health, industrial applications and earth's ecosystems. With current molecular techniques we can characterize these systems in unprecedented detail. However, such methods provide little mechanistic insight into how the genetic properties and the dynamic couplings between individual microorganisms give rise to their dynamic activities. Neither do they give insight into what we call “the community state”, that is the fluxes and concentrations of nutrients within the community. This knowledge is a prerequisite for rational control and intervention in microbial communities. Therefore, the inference of the community structure from experimental data is a major current challenge. We will argue that this inference problem requires mathematical models that can integrate heterogeneous experimental data with existing knowledge. We propose that two types of models are needed. Firstly, mathematical models that integrate existing genomic, physiological, and physicochemical information with metagenomics data so as to maximize information content and predictive power. This can be achieved with the use of constraint-based genome-scale stoichiometric modeling of community metabolism which is ideally suited for this purpose. Next, we propose a simpler coarse-grained model, which is tailored to solve the inference problem from the experimental data. This model unambiguously relate to the more detailed genome-scale stoichiometric models which act as heterogeneous data integrators. The simpler inference models are, in our opinion, key to understanding microbial ecosystems, yet until now, have received remarkably little attention. This has led to the situation where the modeling of microbial communities, using only genome-scale models is currently more a computational, theoretical exercise than a method useful to the experimentalist. PMID:25852671

  10. Cogeneration plant serves Prague sewage works

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The new cogeneration plant at the sewage works in Prague, Czech Republic, was commissioned in June of this year. The plant is based on three gas engine modules from Deutz MWM-Gastechnik, which supply power and heat from the sewage gas. Also installed was a central plant control system (CPCS) for automation of the power plant, including long-term data storage for operation optimization. The gas engines are equipped with an individual total electronic management system (TEM) that optimizes engine operation and heat transfer. The TEM system also serves for safety monitoring of the relevant modules. Data communication between the TEM system and the CPCS is realized via a serial interface. The CPCS can thus test the availability of the individual heat generators and, depending on the condition of an individual module, switch over to another. With due consideration to environmental protection, Deutz MWM-Gastechnik guarantees NO{sub x} emissions of less than 500 mg/Nm{sup 3} (at 5% O{sub 2}) and CO emissions of less than 650 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The plant operator has also encapsulated the three gas engine modules in soundproofing enclosures in order to reduce noise emissions from 105 down to 78 dB(A).

  11. Leveraged resources and systems changes in community collaboration.

    PubMed

    Harper, Christopher R; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Weaver, Scott R; Emshoff, Jim; Erickson, Steve

    2014-12-01

    Most models of community collaboration emphasize the ability of diverse partners to come together to enact systematic changes that improve the health of individuals and communities. The ability of these groups to leverage resources is thought to be an important marker of successful collaboration and eventual improvements in community health. However, there is a paucity of research addressing linkages between systems change activities and leveraged resources. This study used a sample of collaboratives (N = 157) that received technical assistance and funding through the Georgia Family Connection Partnership (GaFCP) between 2006 and 2007. Data were collected from collaborative report of activities and funding, member ratings of collaborative functioning, and characteristics of the communities served by the collaboratives drawn from US Census data. Cross-lagged regression models tested longitudinal associations between systems change activities and leveraged dollars. The results indicated that systems change activities predict increased leveraging of resources from state/federal and private partners. However, there was no evidence that systems changes were linked with leveraging resources from local groups and agencies. These findings have important implications for providing technical assistance and training to health partnerships. Furthermore, future research should consider the relative strength of different systems change activities in relation to the ability of coalitions to leverage resources. PMID:25267252

  12. Leveraged resources and systems changes in community collaboration.

    PubMed

    Harper, Christopher R; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Weaver, Scott R; Emshoff, Jim; Erickson, Steve

    2014-12-01

    Most models of community collaboration emphasize the ability of diverse partners to come together to enact systematic changes that improve the health of individuals and communities. The ability of these groups to leverage resources is thought to be an important marker of successful collaboration and eventual improvements in community health. However, there is a paucity of research addressing linkages between systems change activities and leveraged resources. This study used a sample of collaboratives (N = 157) that received technical assistance and funding through the Georgia Family Connection Partnership (GaFCP) between 2006 and 2007. Data were collected from collaborative report of activities and funding, member ratings of collaborative functioning, and characteristics of the communities served by the collaboratives drawn from US Census data. Cross-lagged regression models tested longitudinal associations between systems change activities and leveraged dollars. The results indicated that systems change activities predict increased leveraging of resources from state/federal and private partners. However, there was no evidence that systems changes were linked with leveraging resources from local groups and agencies. These findings have important implications for providing technical assistance and training to health partnerships. Furthermore, future research should consider the relative strength of different systems change activities in relation to the ability of coalitions to leverage resources.

  13. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few

  14. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  15. Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1988-07-01

    Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

  16. Creating Lifelong Learning Communities (Conceptualizing All Social Systems as Systems of Learning Resources).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.

    A model is proposed for developing and implementing a community-based lifelong learning resources system. The model, which is based on systems theory, features the following sequence of activities: identifying all the learning resources in a community, incorporating information about these resources into a database, establishing a mechanism for…

  17. Physico-chemical aspects of sewage ionizing radiation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotskaya, N. A.; Shevchuk, L. G.

    The ionizing radiation treatment of sewage and redundant activated sludges at doses ranging from 5 to 10 kGy was shown to decrease the specific resistance to filtration, the ɣ-potential of colloidal particles, the bound water content of sewage sludge and to increase the amount of highly molecular substances of filtrate. The dependence of viscosity on concentration and temperature obtained in the radiolysis of gelatin solutions acting as model system allow us to suggest that the straightening out of the dissolved protein molecules and their flocculating properties may be one of the reasons of the improved filtrability of irradiated sludges.

  18. From Innovative Programs to Systemic Education Reform: Lesson from Five Communities. The Final Report of the Benchmark Communities Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSalvatore, Larry; Goldberger, Susan; Steinberg, Adria

    This document presents the lessons of Jobs for the Future's Benchmark Communities Initiative (BCI), a 5-year systemic educational reform initiative launched in 1994 in five communities. Before joining the BCI, the five Benchmark communities had each begun a school-to-career effort. Five key findings from the BCI are outlined: (1) students engaged…

  19. Social Justice Advocacy: Community Collaboration and Systems Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Baez, Sandra I.; Paylo, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the community collaboration and systems advocacy domains of the ACA (American Counseling Association) Advocacy Competencies (J. A. Lewis, M. S. Arnold, R. House, & R. L. Toporek, 2002). A case illustration is presented, and the 8 Advocacy Competencies within each domain are applied to the case study.

  20. Houston Community College System Institutional Effectiveness Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Community Coll. System, TX.

    The purpose of this report is to "close the loop" by providing feedback to the administration and Board regarding Houston Community College System's (HCCS) institutional effectiveness efforts for the fiscal year 1997-98. Part 1 is a status report on the institution's progress toward accomplishing its eight strategic goals as outlined in "Vision…

  1. Houston Community College System Fact Book, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Community Coll. System, TX. Office of Institutional Research.

    The 2000-2003 goals and objectives of the Houston Community College System (HCCS) in Texas include the following: (1) focus on student learning in the classroom; (2) ensure student access and success through comprehensive student services; (3) develop and maintain outstanding educational programs; (4) ensure a quality learning experience; and (5)…

  2. User community development for the space transportation system/Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. L.; Beauchamp, N. A.

    1974-01-01

    The New User Function plan for identifying beneficial uses of space is described. Critical issues such as funding, manpower, and protection of user proprietary rights are discussed along with common barriers which impede the development of a user community. Studies for developing methodologies of identifying new users and uses of the space transportation system are included.

  3. Illinois Community College System. Performance Report For Fiscal Year 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Illinois Community College System Performance Report replaces the Results Report and reflects an initial effort to increasingly streamline and integrate state outcomes and progress reporting in Illinois. The fresh approach taken this year further combines qualitative information and quantitative data reporting. The Performance Report is…

  4. The Fact Book: Report for the Florida Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Community Colleges.

    This fact book for the Florida Community College System (FCCS) is divided into the fallowing categories: (1) Student Information, which includes fall, annual, FTE, and program enrollment statistics, as well as credit program completion statistics; (2) Employee Information, which includes statistics regarding employee headcount by occupational…

  5. Florida Community College System 2001 Substantive Legislative Issue Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This document is a compilation of substantive legislative issues papers concerning the Florida Community College System in 2001. It examines the following six legislative issues, considered to be of high visibility and importance: (1) issues included in the budget, which consist of funding formulas, dual enrollment, and matching grants; (2) issues…

  6. Student Tracking Systems in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest, September 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimbita, Grace

    Student tracking systems are enabling increasing numbers of community colleges to respond to external demands for accountability with tangible measurements of student progress and institutional outcomes. Several recent trends in marketing, accountability, communications with students, and internal competition for resources have prompted interest…

  7. Illinois Community College System Performance Report for Fiscal Year 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Fiscal Year 2007 Illinois Community College System's Performance Report" contains summary information about state and common institutional outcome indicators. External comparative benchmarks are cited whenever possible using the latest available data (national reporting typically trails what is available at the state level). Additionally, the…

  8. Connecticut Community-Technical College System Biennial Assessment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Community-Technical Coll., Hartford. Board of Trustees.

    This annual report assesses the strategic planning effort of the 12 colleges that make up the Connecticut Community-Technical College system. Section 1 details the planning and assessment process. The first phase of this strategic planning process--the development of performance indicators--has been completed. Colleges identified their goals…

  9. 2012 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial - Proposal to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Marika; Bailey, David A

    2013-03-18

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .

  10. Rush Health Systems and Meridian Community College: People Serving People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    Meridian Community College and Rush Health Systems are partners in delivering training focused on Rush's mission statement of hospital-wide commitment to "excellence in service management." Rush and MCC have delivered customized classes in the following areas: medical billing, leadership management, computer training, admissions clerk, and…

  11. Geographic Information Systems: A Tool for Rural Community Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Sarah; Collins, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of geographic information systems (GIS) by a "local learning team" to map socioeconomic patterns in Jackson County, Kentucky, and to evaluate the distribution of local funding and the geographic equity of representation related to the Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Community program. Discusses advantages and disadvantages to using…

  12. Rejuvenating health systems for aging communities.

    PubMed

    Paccaud, Fred

    2002-08-01

    degenerative diseases. A second consequence will be the need for a substantial and rapid adaptation of the health care system. Three selected aspects are addressed below: 1) the increase of resources, 2) the improvement of performance, and 3) the reduction of demand through preventive strategies. PMID:12462378

  13. [Local health systems. Moral rationality of community decisions].

    PubMed

    Tealdi, J C

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the points of convergence between local health systems and bioethics in three basic areas: structural or institutional, methodological or justificatory, and regulatory or normative. Comparisons are drawn between the decentralization of the health system posed by local health systems and deconcentration of the power vested in multidisciplinary ethics committees; the strategy of social participation and the movement in the United States of community decision-making in the area of health; and the basic concepts of primary health care and the principle of justice. The theories of Pellegrino and Thomasma on the philosophic bases for medical practice provide the framework of this comparative analysis. The article concludes with a call for a local health systems-bioethical nexus in which this discipline can provide the basis for infusing an ethical component into participatory planning and community decision-making.

  14. Wetland plant communities, Galveston Bay system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.A.; Paine, J.G.

    1992-03-01

    The report is the culmination of a field investigation of wetland plant communities, and is one phase of the project, Trends and Status of Wetland and Aquatic Habitats of the Galveston Bay System, Texas, sponsored by the Galveston Bay National Estuary Program. For purpose of the topical report, wetlands are defined and classified in terms of more classical definitions, for example, salt, brackish, and fresh marshes, in accordance with project requirements. More than 150 sites were examined in the Galveston Bay system.

  15. Linking Microbial Community Structure to Function in Representative Simulated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Ian M.; Wilder, Hailey A.; Quazi, Shanin J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria are generally studied as a single strain under ideal growing conditions, although these conditions are not the norm in the environments in which pathogens typically proliferate. In this investigation, a representative microbial community along with Escherichia coli O157:H7, a model pathogen, was studied in three environments in which such a pathogen could be found: a human colon, a septic tank, and groundwater. Each of these systems was built in the lab in order to retain the physical/chemical and microbial complexity of the environments while maintaining control of the feed into the models. The microbial community in the colon was found to have a high percentage of bacteriodetes and firmicutes, while the septic tank and groundwater systems were composed mostly of proteobacteria. The introduction of E. coli O157:H7 into the simulated systems elicited a shift in the structures and phenotypic cell characteristics of the microbial communities. The fate and transport of the microbial community with E. coli O157:H7 were found to be significantly different from those of E. coli O157:H7 studied as a single isolate, suggesting that the behavior of the organism in the environment was different from that previously conceived. The findings in this study clearly suggest that to gain insight into the fate of pathogens, cells should be grown and analyzed under conditions simulating those of the environment in which the pathogens are present. PMID:23396331

  16. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent. PMID

  17. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  18. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic.

  19. Federal register, Volume 60, No. 234, Wednesday, December 6, 1995 proposed rules. Part 2. 40 CFR part 122, et al. National pollutant discharge elimination system permit application requirements for publicly owned treatment works and other treatment works treating domestic sewage; proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-06

    The Environmental Protection Agency proposes to amend permit application requirements and application forms for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other treatment works treating domestic sewage (TWTDS). TWTDS include facilities that generate sewage sludge, provide commercial treatment of sewage sludge, manufacture a product derived from sewage sludge, or provide disposal of sewage sludge.

  20. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  1. ECHO: a community video streaming system with interactive visual overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Gene; Tan, Wai-tian; Shen, Bo; Ortega, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We describe a networked video application where personalized avatars, controlled by a group of "hecklers", are overlaid on top of a real-time encoded video stream of an Internet game for multicast consumption. Rather than passively observing the streamed content individually, the interactivity of the controllable avatars, along with heckling voice exchange, engenders a sense of community during group viewing. We first describe how the system splits video into independent regions with and without avatars for processing in order to minimize complexity. Observing that the region with avatars is more delay-sensitive due to their interactivity, we then show that the regions can be logically packetized into separable sub-streams, and be transported and buffered with different delay requirements, so that the interactivity of the avatars can be maximized. The utility of our system extends beyond Internet game watching to general community streaming of live or pre-encoded video with visual overlays.

  2. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  3. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M S; Garland, J L; Mills, A L

    2004-02-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  4. Channeling power across ecological systems: social regularities in community organizing.

    PubMed

    Christens, Brian D; Inzeo, Paula Tran; Faust, Victoria

    2014-06-01

    Relational and social network perspectives provide opportunities for more holistic conceptualizations of phenomena of interest in community psychology, including power and empowerment. In this article, we apply these tools to build on multilevel frameworks of empowerment by proposing that networks of relationships between individuals constitute the connective spaces between ecological systems. Drawing on an example of a model for grassroots community organizing practiced by WISDOM—a statewide federation supporting local community organizing initiatives in Wisconsin—we identify social regularities (i.e., relational and temporal patterns) that promote empowerment and the development and exercise of social power through building and altering relational ties. Through an emphasis on listening-focused one-to-one meetings, reflection, and social analysis, WISDOM organizing initiatives construct and reinforce social regularities that develop social power in the organizing initiatives and advance psychological empowerment among participant leaders in organizing. These patterns are established by organizationally driven brokerage and mobilization of interpersonal ties, some of which span ecological systems.Hence, elements of these power-focused social regularities can be conceptualized as cross-system channels through which micro-level empowerment processes feed into macro-level exercise of social power, and vice versa. We describe examples of these channels in action, and offer recommendations for theory and design of future action research [corrected] .

