Science.gov

Sample records for commutative ring theory

  1. Renormalisation des theories de champs non commutatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignes-Tourneret, Fabien

    2006-12-01

    Very high energy physics needs a coherent description of the four fundamental forces. Non-commutative geometry is a promising mathematical framework which already allowed to unify the general relativity and the standard model, at the classical level, thanks to the spectral action principle. Quantum field theories on non-commutative spaces is a first step towards the quantification of such a model. These theories can't be obtained simply by writing usual field theory on non-commutative spaces. Such attempts exhibit indeed a new type of divergencies, called ultraviolet/infrared mixing, which prevents renormalisability. H. Grosse and R. Wulkenhaar showed, with an example, that a modification of the propagator may restore renormalisability. This thesis aims at studying the generalization of such a method. We studied two different models which allowed to specify certain aspects of non-commutative field theory. In x space, the major technical difficulty is due to oscillations in the interaction part. We generalized the results of T. Filk in order to exploit such oscillations at best. We were then able to distinguish between two mixings, renormalizable or not. We also bring the notion of orientability to light : the orientable non-commutative Gross-Neveu model is renormalizable without any modification of its propagator. The adaptation of multi-scale analysis to the matrix basis emphasized the importance of dual graphs and represents a first step towards a formulation of field theory independent of the underlying space.

  2. Commutator of gauge generators in non-abelian chiral theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, S.

    1985-09-01

    Commutators among non-abelian fermion currents are calculated using the BJL limit. The relation between the covariant seagull and the gauge dependence of the fermion current is derived for a canonical non-abelian theory using the path integral formulation. We observe that in a non-abelian theory with coupling to chiral fermions this relation is violated and this produces a non-trivial commutator of gauge group generators.

  3. Lightweight, multi-contact, slip-ring commutator for recording and stimulation with small animals.

    PubMed

    Micco, D J

    1977-01-01

    A slip-ring commutator which can be used to electrically stimulate and/or record from the brains of small, unrestrained animals is described. In addition to providing 4 to 10 independent electrical contacts, featues of this model include its small size, low torque characteristics, low rate of contact oxidation, and minimal noise generated at the brush-ring surface. The compactness and light weight of this unit permit it to be suspended from a counterweighted boom assembly, thus providing additional freedom for vertical movement.

  4. On linear groups of degree 2 over a finite commutative ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkirov, Evgenii L.; Eser, Hasan

    2014-08-20

    Let p > 3 be a prime number and F{sub p} be a field of p elements. Let K be a commutative and associative ring obtained by adjoining to F{sub p} an element α such that α satisfies a polynomial over F{sub p} and a polynomial of the least degree whose root is α can be written as a product of distinct polynomials irreducible over F{sub p}. We prove that the special linear group SL{sub 2}(K) is generated by two elementary transvections ( (table) ), ( (table) )

  5. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: using social theory to explore everyday commuting.

    PubMed

    Guell, C; Panter, J; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-07-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work ('active commuting') as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions.

  6. Electric-magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jun-Kai; Ma, Chen-Te

    2016-08-01

    Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.

  7. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    PubMed Central

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  8. Regularization of two-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory via non-commutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valavane, K.

    2000-11-01

    The non-commutative geometry is a possible framework to regularize quantum field theory in a non-perturbative way. This idea is an extension of the lattice approximation by non-commutativity that allows us to preserve symmetries. The supersymmetric version is also studied and more precisely in the case of the Schwinger model on a supersphere. This paper is a generalization of this latter work to more general gauge groups.

  9. Duality and gauge invariance of non-commutative spacetime Podolsky electromagnetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Everton M. C.; Fernandes, Rafael L.; Mendes, Albert C. R.; Neto, Jorge Ananias; Neves, Mario, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The interest in higher derivative field theories has its origin mainly in their influence concerning the renormalization properties of physical models and to remove ultraviolet divergences. In this paper, we have introduced the non-commutative (NC) version of the Podolsky theory and we investigated the effect of the non-commutativity over its original gauge invariance property. We have demonstrated precisely that the non-commutativity spoiled the primary gauge invariance of the original action under this primary gauge transformation. After that we have used the Noether dualization technique to obtain a dual and gauge invariant action. We have demonstrated that through the introduction of a Stueckelberg field in this NC model, we can also recover the primary gauge invariance. In this way, we have accomplished a comparison between both methods.

  10. A vector supersymmetry killing IR divergences in non-commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D. N.

    2008-02-01

    This is a report on the joint work with François Gieres, Stefan Hohenegger, Olivier Piguet and Manfred Schweda. We consider a non-commutative U(1) gauge theory with an extension which was originally proposed by A. A. Slavnov [3, 4] in order to get rid of UV/IR mixing problems. Here we show, that the improved IR behaviour of this model is mainly due to the appearence of a linear vector supersymmetry.

  11. Seiberg-Witten equations and non-commutative spectral curves in Liouville theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chekhov, Leonid; Eynard, Bertrand; Ribault, Sylvain

    2013-02-15

    We propose that there exist generalized Seiberg-Witten equations in the Liouville conformal field theory, which allow the computation of correlation functions from the resolution of certain Ward identities. These identities involve a multivalued spin one chiral field, which is built from the energy-momentum tensor. We solve the Ward identities perturbatively in an expansion around the heavy asymptotic limit, and check that the first two terms of the Liouville three-point function agree with the known result of Dorn, Otto, Zamolodchikov, and Zamolodchikov. We argue that such calculations can be interpreted in terms of the geometry of non-commutative spectral curves.

  12. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation☆

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called RΠΣ⁎-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics. PMID:26726284

  13. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called [Formula: see text]-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics.

  14. Eigenpolarization theory of monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, Alan C.; Gustafson, Eric K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators (NPROs) in an applied magnetic field can operate as unidirectional traveling-wave lasers. The diode laser pumping, monolithic construction, and unidirectional oscillation lead to narrow linewidth radiation. Here, a comprehensive theory of the eigenpolarizations of a monolithic NPRO is presented. It is shown how the properties of the integral optical diode that forces unidirectional operation depend on the choice of the gain medium, the applied magnetic field, the output coupler, and the geometry of the nonplanar ring light path. Using optical equivalence theorems to gain insight into the polarization characteristics of the NPRO, a strategy for designing NPROs with low thresholds and large loss nonreciprocities is given. An analysis of the eigenpolarizations for one such NPRO is presented, alternative optimization approaches are considered, and the prospects for further reducing the linewidths of these lasers are briefly discussed.

  15. World sheet commuting {beta}{gamma} conformal field theory and nonrelativistic string theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-11-15

    We construct a sigma model in two dimensions with Galilean symmetry in flat target space similar to the sigma model of the critical string theory with Lorentz symmetry in 10 flat spacetime dimensions. This is motivated by the works of Gomis and Ooguri [J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 42, 3127 (2001)] and Danielsson et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2000) 020; J. High Energy Phys. 03 (2001) 041.]. Our theory is much simpler than their theory and does not assume a compact coordinate. This nonrelativistic string theory has a bosonic matter {beta}{gamma} conformal field theory with the conformal weight of {beta} as 1. It is natural to identify time as a linear combination of {gamma} and {gamma} through an explicit realization of the Galilean boost symmetry. The angle between {gamma} and {gamma} parametrizes one parameter family of selection sectors. These selection sectors are responsible for having a nonrelativistic dispersion relation without a nontrivial topology in the nonrelativistic setup, which is one of the major differences from the previous works of Gomis and Ooguri and of Danielsson and co-workers. This simple theory is the nonrelativistic analogue of the critical string theory, and there are many different avenues ahead to be investigated. We mention a possible consistent generalization of this theory with different conformal weights for the {beta}{gamma} conformal field theory. We also mention supersymmetric generalizations of these theories.

  16. Some phenomenological consequences of the time-ordered perturbation theory of QED on non-commutative spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Y.; Dehne, C.

    2003-07-01

    A framework was recently proposed for doing perturbation theory on non-commutative (NC) spacetime. It preserves the unitarity of the S matrix and differs from the naive, popular approach already at the lowest order in perturbation when time does not commute with space. In this work, we investigate its phenomenological implications at linear colliders, especially the TESLA at DESY, through the processes of e^+e^-toμ^+μ^-,H^+H^-,H^0H^0. We find that some NC effects computed previously are now modified and that there are new processes which now exhibit NC effects. Indeed, the first two processes get corrected at tree level as opposed to the null result in the naive approach, while the third one coincides with the naive result only in the low energy limit. The impact of the earth's rotation is incorporated. The NC signals are generally significant when the NC scale is comparable to the collider energy. If this is not the case, the non-trivial azimuthal angle distribution and day-night asymmetry of events due to Lorentz violation and the earth's rotation will be useful in identifying signals. We also comment briefly on the high energy behavior of the cross section that grows linearly in the center of mass energy squared and argue that it does not necessarily contradict some statements, e.g., the Froissart-Martin bound, achieved in ordinary theory.

  17. Applying the analytic theory of colliding ring galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, Curtis

    2010-04-01

    An analytic theory of the waves in colliding ring galaxies was presented some years ago, but the observations were not of sufficient quality then to make quantitative comparisons. Well-resolved observations of a few systems are now available to make such comparisons, and structure imaged in several dozen systems, derived from the recent compilation of Madore, Nelson and Petrillo and the Galaxy Zoo project, can further constrain the theory. Systems with two rings are especially useful for deriving such constraints. After examining the implications of recent observations of ring sizes and structure, I extend the analytic theory, investigate limiting cases and present several levels of approximation. The theory is especially simple in the case of nearly flat rotation curves. I present observational comparisons for a few systems, including Arp 10, the Cartwheel and AM 2136-492. The fit is quite good over a large range of cases. For the Cartwheel there are discrepancies, but the areas of disagreement are suggestive of additional factors, such as multiple collisions. A specific prediction of the theory in the case of nearly flat rotation curves is that the ratio of the outward velocities of successive rings approximately equals the ratio of ring sizes. Ring velocities are also shown to scale simply with local circular velocities in this limit.

  18. Towards a theory for Neptune's arc rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldreich, P.; Tremaine, S.; Borderies, N.

    1986-08-01

    It is proposed that the incomplete rings of Neptune consist of a number of short arcs centered on the corotation resonances of a single satellite. The satellite must have a radius of the order of 100 km or more and move on an inclined orbit. Corotation resonances are located at potential maxima. Thus, mechanical energy dissipated by interparticle collisions must be continually replenished to prevent the arcs from spreading. It is shown that each corotation resonance is associated with a nearby Lindblad resonance, which excites the ring particles' orbital eccentricity, thus supplying the energy required to maintain the arc. The ultimate energy reservoir is the satellite's orbital energy. Therefore, interaction with the arcs damps the satellite's orbital inclination. The self-gravity of the arcs limits their contraction and enforces a relation between arc length and mass. The estimated arc masses are so small, of the order of 10 to the 16th g, that the satellite's orbital inclination suffers negligible decay over the age of the solar system. The inferred surface mass densities are comparable to those found in the major rings of Saturn and Uranus.