  5. Cheese rind communities provide tractable systems for in situ and in vitro studies of microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Button, Julie E; Santarelli, Marcela; Dutton, Rachel J

    2014-07-17

    Tractable microbial communities are needed to bridge the gap between observations of patterns of microbial diversity and mechanisms that can explain these patterns. We developed cheese rinds as model microbial communities by characterizing in situ patterns of diversity and by developing an in vitro system for community reconstruction. Sequencing of 137 different rind communities across 10 countries revealed 24 widely distributed and culturable genera of bacteria and fungi as dominant community members. Reproducible community types formed independent of geographic location of production. Intensive temporal sampling demonstrated that assembly of these communities is highly reproducible. Patterns of community composition and succession observed in situ can be recapitulated in a simple in vitro system. Widespread positive and negative interactions were identified between bacterial and fungal community members. Cheese rind microbial communities represent an experimentally tractable system for defining mechanisms that influence microbial community assembly and function.

  6. Cheese rind communities provide tractable systems for in situ and in vitro studies of microbial diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Benjamin E.; Button, Julie E.; Santarelli, Marcela; Dutton, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Tractable microbial communities are needed to bridge the gap between observations of patterns of microbial diversity and mechanisms that can explain these patterns. We developed cheese rinds as model microbial communities by characterizing in situ patterns of diversity and by developing an in vitro system for community reconstruction. Sequencing of 137 different rind communities across 10 countries revealed 24 widely distributed and culturable genera of bacteria and fungi as dominant community members. Reproducible community types formed independent of geographic location of production. Intensive temporal sampling demonstrated that assembly of these communities is highly reproducible. Patterns of community composition and succession observed in situ can be recapitulated in a simple in vitro system. Widespread positive and negative interactions were identified between bacterial and fungal community members. Cheese rind microbial communities represent an experimentally tractable system for defining mechanisms that influence microbial community assembly and function. PMID:25036636

  7. Effect of seawater-sewage cross-transplants on bacterial metabolism and diversity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Jing, Hongmei; Kong, Liangliang; Sun, Mingming; Harrison, Paul J; Liu, Hongbin

    2013-07-01

    Bioassays experiments were conducted to determine the metabolic and community composition response of bacteria to transplants between relatively pristine coastal seawater and sewage-impacted seawater. There were four treatments: (1) pristine seawater bacteria + pristine seawater (Pb + Pw), (2) sewage-impacted bacteria + sewage-impacted water (Sb + Sw), (3) pristine seawater bacteria + sewage-impacted water (Pb + Sw), and (4) sewage-impacted bacteria + pristine seawater (Sb + Pw). Sewage-derived DOC was more labile and readily utilized by bacteria, which favored the growth of high nucleic acid (HNA) bacteria, resulting in high bacterial production (BP, 113 ± 4.92 to 130 ± 15.8 μg C l(-1) day(-1)) and low respiration rate (BR, <67 ± 11.3 μg C l(-1) day(-1)), as well as high bacterial growth efficiency (BGE, 0.68 ± 0.09 to 0.71 ± 0.05). In contrast, at the relatively pristine site, bacteria utilized natural marine-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the expense of lowering their growth efficiency (BGE, <0.32 ± 0.02) with low BP (<62 ± 6.3 μg C l(-1) day(-1)) and high BR 133 ± 14.2 μg C l(-1) day(-1)). Sewage DOM input appeared to alter the partitioning of carbon between respiration and production of bacteria, resulting in a shift toward higher BGE, which would not enhance oxygen consumption. Taxonomic classification based on 454 pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that changes in bacterial community structure occurred when seawater bacteria were transferred to the eutrophic sewage-impacted water. Sewage DOM fueled the growth of Gammma-proteobacteria and Epsilson-proteobacteria and reduced the bacterial richness, but the changes in the community were not apparent when sewage-impacted bacteria were transferred to pristine seawater. PMID:23494574

  8. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Composition and method for the treatment of sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.

    1981-01-20

    Sewage treatment composition formed by combination of triancontanol with an organic soil improvement agent derived by digestion of milch cow excrement and method of treating sewage are described to reduce sludge by addition of the composition to the sewage.

  10. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePlus

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  11. Benthic infaunal community structuring in an acidified tropical estuarine system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that increasing ocean acidification (OA) should have strong direct and indirect influences on marine invertebrates. While most theory and application for OA is based on relatively physically-stable oceanic ecological systems, less is known about the effects of acidification on nearshore and estuarine systems. Here, we investigated the structuring of a benthic infaunal community in a tropical estuarine system, along a steep salinity and pH gradient, arising largely from acid-sulphate groundwater inflows (Sungai Brunei Estuary, Borneo, July 2011- June 2012). Results Preliminary data indicate that sediment pore-water salinity (range: 8.07 - 29.6 psu) declined towards the mainland in correspondence with the above-sediment estuarine water salinity (range: 3.58 – 31.2 psu), whereas the pore-water pH (range: 6.47- 7.72) was generally lower and less variable than the estuarine water pH (range: 5.78- 8.3), along the estuary. Of the thirty six species (taxa) recorded, the polychaetes Neanthes sp., Onuphis conchylega, Nereididae sp. and the amphipod Corophiidae sp., were numerically dominant. Calcified microcrustaceans (e.g., Cyclopoida sp. and Corophiidae sp.) were abundant at all stations and there was no clear distinction in distribution pattern along the estuarine between calcified and non-calcified groups. Species richness increased seawards, though abundance (density) showed no distinct directional trend. Diversity indices were generally positively correlated (Spearman’s rank correlation) with salinity and pH (p <0.05) and negatively with clay and organic matter, except for evenness values (p >0.05). Three faunistic assemblages were distinguished: (1) nereid-cyclopoid-sabellid, (2) corophiid-capitellid and (3) onuphid- nereid-capitellid. These respectively associated with lower salinity/pH and a muddy bottom, low salinity/pH and a sandy bottom, and high salinity/pH and a sandy bottom. However, CCA suggested that species distribution

  12. Sewers, sewage treatment, sludge: damage without end.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Abby A

    2002-01-01

    It is in the nature of sewering and sewage treatment to compound environmental problems in the process of moving sewage and in attempting to remove from sewage the pollutants it carries. Spreading sewage sludge on land is but the latest in the compounding of environmental damage from sewerage. This practice must be banned and there must be a federal reorientation of all technology dealing with human excreta and the waste materials from industry and society that now are carried away by sewers. The reorientation must center on biologically based on-site pollution prevention and resource recycling technologies mandated through a revised Clean Water Act. PMID:17208779

  13. Sewers, sewage treatment, sludge: damage without end.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Abby A

    2002-01-01

    It is in the nature of sewering and sewage treatment to compound environmental problems in the process of moving sewage and in attempting to remove from sewage the pollutants it carries. Spreading sewage sludge on land is but the latest in the compounding of environmental damage from sewerage. This practice must be banned and there must be a federal reorientation of all technology dealing with human excreta and the waste materials from industry and society that now are carried away by sewers. The reorientation must center on biologically based on-site pollution prevention and resource recycling technologies mandated through a revised Clean Water Act.

  14. A Community Publication and Dissemination System for Hydrology Education Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hosted by CUAHSI and the Science Education Resource Center (SERC), federated by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL), and allied with the Water Data Center (WDC), Hydrologic Information System (HIS), and HydroShare projects, a simple cyberinfrastructure has been launched for the publication and dissemination of data and model driven university hydrology education materials. This lightweight system's metadata describes learning content as a data-driven module with defined data inputs and outputs. This structure allows a user to mix and match modules to create sequences of content that teach both hydrology and computer learning outcomes. Importantly, this modular infrastructure allows an instructor to substitute a module based on updated computer methods for one based on outdated computer methods, hopefully solving the problem of rapid obsolescence that has hampered previous community efforts. The prototype system is now available from CUAHSI and SERC, with some example content. The system is designed to catalog, link to, make visible, and make accessible the existing and future contributions of the community; this system does not create content. Submissions from hydrology educators are eagerly solicited, especially for existing content.

  15. Molecular detection of human noroviruses in influent and effluent samples from two biological sewage treatment plants in the region of Monastir, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hassine-Zaafrane, Mouna; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Kaplon, Jérôme; Ben Salem, Imen; Pothier, Pierre; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia

    2014-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for numerous cases of waterborne and foodborne gastroenteritis every year. They are released in the sewage and their detection in this environment can reflect the epidemiology of the viral strains circulating in the community. A three-year (2007-2010) survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of human NoVs using RT-PCR in 518 sewage samples collected at the entrance and exit of two biological sewage treatment plants located in Monastir region, Tunisia. In this study, we aimed to genetically characterize the most prevalent GI and GII NoV strains, in order to obtain a rough estimate of the efficacy of disinfection treatments and to compare the results with clinical data documented in the same area during the same period. This work confirms the wide circulation and the genetic diversity of NoVs in Tunisia and the widespread distribution of NoV variants in both raw and treated wastewater. Indeed, NoV was detected in 192 (37.1%) sewage samples, among them mixed infections with group A rotavirus were detected in 125 (65.1%) cases. The genotypes of the GI NoVs were GI.1, GI.2, GI.4, GI.5, and GI of unassigned genotype (GI.UA), and the genotypes of the GII NoVs were all GII.12. This study enhances the currently poor environmental virological data gathered in Tunisia, demonstrates the benefit of environmental surveillance as a tool to determine the epidemiology of NoVs circulating in a given community, and underlines the need for the design and support of similar long-term studies in our country, in order to compensate for the absence of a national surveillance system for gastroenteric viruses.

  16. High Resolution River Routing in the Community Climate System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branstetter, M. L.; Erickson, D. J.; Drake, J.; Allen, M.

    2009-12-01

    The current version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM uses half degree resolution river routing within the land component of CCSM. We present a scaling approach and status on a project to produce a much higher resolution data set for river routing to go along with higher resolution land cover data sets for the Community Land Model CLM in order to take advantage of the increasing computational power now available. The new higher resolution data set is based on the Hydrosheds and Hydro1K datasets from USGS. The flow directions are used to generate basins so that the computational load can be distributed among processors by basins to minimize the parallel communication necessary. The code modifications will make the river component more scalable and efficient. The higher resolution models enable detailed study of climatic effects from human induced land cover/land use changes such as the deployment of biofuel crops for energy production.

  17. High resolution river routing in the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J; Drake, John B

    2009-12-01

    The current version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM uses half degree resolution river routing within the land component of CCSM. We present a scaling approach and status on a project to produce a much higher resolution data set for river routing to go along with higher resolution land cover data sets for the Community Land Model CLM in order to take advantage of the increasing computational power now available. The new higher resolution data set is based on the Hydrosheds and Hydro1K datasets from USGS. The flow directions are used to generate basins so that the computational load can be distributed among processors by basins to minimize the parallel communication necessary. The code modifications will make the river component more scalable and efficient. The higher resolution models enable detailed study of climatic effects from human induced land cover/land use changes such as the deployment of biofuel crops for energy production.

  18. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  19. Community Garden Information Systems: Analyzing and Strengthening Community-Based Resource Sharing Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loria, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…

  20. Sewage exfiltration as a source of storm drain contamination during dry weather in urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    Separating storm drains and sanitary sewers is expected to control sewage pollution, for example, from combined sewer overflows, and to reduce excessive stormwater flow to wastewater treatment plants. However, sewage contamination has been found in such separated storm drain systems in urban areas during dry-weather flow. To determine whether transmission of sewage is occurring from leaking sanitary sewers directly to leaking separated storm drains, field experiments were performed in three watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA. Areas with high and low risks for sewage exfiltration into storm drains were identified, and rhodamine WT (RWT) dye pulses were added to the sanitary sewers. RWT was monitored in nearby storm drain manholes using optical probes set up for unattended continuous monitoring. Above-background RWT peaks were detected in storm drains in high-risk areas, and multiple locations of sewage contamination were found. Sewage contamination during the field studies was confirmed using the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH DNA markers. This study is the first to provide direct evidence that leaking sanitary sewers can directly contaminate nearby leaking storm drains with untreated sewage during dry weather and suggests that chronic sanitary sewer leakage contributes to downstream fecal contamination of coastal beaches.

  1. Isolation and identification of enteroviruses from sewage and sewage-contaminated water in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle; Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas

    2014-06-01

    Studies have confirmed silent circulation of enteroviruses in the environment even in the absence of associated clinical conditions in the community. In this light, 26 samples of sewage and sewage-contaminated water serving selected high-risk communities in Lagos Nigeria were examined between June and September 2010. To concentrate virus particles in the sample, 480 μL of each sample was centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 1 h at 4 °C. Subsequently, pellets were pooled, chloroform treated and further centrifuged at 1,500 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. The water phase (concentrate) was then collected and stored at -20 °C. The concentrates were subsequently inoculated into RD and L20B cell lines. Recovered isolates were identified by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR), serotyping, VP1 amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Overall, 9 (34.6%) of the samples showed characteristic enterovirus cytopathic effect in RD cell line and were subsequently confirmed by pan-enterovirus rRT-PCR. The isolates were further identified by serotyping to include three E7, one E11 and one E13 isolates whilst four isolates were untypable. Further characterisation by VP1 sequencing confirmed the results of serotyping and rRT-PCR for all but isolate E13. Also, the four previously untypable isolates were identified to include two E19, one E20 and one E7 by VP1 sequencing. Results of the study confirmed circulation of Sub-Saharan Africa-specific enterovirus clades in the region, provide information on their molecular epidemiology and emphasise the need to combine methods of identification to enhance enterovirus surveillance.

  2. Intelligent community management system based on the devicenet fieldbus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yulan; Wang, Jianxiong; Liu, Jiwen

    2013-03-01

    With the rapid development of the national economy and the improvement of people's living standards, people are making higher demands on the living environment. And the estate management content, management efficiency and service quality have been higher required. This paper in-depth analyzes about the intelligent community of the structure and composition. According to the users' requirements and related specifications, it achieves the district management systems, which includes Basic Information Management: the management level of housing, household information management, administrator-level management, password management, etc. Service Management: standard property costs, property charges collecting, the history of arrears and other property expenses. Security Management: household gas, water, electricity and security and other security management, security management district and other public places. Systems Management: backup database, restore database, log management. This article also carries out on the Intelligent Community System analysis, proposes an architecture which is based on B / S technology system. And it has achieved a global network device management with friendly, easy to use, unified human - machine interface.

  3. Fitting response models of benthic community structure to abiotic variables in a polluted estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Oreja, José Antonio; Saiz-Salinas, José Ignacio

    1999-07-01

    Models of the macrozoobenthic community responses to abiotic variables measured in the polluted Bilbao estuary were obtained by multiple linear regression analyses. Total, Oligochaeta and Nematoda abundance and biomass were considered as dependent variables. Intertidal level, dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the water column (DOXB) and organic content of the sediment were selected by the analyses as the three principal explanatory variables. Goodness-of-fit of the models was high ( overlinex=71.3% ). Total abundance and biomass increased as a linear function of DOXB. The principal outcome of the vast sewage scheme currently in progress in the study area is an important contributor of increasing DOXB levels. The models exposed in this paper will serve as a tool to evaluate the expected changes in the near future.

  4. [Community health centers: an alternative for the health system

    PubMed

    Fernandes; Monteiro

    1997-01-01

    Reflecting on the current reorganization of the relationship between the state and civil society, the health care field is involved in an intense debate over the organization and use of government and private health services. The authors propose an alternative, consisting of the implementation of primary health care clinics, managed by local institutions and funded by the Unified Health System. To support this proposition, they report on the current experience at the Rocinha slum in Rio de Janeiro, where a community health center was built by the neighborhood association 12 years ago and has been managed by the community since then. The hospital referral rate at the clinic, requests for laboratory tests, and use of precriptions have been considerably limited, although these services are available. These low rates are attributed to the possibility of closer social control by the community, as well as to the geographical features of the center, favoring a broader perception of both health problems and treatment. In order to provide more substantial support to the proposed centers, some suggestions are presented, like the implementation of direct agreements between the government and neighborhood associations (not allowed under current legislation) and expanding potential sources of funding for the health centers, currently restricted to government programs. PMID:10886837

  5. [Effects of antibiotics on bacterial community in shrimp hatchery system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lü-ping; Hu, Chao-Qun; Luo, Peng; Xie, Zhen-Yu; Li, Zhuo-Jia

    2009-10-01

    With bacterial 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) as molecular marker and by using PCR-DGGE technique, the fingerprints of bacterial community were constructed to study the effects of applying streptomycin sulfate, terramycin, and penicillin on the bacterial community in shrimp hatchery system. Within the 120 h experimental period, significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between the treatments applied with 0.5 mg x L(-1) of test antibiotics and the control. In the control, the band patterns in 0-30 h were clustered into one clade, and those in 56-120 h were clustered into another; while in the treatments applied with test antibiotics, the band patterns in 0-56 h were clustered into one clade, and those in 72-120 h were clustered into another. After the sequencing of DGGE bands, the BLAST-N searches for sequence similarity showed great diversity of bacterial species, including culturable bacteria (mainly Sulfitobacter sp., Rhodobacteraceae sp., Photobacterium damselae, Synechoccoccus sp., Actinomycetales, Flavobacteriaceae, Filamentous photosynthetic, Mucus, and Vibrio harveyi) and some uncultured marine bacteria, among which, Rhodobacteraceae sp., Photobacterium damselae, Actinomycetales, Flavobacteriaceae, Mucus, and two unculturable bacteria were less affected by the three antibiotics, while Sulfitobacter sp., Filamentous photosynthetic, and other eight unculturable marine bacteria changed in different spatiotemporal patterns with the kinds of test antibiotics.

  6. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful.

  7. BY-PRODUCTS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Robert Spurr

    1920-01-01

    Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal. PMID:18010306

  8. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  9. My Town, My Creek, My Sewage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    1972-01-01

    After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

  10. Effect of calcium ions on the evolution of biofouling by Bacillus subtilis in plate heat exchangers simulating the heat pump system used with treated sewage in the 2008 Olympic Village.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Yang, Qian Peng; Chen, Jin Chun; Shi, Lin; Li, Qiong

    2012-06-01

    Heat pump systems using treated sewage water as the heat source were used in the Beijing Olympic Village for domestic heating and cooling. However, considerable biofouling occurred in the plate heat exchangers used in the heat pump system, greatly limiting the system efficiency. This study investigates the biofouling characteristics using a plate heat exchanger in parallel with a flow cell system to focus on the effect of calcium ions on the biofilm development. The interactions between the microorganisms and Ca(2+) enhances both the extent and the rate of biofilm development with increasing Ca(2+) concentration, leading to increased heat transfer and flow resistances. Three stages of biofouling development were identified in the presence of Ca(2+) from different biofouling mass growth rates with an initial stage, a rapid growth stage and an extended growth stage. Each growth stage had different biofouling morphologies influenced by the Ca(2+) concentration. The effects of Ca(2+) on the biofouling heat transfer and flow resistances had a synergistic effect related to both the biofouling mass and the morphology. The effect of Ca(2+) on the biofouling development was most prominent during the rapid growth stage. PMID:22391321

  11. Effect of calcium ions on the evolution of biofouling by Bacillus subtilis in plate heat exchangers simulating the heat pump system used with treated sewage in the 2008 Olympic Village.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Yang, Qian Peng; Chen, Jin Chun; Shi, Lin; Li, Qiong

    2012-06-01

    Heat pump systems using treated sewage water as the heat source were used in the Beijing Olympic Village for domestic heating and cooling. However, considerable biofouling occurred in the plate heat exchangers used in the heat pump system, greatly limiting the system efficiency. This study investigates the biofouling characteristics using a plate heat exchanger in parallel with a flow cell system to focus on the effect of calcium ions on the biofilm development. The interactions between the microorganisms and Ca(2+) enhances both the extent and the rate of biofilm development with increasing Ca(2+) concentration, leading to increased heat transfer and flow resistances. Three stages of biofouling development were identified in the presence of Ca(2+) from different biofouling mass growth rates with an initial stage, a rapid growth stage and an extended growth stage. Each growth stage had different biofouling morphologies influenced by the Ca(2+) concentration. The effects of Ca(2+) on the biofouling heat transfer and flow resistances had a synergistic effect related to both the biofouling mass and the morphology. The effect of Ca(2+) on the biofouling development was most prominent during the rapid growth stage.

  12. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

    1996-07-01

    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  13. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

    2011-08-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ∼20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3-β-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg( - 1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

  14. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  15. Reimbursement of sole community hospitals under Medicare's prospective payment System

    PubMed Central

    Freiman, Marc P.; Cromwell, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Under the prospective payment system (PPS), designated sole community hospitals (SCH's), usually smaller than other rural hospitals but offering comparable services, have had higher average cost levels, in part because of underutilization of plant and equipment. This has resulted in negative operating margins on patient revenues, although local financial support and other revenue sources bring margins on total revenues into the positive range. The PPS legislation has also provided SCH's temporary protection from volume declines. SCH's are more likely than other rural hospitals to experience large volume swings, but only for declines greater than the threshold specified under PPS. PMID:10312392

  16. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: Systems development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, N. R.; Donakowski, T. D.; Foster, R. B.; Sala, D. L.; Tison, R. R.; Whaley, T. P.; Yudow, B. D.; Swenson, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    The heat actuated heat pump centered integrated community energy system (HAHP-ICES) is described. The system utilizes a gas fired, engine-driven, heat pump and commercial buildings, and offers several advantages over the more conventional equipment it is intended to supplant. The general nonsite specific application assumes a hypothetical community of one 59,000 cu ft office building and five 24 unit, low rise apartment buildings located in a region with a climate similar to Chicago. Various sensitivity analyses are performed and through which the performance characteristics of the HAHP are explored. The results provided the selection criteria for the site specific application of the HAHP-ICES concept to a real world community. The site-specific community consists of: 42 town houses; five 120 unit, low rise apartment buildings; five 104 unit high rise apartment buildings; one 124,000 cu ft office building; and a single 135,000 cu ft retail building.

  17. [Environmental effects of applying heavy metal-containing municipal sewage sludge on wheat-rice rotation system on different types of soil].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Cheng, Miao-Miao; Li, Rui; Liu, Ling; Wu, Long-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yan; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2012-02-01

    A pot experiment with the yellow soil and limestone soil from Guizhou province, and paddy soil from Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the impacts of applying municipal sewage sludge containing different concentrations of heavy metals on the wheat and rice growth and their Zn and Cd absorption. The risks of the crop heavy metals pollution caused by the application of the same sludge differed with tested soils. On the yellow soil and paddy soil, applying the sludge containing high concentration heavy metals induced higher pollution risks to the crops. Applying the sludge 1.6% in dry mass and containing 1789 mg x kg(-1) of Zn and 8.47 mg x kg(-1) of Cd to yellow soil made the Zn and Cd concentrations in wheat grains reached 109 and 0.08 mg x kg(-1), and after the second time application of the same dosage of this sludge after rice planting, the Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice reached 52.0 and 0.54 mg x kg(-1), respectively. However, applying the sludge to calcareous soil had no pollution risk to the edible parts of wheat and rice. Soil NH4OAc-extractable Zn was the main factor affecting the Zn concentration in wheat grain and brown rice, but soil NH4OAc-extractable Cd had less effect on the Cd concentration in wheat grain and brown nce. Applying the sludge containing high concentration Zn and Cd to the three soils made the concentrations of total Zn and Cd in the soils increased significantly, and after the first time and the second time of the application, the total Zn concentration in the soils all exceeded the 2nd level of the national soil environmental quality standards.

  18. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  19. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll Project" (Anami Naths); (3)…

  20. CMIP5 Simulations with the Community Earth System Model - Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. J.; Marsh, D. R.; CalvoFernandez, N.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.

    2011-12-01

    We have used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to simulate the Earth's climate from pre-industrial conditions to the end of the 21st Century in several experiments following the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) protocols. We present preliminary analysis of these coupled experiments, highlighting the effects of chemistry and physics above the troposphere on climate. WACCM was developed to understand the couplings between atmospheric layers, the role of chemical and physical processes in defining these couplings, and the interaction between the Earth's atmosphere and the Sun. The current version of WACCM spans the range of altitude from the Earth's surface to the lower thermosphere (~140 km) and is based on version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM-1). WACCM has been used to predict the evolution of ozone and other radiatively active species in the middle and upper atmosphere; to study effects of the stratosphere on tropospheric climate, including the response to increased greenhouse gases; and for independent investigations. We compare climate trends in CMIP5 experiments from WACCM to those in the low-top version of CESM. We examine the coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere, including the quasi-biennial oscillation, sudden stratospheric warmings, the solar cycle, and surface climate.

  1. Evaluation of a telerehabilitation system for community-based rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Jamie; Gales, Sara; Filippone, Ashlee; Saptono, Andi; Parmanto, Bambang; McCue, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The use of web-based portals, while increasing in popularity in the fields of medicine and research, are rarely reported on in community-based rehabilitation programs. A program within the Pennsylvania Office of Vocational Rehabilitation's Hiram G. Andrews Center, the Cognitive Skills Enhancement Program (CSEP), sought to enhance organization of program and participant information and communication between part- and full-time employees, supervisors and consultants. A telerehabilitation system was developed consisting of (1) a web-based portal to support a variety of clinical activities, and (2) the Versatile Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISYTER) video-conferencing system to support the collaboration and delivery of rehabilitation services remotely. This descriptive evaluation examines the usability of the telerehabilitation system incorporating both the portal and VISYTER. Telerehabilitation system users include CSEP staff members from three geographical locations and employed by two institutions. The IBM After-Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ) and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ), the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ), and two demographic surveys were administered to gather both objective and subjective information. Results showed generally high levels of usability. Users commented that the telerehabilitation system improved communication, increased access to information, improved speed of completing tasks, and had an appealing interface. Areas where users would like to see improvements, including ease of accessing/editing documents and searching for information, are discussed.

  2. Sewage treatment costs and economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the costs and economics for developing technologies and the systems for sewage treatment, sludge disposal, and sewer lines. Most of the studies cover the overall construction and operating costs of sewage treatment plants. Other studies cover rate structures, financing, user charges, and benefits of regionalized plants.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. THE YOUTH CULTURE, THE SCHOOL SYSTEM AND THE SOCIALIZATION COMMUNITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIPPITT, RONALD

    THE "SOCIALIZATION COMMUNITY" WAS DEFINED AS THE PROGRAM FOR REARING, EDUCATING, AND ASSIMILATING THE YOUNG INTO A COMMUNITY. PROFESSIONAL LEADERS AND PROGRAM DIRECTORS FROM A VARIETY OF COMMUNITY AGENT CITIES, REPRESENTATIVE OF THE "SOCIALIZATION COMMUNITY," WERE INTERVIEWED. A LACK OF COMMUNICATION OR COORDINATION WAS FOUND EXISTENT AMONG…

  4. Changes in Microbial Biofilm Communities during Colonization of Sewer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Auguet, O.; Pijuan, M.; Batista, J.; Gutierrez, O.

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) in anaerobic biofilms developed in sewer inner pipe surfaces favors the accumulation of sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) as metabolic end products, causing severe impacts on sewerage systems. In this study, we investigated the time course of H2S and CH4 production and emission rates during different stages of biofilm development in relation to changes in the composition of microbial biofilm communities. The study was carried out in a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer using a combination of process data and molecular techniques (e.g., quantitative PCR [qPCR], denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE], and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing). After 2 weeks of biofilm growth, H2S emission was notably high (290.7 ± 72.3 mg S-H2S liter−1 day−1), whereas emissions of CH4 remained low (17.9 ± 15.9 mg COD-CH4 liter−1 day−1). This contrasting trend coincided with a stable SRB community and an archaeal community composed solely of methanogens derived from the human gut (i.e., Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera). In turn, CH4 emissions increased after 1 year of biofilm growth (327.6 ± 16.6 mg COD-CH4 liter−1 day−1), coinciding with the replacement of methanogenic colonizers by species more adapted to sewer conditions (i.e., Methanosaeta spp.). Our study provides data that confirm the capacity of our laboratory experimental system to mimic the functioning of full-scale sewers both microbiologically and operationally in terms of sulfide and methane production, gaining insight into the complex dynamics of key microbial groups during biofilm development. PMID:26253681

  5. Changes in Microbial Biofilm Communities during Colonization of Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Auguet, O; Pijuan, M; Batista, J; Borrego, C M; Gutierrez, O

    2015-10-01

    The coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) in anaerobic biofilms developed in sewer inner pipe surfaces favors the accumulation of sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) as metabolic end products, causing severe impacts on sewerage systems. In this study, we investigated the time course of H2S and CH4 production and emission rates during different stages of biofilm development in relation to changes in the composition of microbial biofilm communities. The study was carried out in a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer using a combination of process data and molecular techniques (e.g., quantitative PCR [qPCR], denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE], and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing). After 2 weeks of biofilm growth, H2S emission was notably high (290.7±72.3 mg S-H2S liter(-1) day(-1)), whereas emissions of CH4 remained low (17.9±15.9 mg COD-CH4 liter(-1) day(-1)). This contrasting trend coincided with a stable SRB community and an archaeal community composed solely of methanogens derived from the human gut (i.e., Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera). In turn, CH4 emissions increased after 1 year of biofilm growth (327.6±16.6 mg COD-CH4 liter(-1) day(-1)), coinciding with the replacement of methanogenic colonizers by species more adapted to sewer conditions (i.e., Methanosaeta spp.). Our study provides data that confirm the capacity of our laboratory experimental system to mimic the functioning of full-scale sewers both microbiologically and operationally in terms of sulfide and methane production, gaining insight into the complex dynamics of key microbial groups during biofilm development. PMID:26253681

  6. Tracking Behavioral Progress within a Children's Mental Health System: The Vermont Community Adjustment Tracking System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Eric J.; Burchard, John D.; Froelich, Peter; Yoe, James T.; Tighe, Theodore

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Vermont Community Adjustment Tracking System (VT-CATS), which utilizes four behavioral instruments to allow intensive, ongoing, and interpretable behavioral assessment of a service system's most challenging children and adolescents. Also explains the adjustment indicator checklists and the ability of VT-CATS to address agencies'…

  7. Impact of a System of Care on a Community's Children's Social Services System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Meyer, Rhonda D.; Sullivan, W. Patrick; Wright, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have questioned how the implementation of a system of care influences the broader context of children's social services within a community. We examined the impact that the Dawn Project system of care had on children's services in Marion County, Indiana. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to…

  8. Practice Parameter on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Care in Community Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This parameter presents overarching principles and practices for child and adolescent mental health care in community systems of care. Community systems of care are defined broadly as comprising the wide array of child-serving agencies, programs, and practitioners (both public and private), in addition to natural community supports such as…

  9. Harmonization Without Homogenization: The Virginia Community College System's Approach to Management By Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Donald E.; And Others

    This panel report on the development of management of objectives (MBO) in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) will be useful to any community college or community college system interested in changing to the MBO method of administration. Following a discussion of the history of centralized administration and funding which preceded the…

  10. Use of delta(13)C and delta(15)N, and carbon to nitrogen ratios to evaluate the impact of sewage-derived particulate organic matter on the benthic communities of the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Alvarez, Nancy; Macías-Zamora, José Vinicio; Burke, Roger A; Rodríguez-Villanueva, Lúz Verónica

    2007-11-01

    We measured stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of particulate organic matter (POM) sources and benthic organic matter compartments as well as sediment C to N ratios from the coastal area of the southern end of the Southern California Bight (SCB). We used the isotopic values to evaluate the relative importance of the major POM sources to the sediment and two benthic macroinvertebrates. Application of a simple model to sediment delta(13)C values suggested that sewage-derived POM (SDPOM) supplies an average of 48% of the organic C to study area sediments. Application of a similar model to Spiophanes duplex delta(13)C values suggested that SDPOM from wastewater treatment plants discharging into the SCB could supply up to 57% of the C assimilated by this important benthic macroinvertebrate in areas as far away as 26 km from SDPOM inputs. The stable isotope data for Amphiodia urtica were more difficult to interpret because of the complex feeding habits of this organism.