  19. Towards a theory for Neptune's arc rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, P.; Tremaine, S.; Borderies, N.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that the incomplete rings of Neptune consist of a number of short arcs centered on the corotation resonances of a single satellite. The satellite must have a radius of the order of 100 km or more and move on an inclined orbit. Corotation resonances are located at potential maxima. Thus, mechanical energy dissipated by interparticle collisions must be continually replenished to prevent the arcs from spreading. It is shown that each corotation resonance is associated with a nearby Lindblad resonance, which excites the ring particles' orbital eccentricity, thus supplying the energy required to maintain the arc. The ultimate energy reservoir is the satellite's orbital energy. Therefore, interaction with the arcs damps the satellite's orbital inclination. The self-gravity of the arcs limits their contraction and enforces a relation between arc length and mass. The estimated arc masses are so small, of the order of 10 to the 16th g, that the satellite's orbital inclination suffers negligible decay over the age of the solar system. The inferred surface mass densities are comparable to those found in the major rings of Saturn and Uranus.

  20. Density functional theory for inhomogeneous ring polymeric fluids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Xu, Xiaofei; Cao, Dapeng

    2012-10-01

    The modeling of ring polymers remains a challenge in classical density functional theory (DFT) due to the difficulty in solving the direct bond connectivity of the ring architecture without free ends. By considering the feature that all of the segments in a ring are equivalent, we give an algorithm to solve the integral of direct bond connectivity for ideal ring polymers, and therefore propose a DFT for inhomogeneous ring polymers, where the excess free energy functional is extended from an equation of state (EOS). This EOS exhibits better agreement than other EOSs for the compressibility factors, compared to Monte Carlo data. Importantly, the DFT satisfactorily reproduces the data of the configurational-bias Monte Carlo (CBMC) simulations for ring polymers. The local density profiles from the DFT show that the bead density of inhomogeneous ring fluids is independent of ring size, which is also confirmed by the CBMC simulations. Interestingly, the behavior of solvation force for ring polymers is quite similar to that of the polymers with infinite chain length.

  1. New Theory for Thick, Composite-Material Rings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    rings, elements of transducers, and as circumferential reinforcements for cylindrical shells . Furthermore, the theory of rings can be considered to be...Yang, P.C., 1965. Elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous cylindrical Shells , DeveZopments in Mechanics, 3(2), 215-228 (Proc., 9th Mid- western Mech...Material Bert, Y.S. Hsu, & V.S. Reddy 17 OU 80-14 Thermoelasticity of Circular Cylindrical Shells Y.S. Hsu, J.N. Laminated of Bimodulus Composite

  2. Theory of ring sweeping of energetic particles. [in Neptune environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paranicas, C. P.; Cheng, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    Because the effective 'area' of the Neptunian rings is larger than that of the inner moons, the sweeping of energetic particles by the rings is perhaps the dominant process for particle loss in the magnetosphere within 5 R(N). In this paper, a theory for calculating the absorption probability of energetic charged particles by the rings is described. The effects of a large tilt and an offset between the planet and dipole centers are included. It is found that the probability of absorption for protons is so high that the sweeping lifetime is only a few times the gradient-curvature drift period. For electrons, the sweeping lifetime is even less. The pitch angle dependence for sweeping manifests itself strongly only at large equatorial pitch angles. Lower-energy particles have higher absorption rates by the rings.

  3. Making almost commuting matrices commute

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    Suppose two Hermitian matrices A, B almost commute ({parallel}[A,B]{parallel} {<=} {delta}). Are they close to a commuting pair of Hermitian matrices, A', B', with {parallel}A-A'{parallel},{parallel}B-B'{parallel} {<=} {epsilon}? A theorem of H. Lin shows that this is uniformly true, in that for every {epsilon} > 0 there exists a {delta} > 0, independent of the size N of the matrices, for which almost commuting implies being close to a commuting pair. However, this theorem does not specifiy how {delta} depends on {epsilon}. We give uniform bounds relating {delta} and {epsilon}. The proof is constructive, giving an explicit algorithm to construct A' and B'. We provide tighter bounds in the case of block tridiagonal and tridiagnonal matrices. Within the context of quantum measurement, this implies an algorithm to construct a basis in which we can make a projective measurement that approximately measures two approximately commuting operators simultaneously. Finally, we comment briefly on the case of approximately measuring three or more approximately commuting operators using POVMs (positive operator-valued measures) instead of projective measurements.

  4. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  5. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  6. World Sheet Commuting beta-gamma CFT and Non-Relativistic StringTheories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-08-30

    We construct a sigma model in two dimensions with Galilean symmetry in flat target space similar to the sigma model of the critical string theory with Lorentz symmetry in 10 flat spacetime dimensions. This is motivated by the works of Gomis and Ooguri[1] and Danielsson et. al.[2, 3]. Our theory is much simpler than their theory and does not assume a compact coordinate. This non-relativistic string theory has a bosonic matter {beta}{gamma} CFT with the conformal weight of {beta} as 1. It is natural to identify time as a linear combination of {gamma} and {bar {gamma}} through an explicit realization of the Galilean boost symmetry. The angle between {gamma} and {bar {gamma}} parametrizes one parameter family of selection sectors. These selection sectors are responsible for having a non-relativistic dispersion relation without a nontrivial topology in the non-relativistic setup, which is one of the major differences from the previous works[1, 2, 3]. This simple theory is the non-relativistic analogue of the critical string theory, and there are many different avenues ahead to be investigated. We mention a possible consistent generalization of this theory with different conformal weights for the {beta}{gamma} CFT. We also mention supersymmetric generalizations of these theories.

  7. Planetary Rings: a Brief History of Observation and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2000-05-01

    Over several centuries, and extending down to today, the ring systems encircling Saturn and the other jovian planets have provided an endless source of speculation and theorizing for astronomers, theologians, and physicists. In the past two decades they have also become a testing ground for dynamical models of more distant astrophysical disks, such as those which surround protostars and even the stellar disks of spiral galaxies. I will review some of the early theories, and their sometimes rude confrontation with observational data, starting with Christiaan Huygens and touching on seminal contributions by Laplace, Bessel, Maxwell, Barnard, Russell (of H-R diagram fame) and Jeffreys. In the modern era, observations at infrared and radio wavelengths have revealed Saturn's rings to be composed of large chunks of almost pure water ice, and to have a vertical thickness measured in tens of meters. A renaissance in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, first with the discoveries of the narrow, dark and non-circular rings of Uranus and the tenuous jovian ring system, and capped off by the spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings themselves and their retinues of attendant satellites. Between the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the galactic context), electromagnetic resonances, many-armed spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to a collective instability, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto

  8. Temporal coupled-mode theory of ring-bus-ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanbing; Mei, Ting; Zhang, Dao Hua

    2012-02-01

    The temporal coupled-mode theory (TCMT) for a ring-bus-ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer device is developed by taking energy conservation into account. The intercavity interaction in the device is facilitated via a tricoupler, which makes the decay of modes quantitatively different from that in other existing resonator schemes. The TCMT is related to the transfer matrix formalism with energy conservation and the Q factor, and it predicts results in good agreement with the experimental results. The mode analysis from the TCMT is quite illustrative because it can mimic the transparency as an electromagnetically induced transparency expression. The analysis of the tricoupler is applicable for analyzing the transparent resonance in two other similar configurations.

  9. Probing deformed quantum commutators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Giani, Tommaso; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Several quantum gravity theories predict a minimal length at the order of magnitude of the Planck length, under which the concepts of space and time lose their physical meaning. In quantum mechanics, the insurgence of such a minimal length can be described by introducing a modified position-momentum commutator, which in turn yields a generalized uncertainty principle, where the uncertainty on position measurements has a lower bound. The value of the minimal length is not predicted by theories and must be estimated experimentally. In this paper, we address the quantum bound to the estimability of the minimal uncertainty length by performing measurements on a harmonic oscillator, which is analytically solvable in the deformed algebra induced by the deformed commutation relations.

  10. Non-Commutative Martingale Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisier, Gilles; Xu, Quanhua

    We prove the analogue of the classical Burkholder-Gundy inequalites for non-commutative martingales. As applications we give a characterization for an Ito-Clifford integral to be an Lp-martingale via its integrand, and then extend the Ito-Clifford integral theory in L2, developed by Barnett, Streater and Wilde, to Lp for all 1commutative analogue of the classical Fefferman duality between $H1 and BMO.

  11. Explicitly correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Klopper, Wim; Tew, David P.

    2015-05-21

    The connection between the random-phase approximation and the ring-coupled-cluster-doubles method bridges the gap between density-functional and wave-function theories and the importance of the random-phase approximation lies in both its broad applicability and this linking role in electronic-structure theory. In this contribution, we present an explicitly correlated approach to the random-phase approximation, based on the direct ring-coupled-cluster-doubles ansatz, which overcomes the problem of slow basis-set convergence, inherent to the random-phase approximation. Benchmark results for a test set of 106 molecules and a selection of 10 organic complexes from the S22 test set demonstrate that convergence to within 99% of the basis-set limit is reached for triple-zeta basis sets for atomisation energies, while quadruple-zeta basis sets are required for interaction energies. Corrections due to single excitations into the complementary auxiliary space reduce the basis-set incompleteness error by one order of magnitude, while contributions due to the coupling of conventional and geminal amplitudes are in general negligible. We find that a non-iterative explicitly correlated correction to first order in perturbation theory exhibits the best ratio of accuracy to computational cost.

  12. Hamiltonian theory of nonlinear waves in planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    The derivation of a Hamiltonian field theory for nonlinear density waves in Saturn's rings is discussed. Starting with a Hamiltonian for a discrete system of gravitating streamlines, an averaged Hamiltonian is obtained by successive applications of Lie transforms. The transformation may be carried out to any desired order in q, where q is the nonlinearity parameter defined in the work of Shu, et al (1985) and Borderies et al (1985). Subsequent application of the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin Method approximation yields an asymptotic field Hamiltonian. Both the nonlinear dispersion relation and the wave action transport equation are easily derived from the corresponding Lagrangian by the standard variational principle.

  13. A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2011-07-06

    The well-known Haissinski distribution provides a stable equilibrium of longitudinal beam distribution in electron storage rings below a threshold current. Yet, how to accurately determine this threshold, above which the Haissinski distribution becomes unstable, is not firmly established in theory. In this paper, we will show how to apply the Laguerre polynomials in an analysis of this stability that are associated with the potential-well distortion. Our approach provides an alternative to the discretization method proposed by Oide and Yokoya. Moreover, it reestablishes an essential connection to the theory of mode coupling originated by Sacherer. Our new and self-consistent method is applied to study the microwave instability driven by commonly known impedances, including coherent synchrotron radiation in free space.

  14. Commutation failures in HVDC transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thio, C.V.; Davies, J.B.; Kent, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper provides a formulation for the initiation or onset mechanism of commutation failures in line-commutated thyristor converters, assuming infinite (zero impedance) ac systems. A theoretical development and a parametric analysis is given. Theory validation by simulation and comparison to actual field experience data is also given.

  15. Lectures on algebraic system theory: Linear systems over rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamen, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The presentation centers on four classes of systems that can be treated as linear systems over a ring. These are: (1) discrete-time systems over a ring of scalars such as the integers; (2) continuous-time systems containing time delays; (3) large-scale discrete-time systems; and (4) time-varying discrete-time systems.

  16. Keeping the Edges Sharp I: Honing the Theory of Narrow Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Rimlinger, Thomas; Hahn, Joseph M.

    2016-05-01

    Most of the rings that encircle Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are very narrow structures with typical radial widths of just a few kilometers. Such extreme sharpness is surprising, as even slightly different orbital periods should allow ring particles to continually jostle one another in collisions that preserve angular momentum whileinexorably draining energy. Sharp edges should blur as rings spread in response to collisions and yet they do not. The generally accepted solution to this dilemma is to bracket each narrow ring with a pair of shepherding satellites that can pump energy back into the ring to replace that lost by collisions. But only a disappointing two of roughly twenty narrow rings actually have known attendant satellites. We present a compelling alternative in which the slight eccentricities and inclinations of narrow ringlets act as internal energy sources that can be tapped to prevent ring spreading. When unattended circular rings dissipate energy they must spread radially in order to preserve angular momentum. By contrast, eccentric or inclined rings have an extra degree of freedom that can be exploited to prevent radial spreading; energy is dissipated while keeping z-component of angular momentum, sqrt(a(1-e^2))cos(i), constant by simply decreasing the overall eccentricity (e) and/or inclination (i) of the entire ring. A real narrow ring moves inward as a unit, circularizes, and drops into the equatorial plane in a process that deters radial spreading for millions or billions of years. Using secular theory with dissipation (Zhang et al. 2013), we show that narrow rings are secular eigenstates in which ellipses are nested with pericenters almost, but not exactly aligned. The misalignment of pericenters is crucial in allowing energy dissipation to be shared evenly across the ring. We predict ring surface densities that are roughly constant across the ring's width, in contrast to profiles expected for shepherded rings. Rimlinger et al. (this meeting

  17. Ballistic transport in Saturn's rings - An analytic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ejecta from impacts of micrometeoroids on Saturn's ring particles will, in most cases, remain in orbit about Saturn and eventually be reaccreted by the rings, possibly at a different radial location. The resulting mass transport has been suggested as the cause of some of the features observed in Saturn's rings. Previous attempts to model this transport have used numerical simulations which have not included the effects of the angular momentum transport coincident with mass transport. An analytical model for ballistic mass transport in Saturn's rings is developed. The model includes the effects of angular momentum advection and shows that the net material movement due to angular momentum advection is comparable to that caused by direct ballistic mass transport.

  18. Characteristic Time of the Magnetospheric Ring Current Decay FROM EXPIREMENT AND THEORY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biktash(Sizova), L. Z.; Korotova, G. I.

    2006-12-01

    The magnetospheric ring current particles are the most dynamic part of the Earth's radiation belts especially during geomagnetic storms. The processes of the magnetospheric ring current decay are studied as a function of the solar wind electric field. It is shown that the ring current dissipation rate is different during the main and recovery phase of geomagnetic storms. The characteristic time of the ring current decay in the main phase is independent of storm intensity and equals 4 hours. The characteristic time of the ring current decay in a recovery phase increases with storm intensity. We examine the ring current ion lifetimes for the possible mechanisms of its decay. Coulomb scattering, charge exchange and plasma instability mechanisms are used for estimation of lifetime of electrons, protons, helium, and oxygen ions. The values of the characteristic lifetime of ring current dissipation obtained from experiment and theory are compared. It is shown that during main and recovery phase of magnetic storm the different mechanisms can play main role in dissipation of the ring current. Very short characteristic decay time during main phase of geomagnetic storms is associated with plasma instabilities. The available ion composition data of the ring current make possible to assume that the ring current decay is accounted for by ion composition variations with changing the intensity (and hence position) of the ring current and/or by a rise of energetic ion fraction on low L-shells.

  19. Chiral bosonization for non-commutative fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ashok; Gamboa, J.; Méndez, Fernando; López-Sarrión, Justo

    2004-05-01

    A model of chiral bosons on a non-commutative field space is constructed and new generalized bosonization (fermionization) rules for these fields are given. The conformal structure of the theory is characterized by a level of the Kac-Moody algebra equal to (1+theta2) where theta is the non-commutativity parameter and chiral bosons living in a non-commutative fields space are described by a rational conformal field theory with the central charge of the Virasoro algebra equal to 1. The non-commutative chiral bosons are shown to correspond to a free fermion moving with a speed equal to c' = c(1+theta2)1/2 where c is the speed of light. Lorentz invariance remains intact if c is rescaled by crightarrowc'. The dispersion relation for bosons and fermions, in this case, is given by omega = c'|k|.

  20. Non-commutative Nash inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Kastoryano, Michael; Temme, Kristan

    2016-01-15

    A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L{sub p} spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups.

  1. Non-commutative Nash inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastoryano, Michael; Temme, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative 𝕃p spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups.

  2. Inductively commutated coilguns

    SciTech Connect

    Mongeau, P.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the concept and relevance of power factor is presented in regards to high performance launchers. As the scale of launchers grows and as efforts to improve efficiency continue power factor considerations will become crucial in engineering design and ultimate launcher performance limits. The use of motion induced commutation to improve the power factor are discussed. Various approaches to inductive commutation are presented, including: the brush-commutated 9 MJ Coilgun, the solid state-switched coilgun and the quenchgun.

  3. Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Gelens, L; Beri, S; Van der Sande, G; Mezosi, G; Sorel, M; Danckaert, J; Verschaffelt, G

    2009-05-15

    We report the first experimental observation of multistable states in a single-longitudinal mode semiconductor ring laser. We show how the operation of the device can be steered to either monostable, bistable, or multistable dynamical regimes in a controlled way. We observe that the dynamical regimes are organized in well-reproducible sequences that match the bifurcation diagrams of a two-dimensional model. By analyzing the phase space in this model, we predict how the stochastic transitions between multistable states take place and confirm it experimentally.

  4. Migration of a Moonlet in a Ring of Solid Particles: Theory and Application to Saturn's Propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, Aurélien; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Rein, Hanno; Charnoz, Sébastien; Salmon, Julien

    2010-10-01

    Hundred-meter-sized objects have been identified by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's A ring through the so-called propeller features they create in the ring. These moonlets should migrate due to their gravitational interaction with the ring; in fact, some orbital variations have been detected. The standard theory of type I migration of planets in protoplanetary disks cannot be applied to the ring system as it is pressureless. Thus, we compute the differential torque felt by a moonlet embedded in a two-dimensional disk of solid particles, with a flat surface density profile, both analytically and numerically. We find that the corresponding migration rate is too small to explain the observed variations of the propeller's orbit in Saturn's A ring. However, local density fluctuations (due to gravity wakes in the marginally gravitationally stable A ring) may exert a stochastic torque on a moonlet. Our simulations show that this torque can be large enough to account for the observations depending on the parameters of the rings. We find that on timescales of several years the migration of propellers is likely to be dominated by stochastic effects (while the former, non-stochastic migration dominates after ~104-105 years). In that case, the migration rates provided by observations so far suggest that the surface density of the A ring should be on the order of 700 kg m-2. The age of the propellers should not exceed 1-100 million years depending on the dominant migration regime.

  5. Wedge locality and asymptotic commutativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we study twist deformed quantum field theories obtained by combining the Wightman axiomatic approach with the idea of spacetime noncommutativity. We prove that the deformed fields with deformation parameters of opposite sign satisfy the condition of mutual asymptotic commutativity, which was used earlier in nonlocal quantum field theory as a substitute for relative locality. We also present an improved proof of the wedge localization property discovered for the deformed fields by Grosse and Lechner, and we show that the deformation leaves the asymptotic behavior of the vacuum expectation values in spacelike directions substantially unchanged.

  6. Luttinger liquid theory of Coulomb drag in mesoscopic rings,(Supported in part by US DOE.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazyan, T. V.; Ulloa, S. E.

    1997-03-01

    We develop a Luttinger liquid theory of the Coulomb drag of persistent currents, flowing in concentric mesoscopic rings, by incorporating non-linear corrections to the electron dispersion relation. We demonstrate that at low temperatures interactions between electrons in different rings generate an additional phase and thus alter the period of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. The resulting nondissipative(A. G. Rojo and G. D. Mahan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68) 2074 (1992). drag depends strongly on the relative parity of the electron numbers. We also show that interactions set a new temperature scale below which the linear response theory does not apply at certain values of external flux.

  7. Theory of a dithered-ring-laser gyroscope: A Floquet-theory treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambini, A.; Stenholm, S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the properties of a periodically dithered-ring-laser gyroscope in the approximation of a single phase-locking equation. We discuss both modulation of the input rotation, the phase of the backscattering, and its amplitude. The first two are found to be mathematically equivalent, and the last case is found to offer no advantages as compared with the undithered case. These conclusions are supported by a heuristic argument. The detailed mathematical treatment is based on Floquet theory, which allows us to obtain results by integrating over one dither period only. The locking condition can be determined from the Floquet exponent. For large input parameters the integration of the differential equation for the Floquet problem becomes numerically overwhelming, and the equivalent formulation in terms of an infinite matrix is utilized. This is evaluated using a method based on matrix continued fractions. In this way no restrictions on the parameters are necessary. The method is applied to the single-frequency dithering, and it is confirmed that the locking at zero rotation rate can be completely eliminated. The calculations also confirm the existence of higher-order lock-in zones, which are large just in those conditions which are optimal near zero rotation rate. Thus we conclude that with sinusoidal dither of one frequency it is not possible to avoid nonlinearities in the gyroscope response. In forthcoming publications we intend to discuss possible schemes to overcome this difficulty.

  8. Application of ring tectonic theory to Mercury and other solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that multiringed structures, by their presence or absence, provide a powerful tool for deciphering the thermal histories of the solid planets. The theory of ring tectonics considered by Melosh and McKinnon (1978) and Melosh et al. (1980) establishes the framework of that undertaking. The present investigation has the objective to apply this conceptualization in detail to the multiringed basins on Mercury, taking into account also a brief review concerning the current state of understanding of ring tectonics on the moon, Mars, earth, Ganymede, and Callisto. The small, icy satellites of Saturn are also discussed. The mechanics of multiple ring formation are related to the collapse of the transient basin cavity when the excavation depth and lithosphere thickness are comparable. Attention is given to the Caloris Basin on Mercury, the peak ring basins on Mercury, and the Argyre Basin on Mars.