  11. A community based surveillance system for perinatal and neonatal care.

    PubMed

    Dyal Chand, A; Khale, M

    1989-11-01

    The impact of maternal health services on perinatal and neonatal mortality depends on both the quantitative and qualitative coverage of pregnant women with obstetric services. In rural areas this becomes all the more difficult because of the requirement of a large decentralized infrastructure extending from village based health workers and subcentres to the Primary Health Centre and tertiary levels of referral. An effective introduction of socio-cultural, biomedical and managerial interventions is required to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality. A community based surveillance and monitoring system is central to and facilitates the introduction of all other interventions. Finally, the system operated by grass-root level workers is a motivational tool for achieving expected levels of performance. PMID:2630471

  12. Utility of Space Transportation System to Space Communication Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    A potentially cost effective technique was investigated of launching operational satellites into synchronous orbit using the space transportation system (STS). This technique uses an unguided spinning solid rocket motor as the means for boosting a satellite from a low altitude shuttle parking orbit into a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft is then injected into a geosynchronous orbit by an apogee kick motor fired at transfer orbit apogee. The approach is essentially that used on all Delta and Atlas-Centaur launches of synchronous satellites with the shuttle orbiter performing the function of the first two stages of the Delta three stage launch vehicle and the perigee kick motor performing the function of the Delta third state. It is concluded that the STS can be useful to the space communication community as well as to other geostationary satellite system users if the recommended actions are implemented.

  13. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  14. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0

  15. Determining the footprint of sewage discharges in a coastal lagoon in South-Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Alexandra; Fernandes, Denise; Damião, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina; Reis, Margarida P

    2015-07-15

    Ria Formosa is a highly productive lagoon in South-Western Europe, supporting 90% of Portuguese clam production. Decreases in shellfish production have been ascribed to deterioration of water quality due to sewage discharges. Nevertheless, a thorough study considering their impact on the whole lagoon system has been missing. This work determined the sewage footprint from the major sewage treatment plants (STP) regarding eutrophication and microbial contamination within a two-year monitoring program. This focused on salinity, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll-a and faecal coliforms. Areas closer to sewage discharges showed an evident impact with maximum effects detected at the major STP. However, globally, the Ria Formosa did not show clear eutrophication problems due to high tidal flushing. Ammonium, oxygen, chlorophyll-a and faecal coliforms, unlike the other parameters, showed no seasonality. Microbiological contamination was of great concern and public health issues could be avoided by settling shellfish beds at least 500 m away from discharge points. PMID:26013590

  16. The amount of heat resources and available heat of treated sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.K.; Cho, C.G.; Pang, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand the amount of regional heat resources from treated sewage, and present the heat resources data available to develop a heat recovery system. In this study, the amount of treated sewage in disposal plants are investigated on a nationwide scale in seven large cities and nine provinces in Korea. As the result of this study, the amount of treated sewage was determined to be 3,223,572,000 ton/year on a nationwide scale, and the quantity of it amounted to 73.6% in large cities including Seoul. The location of sewage disposal plants and the amount of heat resources were visualized on the map using a GIS database of them on personal computer. The amount of available heat resources turned out to be enormous, a capacity equivalent to 45 Mcal/month in the case of Taejon city.

  17. Enhancing Community-Based Disaster Preparedness with Information Technology: Community Disaster Information System

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Douglas A.; Carson, Anne; Vanderbeek, Jean; Hutton, Anne

    2006-01-01

    A critical component of community-based disaster preparedness (CBDP) is a local resource database of suppliers providing physical, information and human resources for use in disaster response. Maintenance of such a database can become a collaborative responsibility among community-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs), public, and private organizations in the community. In addition to mobilizing resources, this process raises awareness within the community and aids in assessing local knowledge and resources. This paper presents the results of a pilot study in implementing a community-based resource database through collaboration with local American Red Cross chapters and public and private community organizations. The design of the resource database is described. The resource database is accessible both using the Internet and offline using laptops and handheld PDAs to support disaster response. The study concludes that CBDP is strengthened through a combination of appropriate information technology and collaborative relationships between NGOs and community-based organizations. PMID:18217923

  18. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  19. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  20. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  1. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  2. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  3. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  4. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  5. Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid.

  6. Quantification of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and corresponding resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Takashi; Hashimoto, Reina; Mekata, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and their resistance genes, vanA and vanB, to examine their presence in sewage treatment systems. Water samples were collected from primary sedimentation tank inlet, aeration tank, final sedimentation tank overflow outlet, and disinfection tank. Enterococcal strains were determined their vancomycin susceptibility by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. Vancomycin-resistance genes (vanA and vanB) were quantified by real-time PCR. The sewage treatment process indeed decreased the number of most enterococci contained in the entering sewage, with a removal rate of ≥ 5 log. The MIC test showed that two enterococcal strains resistant to a high concentration of vancomycin (>128 μg mL(-1)). However, most of the enterococcal strains exhibited sensitivity to vancomycin, indicating that VRE were virtually absent in the sewage treatment systems. On the other hand, vancomycin-resistance genes were detected in all the sewage samples, including those collected from the chlorination disinfection tank. The highest copy numbers of vanA (1.5 × 10(3) copies mL(-1)) and vanB (1.0 × 10(3) copies mL(-1)) were detected from the water sample of effluent water and chlorinated water, respectively. Therefore, antibiotic resistance genes remain in the sewage treatment plant and might discharged into water environments such as rivers and coastal areas. PMID:26121014

  7. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects, we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.

  8. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  9. Community Mobilization and Readiness: Planning Flaws which Challenge Effective Implementation of 'Communities that Care' (CTC) Prevention System.

    PubMed

    Basic, Josipa

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the experience of implementing a community approach to drug use and youth delinquency prevention based on the 'Communities that Care' (CTC) system implemented in one Croatian county consisting of 12 communities, 2002 to 2013 (Hawkins, 1999; Hawkins & Catalano, 2004). This overview explores selected critical issues which are often not considered in substance use(r) community intervention planning, implementation as well as in associated process and outcome assessments. These issues include, among others, the mobilization process of adequate representation of people; the involvement of relevant key individual and organizational stakeholders and being aware of the stakeholders' willingness to participate in the prevention process. In addition, it is important to be aware of the stakeholders' knowledge and perceptions about the 'problems' of drug use and youth delinquency in their communities as well as the characteristics of the targeted population(s). Sometimes there are community members and stakeholders who block needed change and therefore prevention process enablers and 'bridges' should be involved in moving prevention programming forward. Another barrier that is often overlooked in prevention planning is community readiness to change and a realistic assessment of available and accessible resources for initiating the planned change(s) and sustaining them. All of these issues have been found to be potentially related to intervention success. At the end of this article, I summarize perspectives from prevention scientists and practitioners and lessons learned from communities' readiness research and practice in Croatian that has international relevance.

  10. Microwave Supported Treatment of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíček, František; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Giemza, Markus; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This work is focused on microwave treatment of sewage sludge. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the impact of microwave radiation upon different sewage sludge parameters such as concentration of nitrates and nitrites, phosphates, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SVI (Sludge Volume Index) and the microscopic structure of sludge. The experiments with microwave irradiation of sewage sludge indicate that moderate microwave power causes visible effects on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the sludge. The calculation of profitability and energy efficiency is also presented.

  11. Deodorization of sewage sludge-derived oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sawatzky, H.; Giddings, T.; Farnand, B.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for treating a sewage sludge-derived oil comprising the steps of: (A) providing sewage sludge-derived oil having the following elemental composition: Nitrogen: about 2% to about 8%; Oxygen: about 3% to about 12%; Sulphur: about 0.1 % to about 4%; Hydrogen: about 8% to about 11%; Carbon: about 86.9% to about 65%; (B) distilling said sewage sludge-derived oil to a temperature of about 150 C. to remove water and volatile organic compounds; and (C) circulating a gas consisting essentially of carbon dioxide therethrough.

  12. Identification of sewage leaks by active remote-sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Basson, Uri

    2016-04-01

    The increasing length of sewage pipelines, and concomitant risk of leaks due to urban and industrial growth and development is exposing the surrounding land to contamination risk and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, to minimize the damage. Advances in active remote sensing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) technologies was used to identify leaking potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. This study focused on the development of these electromagnetic methods to replace conventional acoustic methods for the identification of leaks along sewage pipes. Electromagnetic methods provide an additional advantage in that they allow mapping of the fluid-transport system in the subsurface. Leak-detection systems using GPR and FDEM are not limited to large amounts of water, but enable detecting leaks of tens of liters per hour, because they can locate increases in environmental moisture content of only a few percentage along the pipes. The importance and uniqueness of this research lies in the development of practical tools to provide a snapshot and monitoring of the spatial changes in soil moisture content up to depths of about 3-4 m, in open and paved areas, at relatively low cost, in real time or close to real time. Spatial measurements performed using GPR and FDEM systems allow monitoring many tens of thousands of measurement points per hectare, thus providing a picture of the spatial situation along pipelines and the surrounding. The main purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting sewage leaks using the above-proposed geophysical methods, since their contaminants can severely affect public health. We focused on identifying, locating and characterizing such leaks in sewage pipes in residential and industrial areas.

  13. [Diversity and classification system of weed community in Harbin City, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Shuang; Liang, Hong; Song, Kun; Da, Liang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the causes of weed community diversity and their strategies of adaption to the high heterogeneity of urban habitats, weed communities in the central urban area of Harbin, China were studied, and a classification system was established for the weed communities. There were 175 weed species, belonging to 128 genera and 38 families. The heterogeneous urban habitats and species' temporal niche differentiation resulted in the highly diversified weed communities. The high proportions of mono-species dominance and annual species dominance communities were their response to the unstable urban habitats under human disturbances with high intensities and frequencies. A four-level classification system was established in terms of plant species and habitat conditions. Within this system, the identified 1763 weed communities could be categorized into two types of life form, 5 types of dormancy form, 22 community groups, and 119 dominance communities.

  14. The contribution of hospitals and health care systems to community health.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M; Washington, Pamela K; Baxter, Raymond J

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews evidence on hospitals' and health systems' impacts on community health improvement. We begin with an overview of the history of community benefit and then discuss the lack of a widely accepted definition and measurement of community benefit activities as well as the expectations and accountability of tax-exempt not-for-profit hospitals and health systems in community initiatives. We highlight the approaches of two systems and identify strategic, cultural, technical, and structural challenges associated with increasing community benefit and health-improvement activities. We conclude by offering recommendations for policy and practice. PMID:19296780

  15. Firn modelling in the Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kampenhout, Leo; Lenaerts, Jan; Sacks, William; Lipscomb, William; van den Broeke, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    Firn meltwater retention and refreezing controls the magnitude and timing of surface runoff, which is the largest contributor of the Greenland freshwater transport into its neighbouring oceans. In Antarctica, all meltwater refreezes, but the sensitivity of ice shelf stability to atmospheric warming is strongly dependent on the amount of firn air. In this study we use the land-only version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-present) to simulate the firn air content over both ice sheets. The impact of three key parameters is examined: (1) the density of freshly fallen snow, (2) the modelled maximum depth of the firn and (3) the compaction rate by overburden pressure. An evaluation of our model results with available firn core observations shows that we can improve the representation of the ice sheet firn, which renders CESM suitable to study the long-term response of ice sheet firn to climate change.

  16. Link between sewage-derived nitrogen pollution and coral disease severity in Guam.

    PubMed

    Redding, Jamey E; Myers-Miller, Roxanna L; Baker, David M; Fogel, Marilyn; Raymundo, Laurie J; Kim, Kiho

    2013-08-15

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the contribution of sewage-derived N to reef flat communities in Guam and to assess the impact of N inputs on coral disease. We used stable isotope analysis of macroalgae and a soft coral, sampled bimonthly, as a proxy for N dynamics, and surveyed Porites spp., a dominant coral taxon on Guam's reefs, for white syndrome disease severity. Results showed a strong influence of sewage-derived N in nearshore waters, with δ(15)N values varying as a function of species sampled, site, and sampling date. Increases in sewage-derived N correlated significantly with increases in the severity of disease among Porites spp., with δ(15)N values accounting for more than 48% of the variation in changes in disease severity. The anticipated military realignment and related population increase in Guam are expected to lead to increased white syndrome infections and other coral diseases.

  17. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) created the first version of the Community Climate Model (CCM) in 1983 as a global atmosphere model. It was improved in 1994 when NCAR, with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed and incorporated a Climate System Model (CSM) that included atmosphere, land surface, ocean, and sea ice. As the capabilities of the model grew, so did interest in its applications and changes in how it would be managed. A workshop in 1996 set the future management structure, marked the beginning of the second phase of the model, a phase that included full participation of the scientific community, and also saw additional financial support, including support from the Department of Energy. In recognition of these changes, the model was renamed to the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). It began to function as a model with the interactions of land, sea, and air fully coupled, providing computer simulations of Earth's past climate, its present climate, and its possible future climate. The CCSM website at http://www2.cesm.ucar.edu/ describes some of the research that has been done since then: A 300-year run has been performed using the CSM, and results from this experiment have appeared in a special issue of theJournal of Climate, 11, June, 1998. A 125-year experiment has been carried out in which carbon dioxide was described to increase at 1% per year from its present concentration to approximately three times its present concentration. More recently, the Climate of the 20th Century experiment was run, with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols prescribed to evolve according to our best knowledge from 1870 to the present. Three scenarios for the 21st century were developed: a "business as usual" experiment, in which greenhouse gases are assumed to increase with no economic constraints; an experiment using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Scenario A1; and a "policy

  18. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKim, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of 1 year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (23.6 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (27 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (22 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. Nitrogen and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7 percent N and 0.94 percent P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8 percent N and 0.79 percent P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nutrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 321 to 387 kg P ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/, respectively.