  9. Ethnic Enclave Residence, Employment, and Commuting of Latino Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Cathy Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of living in ethnic enclaves in different parts of a metropolitan area on low-skilled Latino immigrants' employment accessibility. It does so by comparing the employment status and commuting times of Latinos living in and out of ethnic neighborhoods in central city, inner-ring suburbs, and outer-ring suburbs in…

  10. Ethnic Enclave Residence, Employment, and Commuting of Latino Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Cathy Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of living in ethnic enclaves in different parts of a metropolitan area on low-skilled Latino immigrants' employment accessibility. It does so by comparing the employment status and commuting times of Latinos living in and out of ethnic neighborhoods in central city, inner-ring suburbs, and outer-ring suburbs in…

  11. a New Example of N = 2 Supersymmetric Landau-Ginzburg Theories:. the Two-Ring Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, Askold M.; Roan, Shi-Shyr

    The new example of N = 2 supersymmetric Landau-Ginzburg theories is considered when the critical values of the superpotential w (x) form the regular two-ring configuration. It is shown that at the deformation, which does not change the form of this configuration, the vacuum state metric satisfies the equation of non-Abelian 2 × 2 Toda system.

  12. Theory and Programs for Dynamic Modeling of Tree Rings from Climate

    Treesearch

    Paul C. van Deusen; Jennifer Koretz

    1988-01-01

    Computer programs written in GAUSS(TM) for IBM compatible personal computers are described that perform dynamic tree ring modeling with climate data; the underlying theory is also described. The programs and a separate users manual are available from the authors, although users must have the GAUSS software package on their personal computer. An example application of...

  13. Understanding the fluid nature of personhood - the ring theory of personhood.

    PubMed

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Alsuwaigh, Rayan

    2015-03-01

    Familial determination, replete with its frequent usurping of patient autonomy, propagation of collusion, and circumnavigation of direct patient involvement in their own care deliberations, continues to impact clinical practice in many Asian nations. Suggestions that underpinning this practice, in Confucian-inspired societies, is the adherence of the populace to the familial centric ideas of personhood espoused by Confucian ethics, provide a novel means of understanding and improving patient-centred care at the end of life. Clinical experience in Confucian-inspired Singapore, however, suggests that personhood is conceived in broader terms. This diverging view inspired a study of local conceptions of personhood and scrutiny of the influence of the family upon it. From the data gathered, a culturally appropriate, clinically relevant and ethically sensitive concept of personhood was proposed: the Ring Theory of Personhood (Ring Theory) that better captures the nuances of local conceptions of personhood. The Ring Theory highlights the fact that, far from being solely dependent upon familial centric ideals, local conceptions of personhood are dynamic, context dependent, evolving ideas delineated by four dimensions. Using the Ring Theory, the nature of familial influences upon the four dimensions of personhood - the Innate, Individual, Relational and Societal - are examined to reveal that, contrary to perceived knowledge, conceptions of personhood within Confucian societies are not the prime reason for the continued presence of this decision-making model but remain present within local thinking and practices as a sociocultural residue and primarily because of inertia in updating ideas.

  14. Fine-scale density wave structure of Saturn's A and B rings: Theory and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny

    We examine the linear stability of the Saturnian ring disk of mutually gravitating and physically colliding particles with special emphasis on its fine-scale of the order of 100 m density wave structure, that is, almost regularly spaced, aligned cylindric density enhancements and optically-thin zones with the width and the spacing between them of roughly several tens particle diameters. We analyze the Jeans’ instabilities of gravity perturbations (e.g. those produced by a spontaneous disturbance) analytically by using the Navier-Stokes dynamical equations of a compressible fluid. For the first time in planetary ring dynamics, the theory is not restricted by any assumptions about the thickness of the system. We consider a simple model of the system consisting of a three-dimensional ring disk that is weakly inhomogeneous and whose structure is analyzed by making a horizontally local short-wave approximation. We demonstrate that the disk is Jeans-unstable and that gravity perturbations grow effectively within a few orbital periods. We find that self-gravitation plays a key role in the formation of the fine structure. The predictions of the theory are compared with observations of Saturn’s rings by the Cassini spacecraft and are found to be in good agreement. In particular, it appears very likely that some of the quasi-periodic microstructures observed in Saturn’s A and B rings - both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric ones - are manifestations of these effects. Thus, one can attribute the fine-scale structure observed in Saturn’s A and B rings in Cassini data to the development of free Lin-Shu type compression waves, or density waves -- normal modes -- developing in the plane of the system. From the well-developed theory of galactic spiral density waves, a free density wave is known to rotate in a rigid-body manner and to not be affected by differential rotation of the ring disk. We argue that the quasi-periodic density enhancements revealed in Cassini data are

  15. MIGRATION OF A MOONLET IN A RING OF SOLID PARTICLES: THEORY AND APPLICATION TO SATURN'S PROPELLERS

    SciTech Connect

    Crida, Aurelien; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Rein, Hanno; Charnoz, Sebastien; Salmon, Julien

    2010-10-15

    Hundred-meter-sized objects have been identified by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's A ring through the so-called propeller features they create in the ring. These moonlets should migrate due to their gravitational interaction with the ring; in fact, some orbital variations have been detected. The standard theory of type I migration of planets in protoplanetary disks cannot be applied to the ring system as it is pressureless. Thus, we compute the differential torque felt by a moonlet embedded in a two-dimensional disk of solid particles, with a flat surface density profile, both analytically and numerically. We find that the corresponding migration rate is too small to explain the observed variations of the propeller's orbit in Saturn's A ring. However, local density fluctuations (due to gravity wakes in the marginally gravitationally stable A ring) may exert a stochastic torque on a moonlet. Our simulations show that this torque can be large enough to account for the observations depending on the parameters of the rings. We find that on timescales of several years the migration of propellers is likely to be dominated by stochastic effects (while the former, non-stochastic migration dominates after {approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} years). In that case, the migration rates provided by observations so far suggest that the surface density of the A ring should be on the order of 700 kg m{sup -2}. The age of the propellers should not exceed 1-100 million years depending on the dominant migration regime.

  16. Dust in magnetised plasmas - Basic theory and some applications. [to planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northrop, T. G.; Morfill, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the theory of charged test particle motion in magnetic fields is reviewed. This theory is then extended to charged dust particles, for which gravity and charge fluctuations play an important role. It is shown that systematic drifts perpendicular to the magnetic field and stochastic transport effects may then have to be considered none of which occur in the case of atomic particles (with the exception of charge exchange reactions). Some applications of charged dust particle transport theory to planetary rings are then briefly discussed.

  17. Quantitative analysis of the Dermott-Gold theory for Uranus's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksnes, K.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is presented of an investigation which supplements the largely qualitative analysis conducted by Dermott and Gold (1977). Dermott and Gold have attempted to explain the locations of Uranus's rings in terms of resonances between ring particles and pairs of satellites. An equation of motion, analogous to that of a pendulum, is derived, taking into account a study by Wilkens (1933) of possible three-body resonances involving one minor and two major planets. Dermott and Gold had concluded that the observed pattern is probably due primarily to the effect of Ariel-Titania and Ariel-Oberon pairs. However, on the basis of the values derived in the reported investigation it is seen that Miranda plays the key role rather than Ariel, in spite of the small mass of the former. It is concluded that a decisive test of the Dermott-Gold theory has to await further observational details concerning the Uranus's rings.

  18. Fine-Scale Density Wave Structure of Saturn's Main Rings: A Hydrodynamic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Gedalin, Michael

    The theoretical studies of Maxwell (1859) have showed that the rings around Saturn could not be solid or liquid, but rather a swarm of millions of individual particles rotating in separate concentric orbits at different speeds. A modern very popular model of the particles in Saturn's rings is a smooth ice sphere, whose restitution coefficient is quite high (exceeding 0.63) and decreases as the collision velocity increases. In this work, the linear stability of the Saturnian ring disk of mutually gravitating and physically colliding particles is examined with special emphasis on its fine-scale of the order of 100 m density wave structure, that is, almost regularly spaced, aligned cylindric density enhancements and optically-thin zones with the width and the spacing between them of roughly several tens particle diameters. Jeans' instabilities of small-amplitude gravity perturbations (e.g., those produced by a spontaneous disturbance) are analyzed analytically through the use of Navier-Stokes dynamical equations of a compressible fluid. An essential feature of this study is that the theory is not restricted by any assumptions regarding the thickness of the system. The simple model of the system is considered: the ring disk is considered to be thin, a weakly spatially inhomogeneous, and its structure is considered in a horizontally local short-wave approximation. We show that the disk is probably unstable and gravity perturbations grow effectively within a few orbital periods; self-gravitation plays a key role in the formation of the fine-scale structure while particle collisions play a secondary role. The predictions of the theory are compared with recent observations of Saturn's rings by the Cassini spacecraft and are found to be in good agreement. Particulary, it appears very likely that some of the microstructures observed in Saturn's A and B rings -both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric ones -are manifestations of these effects produced by Jeans' gravitational

  19. Probing deformed commutators with macroscopic harmonic oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Bawaj, Mateusz; Biancofiore, Ciro; Bonaldi, Michele; Bonfigli, Federica; Borrielli, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Marconi, Lorenzo; Marino, Francesco; Natali, Riccardo; Pontin, Antonio; Prodi, Giovanni A.; Serra, Enrico; Vitali, David; Marin, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A minimal observable length is a common feature of theories that aim to merge quantum physics and gravity. Quantum mechanically, this concept is associated with a nonzero minimal uncertainty in position measurements, which is encoded in deformed commutation relations. In spite of increasing theoretical interest, the subject suffers from the complete lack of dedicated experiments and bounds to the deformation parameters have just been extrapolated from indirect measurements. As recently proposed, low-energy mechanical oscillators could allow to reveal the effect of a modified commutator. Here we analyze the free evolution of high-quality factor micro- and nano-oscillators, spanning a wide range of masses around the Planck mass mP (≈22 μg). The direct check against a model of deformed dynamics substantially lowers the previous limits on the parameters quantifying the commutator deformation. PMID:26088965

  20. Impact of commuter-rail services in Toronto region

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.S.; Hutchinson, B.G.

    1996-07-01

    Ridership of the commuter-rail system that was implemented in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in 1967 increased at an annual, average compound rate of 11.4% until 1989. Demand has leveled substantially during 1990--94 and has averaged only 2.1% per year, which probably reflects the suburbanization of employment. Urban economic theory is used to explain the way in which central-business-district (CBD) employees respond differently to suburban commuter-rail services and rapid transit services, mainly serving the inner intermediate suburbs. Travel data collected in 1986 and 1991 confirmed the effects suggested by the theory. Commuter-rail passengers are drawn from the larger suburban households, living principally in single-family houses, and commuter-rail passengers are more sensitive to access and egress distances than subway passengers. Policies that improve the quality of access and egress components of commuting trips from the suburbs stimulate passenger demand. Also, land-use policies that promote high-density, residential development at suburban commuter-rail stations are unlikely to contribute significantly to commuter-rail demand, and the lakeshore commuter-rail line that has been in service since 1967 has not had a significant impact on residential sorting and on the generation of additional demands.

  1. Architecture-Induced Size Asymmetry and Effective Interactions of Ring Polymers: Simulation and Theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We investigate, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, the role of ring architecture and topology on the relative sizes of two interacting polymers as a function of the distance between their centers-of-mass. As a general rule, polymers swell as they approach each other, irrespectively of their topologies. For each mutual separation, two identical linear polymers adopt the same average size. However, unknotted rings at close separations adopt different sizes, with the small one being “nested” within the large one over long time intervals, exchanging their roles in the course of the simulation. For two rings of different architectures and identical polymerization degree, the knotted one is always smaller, penetrating the unknotted one. On the basis of these observations, we propose a phenomenological theory for the effective interactions between rings, modeling them as unequal-sized penetrable spheres. This simple approximation provides a good description of the simulation results. In particular, it rationalizes the non-Gaussian shape and the short-distance plateau observed in the effective potential between unknotted ring polymers and pairs of unequal-sized unknotted/knotted ones. Our results demonstrate the crucial role of the architecture on both the effective interactions and the molecular size for strongly interpenetrating polymers. PMID:24347686

  2. Center Gets Commuters, Residents Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The new student center at Trenton State College is situated on the walkway between the central campus and the commuter parking areas. The location brings resident and commuter students together. (Author/MLF)

  3. Use of the Halbach perturbation theory for the multipole design of the ALS storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1995-02-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate in the primary or sextupole mode and in three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. Klaus Halbach developed a perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets which provides the basis for this design. Many magnet designers, certainly those who have been exposed to Klaus, are familiar with this theory and have used it for such things as evaluating the effect of assembly alignment errors. The ALS sextupole design process was somewhat novel in its use of the perturbation theory to design essential features of the magnet. In particular, the steering and skew quadrupole functions are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber. Prototype testing verified all operating modes of the magnet and confirmed the expected performance from calculations based upon the Halbach perturbation theory. A total of 48 sextupole magnets of this design are now installed and operating successfully in the ALS storage ring.

  4. Connecting with Commuters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    For the last few years, Georgia State University has taken steps toward becoming a more traditional college instead of a commuter school. It bought two Atlanta hotels to be used as residence halls, started a football team, and is building townhouses for Greek fraternities and sororities. "When alumni come back to campus, they are shocked at…

  5. Active commuting to school

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  6. Connecting with Commuters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    For the last few years, Georgia State University has taken steps toward becoming a more traditional college instead of a commuter school. It bought two Atlanta hotels to be used as residence halls, started a football team, and is building townhouses for Greek fraternities and sororities. "When alumni come back to campus, they are shocked at…

  7. Generalization of Wertheim's theory for the assembly of various types of rings.

    PubMed

    Tavares, J M; Almarza, N G; Telo da Gama, M M

    2015-08-07

    We generalize Wertheim's first order perturbation theory to account for the effect in the thermodynamics of the self-assembly of rings characterized by two energy scales. The theory is applied to a lattice model of patchy particles and tested against Monte Carlo simulations on a fcc lattice. These particles have 2 patches of type A and 10 patches of type B, which may form bonds AA or AB that decrease the energy by εAA and by εAB ≡ rεAA, respectively. The angle θ between the 2 A-patches on each particle is fixed at 60°, 90° or 120°. For values of r below 1/2 and above a threshold rth(θ) the models exhibit a phase diagram with two critical points. Both theory and simulation predict that rth increases when θ decreases. We show that the mechanism that prevents phase separation for models with decreasing values of θ is related to the formation of loops containing AB bonds. Moreover, we show that by including the free energy of B-rings (loops containing one AB bond), the theory describes the trends observed in the simulation results, but that for the lowest values of θ, the theoretical description deteriorates due to the increasing number of loops containing more than one AB bond.

  8. Chemical Reaction Rate Coefficients from Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Practical Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Suleimanov, Yury V.; Aoiz, F. Javier; Guo, Hua

    2016-09-14

    This Feature Article presents an overview of the current status of ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory. We first analyze the RPMD approach and its connection to quantum transition-state theory. We then focus on its practical applications to prototypical chemical reactions in the gas phase, which demonstrate how accurate and reliable RPMD is for calculating thermal chemical reaction rate coefficients in multifarious cases. This review serves as an important checkpoint in RPMD rate theory development, which shows that RPMD is shifting from being just one of recent novel ideas to a well-established and validated alternative to conventional techniques formore » calculating thermal chemical rate coefficients. We also hope it will motivate further applications of RPMD to various chemical reactions.« less

  9. Chemical Reaction Rate Coefficients from Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Practical Applications.

    PubMed

    Suleimanov, Yury V; Aoiz, F Javier; Guo, Hua

    2016-11-03

    This Feature Article presents an overview of the current status of ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory. We first analyze the RPMD approach and its connection to quantum transition-state theory. We then focus on its practical applications to prototypical chemical reactions in the gas phase, which demonstrate how accurate and reliable RPMD is for calculating thermal chemical reaction rate coefficients in multifarious cases. This review serves as an important checkpoint in RPMD rate theory development, which shows that RPMD is shifting from being just one of recent novel ideas to a well-established and validated alternative to conventional techniques for calculating thermal chemical rate coefficients. We also hope it will motivate further applications of RPMD to various chemical reactions.

  10. Theory of Microwave Instability and Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Electron Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    Bursting of coherent synchrotron radiation has been observed and in fact used to generate THz radiation in many electron storage rings. In order to understand and control the bursting, we return to the study of the microwave instability. In this paper, we will report on the theoretical understanding, including recent developments, of the microwave instability in electron storage rings. The historical progress of the theories will be surveyed, starting from the dispersion relation of coasting beams, to the work of Sacherer on a bunched beam, and ending with the Oide and Yokoya method of discretization. This theoretical survey will be supplemented with key experimental results over the years. Finally, we will describe the recent theoretical development of utilizing the Laguerre polynomials in the presence of potential-well distortion. This self-consistent method will be applied to study the microwave instability driven the impedances due to the coherent synchrotron radiation. Over the past quarter century, there has been steady progress toward smaller transverse emittances in electron storage rings used for synchrotron light sources, from tens of nm decades ago to the nm range recently. In contrast, there is not much progress made in the longitudinal plane. For an electron bunch in a typical ring, its relative energy spread {sigma}{sub {delta}} remains about 10{sup -3} and its length {sigma}{sub z} is still in between 5 mm to 10 mm. Now the longitudinal emittance ({sigma}{sub {delta}}{sigma}{sub z}) becomes a factor of thousand larger than those in the transverse dimensions. In this paper, we will address questions of: How short a bunch can be? What is the fundamental limit? If there is a limit, is there any mitigation method? Since the synchrotron radiation is so fundamental in electron storage rings, let us start with the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR).

  11. Higher-order paraxial theory of the propagation of ring rippled laser beam in plasma: Relativistic ponderomotive regime

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, Gunjan Rawat, Priyanka; Chauhan, Prashant; Mahmoud, Saleh T.

    2015-05-15

    This article presents higher-order paraxial theory (non-paraxial theory) for the ring ripple formation on an intense Gaussian laser beam and its propagation in plasma, taking into account the relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. The intensity dependent dielectric constant of the plasma has been determined for the main laser beam and ring ripple superimposed on the main laser beam. The dielectric constant of the plasma is modified due to the contribution of the electric field vector of ring ripple. Nonlinear differential equations have been formulated to examine the growth of ring ripple in plasma, self focusing of main laser beam, and ring rippled laser beam in plasma using higher-order paraxial theory. These equations have been solved numerically for different laser intensities and plasma frequencies. The well established experimental laser and plasma parameters are used in numerical calculation. It is observed that the focusing of the laser beams (main and ring rippled) becomes fast in the nonparaxial region by expanding the eikonal and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r. The splitted profile of laser beam in the plasma is observed due to uneven focusing/defocusing of the axial and off-axial rays. The growths of ring ripple increase when the laser beam intensity increases. Furthermore, the intensity profile of ring rippled laser beam gets modified due to the contribution of growth rate.

  12. Active matter beyond mean-field: ring-kinetic theory for self-propelled particles.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yen-Liang; Ihle, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Hanke et al. [Phys. Rev. E 88, 052309 (2013)] showed that mean-field kinetic theory fails to describe collective motion in soft active colloids and that correlations must not be neglected. Correlation effects are also expected to be essential in systems of biofilaments driven by molecular motors and in swarms of midges. To obtain correlations in an active matter system from first principles, we derive a ring-kinetic theory for Vicsek-style models of self-propelled agents from the exact N-particle evolution equation in phase space. The theory goes beyond mean-field and does not rely on Boltzmann's approximation of molecular chaos. It can handle precollisional correlations and cluster formation, which are both important to understand the phase transition to collective motion. We propose a diagrammatic technique to perform a small-density expansion of the collision operator and derive the first two equations of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy. An algorithm is presented that numerically solves the evolution equation for the two-particle correlations on a lattice. Agent-based simulations are performed and informative quantities such as orientational and density correlation functions are compared with those obtained by ring-kinetic theory. Excellent quantitative agreement between simulations and theory is found at not-too-small noises and mean free paths. This shows that there are parameter ranges in Vicsek-like models where the correlated closure of the BBGKY hierarchy gives correct and nontrivial results. We calculate the dependence of the orientational correlations on distance in the disordered phase and find that it seems to be consistent with a power law with an exponent around -1.8, followed by an exponential decay. General limitations of the kinetic theory and its numerical solution are discussed.

  13. Active matter beyond mean-field: Ring-kinetic theory for self-propelled particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yen-Liang; Ihle, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Hanke et al. [Phys. Rev. E 88, 052309 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.052309] showed that mean-field kinetic theory fails to describe collective motion in soft active colloids and that correlations must not be neglected. Correlation effects are also expected to be essential in systems of biofilaments driven by molecular motors and in swarms of midges. To obtain correlations in an active matter system from first principles, we derive a ring-kinetic theory for Vicsek-style models of self-propelled agents from the exact N -particle evolution equation in phase space. The theory goes beyond mean-field and does not rely on Boltzmann's approximation of molecular chaos. It can handle precollisional correlations and cluster formation, which are both important to understand the phase transition to collective motion. We propose a diagrammatic technique to perform a small-density expansion of the collision operator and derive the first two equations of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy. An algorithm is presented that numerically solves the evolution equation for the two-particle correlations on a lattice. Agent-based simulations are performed and informative quantities such as orientational and density correlation functions are compared with those obtained by ring-kinetic theory. Excellent quantitative agreement between simulations and theory is found at not-too-small noises and mean free paths. This shows that there are parameter ranges in Vicsek-like models where the correlated closure of the BBGKY hierarchy gives correct and nontrivial results. We calculate the dependence of the orientational correlations on distance in the disordered phase and find that it seems to be consistent with a power law with an exponent around -1.8 , followed by an exponential decay. General limitations of the kinetic theory and its numerical solution are discussed.

  14. Employee commute options guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) require severe and extreme ozone nonattainment areas and serious carbon monoxide nonattainment areas to establish programs aimed at reducing commute trips to the worksites of large employers. The concerns that lead to the inclusion of the Employee Commute Options (ECO) provision in the Act are that more people are driving than ever before and they are driving longer distances. The purpose of the guidance is to inform the affected State and local jurisdictions of the Clean Air Act requirement, to provide guidance on preparing an approvable State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision, and to discuss various approaches which may help areas achieve Clean Air Act targets through implementation strategies that are the least burdensome and costly to both affected employers and employees.