  19. Identification of viral pathogen diversity in sewage sludge by metagenome analysis.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Kyle; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-02-19

    The large diversity of viruses that exist in human populations are potentially excreted into sewage collection systems and concentrated in sewage sludge. In the U.S., the primary fate of processed sewage sludge (class B biosolids) is application to agricultural land as a soil amendment. To characterize and understand infectious risks associated with land application, and to describe the diversity of viruses in human populations, shotgun viral metagenomics was applied to 10 sewage sludge samples from 5 wastewater treatment plants throughout the continental U.S, each serving between 100,000 and 1,000,000 people. Nearly 330 million DNA sequences were produced and assembled, and annotation resulted in identifying 43 (26 DNA, 17 RNA) different types of human viruses in sewage sludge. Novel insights include the high abundance of newly emerging viruses (e.g., Coronavirus HKU1, Klassevirus, and Cosavirus) the strong representation of respiratory viruses, and the relatively minor abundance and occurrence of Enteroviruses. Viral metagenome sequence annotations were reproducible and independent PCR-based identification of selected viruses suggests that viral metagenomes were a conservative estimate of the true viral occurrence and diversity. These results represent the most complete description of human virus diversity in any wastewater sample to date, provide engineers and environmental scientists with critical information on important viral agents and routes of infection from exposure to wastewater and sewage sludge, and represent a significant leap forward in understanding the pathogen content of class B biosolids. PMID:23346855

  20. Implementation of the Communities That Care Prevention System by Coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Michael W.; Hawkins, J. David; Brown, Eric C.; Briney, John S.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Although advances in prevention science over the past two decades have produced a growing list of tested and effective programs and policies for preventing adolescent delinquency and drug use, widespread dissemination and high-quality implementation of effective programs and policies in communities has not been achieved. The Community Youth…

  1. Increasing Community Access to Solar: Designing and Developing a Shared Solar Photovoltaic System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Nonprofit Project Development. The guide is designed to help those who want to develop community shared solar projects - from community organizers and advocates to utility managers and government officials - navigate the process of developing shared systems, from early planning to implementation.

  2. Entrepreneurship Education in the Virginia Community College System: A Doctoral Dissertation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Richard L.

    This dissertation discusses the results of two surveys--one of community college presidents and one of community college students--conducted to determine the existing and planned entrepreneurship credit and noncredit programs within the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) and the interest in these programs from students enrolled in business…

  3. Management filters and species traits: Weed community assembly in long-term organic and conventional systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community assembly theory provides a useful framework to assess the response of weed communities to agricultural management systems and to improve the predictive power of weed science. Under this framework, weed community assembly is constrained by abiotic and biotic "filters" that act on species tr...

  4. Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

  5. Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

    2002-09-12

    This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  6. A Community Health Education System to meet the health needs of Indo-Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Ratnaike, R N; Chinner, T L

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a Community Health Education System which is cost-effective, sustainable, strongly community-based, and directed at improving the health status of rural women in Indo-china (Kampuchea, Laos and Vietnam). The system is developed through a series of steps which are concerned with the education of Community Health Education Units (in national ministries of health) and, at the village level, among community health workers, women's groups, and other women. The ultimate aim is the establishment of a community health education program in Indochinese villages. PMID:1602046

  7. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  8. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145 +/- 5 mW/m2, 470 omega) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190 +/- 5 mW/m2. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1 +/- 0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L, where 290 mw/m2 was achieved. When effluents from an anaerobic digester that was fed with raw sludge were used as substrate in the SMFC, a maximum power density of 318 mW/m2, and a final TCOD removal of 71.9 +/- 0.2% were achieved. These results have practical implications for development of an effective system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy.

  9. [Characteristics of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Er-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2010-10-01

    The characteristics of thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge were investigated. The results showed that increasing the OLR (COD) of the thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge from 7.762 kg/(m3 x d) to 13.106 kg/(m3 x d) lead to the "acidification" of the reactor with the accumulation of the volatile fatty acid (VFA) and the drop of the pH and gas production. This acidification is recoverability. The OLR(COD) of the thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge can reach to 10 kg/(m3 x d) after the system was recovered. Under the OLR(COD) of 2.523, 4.196, 7.762 and 10.091 kg/(m3 x d), the methane yield (CH4/COD(input)) of thermophilic ASBR were 250, 247, 219 and 187 mL respectively. There are significant linear relationship among OLR and MPR, the methane yield. With the increase of the OLR, the methane production rate increased while the methane yield reduced.

  10. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145 +/- 5 mW/m2, 470 omega) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190 +/- 5 mW/m2. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1 +/- 0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L, where 290 mw/m2 was achieved. When effluents from an anaerobic digester that was fed with raw sludge were used as substrate in the SMFC, a maximum power density of 318 mW/m2, and a final TCOD removal of 71.9 +/- 0.2% were achieved. These results have practical implications for development of an effective system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy. PMID:22053457

  11. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in a watershed in central Mexico and removal from domestic sewage in a treatment wetland.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Marco A; Ikonomou, Michael; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    The Texcoco River in central Mexico is polluted with domestic wastewater as a result of discharges of untreated or inadequately treated sewage. Since nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) surfactants and their intermediate degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and NP mono- and diethoxylate (NP1EO, NP2EO) have been found in domestic wastewater and in surface waters near wastewater discharges in industrialized countries, the Texcoco River was sampled to determine whether these compounds were present. The results indicated that NPEOs were present at very high concentrations (> 100 microg/L) in the lower reaches of the Texcoco River, but unlike rivers in industrialized countries, relatively low concentrations of intermediate degradation products, including NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP, were present. The presence and fate of NPEOs compounds in wastewater treatment plants have been studied only in conventional treatment systems in industrialized countries. In this study, the fate of these compounds was studied in a pilot-scale treatment wetland constructed in the small community of Santa Maria Nativitas in the Texcoco River watershed. The treatment wetland removed > 75% of NPEOs from the domestic wastewater, but the greatest proportion of removal occurred in parts of the treatment wetland where sedimentation existed. This is the first report of NPEO compounds in the water resources of a developing country. These data indicate that construction of low-cost and technologically simple treatment wetlands may be one solution to reducing the impacts of contaminants from domestic sewage in developing countries, such as Mexico.

  12. Sexual assault support services and community systems: understanding critical issues and needs in the LGBTQ community.

    PubMed

    Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Bustin, Amy; Wheeler, Jenna; Gau, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals encounter social conditions that create important considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims. This exploratory, mixed-methods study examines the relationship between community attitudes toward LGBTQ persons and associated community responses to LGBTQ sexual assault victims. An online and paper-and-pencil survey (n = 130) and four focus group interviews (n = 14) are analyzed using frequency distributions and grounded theory methods. The central theme that emerged in focus group interviews, titled "low community awareness and support for sexual violence in the LGBTQ community," was corroborated by survey participants. Participants' views of unique considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims are presented, including causal factors, consequences, and recommended strategies.

  13. Sewage sludge disposal apparatus and method of disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1981-01-20

    A system is described for disposing of sewage sludge by treating the sludge in apparatus which processes the sludge through relatively inert gas drying and grinding stages and utilized as much of the dried and ground sludge as is needed to produce heat for maintaining the drying process in the system once the system has become substantially self sufficient on use of the sludge as the drying heat source. The remaining excess sludge is then in a form either granular or fine suitable for direct sale.

  14. Making sense of scoring systems in community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Niederman, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    The site of care decision is one of the most important in the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Several scoring systems have been developed to predict mortality risk in CAP, and these have been applied to guide physicians about whether patients should be admitted to the hospital or to the intensive care unit (ICU). However, these tools were initially developed to predict mortality risk, and studies have demonstrated that the risk for death does not always equate with need for hospitalization or ICU care. The most widely studied scoring systems are the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and the CURB-65 (a modification of the British Thoracic Society rule). Each has advantages and limitations, with the more-complex PSI developed to identify low-mortality risk patients, and the CURB-65, which is simpler, being developed to easily identify more severely ill individuals. No scoring system can replace clinical judgement about the admission decision, and prospective studies have shown that physicians still admit at least 30-60% of low mortality risk patients when using the PSI to guide this decision. Limitations of these prognostic tools include their variable utility in the elderly, and their failure to include certain comorbidities (COPD, immune suppression) and social factors, in their calculations. The need for ICU care is also not well-defined by measuring the PSI or CURB-65, and other tools such as those developed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guideline committee and the SMART-COP rule may have greater utility for this purpose. In the future, measurements of serum biomarkers, such as procalcitonin, may augment the information provided by prognostic scoring tools for patients with CAP.

  15. Community integration and statewide systems change: qualitative evaluation research in community life and disability.

    PubMed

    Racino, Julie Ann

    2002-01-01

    As the disability field moves to the next generation of community life, this article describes the findings of a qualitative state policy research study on deinstitutionalization and community integration. New Hampshire was selected as a leading national example in the United States based, in part, upon the closure of its only public institution showing community leadership in the field of mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Drawing on the disciplines of politicial science, sociology, psychology and rehabilitation (Majchrzak, 1980), the research design uses a multi-case, multi-site study approach (Yin, 1989), and on-site, semi-structured interviewing of key informants using a research field guide (Taylor & Bogdan, 1984/1998). The qualitative research reflects an indepth version of state formative evaluation research studies on community integration (e.g, Taylor, Racino, & Rothenberg, 1988), and the use of coded data and multiple analytic techniques (e.g., Glaser & Strauss, 1967) congruent with the emerging support and empowerment paradigm (Racino, 1992). The article highlights four sets of research findings (i.e., state characteristics and community integration practices, thematic case studies of change, comparative roles in the change process, and a theoretical framework for understanding change) which form the basis for further statewide study of change toward community life in the United States.

  16. Effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Lv, Qingzhi; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions were systematically investigated in a cement production line in Beijing. The results show that co-processing the sewage sludge was helpful to reduce NOx emission, which primarily depends on the NH3 amount released from the sewage sludge. Meanwhile, NOx and NH3 concentrations in the flue gas have a negative correlation, and the contribution of feeding the sewage sludge to NOx removal decreased with the increase of injection amount of ammonia water in the SNCR system. Therefore, it is suggested that the injection amount of ammonia water in SNCR system may reduce to cut down the operating costs during co-processing the sewage sludge in cement kiln. In addition, the emission of total PAHs seems to increase with the increased amount of the sewage sludge feeding to the cement kiln. However, the distributions of PAHs were barely changed, and lower molecular weight PAHs were mainly distributed in gaseous phase, accounted for the major portion of PAHs when co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln.

  17. Effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Lv, Qingzhi; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions were systematically investigated in a cement production line in Beijing. The results show that co-processing the sewage sludge was helpful to reduce NOx emission, which primarily depends on the NH3 amount released from the sewage sludge. Meanwhile, NOx and NH3 concentrations in the flue gas have a negative correlation, and the contribution of feeding the sewage sludge to NOx removal decreased with the increase of injection amount of ammonia water in the SNCR system. Therefore, it is suggested that the injection amount of ammonia water in SNCR system may reduce to cut down the operating costs during co-processing the sewage sludge in cement kiln. In addition, the emission of total PAHs seems to increase with the increased amount of the sewage sludge feeding to the cement kiln. However, the distributions of PAHs were barely changed, and lower molecular weight PAHs were mainly distributed in gaseous phase, accounted for the major portion of PAHs when co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. PMID:27343866

  18. Health systems ownership: can regulation preserve community benefits?

    PubMed

    Pauly, M V

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses two questions. What determines the amount of community benefit a nonprofit firm will provide? What would be the expected effect of legal rules requiring nonprofit firms to provide more community benefit than they would otherwise have chosen? The amount of community benefit provided, it is argued, depends on the desires of the donors who endow the nonprofit firm with its equity capital and control its corporate board. The effect of a law requiring the provision of community benefit depends on the degree of competition in the local market. In competitive markets, such a rule is like a hidden tax. In markets in which nonprofit firms have market power, it may divert resources from types of benefit valued highly by the board toward activities valued highly by the political process. The definition of community benefit and the future of nonprofit hospitals are also discussed. PMID:10157360

  19. Toward a community coastal sediment transport modeling system: the second workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Harris, Courtney K.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Butman, Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Models for transport and the long-term fate of particles in coastal waters are essential for a variety of applications related to commerce, defense, public health, and the quality of the marine environment. Examples include: analysis of waste disposal and transport and the fate of contaminated materials; evaluation of burial rates for naval mines or archaeological artifacts; prediction of water-column optical properties; analysis of transport and the fate of biological particles; prediction of coastal flooding and coastal erosion; evaluation of impacts of sea-level or wave-climate changes and coastal development; planning for construction and maintenance of navigable waterways; evaluation of habitat for commercial fisheries; evaluation of impacts of natural or anthropogenic changes in coastal conditions on recreational activities; and design of intakes and outfalls for sewage treatment, cooling systems, and desalination plants.

  20. [Establishment of ARDRA system for Panax ginseng cultivated soil microbial community study].

    PubMed

    Ying, Yixin; Ding, Wanlong; Li, Yong

    2011-02-01

    In this study, ARDRA system was established for Panax ginseng cultivated soil microbial community analysis. In the process of soil analysis we found that, ARDRA can not only distinguish soil microbial communities, proportion of each microbial type in total microorganisms can be calculated based on profiles of restricted enzyme digested 16S rDNA, also. Results indicated that, ARDRA system established was able to analyze microbial communities of P. ginseng cultivated soil samples.

  1. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  3. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  4. A Regional ETV Network: Community Needs and System Structure. Technical Report 791.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Martin

    A systems analysis of a community educational television (ETV) structure and of community needs was made in three counties of Appalachian Maryland to see whether an ETV system could meet integrated needs of public school students, disadvantaged families, educators, health service groups, police and fire departments, and business/industry across…

  5. A Matter of Facts: The North Carolina Community College System Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Community Coll. System, Raleigh.

    This is the 2002 edition of North Carolina's annual Community College System Fact Book. It provides information on the status of the state's 58 community, technical and other public two-year colleges. The book discusses the system's history, governance, and funding; college program briefs; finance and college facilities; student data; and staff…

  6. Toward the Year 2000: The Future of the Virginia Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Community Colleges, Richmond.