  15. Quantum Gibbs Samplers: The Commuting Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastoryano, Michael J.; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the problem of preparing quantum Gibbs states of lattice spin Hamiltonians with local and commuting terms on a quantum computer and in nature. Our central result is an equivalence between the behavior of correlations in the Gibbs state and the mixing time of the semigroup which drives the system to thermal equilibrium (the Gibbs sampler). We introduce a framework for analyzing the correlation and mixing properties of quantum Gibbs states and quantum Gibbs samplers, which is rooted in the theory of non-commutative {mathbb{L}_p} spaces. We consider two distinct classes of Gibbs samplers, one of them being the well-studied Davies generator modelling the dynamics of a system due to weak-coupling with a large Markovian environment. We show that their spectral gap is independent of system size if, and only if, a certain strong form of clustering of correlations holds in the Gibbs state. Therefore every Gibbs state of a commuting Hamiltonian that satisfies clustering of correlations in this strong sense can be prepared efficiently on a quantum computer. As concrete applications of our formalism, we show that for every one-dimensional lattice system, or for systems in lattices of any dimension at temperatures above a certain threshold, the Gibbs samplers of commuting Hamiltonians are always gapped, giving an efficient way of preparing the associated Gibbs states on a quantum computer.

  16. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  17. Annealed lattice animal model and Flory theory for the melt of non-concatenated rings: towards the physics of crumpling.

    PubMed

    Grosberg, Alexander Y

    2014-01-28

    A Flory theory is constructed for a long polymer ring in a melt of unknotted and non-concatenated rings. The theory assumes that the ring forms an effective annealed branched object and computes its primitive path. It is shown that the primitive path follows self-avoiding statistics and is characterized by the corresponding Flory exponent of a polymer with excluded volume. Based on that, it is shown that rings in the melt are compact objects with overall size proportional to their length raised to the 1/3 power. Furthermore, the contact probability exponent γcontact is estimated, albeit by a poorly controlled approximation, with the result close to 1.1 consistent with both numerical and experimental data.

  18. Commutative POVMs and Fuzzy Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. Twareque; Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we review some properties of fuzzy observables, mainly as realized by commutative positive operator valued measures. In this context we discuss two representation theorems for commutative positive operator valued measures in terms of projection valued measures and describe, in some detail, the general notion of fuzzification. We also make some related observations on joint measurements.

  19. From Maxwell's theory of Saturn's rings to the negative mass instability.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Renato

    2008-05-28

    The impact of Maxwell's theory of Saturn's rings, formulated in Aberdeen ca 1856, is discussed. One century later, Nielsen, Sessler and Symon formulated a similar theory to describe the coherent instabilities (in particular, the negative mass instability) exhibited by a charged particle beam in a high-energy accelerating machine. Extended to systems of particles where the mutual gravitational attraction is replaced by the electric repulsion, Maxwell's approach was the conceptual basis to formulate the kinetic theory of coherent instability (Vlasov-Maxwell system), which, in particular, predicts the stabilizing role of the Landau damping. However, Maxwell's idea was so fertile that, later on, it was extended to quantum-like models (e.g. thermal wave model), providing the quantum-like description of coherent instability (Schrödinger-Maxwell system) and its identification with the modulational instability (MI). The latter has recently been formulated for any nonlinear wave propagation governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, as in the statistical approach to MI (Wigner-Maxwell system). It seems that the above recent developments may provide a possible feedback to Maxwell's original idea with the extension to quantum gravity and cosmology.

  20. Groenewold-Moyal product, α*-cohomology, and classification of translation-invariant non-commutative structures

    SciTech Connect

    Varshovi, Amir Abbass

    2013-07-15

    The theory of α*-cohomology is studied thoroughly and it is shown that in each cohomology class there exists a unique 2-cocycle, the harmonic form, which generates a particular Groenewold-Moyal star product. This leads to an algebraic classification of translation-invariant non-commutative structures and shows that any general translation-invariant non-commutative quantum field theory is physically equivalent to a Groenewold-Moyal non-commutative quantum field theory.

  1. Measuring the jitter of ring oscillators by means of information theory quantifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, M.; De Micco, L.; Larrondo, H. A.

    2017-02-01

    Ring oscillators (RO's) are elementary blocks widely used in digital design. Jitter is unavoidable in RO's, its presence is an undesired behavior in many applications, as clock generators. On the contrary, jitter may be used as the noise source in RO-based true-random numbers generators (TRNG). Consequently, jitter measure is a relevant issue to characterize a RO, and it is the subject of this paper. The main contribution is the use of Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ) as measures of RO's jitter. It is shown that among several ITQ evaluated, two of them emerge as good measures because they are independent of parameters used for their statistical determination. They turned out to be robust and may be implemented experimentally. We encountered that a dual entropy plane allows a visual comparison of results.

  2. Commutating Feed Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AD-AOBS 567 ITT GILFILLAN VAN NUYS CA F/6 17/9 CONF4UTATING FEED ASSEMBLY. 1W DEC 79 R WOL.FSON F19628-79-C-OOSS UNCLASSIFIED RADC -TR79303 NI. 1i.ll...INTRODUCTION 9 2 COMMUTATING FEED ASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTS 10 . 3 TECHNICAL PROBLEMS 11 1: 3.1 System Design 12 3.1.1 Radius of Circular Array 12 3.1.2 Design...Support Structure 16 3.3 Annular Rotary Coupler 16 3.4 Stripline Feed Network 17 w V.3.4.1 Range of Coupling Values vs. Percent Power into Load 17 3.4.2

  3. Adsorption and ring-opening of lactide on the chiral metal surface Pt(321)(S) studied by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Franke, J-H; Kosov, D S

    2015-01-28

    We study the adsorption and ring-opening of lactide on the naturally chiral metal surface Pt(321)(S). Lactide is a precursor for polylactic acid ring-opening polymerization, and Pt is a well known catalyst surface. We study, here, the energetics of the ring-opening of lactide on a surface that has a high density of kink atoms. These sites are expected to be present on a realistic Pt surface and show enhanced catalytic activity. The use of a naturally chiral surface also enables us to study potential chiral selectivity effects of the reaction at the same time. Using density functional theory with a functional that includes the van der Waals forces in a first-principles manner, we find modest adsorption energies of around 1.4 eV for the pristine molecule and different ring-opened states. The energy barrier to be overcome in the ring-opening reaction is found to be very small at 0.32 eV and 0.30 eV for LL- and its chiral partner DD-lactide, respectively. These energies are much smaller than the activation energy for a dehydrogenation reaction of 0.78 eV. Our results thus indicate that (a) ring-opening reactions of lactide on Pt(321) can be expected already at very low temperatures, and Pt might be a very effective catalyst for this reaction; (b) the ring-opening reaction rate shows noticeable enantioselectivity.

  4. Adsorption and ring-opening of lactide on the chiral metal surface Pt(321)S studied by density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, J.-H.; Kosov, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    We study the adsorption and ring-opening of lactide on the naturally chiral metal surface Pt(321)S. Lactide is a precursor for polylactic acid ring-opening polymerization, and Pt is a well known catalyst surface. We study, here, the energetics of the ring-opening of lactide on a surface that has a high density of kink atoms. These sites are expected to be present on a realistic Pt surface and show enhanced catalytic activity. The use of a naturally chiral surface also enables us to study potential chiral selectivity effects of the reaction at the same time. Using density functional theory with a functional that includes the van der Waals forces in a first-principles manner, we find modest adsorption energies of around 1.4 eV for the pristine molecule and different ring-opened states. The energy barrier to be overcome in the ring-opening reaction is found to be very small at 0.32 eV and 0.30 eV for LL- and its chiral partner DD-lactide, respectively. These energies are much smaller than the activation energy for a dehydrogenation reaction of 0.78 eV. Our results thus indicate that (a) ring-opening reactions of lactide on Pt(321) can be expected already at very low temperatures, and Pt might be a very effective catalyst for this reaction; (b) the ring-opening reaction rate shows noticeable enantioselectivity.

  5. Gravity from a modified commutator

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We show that a suitably chosen position-momentum commutator can elegantly describe many features of gravity, including the IR/UV correspondence and dimensional reduction (''holography''). Using the most simplistic example based on dimensional analysis of black holes, we construct a commutator which qualitatively exhibits these novel properties of gravity. Dimensional reduction occurs because the quanta size grow quickly with momenta, and thus cannot be ''packed together'' as densely as naively expected. We conjecture that a more precise form of this commutator should be able to quantitatively reproduce all of these features.

  6. Closed-shell ring coupled cluster doubles theory with range separation applied on weak intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Toulouse, Julien; Zhu, Wuming; Savin, Andreas; Jansen, Georg; Ángyán, János G

    2011-08-28

    We explore different variants of the random phase approximation to the correlation energy derived from closed-shell ring-diagram approximations to coupled cluster doubles theory. We implement these variants in range-separated density-functional theory, i.e., by combining the long-range random phase approximations with short-range density-functional approximations. We perform tests on the rare-gas dimers He(2), Ne(2), and Ar(2), and on the weakly interacting molecular complexes of the S22 set of Jurečka et al. [P. Jurečka, J. Šponer, J. Černý, and P. Hobza, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)]. The two best variants correspond to the ones originally proposed by Szabo and Ostlund [A. Szabo and N. S. Ostlund, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)]. With range separation, they reach mean absolute errors on the equilibrium interaction energies of the S22 set of about 0.4 kcal/mol, corresponding to mean absolute percentage errors of about 4%, with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set.

  7. A non-commutative framework for topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, C.; Carey, A. L.; Rennie, A.

    2016-04-01

    We study topological insulators, regarded as physical systems giving rise to topological invariants determined by symmetries both linear and anti-linear. Our perspective is that of non-commutative index theory of operator algebras. In particular, we formulate the index problems using Kasparov theory, both complex and real. We show that the periodic table of topological insulators and superconductors can be realized as a real or complex index pairing of a Kasparov module capturing internal symmetries of the Hamiltonian with a spectral triple encoding the geometry of the sample’s (possibly non-commutative) Brillouin zone.

  8. Branes as Stable Holomorphic Line Bundles On the Non-Commutative Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, Pascal

    2004-10-01

    It was suggested by A. Kapustin that turning on a B-field, and allowing some discrepancy between the left and and right-moving complex structures, must induce an identification of B-branes with holomorphic line bundles on a non-commutative complex torus. The stability condition for the branes is written as a topological identity of non-commutative gauge theory. This identifies stable B-branes with previously proposed non-commutative instanton equations. Consistency of the non-commutative description with complex geometry is examined, using the non-linearities of the Seiberg-Witten map.

  9. Some elements of a theory of multidimensional complex variables. I - General theory. II - Expansions of analytic functions and application to fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1989-01-01

    The paper introduces a new theory of N-dimensional complex variables and analytic functions which, for N greater than 2, is both a direct generalization and a close analog of the theory of ordinary complex variables. The algebra in the present theory is a commutative ring, not a field. Functions of a three-dimensional variable were defined and the definition of the derivative then led to analytic functions.

  10. Ring polymer chains confined in a slit geometry of two parallel walls: the massive field theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usatenko, Z.; Halun, J.

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of a dilute solution of phantom ideal ring polymer chains confined in a slit geometry of two parallel repulsive walls, two inert walls, and for the mixed case of one inert and the other one repulsive wall, was performed. Taking into account the well known correspondence between the field theoretical {φ4} O(n)-vector model in the limit n\\to 0 and the behaviour of long-flexible polymer chains in a good solvent, the investigation of a dilute solution of long-flexible ring polymer chains with the excluded volume interaction (EVI) confined in a slit geometry of two parallel repulsive walls was performed in the framework of the massive field theory approach at fixed space dimensions d  =  3 up to one-loop order. For all the above mentioned cases, the correspondent depletion interaction potentials, the depletion forces and the forces which exert the phantom ideal ring polymers and the ring polymers with the EVI on the walls were calculated, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the phantom ideal ring polymer chains and the ring polymer chains with the EVI due to the complexity of chain topology and because of the entropical reason demonstrate completely different behaviour in confined geometries than linear polymer chains. For example, the phantom ideal ring polymers prefer to escape from the space not only between two repulsive walls but also in the case of two inert walls, which leads to the attractive depletion forces. The ring polymer chains with less complex knot types (with the bigger radius of gyration) in a ring topology in the wide slit region exert higher forces on the confining repulsive walls. The depletion force in the case of mixed boundary conditions becomes repulsive in contrast to the case of linear polymer chains.

  11. Hybrid generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states on non-commutative residuated lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen Ming; Yang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states, which are useful for the development of an algebraic theory of probabilistic models for commutative or non-commutative fuzzy logics, have been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a new way arising from generalizing residuated lattice-based filters from commutative case to non-commutative one is applied to introduce new notions of generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states, which are called hybrid ones, on non-commutative residuated lattices is provided, and the relationships between hybrid generalized states and those existing ones are studied, examples show that they are different. In particular, two problems from L.C. Ciungu, G. Georgescu, and C. Mure, "Generalized Bosbach States: Part I" (Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (2013):335-376) are solved, and properties of hybrid generalized states, which are similar to those on commutative residuated lattices, are obtained without the condition "strong".

  12. Persistent rings in and around Jupiter’s anticyclones - Observations and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Wong, Michael H.; Marcus, Philip; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Ádámkovics, Maté; Conrad, Al; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Go, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    particle densities in the tropospheric-stratospheric hazes (2-650 mbar). These are 5-8 times higher above the red ovals than above the white ones at 41°S. The combination of the 5-μm rings and the vertical structure derived from near-IR data suggests anticyclones to extend vertically from (at least) the water cloud (˜5 bar) up to the tropopause (˜100-200 mbar), and in some cases into the stratosphere. Based upon our observations, we propose that air is rising along the center of a vortex, and descending around the outer periphery, producing the 5-μm bright rings. Observationally, we constrain the maximum radius of these rings to be less than twice the local Rossby deformation radius, LR. If the radius of the visible oval (i.e., the clouds that make the oval visible) is >3000 km, our observations suggest that the descending part of the secondary circulation must be within these ovals. For the Red Oval BA, we postulate that the return flow is at the location of its red annulus, which has a radius of ˜3000 km. We develop a theory for the secondary circulation, where air is (baroclinically) rising along the center of a vortex in a subadiabatic atmosphere, and descending at a distance not exceeding ˜2× the local Rossby deformation radius. Using this model, we find a timescale for mixing throughout the vortex of order several months, which suggests that the chromophores that are responsible for the red color of Oval BA's red annulus must be produced locally, at the location of the annulus. This production most likely results from the adiabatic heating in the descending part of the secondary circulation. Such higher-than-ambient temperature causes NH 3-ice to sublime, which will expose the condensation nuclei, such as the red chromophores.

  13. Commuting projections on graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Zikatanov, Ludmil T.

    2013-02-19

    For a given (connected) graph, we consider vector spaces of (discrete) functions defined on its vertices and its edges. These two spaces are related by a discrete gradient operator, Grad and its adjoint, ₋Div, referred to as (negative) discrete divergence. We also consider a coarse graph obtained by aggregation of vertices of the original one. Then a coarse vertex space is identified with the subspace of piecewise constant functions over the aggregates. We consider the ℓ2-projection QH onto the space of these piecewise constants. In the present paper, our main result is the construction of a projection π H from the original edge-space onto a properly constructed coarse edge-space associated with the edges of the coarse graph. The projections π H and QH commute with the discrete divergence operator, i.e., we have div π H = QH div. The respective pair of coarse edge-space and coarse vertexspace offer the potential to construct two-level, and by recursion, multilevel methods for the mixed formulation of the graph Laplacian which utilizes the discrete divergence operator. The performance of one two-level method with overlapping Schwarz smoothing and correction based on the constructed coarse spaces for solving such mixed graph Laplacian systems is illustrated on a number of graph examples.

  14. Commutator-based linearization of N = 1 nonlinear supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Motomu

    2016-11-01

    We consider the linearization of N = 1 nonlinear supersymmetry (NLSUSY) based on a commutator algebra in Volkov-Akulov (VA) NLSUSY theory. We show explicitly that U(1) gauge and scalar supermultiplets in addition to a vector supermultiplet with general auxiliary fields in linear SUSY theories are obtained from a same set of bosonic and fermionic functionals (composites) which are expressed as simple products of the powers of a Nambu-Goldstone fermion and a fundamental determinant in the NLSUSY theory.

  15. A Dream of Yukawa — Non-Local Fields out of Non-Commutative Spacetime —

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Shigefumi; Toyoda, Haruki; Takanashi, Takahiro; Umezawa, Eizo

    The coordinates of κ-Minkowski spacetime form Lie algebraic elements, in which time and space coordinates do not commute in spite of that space coordinates commute each other. The non-commutativity is realized by a Planck-length-scale constant κ - 1( ne 0), which is a universal constant other than the light velocity under the κ-Poincare transformation. Such a non-commutative structure can be realized by SO(1,4) generators in dS4 spacetime. In this work, we try to construct a κ-Minkowski like spacetime with commutative 4-dimensional spacetime based on Adsn+1 spacetime. Another aim of this work is to study invariant wave equations in this spacetime from the viewpoint of non-local field theory by H. Yukawa, who expected to realize elementary particle theories without divergence according to this viewpoint.

  16. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  17. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  18. Vortex rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how core dynamics affects overall ring motion, and laminar vortex structures are described in two dimensions. Viscous and inviscid structures are related in terms of 'leapfrogging', head-on collisions, and collisions with a no-slip wall. Linear instability theory is shown to successfully describe observational data, although late stages in the breakdown are not completely understood. This study of vortex rings has important implications for key aerodynamic issues including sound generation, transport and mixing, and vortex interactions.

  19. Density waves in Saturn's rings probed by radio and optical occultation - Observational tests of theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, Thomas G.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    A parallel examination is conducted of Voyager radio and photopolarimeter occultation observations of the Saturn A ring's density waves. The radio instrument waves exhibit an average -90 deg offset from the dynamical phase. A warping height of about 100-m amplitude can qualtitatively reproduce this phase shift, while preserving the overall model wave shape. These results may be profoundly relevant for satellite-ring torque calculations in Saturn's rings, given the deposition of all of the net torque of the standard model in the first wavelength.

  20. A study of commuter airline economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  1. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the United...

  2. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the United...

  3. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the United...

  4. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  5. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  6. Commuting Patterns of Nonmetro Household Heads, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Data from the Annual Housing Survey indicated that 22% of all employed United States household heads commuted to a county different from that in which they lived in 1975. Commuting was more prevalent among men than among women and slightly higher for whites than for Blacks. Commuting tended to increase until age 25-34 and then to decline after age…

  7. Theories of statistical equilibrium in electron-positron colliding-beam storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    In this lecture I introduce you to some recent theoretical work that represents a significant and long overdue departure from the mainstream of ideas on the physics of colliding- beam storage rings. The goal of the work in question is to understand analytically - without recourse to computer simulation - the role that dissipation and noise play in the observed colliding-beam behavior of electron-positron storage rings.

  8. Marginality of Transfer Commuter Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa

    2002-01-01

    Examines marginality issues facing transfer commuter students attending a mid-Atlantic university and what student characteristics relate to their sense of marginality. Results showed that transfer students have few sources of on-campus support, which may lead to their feelings of marginality. Results were particularly true for woman and Asian…

  9. Shock Waves and Commutation Speed of Memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shao; Tesler, Federico; Marlasca, Fernando Gomez; Levy, Pablo; Dobrosavljević, V.; Rozenberg, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Progress of silicon-based technology is nearing its physical limit, as the minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 10 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next-generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade, and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, this progress has mainly been the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of the essence. In the present work, we report the striking result of a connection between the resistive switching and shock-wave formation, a classic topic of nonlinear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen vacancies that migrate during the commutation forms a shock wave that propagates through a highly resistive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations and experiments in a manganese-oxide-based memristor device, and we extend our theory to the case of binary oxides. The shock-wave scenario brings unprecedented physical insight and enables us to rationalize the process of oxygen-vacancy-driven resistive change with direct implications for a key technological aspect—the commutation speed.

  10. Active commuting and habit strength: an interactive and discriminant analyses approach.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Gardner, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Habits may be a mechanism linking environmental variables with active commuting. This study investigated the role of habit strength in the explanation of active commuting across profiles based on current active commuting, motivation, and habit strength within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Cross-sectional survey using validated questionnaires. Undergraduate students who participated for course credits. Five hundred and thirty-eight students (mean age  =  21.19 [SD  =  2.57]; 28.45% males; response rate  =  86.36%). Questionnaire included TPB items, underlying beliefs, and a validated measure of habit strength. Active commuting was assessed with relevant items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression and interaction analyses, discriminant function analysis, and analyses of variance. Habit strength was the strongest correlate of active commuting and interacted with intention: at low and medium levels of habit strength, the intention-bicycle use relationship was more than twice as strong as at high levels. Beliefs regarding situational barriers were amongst the most discriminating beliefs, whereas beliefs regarding health benefits did not distinguish profiles. Stronger active commuting habits are associated with a lower association between intention and bicycle use. Persuasive health campaigns might more usefully instill a sense of confidence in various commuting situations rather than merely emphasizing health benefits of active commuting.