    Based on the work of the Committee on the Future of the Virginia Community College System and group discussions by 100 representatives of colleges, business/industry, and state bodies, this long-range plan offers guidance for the development of the community college system for the remainder of the century. Following introductory information on the…

  7. Communities Around the World. Their Economic Systems. Teacher's Guide to Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This general guide to a grade 4 social studies course outlines goals, content, and teaching methods on the theme Communities Around the World, with an economic emphasis. Different communities are used as vehicles to teach about contrasting economic systems and the relationship between the economic system and the rest of culture. Four major units…

  8. Shared Values as Anchors of a Learning Community: A Case Study in Information Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role in both individual and organizational learning of the system of values sustained by a community undertaking a design task. The discussion is based on the results of a longitudinal study of a community of novice information system designers supported by a Web-based shared design memory which allows reuse of design…

  9. Accountability and Productivity Report for the Illinois Community College System, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report summarizes accountability, productivity, and quality enhancements within the Illinois community college system, including highlights from reports prepared by the system's 49 colleges, systemwide analyses conducted by Illinois Community College Board (ICCB), and state-level accountability and productivity initiatives. Following an…

  10. A Living Systems Model for Assessing and Promoting the Sustainability of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrick, Steve

    A living systems model of community development has been synthesized from elements of three perspectives: (1) a global movement toward more sustainable patterns of human development that is identifying indicators of community health in a wide range of categories; (2) research on the complex interactions of living systems that make life on earth…

  11. Applications of Community Psychology in Fostering the Development of Health Systems Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Douglas R.

    The Health Systems Agencies created to plan and coordinate the development of health care systems in 205 health service areas across the states have a need to be legitimized and operationalized in community contexts in order to achieve their purpose. Community psychologists have both research and consultation roles to play in contributing to…

  12. Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System Core Indicators of Effectiveness Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver. Dept. of Research and Planning.

    In response to core indicators of effectiveness developed by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System (CCCOES) initiated a system-wide project to develop core indicators specific to the state's colleges. The project was intended to reflect the immediate needs for the…

  13. Faecal indicator organism concentrations in sewage and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Crowther, J; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D; Fewtrell, L; Edwards, A; Francis, C A; McDonald, A T; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J

    2008-01-01

    The importance of faecal indicator organism (FIO) fluxes within drainage basins is increasing as the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive and the United States Clean Water Act place requirements on regulators to manage point and diffuse sources of microbial pollution causing non-compliance (EU) or impairment (US) of receiving waters. Central to this management task is knowledge of the likely FIO concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluents, but few empirical data have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Accordingly, this paper presents results for 1933 samples from 162 different sewage discharge sites in the UK and Jersey, which encompass 12 types of sewage-related discharge, representative of untreated sewage and primary-, secondary- and tertiary-treated effluents. Geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) have been used to characterise base- and high-flow FIO concentrations. The data sets and sub-sets are mostly quite large (n 40) and may therefore be applied with some confidence to comparable discharge sites in similar geographical regions. Very marked, statistically significant reductions in GM FIO concentrations result from secondary and tertiary treatment, and there are statistically significant differences between some secondary and some tertiary treatments. Flow conditions are also shown to be important: untreated sewage and effluent from primary treatment plant have lower concentrations at high flow, due to dilution within combined sewerage systems, whereas some treated effluents (e.g. from activated sludge plant) have higher concentrations at high flow because of the shorter residence time within the plant. Under base-flow conditions, secondary treatments result in estimated GM FIO reductions of 95.22-99.29% (cf. primary-treated effluent). Corresponding figures for tertiary treatment plants (cf. secondary-treated effluent) are 93.24-96.59% for reedbed/grass plots and 99.71-99.92% for UV disinfection. Results

  14. Faecal indicator organism concentrations in sewage and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Crowther, J; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D; Fewtrell, L; Edwards, A; Francis, C A; McDonald, A T; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J

    2008-01-01

    The importance of faecal indicator organism (FIO) fluxes within drainage basins is increasing as the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive and the United States Clean Water Act place requirements on regulators to manage point and diffuse sources of microbial pollution causing non-compliance (EU) or impairment (US) of receiving waters. Central to this management task is knowledge of the likely FIO concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluents, but few empirical data have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Accordingly, this paper presents results for 1933 samples from 162 different sewage discharge sites in the UK and Jersey, which encompass 12 types of sewage-related discharge, representative of untreated sewage and primary-, secondary- and tertiary-treated effluents. Geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) have been used to characterise base- and high-flow FIO concentrations. The data sets and sub-sets are mostly quite large (n 40) and may therefore be applied with some confidence to comparable discharge sites in similar geographical regions. Very marked, statistically significant reductions in GM FIO concentrations result from secondary and tertiary treatment, and there are statistically significant differences between some secondary and some tertiary treatments. Flow conditions are also shown to be important: untreated sewage and effluent from primary treatment plant have lower concentrations at high flow, due to dilution within combined sewerage systems, whereas some treated effluents (e.g. from activated sludge plant) have higher concentrations at high flow because of the shorter residence time within the plant. Under base-flow conditions, secondary treatments result in estimated GM FIO reductions of 95.22-99.29% (cf. primary-treated effluent). Corresponding figures for tertiary treatment plants (cf. secondary-treated effluent) are 93.24-96.59% for reedbed/grass plots and 99.71-99.92% for UV disinfection. Results

  15. Educational Innovation: The John Wood Community College System Explained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Paul R.; Astroth, Jonathan M.

    1977-01-01

    By contracting with existing institutions to provide education for its students, the John Wood Community College in Quincy, Illinois, meets the needs of 2,000 students while employing only seven faculty members and owning no buildings. (IRT)

  16. Getting more for your money: designing community needs assessments to build collaboration and capacity in hospital system community benefit work.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Dale; Diaz, Heather; Schmidtlein, Mathew C

    2013-11-01

    Most community health needs assessments (CHNAs) are unilateral in nature and fail to include a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, limiting them in their scope. Nonprofit hospitals are required to conduct CHNAs every 3 years to determine where community prevention dollars should be spent. In 2010, a CBPR CHNA approach was conducted with four hospital systems in Northern California. Merging concepts from organization development, the approach included (a) goal determination, (b) use of a guiding framework, (c) creation of a container in which to interact, (d) established feedback loops, and (e) intentional trust-building exercises. The approach was to build lasting relationships between hospital systems that would extend beyond the CHNA. Results using this approach revealed that members representing all four hospital systems (a) began to meet regularly after the CHNA was completed, (b) increased collaboration with other community organizations, (c) expanded their level of intraorganization partnerships, (d) enjoyed the process, (e) felt that their professional knowledge expanded, and (f) felt connected professionally and personally with other hospital representatives. As a result, other joint projects are underway. The results of this study indicate that using CBPR to design a CHNA can build sustained collaborative relationships between study participants that continue.

  17. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  18. 12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  19. 1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Ejector, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  20. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  1. Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bitz, Cecilia M.; Shell, K. M.; Gent, P. R.; Bailey, D. A.; Danabasoglu, G.; Armour, K. C.; Holland, M. M.; Kiehl, J. T.

    2012-05-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) is 3.20°C for 1° horizontal resolution in each component. This is about a half degree Celsius higher than in the previous version (CCSM3). The transient climate sensitivity of CCSM4 at 1° resolution is 1.72°C, which is about 0.2°C higher than in CCSM3. These higher climate sensitivities in CCSM4 cannot be explained by the change to a preindustrial baseline climate. We use the radiative kernel technique to show that from CCSM3 to CCSM4, the global mean lapse-rate feedback declines in magnitude, and the shortwave cloud feedback increases. These twomore » warming effects are partially canceled by cooling due to slight decreases in the global mean water-vapor feedback and longwave cloud feedback from CCSM3 to CCSM4. A new formulation of the mixed-layer, slab ocean model in CCSM4 attempts to reproduce the SST and sea ice climatology from an integration with a full-depth ocean, and it is integrated with a dynamic sea ice model. These new features allow an isolation of the influence of ocean dynamical changes on the climate response when comparing integrations with the slab ocean and full-depth ocean. The transient climate response of the full-depth ocean version is 0.54 of the equilibrium climate sensitivity when estimated with the new slab ocean model version for both CCSM3 and CCSM4. We argue the ratio is the same in both versions because they have about the same zonal mean pattern of change in ocean surface heat flux, which broadly resembles the zonal mean pattern of net feedback strength.« less

  2. The Community Climate System Model Project from an Interagency Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D C; Bamzai, A; Fein, J; Patrinos, A; Leinen, M

    2005-06-16

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will publish its Fourth Assessment Report of the Scientific Basis of Climate Change (AR4). A significant portion of the AR4 will be the analysis of coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations of the climate of the past century as well as scenarios of future climates under prescribed emission scenarios. Modeling groups worldwide have contributed to AR4, including three from the U.S., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) project, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Sciences, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This collection of model results is providing a wealth of new information that will be used to examine the state of climate science, the potential impacts from climate changes, and the policy consequences that they imply. Our focus here is on the CCSM project. Although it is centered at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the CCSM version 3 (CCSM3) was designed, developed, and applied in a uniquely distributed fashion with participation by many institutions. This model has produced some of the most scientifically complete and highest resolution simulations of climate change to date, thanks to the teamwork of many scientists and software engineers. Their contributions will become obvious as a steady stream of peer-reviewed publications appears in the scientific literature. Less obvious, however, is the largely hidden, unprecedented level of interagency cooperation and multi-institutional coordination that provided the direction and resources necessary to make the CCSM project successful. Contrary to the widely-held opinion that the US climate research effort in general, and the climate modeling effort in particular, is fragmented and disorganized (NRC 1998, 2001), the success of the CCSM project demonstrates that a uniquely US approach to model

  3. Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, Cecilia M.; Shell, K. M.; Gent, P. R.; Bailey, D. A.; Danabasoglu, G.; Armour, K. C.; Holland, M. M.; Kiehl, J. T.

    2012-05-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) is 3.20°C for 1° horizontal resolution in each component. This is about a half degree Celsius higher than in the previous version (CCSM3). The transient climate sensitivity of CCSM4 at 1° resolution is 1.72°C, which is about 0.2°C higher than in CCSM3. These higher climate sensitivities in CCSM4 cannot be explained by the change to a preindustrial baseline climate. We use the radiative kernel technique to show that from CCSM3 to CCSM4, the global mean lapse-rate feedback declines in magnitude, and the shortwave cloud feedback increases. These two warming effects are partially canceled by cooling due to slight decreases in the global mean water-vapor feedback and longwave cloud feedback from CCSM3 to CCSM4. A new formulation of the mixed-layer, slab ocean model in CCSM4 attempts to reproduce the SST and sea ice climatology from an integration with a full-depth ocean, and it is integrated with a dynamic sea ice model. These new features allow an isolation of the influence of ocean dynamical changes on the climate response when comparing integrations with the slab ocean and full-depth ocean. The transient climate response of the full-depth ocean version is 0.54 of the equilibrium climate sensitivity when estimated with the new slab ocean model version for both CCSM3 and CCSM4. We argue the ratio is the same in both versions because they have about the same zonal mean pattern of change in ocean surface heat flux, which broadly resembles the zonal mean pattern of net feedback strength.

  4. Promoting community participation in priority setting in district health systems: experiences from Mbarali district, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kamuzora, Peter; Maluka, Stephen; Ndawi, Benedict; Byskov, Jens; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation in priority setting in health systems has gained importance all over the world, particularly in resource-poor settings where governments have often failed to provide adequate public-sector services for their citizens. Incorporation of public views into priority setting is perceived as a means to restore trust, improve accountability, and secure cost-effective priorities within healthcare. However, few studies have reported empirical experiences of involving communities in priority setting in developing countries. The aim of this article is to provide the experience of implementing community participation and the challenges of promoting it in the context of resource-poor settings, weak organizations, and fragile democratic institutions. Design Key informant interviews were conducted with the Council Health Management Team (CHMT), community representatives, namely women, youth, elderly, disabled, and people living with HIV/AIDS, and other stakeholders who participated in the preparation of the district annual budget and health plans. Additionally, minutes from the Action Research Team and planning and priority-setting meeting reports were analyzed. Results A number of benefits were reported: better identification of community needs and priorities, increased knowledge of the community representatives about priority setting, increased transparency and accountability, promoted trust among health systems and communities, and perceived improved quality and accessibility of health services. However, lack of funds to support the work of the selected community representatives, limited time for deliberations, short notice for the meetings, and lack of feedback on the approved priorities constrained the performance of the community representatives. Furthermore, the findings show the importance of external facilitation and support in enabling health professionals and community representatives to arrive at effective working arrangement

  5. Multi-community command and control systems in law enforcement: An introductory planning guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Garcia, E. A.; Kennedy, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A set of planning guidelines for multi-community command and control systems in law enforcement is presented. Essential characteristics and applications of these systems are outlined. Requirements analysis, system concept design, implementation planning, and performance and cost modeling are described and demonstrated with numerous examples. Program management techniques and joint powers agreements for multicommunity programs are discussed in detail. A description of a typical multi-community computer-aided dispatch system is appended.

  6. Changes in soil quality indicators under long-term sewage irrigation in a sub-tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K.; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Though irrigation with sewage water has potential benefits of meeting the water requirements, the sewage irrigation may mess up to harm the soil health. To assess the potential impacts of long-term sewage irrigation on soil health and to identify sensitive soil indicators, soil samples were collected from crop fields that have been irrigated with sewage water for more than 20 years. An adjacent rain-fed Leucaena leucocephala plantation system was used as a reference to compare the impact of sewage irrigation on soil qualities. Soils were analyzed for different physical, chemical, biological and biochemical parameters. Results have shown that use of sewage for irrigation improved the clay content to 18-22.7%, organic carbon to 0.51-0.86% and fertility status of soils. Build up in total N was up to 2,713 kg ha-1, available N (397 kg ha-1), available P (128 kg ha-1), available K (524 kg ha-1) and available S (65.5 kg ha-1) in the surface (0.15 m) soil. Long-term sewage irrigation has also resulted a significant build-up of DTPA extractable Zn (314%), Cu (102%), Fe (715%), Mn (197.2), Cd (203%), Ni (1358%) and Pb (15.2%) when compared with the adjacent rain-fed reference soil. Soils irrigated with sewage exhibited a significant decrease in microbial biomass carbon (-78.2%), soil respiration (-82.3%), phosphatase activity (-59.12%) and dehydrogenase activity (-59.4%). An attempt was also made to identify the sensitive soil indicators under sewage irrigation, where microbial biomass carbon was singled out as the most sensitive indicator.

  7. Impacts of sewage effluent on tree survival, water quality and nutrient removal in coastal plain swamps

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzler, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation was conducted of the impacts of sprayed municipal sewage on swamp tree survival and the effects of the swamp system on nutrient concentrations below the outfalls on two streams on the coastal plain of North Carolina. Effluent was discharged to one swamp stream by aerial spraying and to the other stream by way of a small ditch. Ninety-eight percent of the trees struck directly by the spray were dead within 18 months of the date spraying began. Both swamp systems removed sufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus within a few kilometers to account for virtually all of the sewage nutrient load to the swamps.

  8. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  9. Trust-oriented Utility-based Community Structure in Multiagent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastidou, Georgia; Cohen, Robin

    The problem we address in this chapter is how to design the community structure of a multiagent system in such a way that agents join the communities that will maximize their utility and communities accept the agents that will maximize their utility, towards a stable and productive multiagent system. In order to accomplish this goal, we propose allowing communities to exchange information about the reputability of agents. In particular, it agent a 1 exists in community c 1 and would now like to join c 2, c 2 will ask c 1 for the reputation rating of a 1 and then decide whether to allow the agent to join. Allowing for the sharing of reputation ratings then requires i) a method for determining the truthfulness of the reputation reports ii) an incentive mechanism to encourage the sharing of information iii) some consideration of privacy of information within the system. In order for agents to make effective selection of communities in which to participate, it is also ideal community enjoy and about the tendency for the community to be truthful, when it reports reputation ratings of agents. We present a reputation sharing system that promotes effective community structure, along with examples to demonstrate the benefit of this particular approach.

  10. Changes in microbial community structure in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Rocca, Jennifer D.; LaMontagne, Michael G.; Dennett, Mark R.; Gast, Rebecca J.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters that threaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans and raw sewage. Correspondence Analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as “sentinels” of water quality in the environment. PMID:19174873

  11. Changes in microbial community structure in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Rocca, Jennifer D; Lamontagne, Michael G; Dennett, Mark R; Gast, Rebecca J

    2008-12-15

    Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters thatthreaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water, and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans, and raw sewage. Correspondence analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as "sentinels" of water quality in the environment.

  12. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    PubMed

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally. PMID:25068939

  13. The contrast study of anammox-denitrifying system in two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) treating different low C/N ratio sewage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin; Qiang, Hong; Zhang, Guangyi

    2012-06-01

    Two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) based on different substrates (nitrite and nitrate) were constructed to study the environmental adaptability for temperature and organic matter of anammox-denitrifying system and nitrogen removal performance. The two reactors were successfully operated for 200 days. The average removal rates of nitrogen and COD of R2 were 81% and 93%, respectively. Besides, the nitrogen removal rate of R1 was 95% under not more than 105 mg/l of COD. The experimental results indicated that the R2 based on nitrate had a good nitrogen removal performance at room temperature (25 °C). Additionally, the analysis results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the percentage compositions of anammox in R1 and R2 were 84% and 65% on day 189. Finally, the possible nitrogen removal model of anammox-denitrifying system was constructed. According to nitrogen balance and C/N ratios of denitrification, the nitrogen removal approaches of R1 and R2 were obtained.

  14. Functional traits and environmental filtering drive community assembly in a species-rich tropical system.

    PubMed

    Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Meave, Jorge A; Bongers, Frans; Poorter, Lourens

    2010-02-01

    Mechanistic models of community assembly state that biotic and abiotic filters constrain species establishment through selection on their functional traits. Predicting this assembly process is hampered because few studies directly incorporate environmental measurements and scale up from species to community level and because the functional traits' significance is environment dependent. We analyzed community assembly by measuring structure, environmental conditions, and species traits of secondary forests in a species-rich tropical system. We found, as hypothesized, that community structure shaped the local environment and that strong relationships existed between this environment and the traits of the most successful species of the regeneration communities. Path and multivariate analyses showed that temperature and leaf traits that regulate it were the most important factors of community differentiation. Comparisons between the trait composition of the forest's regeneration, juvenile, and adult communities showed a consistent community assembly pattern. These results allowed us to identify the major functional traits and environmental factors involved in the assembly of dry-forest communities and demonstrate that environmental filtering is a predictable and fundamental process of community assembly, even in a complex system such as a tropical forest.

  15. Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.

    PubMed

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2012-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention.

  16. Evaluation of sludge characteristics and metals emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.S.; Conklin, J.A.; Munn, B.G.

    1996-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has promulgated regulations affecting the disposal of municipal sewage sludge under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 503. The paper addresses emissions requirements for sewage sludge incineration under 40 CFR Part 503, Subpart E. The paper focuses on factors that may influence sewage sludge characteristics, sewage sludge metals feed rates, and the corresponding metals emission rates. Emissions test programs were conducted at three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), City of Auburn WWTP. City of Glens Falls WWTP, and Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 WWTP, to determine mass emissions of multiple metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn). The influent incinerator sludge was sampled in conjunction with each test program to determine the sludge metals content. The sewage sludge was analyzed in accordance with USEPA Method SW846. Multiple metals emissions were determined in accordance with USEPA 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Method 29 sampling and analytical procedures. The results from these test programs were analyzed to identify the factors that influence the metals emission rates. The resulting metals removal efficiencies from each of the three pollution control systems are quantified. Unique analytical issues encountered during these test programs are also addressed. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Survivorship of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, from sewage sludge-treated fields

    SciTech Connect

    Maly, M.S.

    1984-06-01

    A long-term field study was begun in 1977 at Miami University to evaluate the effects of land application of sewage sludge on experimental old-field communities. The effects of sludge application on toxic metal concentrations in meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) organs during the first two years of the study have been reported. During the first two years of sludge application, no detrimental effects were observed in vole survivorship as a result of sludge treatment.

  18. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  19. Transition Plan for the K-1203 Sewage Treatment Plant, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmeister J.

    2008-10-05

    The K-1203 Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) was previously used to treat and process all sanitary sewage waste from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The plant was shut down on May 29, 2008 as a result of the transition of sewage treatment for ETTP to the City of Oak Ridge. The City of Oak Ridge expanded the Rarity Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant (RRSTP) to include capacity to treat the waste from the ETTP and the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) constructed a new ETTP lift station and force main to RRSTP. In preparation for the shutdown of K-1203, the US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with Operation Management International (OMI) developed a shut down plan to outline actions that need to occur prior to the transition of the facility to Bechtel Jacob Company, LLC (BJC) for decontamination and demolition (D and D). This plan outlines the actions, roles, and responsibilities for BJC in order to support the transition of the K-1203 STP from OMI to the BJC Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) and D and D programs. The D and D of the K-1203 Facilities is planned under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Remaining Facilities D and D Action Memorandum in the Balance of Site-Utilities D and D Subproject in fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  20. Wyoming Community College System Summer 2007 Enrollment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report includes Summer 2007 semester enrollment information for Wyoming's seven comprehensive community colleges. Selected data includes student counts by credit hours, county, full-time students (FTE), program or study, ethnicity and a ten-year history. (Contains 12 tables.) [For the Spring 2007 enrollment report, see ED502750.

  1. Wyoming Community College System Spring 2007 Enrollment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report includes Spring 2007 semester enrollment information for Wyoming's seven comprehensive community colleges. Selected data includes student counts by credit hours, county, full-time students (FTE), program or study, ethnicity and a ten-year history. (Contains 12 tables.) [For the Fall 2006 enrollment report, see ED502749.

  2. Wyoming Community College System Fall 2006 Enrollment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report includes Fall 2006 semester enrollment information for Wyoming's seven comprehensive community colleges. Selected data includes student counts by credit hours, county, full-time students (FTE), program or study, ethnicity and a 10-year history. (Contains 12 tables.) [For the Fall 2005 edition of this report, see ED502745.

  3. Clean Community System Multi-Material Recycling Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep America Beautiful, Inc., New York, NY.

    This manual is designed to assist communities in recycling the greatest possible volume of materials in ways which will: (1) benefit the local economy; (2) encourage cooperation between public and private sectors; and (3) prove valuable to municipal and county sanitation services. The manual is divided into five sections. Section 1 lays out the…

  4. Community Based Information Systems for Education Management in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosla, Renu

    Lack of education causes and is caused by poverty. In urban areas, it adds to the vulnerability of the poor, resulting in inaccessible schools and irrelevant curricula. Building urban communities and harnessing social capital can create an environment where the poor will have greater opportunities for making decisions that influence their lives.…

  5. Burnout and Leadership in Community Mental Health Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Linda; Hackett, Rachelle Kisst

    This study investigated the nature of professional burnout, specifically whether aspects of burnout in clinical staff in community mental health agencies were systematically related to aspects of leadership behavior and quality of supervision of clinical supervisors. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, leadership behavior in…

  6. An Accounting System for Solid Waste Management in Small Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zausner, Eric R.

    This pamphlet provides a guide to the type and quantity of information to be collected for effective solid waste management in small communities. It is directed at municipal or private personnel involved in the operation and ownership of management facilities. Sample activity reports are included for reference. (CS)

  7. Fish communities associated with a complex Mississippi stream system.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex habitats such as sloughs, oxbows, and wetlands provide important ecosystem services for fish communities. While human manipulation of rivers and streams for flood control often reduce this complexity, some construction practices may provide an unexpected benefit. Structures such as borrow pi...

  8. Corruption of Client Advocacy in a Community Mental Health System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Bruce

    This speech discusses client advocacy, a paraprofessional service offered in many community mental health centers to help bridge the gap between therapist and client. While having an advocate on the mental health team is an attractive idea, these client advocates are quite susceptible to "corruption." The author discusses two major causes of this…

  9. Designing a Resource Evolution Support System for Open Knowledge Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xianmin; Yu, Shengquan

    2015-01-01

    The continuous generation and evolution of digital learning resources is important for promoting open learning and meeting the personalized needs of learners. In the Web 2.0 era, open and collaborative authoring is becoming a popular method by which to create vast personalized learning resources in open knowledge communities (OKCs). However, the…

  10. Evaluation of Integrated Planning Systems in California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jerry L.; Piland, William E.

    2012-01-01

    California community colleges are experiencing unprecedented levels of sanctions from their accrediting agency. A survey of planners in these colleges reveals a wide gap between current practice and perceived importance of integrated planning practices, as well as misalignment in budgeting methods. Statistically significant gaps were identified…

  11. Continuing Education Resource Manual, North Carolina Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Community Coll. System, Raleigh.

    The North Carolina Department of Community Colleges (NCDCC) prepared this reference manual as a resource guide for planning and implementing continuing education (CE) courses. The manual includes essential information on courses, rules, resources, and procedures that are appropriate to course implementation and operation of a continuing education…

  12. Integrating Systems Science and Community-Based Participatory Research to Achieve Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-02-01

    Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Systems science provides research methods to study dynamic and interrelated forces that shape health disparities. Community-based participatory research and systems science are complementary, but their integration requires more research. We discuss paradigmatic, socioecological, capacity-building, colearning, and translational synergies that help advance progress toward health equity.

  13. Systems Thinking as a Competency for Community College Leaders in an Era of Increasing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Anne Powel

    2013-01-01

    The pluralistic and often competing goals of myriad constituents, the changing demographics of students, the uncertainty of funding, and the growing demands for accountability from stakeholders have increased the complexity of systems which community college leaders must manage. Emerging from the recent literature on community colleges is a call…

  14. University and Community College System of Nevada. Enrollment Report, Fall 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    In fall 1993, the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) enrolled 65,124 state-supported students, and an additional 12,976 students in self-supported programs such as continuing education, correspondence courses, community services, and contract education programs. In fall 1993, for the first time in 9 years, student full-time…

  15. Building World-Market Competitors: Technology Transfer and the Illinois Community College System. 1990 Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.

    In 1990, the Illinois Council of Public Community College Presidents (ICPCCP) commissioned a survey to document the current capacity and future potential of the Illinois Community College System (ICCS) to provide technology transfer assistance to the commercial marketplace and the public sector. An extensive questionnaire was developed and mailed…

  16. Analysis of Departmental Functions: The Department of Staff and Instructional Services, Houston Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walke, Jean

    The Department of Staff and Instructional Services (SIS) in the Houston Community College System (HCCS) takes a leadership role in providing and promoting products and services required to empower the HCCS in the pursuit of quality service to the campus community. The goals of the SIS department are to adopt Total Quality Service orientation,…

  17. Promoting Evidence-Based Practices: The Adoption of a Prevention Support System in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sarah B.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ebener, Patricia; Burkhart, A. K.; Chinman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Prevention support systems (PSSs) are designed to help communities implement evidence-based practices (EBPs). Little is known about the factors that influence their adoption. In this article, we examined adoption of a PSS for substance abuse prevention called Getting To Outcomes (GTO)[R] among staff in two community coalitions with varying levels…

  18. A Profile of Graduates: Virginia Community College System, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Elmo; Jackson, Shirley

    This report describes the students who graduated from the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) between July 1974 and June 1975 in terms of demographic characteristics, types of awards granted, curricula, credits earned, and length of time to earn awards. Data for the 6,051 graduates were provided by each of the VCCS community colleges. The…

  19. The Florida Community College System: A Strategic Plan for the Millennium, 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This report describes the 1998-2003 strategic plan of the Florida Community College System (FCCS). The plan's goals include: (1) enrolling 45% of high school graduates in community colleges by expanding partnerships with K-12 schools and improving child-care and transportation alternatives; (2) meeting the challenge of the Florida Chamber of…

  20. Shaping the Future: A Five-Year Plan for Iowa's System of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges.

    This document is a 5-year plan designed to improve the overall service and performance of Iowa community colleges. The plan emphasizes how the Iowa system values maintaining an open-door policy, responding quickly to students, the community, and industry needs, and collaborating with different educational and business sectors. Four major strategic…

  1. System Infrastructure Needs for Web Course Delivery: A Survey of Online Courses in Florida Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Glenn A.

    This quantitative study describes the system infrastructure needs and perceptions of the 28 Florida community colleges regarding current Web course delivery. Section 1 assesses 27 (96.4%) Florida Community College Distance Learning Consortium (FCCDLC) member representative responses to a 19-item, researcher-designed survey. The study includes…

  2. The God Factor of the Community College Ecological System: Future Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    A rationale and plan are presented for implementing a futures approach in many areas of community college activities. After the introduction, the paper cites several characteristics of the community college and its mission which mandate planned experimentation and innovation. Next, the relationship of future studies to the educational system as a…

  3. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  4. Policy and System Change and Community Coalitions: Outcomes from Allies against Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noreen M.; Lachance, Laurie; Doctor, Linda Jo; Gilmore, Lisa; Kelly, Cindy; Krieger, James; Lara, Marielena; Meurer, John; Friedman Milanovich, Amy; Nicholas, Elisa; Rosenthal, Michael; Stoll, Shelley C.; Wilkin, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed policy and system changes and health outcomes produced by the Allies Against Asthma program, a 5-year collaborative effort by 7 community coalitions to address childhood asthma. We also explored associations between community engagement and outcomes. Methods: We interviewed a sample of 1,477 parents of children with asthma…

  5. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils'…

  6. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  7. Efficiency in California-Type Community-Based Long-Term Care Waiver Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leonard S.

    Interest in the development of community-based long-term care (CBLTC) programs as a substitute for institutional-based care has been steadily growing. The estimated benefits from the Multipurpose Senior Services Program (MSSP), California's intensive CBLTC system, were measured by the expected increase in community residency days for clients for a…

  8. Strategic preparedness for recovery from catastrophic risks to communities and infrastructure systems of systems.

    PubMed

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    2012-11-01

    Natural and human-induced disasters affect organizations in myriad ways because of the inherent interconnectedness and interdependencies among human, cyber, and physical infrastructures, but more importantly, because organizations depend on the effectiveness of people and on the leadership they provide to the organizations they serve and represent. These human-organizational-cyber-physical infrastructure entities are termed systems of systems. Given the multiple perspectives that characterize them, they cannot be modeled effectively with a single model. The focus of this article is: (i) the centrality of the states of a system in modeling; (ii) the efficacious role of shared states in modeling systems of systems, in identification, and in the meta-modeling of systems of systems; and (iii) the contributions of the above to strategic preparedness, response to, and recovery from catastrophic risk to such systems. Strategic preparedness connotes a decision-making process and its associated actions. These must be: implemented in advance of a natural or human-induced disaster, aimed at reducing consequences (e.g., recovery time, community suffering, and cost), and/or controlling their likelihood to a level considered acceptable (through the decisionmakers' implicit and explicit acceptance of various risks and tradeoffs). The inoperability input-output model (IIM), which is grounded on Leontief's input/output model, has enabled the modeling of interdependent subsystems. Two separate modeling structures are introduced. These are: phantom system models (PSM), where shared states constitute the essence of modeling coupled systems; and the IIM, where interdependencies among sectors of the economy are manifested by the Leontief matrix of technological coefficients. This article demonstrates the potential contributions of these two models to each other, and thus to more informative modeling of systems of systems schema. The contributions of shared states to this modeling and to

  9. Comparison of decision support systems for an optimised application of compost and sewage sludge on agricultural land based on heavy metal accumulation in soil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas L; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Gäth, Stefan

    2003-07-20

    Two different decision support systems (DSS) for the application of organic wastes on agricultural land were developed. Both DSS calculate the maximum application period of organic waste considering exhaustion of the uptake potential of soils for heavy metals. The definition of the uptake potential differs between the DSS alternatives. In the first DSS (DSS-AR), the uptake potential is derived from the difference of actual total heavy metal concentration in soil (according to aqua regia digestion) and the respective statutory limit value. The other DSS (DSS-SI) calculates the remaining sorption capacity of the soil for a heavy metal, i.e. the difference between the predefined maximum and the actual heavy metal concentration at the sorbent. The concentration of sorbed heavy metal is derived from pedotransfer functions (general purpose Freundlich isotherms) using predefined limit concentrations in soil solution (WHO drinking water quality standards) or the actual concentration of soluble heavy metal (according to neutral salt extraction), respectively. For evaluation of their individual characteristics, both DSS were tested in model scenarios using soil data (basic physicochemical properties; Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations) from various agricultural regions and German guidelines for organic waste application. The DSS-SI showed a better performance than the DSS-AR in this context. The capacity of the soil for heavy metal uptake was used with higher efficiency, i.e. the potential was maximised while environmental limit values were still complied with. Furthermore, the DSS-SI offered a better approximation of the natural variability of soil conditions using an extended set of soil properties in comparison to the DSS-AR. Despite these indications of good DSS-SI performance, the approach requires improvement with regard to the pedotransfer functions implemented in order to consolidate and extend the range of predictions. Furthermore, it should be noted that assessment of

  10. Population dynamics and ecology of Arcobacter in sewage

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Levican, Arturo; Figueras, María J.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Arcobacter species are highly abundant in sewage where they often comprise approximately 5–11% of the bacterial community. Oligotyping of sequences amplified from the V4V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed Arcobacter populations from different cities were similar and dominated by 1–3 members, with extremely high microdiversity in the minor members. Overall, nine subgroups within the Arcobacter genus accounted for >80% of the total Arcobacter sequences in all samples analyzed. The distribution of oligotypes varied by both sample site and temperature, with samples from the same site generally being more similar to each other than other sites. Seven oligotypes matched with 100% identity to characterized Arcobacter species, but the remaining 19 abundant oligotypes appear to be unknown species. Sequences representing the two most abundant oligotypes matched exactly to the reference strains for A. cryaerophilus group 1B (CCUG 17802) and group 1A (CCUG 17801T), respectively. Oligotype 1 showed generally lower relative abundance in colder samples and higher relative abundance in warmer samples; the converse was true for Oligotype 2. Ten other oligotypes had significant positive or negative correlations between temperature and proportion in samples as well. The oligotype that corresponded to A. butzleri, the Arcobacter species most commonly isolated by culturing in sewage studies, was only the eleventh most abundant oligotype. This work suggests that Arcobacter populations within sewer infrastructure are modulated by temperature. Furthermore, current culturing methods used for identification of Arcobacter fail to identify some abundant members of the community and may underestimate the presence of species with affinities for growth at lower temperatures. Understanding the ecological factors that affect the survival and growth of Arcobacter spp. in sewer infrastructure may better inform the risks associated with these emerging pathogens. PMID:25426103

  11. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  12. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in the NCAR Community Earth System Model Coupled Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Anderson, J. L.; Moncrieff, M.; Collins, N.; Danabasoglu, G.; Hoar, T.; Karspeck, A. R.; Neale, R. B.; Raeder, K.; Tribbia, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a quantitative evaluation of the simulated MJO in analyses produced with a coupled data assimilation (CDA) framework developed at the National Center for Atmosphere Research. This system is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM; previously known as the Community Climate System Model -CCSM) interfaced to a community facility for ensemble data assimilation (Data Assimilation Research Testbed - DART). The system (multi-component CDA) assimilates data into each of the respective ocean/atmosphere/land model components during the assimilation step followed by an exchange of information between the model components during the forecast step. Note that this is an advancement over many existing prototypes of coupled data assimilation systems, which typically assimilate observations only in one of the model components (i.e., single-component CDA). The more realistic treatment of air-sea interactions and improvements to the model mean state in the multi-component CDA recover many aspects of MJO representation, from its space-time structure and propagation (see Figure 1) to the governing relationships between precipitation and sea surface temperature on intra-seasonal scales. Standard qualitative and process-based diagnostics identified by the MJO Task Force (currently under the auspices of the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation) have been used to detect the MJO signals across a suite of coupled model experiments involving both multi-component and single-component DA experiments as well as a free run of the coupled CESM model (i.e., CMIP5 style without data assimilation). Short predictability experiments during the boreal winter are used to demonstrate that the decay rates of the MJO convective anomalies are slower in the multi-component CDA system, which allows it to retain the MJO dynamics for a longer period. We anticipate that the knowledge gained through this study will enhance our understanding of the MJO feedback mechanisms across the air

  13. Application of NASA-developed technology to the automatic control of municipal sewage treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiser, L. L.; Herrera, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A search was made of NASA developed technology and commercial technology for process control sensors and instrumentation which would be applicable to the operation of municipal sewage treatment plants. Several notable items were found from which process control concepts were formulated that incorporated these items into systems to automatically operate municipal sewage treatment plants. A preliminary design of the most promising concept was developed into a process control scheme for an activated sludge treatment plant. This design included process control mechanisms for maintaining constant food to sludge mass (F/M) ratio, and for such unit processes as primary sedimentation, sludge wastage, and underflow control from the final clarifier.

  14. Composting of municipal and sewage wastes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the composting of sewage and municipal wastes as an alternative to conventional treatments such as landfills. Processing variables are considered, including aeration, heavy-metal cleanup, microbial activity, and temperatures. Applications of this composted product for fertilization of agricultural lands, and productivity measurements of treated soils are considered. Economic comparisons between waste treatment options are examined, and examples are presented for successful sewage and waste composting systems worldwide. Industrial and agricultural waste processing by composting are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. A Decision-Making System for the Career Information Center at Tallahassee Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardville, Jerry; And Others

    A system for aiding students at Tallahassee Community College in using the Career Information System in vocational planning was developed. The system allows the students to serve themselves with minimum counselor intervention. In behavioral terms, the system should enable the student to: (1) place himself in one of the six client categories; (2)…

  16. Integrating Systems-Based Practice, Community Psychiatry, and Recovery into Residency Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMelle, Stephanie; Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Ranz, Jules M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Behavioral health services involving multiple systems of care are increasingly being provided in community as well as hospital settings. Residents therefore should be familiar with multiple systems and the role of the psychiatrist in these systems. The authors describe a curriculum incorporating principles of systems-based practice…

  17. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  18. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification.

  19. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff.

  20. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  1. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

  2. THE SEWAGE PROBLEM IN SMALL TOWNS

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Paul

    1916-01-01

    The small town, large enough to need a system of sewerage but small enough so that the expense per individual installation is greater than in large cities, presents one of the acute problems of sanitary engineering. Mr. Hansen discusses some of the means employed to dispose of the wastes of small communities. PMID:18009437

  3. Prevention System Mediation of Communities That Care Effects on Youth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Rhew, Isaac C.; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Abbott, Robert D.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether the significant intervention effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on youth problem behaviors observed in a panel of eighth-grade students (Hawkins et al. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163:789–798 2009) were mediated by community-level prevention system constructs posited in the CTC theory of change. Potential prevention system constructs included the community’s degree of (a) adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, (b) collaboration on prevention activities, (c) support for prevention, and (d) norms against adolescent drug use as reported by key community leaders in 24 communities. Higher levels of community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention and support for prevention in 2004 predicted significantly lower levels of youth problem behaviors in 2007, and higher levels of community norms against adolescent drug use predicted lower levels of youth drug use in 2007. Effects of the CTC intervention on youth problem behaviors by the end of eighth grade were mediated fully by community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention. No other significant mediated effects were found. Results support CTC’s theory of change that encourages communities to adopt a science- based approach to prevention as a primary mechanism for improving youth outcomes. PMID:23828448

  4. Accessibility patterns and community integration among previously homeless adults: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A

    2014-11-01

    Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community.

  5. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  6. The structure and function of microbial communities in recirculating hydroponic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. L.

    1994-11-01

    Strategies to control the microbial community associated with plant growth systems need to be based on a fundamental understanding of the factors which structure and regulate the community. Spatial and temporal patterns in the abundance and production rate of microorganisms in hydroponic systems containing wheat were examined to evaluate how root-derived carbon is processed. The relevance of results to monitoring and control strategies is discussed.

  7. Utility of space transportation system to space communication community: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) offers the opportunity for maintaining, and perhaps accelerating, growth of the space communication community. This new launch vehicle service, however, must be obtained at a cost lower than the current expandable launch vehicles cost. A cost competitive STS is defined for geostationary payloads. It is concluded that the STS will be useful to the space communication community, as well as to other geostationary satellite system users, if the proposed recommendations are adapted.

  8. Core Community Specifications for Electron Microprobe Operating Systems: Software, Quality Control, and Data Management Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournelle, John; Carpenter, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Modem electron microprobe systems have become increasingly sophisticated. These systems utilize either UNIX or PC computer systems for measurement, automation, and data reduction. These systems have undergone major improvements in processing, storage, display, and communications, due to increased capabilities of hardware and software. Instrument specifications are typically utilized at the time of purchase and concentrate on hardware performance. The microanalysis community includes analysts, researchers, software developers, and manufacturers, who could benefit from exchange of ideas and the ultimate development of core community specifications (CCS) for hardware and software components of microprobe instrumentation and operating systems.

  9. Patterns of estrogen occurrence in sewage treatment effluent (STPE) from a university campus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the extent to which sewage treatment plant effluent (STPE) irrigation reduces or eliminates the entrance of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) into groundwater, studies on the fate and transport of selected EDCs in the Penn State spray-irrigation system are on-going. This stu...

  10. Updating of sewage - purification facilities of electroplating enterprises with counterflow ion-exchange filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Sorokin, P. D.; Telitsyn, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper focuses on work of electroplating sewage-purification facilities of mechanical engineering production; drawbacks caused by specific features of physical and chemical processes of coagulation and technological malfunctions have been revealed. Additional equipment - ion-exchanging filters have been selected on the basis of designed methods, they make it possible for enterprises of mechanical engineering to implement conversion to water rotation systems.

  11. Effecting Successful Community Re-Entry: Systems of Care Community Based Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Rebecca I.; Fette, Claudette; Scaffa, Marjorie E.

    2005-01-01

    The need for system reform for child and adolescent mental health services, long recognized as a vital issue, continues to challenge mental health professionals. While past legislation has not adequately addressed the issues, the 2003 President's New Freedom Commission may begin to reorient mental health systems toward recovery. Supported by this…

  12. Human norovirus in untreated sewage and effluents from primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos J A; Avant, Justin; Lowther, James; Till, Dale; Lees, David N

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater treatments are considered important means to control the environmental transmission of human norovirus (NoV). Information about NoV concentrations in untreated and treated effluents, their seasonality and typical removal rates achieved by different treatment processes is required to assess the effectiveness of sewage treatment processes in reducing human exposure to NoV. This paper reports on a characterisation of concentrations of NoV (genogroups I and II) in untreated sewage (screened influent) and treated effluents from five full scale wastewater treatment works (WwTW) in England. Results are shown for effluent samples characteristic of primary- (primary settlement, storm tank overflows), secondary- (activated sludge, trickling filters, humus tanks) and tertiary (UV disinfection) treatments. NoV occurrence in untreated sewage varied between years. This variation was consistent with the annual variation of the virus in the community as indicated by outbreak laboratory reports. Significant differences were found between mean NoV concentrations in effluents subject to different levels of treatment. Primary settlement achieved approximately 1 log10 removal for both genogroups. Concentrations of NoV and Escherichia coli in untreated sewage were of the same order of magnitude of those in storm tank overflows. Of the secondary treatments studied, activated sludge was the most effective in removing NoV with mean log10 removals of 3.11 and 2.34 for GI and GII, respectively. The results of this study provide evidence that monitoring of NoV in raw sewage or treated effluents could provide early warning of an elevated risk for NoV and potentially help prevent outbreaks through environmental exposure. They also provide evidence that elimination of stormwater discharges and improvement of the efficiency of activated sludge for NoV removal would be effective for reducing the risk of environmental transmission. PMID:27470292

  13. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    PubMed

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  14. Dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw under mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiangqian; Wu, Guangxue; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Dry anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can recover biogas as energy; however, its low C/N ratio limits it as a single substrate in the anaerobic digestion. Rice straw is an abundant agricultural residue in China, which is rich in carbon and can be used as carbon source. In the present study, the performance of dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw was investigated under mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. The operational factors impacting dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw such as C/N ratio, moisture content, and initial pH were explored under mesophilic conditions. The results show that low C/N ratios resulted in a higher biogas production rate, but a lower specific biogas yield; low moisture content of 65 % resulted in the instability of the digestion system and a low specific biogas yield. Initial pH ranging 7.0-9.0 did not affect the performance of the anaerobic digestion. The C/N ratio of 26-29:1, moisture content of 70-80 %, and pH 7.0-9.0 resulted in good performance in the dry mesophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw. As compared with mesophilic digestion, thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw significantly enhanced the degradation efficiency of the substrates and the specific biogas yield (p < 0.05) at the conditions of C/N ratio 26:1, moisture content 80 %, and natural initial pH. Although high concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N, 1500 mg/kg wet weight) were formed during thermophilic digestion, there was no obvious inhibition occurred. The results indicated that rice straw can be used as carbon source for the dry co-digestion of sewage sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

  15. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. PMID:25827844

  16. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  17. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    PubMed

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  18. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area.

  19. Applying Systems Engineering to Implement an Evidence-based Intervention at a Community Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shin-Ping; Feng, Sherry; Storch, Richard; Yip, Mei-Po; Sohng, HeeYon; Fu, Mingang; Chun, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Impressive results in patient care and cost reduction have increased the demand for systems-engineering methodologies in large health care systems. This Report from the Field describes the feasibility of applying systems-engineering techniques at a community health center currently lacking the dedicated expertise and resources to perform these activities. PMID:23698657

  20. Systems and Procedures of Certification of Qualifications in the European Community. Comparative Analysis. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jean

    The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) commissioned 12 experts in the vocational training (VT) systems of the individual member states of the European Community (EC) to develop monographs describing the EC members' VT systems and procedures/systems for certifying vocational qualifications. The 12 national studies…