  11. A perspective on non-commutative quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Rachel A. D.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present some of the concepts underlying a program of non-commutative quantum gravity and recall some of the results. This program includes a novel approach to spectral triple categorification and also a precise connection between Fell bundles and Connes' non-commutative geometry. Motivated by topics in quantization of the non-commutative standard model and introduction of algebraic techniques and concepts into quantum gravity (following for example Crane, Baez and Barrett), we define spectral C*-categories, which are deformed spectral triples in a sense made precise. This definition gives to representations of a C*-category on a small category of Hilbert spaces and bounded linear maps, the interpretation of a topological quantum field theory. The construction passes two mandatory tests: (i) there is a classical limit theorem reproducing a Riemannian spin manifold manifesting Connes' and Schücker's non-commutative counterpart of Einstein's equivalence principle, and (ii) there is consistency with the experimental fermion mass matrix. We also present an algebra invariant taking the form of a partition function arising from a C*-bundle dynamical system in connection with C*-subalgebra theory.

  12. Testing techniques and comparisons between theory and test for vibration modes of ring stiffened truncated-cone shells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Vibration tests were carried out on truncated-cone shells with widely spaced ring stiffeners. The models were excited by an air shaker for LF modes and by small electrodynamic shakers for HF modes. The Novozhilov thin shell theory according to which a ring is an assembly of an arbitrary number of segments, each being a short truncated-cone shell of uniform thickness, is used in the analysis of the results. A mobile, noncontacting, displacement-sensitive sensor system developed by the author was used in the tests. Tests results are given for a free-free 60-deg cone and for a clamped-free 60-deg cone. The tests are characterized as having considerable value for the classification of prevalent multimode responses in shells of this type.

  13. Non-commutativity in polar coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, James P.

    2017-05-01

    We reconsider the fundamental commutation relations for non-commutative R2 described in polar coordinates with non-commutativity parameter θ . Previous analysis found that the natural transition from Cartesian coordinates to the traditional polar system led to a representation of [\\hat{r}, \\hat{φ}] as an everywhere diverging series. In this article we compute the Borel resummation of this series, showing that it can subsequently be extended throughout parameter space and hence provide an interpretation of this commutator. Our analysis provides a complete solution for arbitrary r and θ that reproduces the earlier calculations at lowest order and benefits from being generally applicable to problems in a two-dimensional non-commutative space. We compare our results to previous literature in the (pseudo-)commuting limit, finding a surprising spatial dependence for the coordinate commutator when θ ≫ r2. Finally, we raise some questions for future study in light of this progress.

  14. Instabilities Driven by a Pickup Ion Velocity Ring in the Heliosphere: Linear Theory and PIC Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Min, K.; Gary, S. P.; Wang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Linear dispersion analyses and two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations are performed to study the kinetic plasma instabilities driven by a proton velocity ring with parameters (e.g., ring speed 10vA where vA is the Alfvén speed) relevant to the pickup ions in the distant solar wind. The results show that, besides the commonly expected Alfvén cyclotron instability with maximum growth at parallel propagation, mirror mode and ion Bernstein modes at oblique propagations are also unstable. While the enhanced waves from the Alfvén cyclotron instability mainly lead to pitch angle scattering of the ring protons, the other modes scatter the protons differently. The results also have implications for the pickup ions in the outer heliosheath.

  15. Commuting flows and conservation laws for noncommutative Lax hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamanaka, Masashi

    2005-05-01

    We discuss commuting flows and conservation laws for Lax hierarchies on noncommutative spaces in the framework of the Sato theory. On commutative spaces, the Sato theory has revealed essential aspects of the integrability for wide class of soliton equations which are derived from the Lax hierarchies in terms of pseudodifferential operators. Noncommutative extension of the Sato theory has been already studied by the author and Toda, and the existence of various noncommutative Lax hierarchies are guaranteed. In this paper, we present conservation laws for the noncommutative Lax hierarchies with both space-space and space-time noncommutativities and prove the existence of infinite number of conserved densities. We also give the explicit representations of them in terms of Lax operators. Our results include noncommutative versions of KP, KdV, Boussinesq, coupled KdV, Sawada-Kotera, modified KdV equation and so on.

  16. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-02-07

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.

  17. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E.

    2016-02-07

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.

  18. Particle Physics from Almost-Commutative Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Dungen, Koen; van Suijlekom, Walter D.

    2012-10-01

    Our aim in this review paper is to present the applications of Connes' noncommutative geometry to elementary particle physics. Whereas the existing literature is mostly focused on a mathematical audience, in this paper we introduce the ideas and concepts from noncommutative geometry using physicists' terminology, gearing towards the predictions that can be derived from the noncommutative description. Focusing on a light package of noncommutative geometry (so-called "almost-commutative manifolds"), we shall introduce in steps: electrodynamics, the electroweak model, culminating in the full Standard Model. We hope that our approach helps in understanding the role noncommutative geometry could play in describing particle physics models, eventually unifying them with Einstein's (geometrical) theory of gravity.

  19. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats.

  20. Exact-exchange spin-density functional theory of Wigner localization and phase transitions in quantum rings.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Thorsten; Siegmund, Marc; Pankratov, Oleg

    2011-08-24

    We apply exact-exchange spin-density functional theory in the Krieger-Li-Iafrate approximation to interacting electrons in quantum rings of different widths. The rings are threaded by a magnetic flux that induces a persistent current. A weak space and spin symmetry breaking potential is introduced to allow for localized solutions. As the electron-electron interaction strength described by the dimensionless parameter r(S) is increased, we observe-at a fixed spin magnetic moment-the subsequent transition of both spin sub-systems from the Fermi liquid to the Wigner crystal state. A dramatic signature of Wigner crystallization is that the persistent current drops sharply with increasing r(S). We observe simultaneously the emergence of pronounced oscillations in the spin-resolved densities and in the electron localization functions indicating a spatial electron localization showing ferrimagnetic order after both spin sub-systems have undergone the Wigner crystallization. The critical r(S)(c) at the transition point is substantially smaller than in a fully spin-polarized system and decreases further with decreasing ring width. Relaxing the constraint of a fixed spin magnetic moment, we find that on increasing r(S) the stable phase changes from an unpolarized Fermi liquid to an antiferromagnetic Wigner crystal and finally to a fully polarized Fermi liquid.

  1. Ring-polymer instanton theory of electron transfer in the nonadiabatic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jeremy O.

    2015-10-01

    We take the golden-rule instanton method derived in the previous paper [J. O. Richardson, R. Bauer, and M. Thoss, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 134115 (2015)] and reformulate it using a ring-polymer instanton approach. This gives equations which can be used to compute the rates of electron-transfer reactions in the nonadiabatic (golden-rule) limit numerically within a semiclassical approximation. The multidimensional ring-polymer instanton trajectories are obtained efficiently by minimization of the action. In this form, comparison with Wolynes' quantum instanton method [P. G. Wolynes, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6559 (1987)] is possible and we show that our semiclassical approach is the steepest-descent limit of this method. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of both methods and give examples of where the new approach is more accurate.

  2. Direct simulation of electron transfer using ring polymer molecular dynamics: comparison with semiclassical instanton theory and exact quantum methods.

    PubMed

    Menzeleev, Artur R; Ananth, Nandini; Miller, Thomas F

    2011-08-21

    The use of ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) for the direct simulation of electron transfer (ET) reaction dynamics is analyzed in the context of Marcus theory, semiclassical instanton theory, and exact quantum dynamics approaches. For both fully atomistic and system-bath representations of condensed-phase ET, we demonstrate that RPMD accurately predicts both ET reaction rates and mechanisms throughout the normal and activationless regimes of the thermodynamic driving force. Analysis of the ensemble of reactive RPMD trajectories reveals the solvent reorganization mechanism for ET that is anticipated in the Marcus rate theory, and the accuracy of the RPMD rate calculation is understood in terms of its exact description of statistical fluctuations and its formal connection to semiclassical instanton theory for deep-tunneling processes. In the inverted regime of the thermodynamic driving force, neither RPMD nor a related formulation of semiclassical instanton theory capture the characteristic turnover in the reaction rate; comparison with exact quantum dynamics simulations reveals that these methods provide inadequate quantization of the real-time electronic-state dynamics in the inverted regime.

  3. Complete spectrum of the infinite-U Hubbard ring using group theory

    SciTech Connect

    Soncini, Alessandro Van den Heuvel, Willem

    2014-05-14

    We present a full analytical solution of the multiconfigurational strongly correlated mixed-valence problem corresponding to the N-Hubbard ring filled with N−1 electrons, and infinite on-site repulsion. While the eigenvalues and the eigenstates of the model are known already, analytical determination of their degeneracy is presented here for the first time. The full solution, including degeneracy count, is achieved for each spin configuration by mapping the Hubbard model into a set of Hückel-annulene problems for rings of variable size. The number and size of these effective Hückel annulenes, both crucial to obtain Hubbard states and their degeneracy, are determined by solving a well-known combinatorial enumeration problem, the necklace problem for N−1 beads and two colors, within each subgroup of the C{sub N−1} permutation group. Symmetry-adapted solution of the necklace enumeration problem is finally achieved by means of the subduction of coset representation technique [S. Fujita, Theor. Chim. Acta 76, 247 (1989)], which provides a general and elegant strategy to solve the one-hole infinite-U Hubbard problem, including degeneracy count, for any ring size. The proposed group theoretical strategy to solve the infinite-U Hubbard problem for N−1 electrons is easily generalized to the case of arbitrary electron count L, by analyzing the permutation group C{sub L} and all its subgroups.

  4. Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Lars E; Gärling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Fujii, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to overall happiness. It is also found that feelings during the commutes are predominantly positive or neutral. Possible explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom. Satisfaction with being employed in a recession may also spill over to positive experiences of work commutes. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0003-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. Explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles theory: Including exchange for computations on closed-shell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Holzer, Christof; Klopper, Wim

    2016-11-01

    Random-phase-approximation (RPA) methods have proven to be powerful tools in electronic-structure theory, being non-empirical, computationally efficient and broadly applicable to a variety of molecular systems including small-gap systems, transition-metal compounds and dispersion-dominated complexes. Applications are however hindered due to the slow basis-set convergence of the electron-correlation energy with the one-electron basis. As a remedy, we present approximate explicitly-correlated RPA approaches based on the ring-coupled-cluster-doubles formulation including exchange contributions. Test calculations demonstrate that the basis-set convergence of correlation energies is drastically accelerated through the explicitly-correlated approach, reaching 99% of the basis-set limit with triple-zeta basis sets. When implemented in close analogy to early work by Szabo and Ostlund [36], the new explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles approach including exchange has the perspective to become a valuable tool in the framework of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) for the computation of dispersion energies of molecular complexes of weakly interacting closed-shell systems.

  6. Experimental realization of programmable quantum gate array for directly probing commutation relations of Pauli operators.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Can; Fiurásek, Jaromír; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-09-17

    We experimentally demonstrate an advanced linear-optical programmable quantum processor that combines two elementary single-qubit programmable quantum gates. We show that this scheme enables direct experimental probing of quantum commutation relations for Pauli operators acting on polarization states of single photons. Depending on a state of two-qubit program register, we can probe either commutation or anticommutation relations. Very good agreement between theory and experiment is observed, indicating high-quality performance of the implemented quantum processor.

  7. New QCD sum rules based on canonical commutation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayata, Tomoya

    2012-04-01

    New derivation of QCD sum rules by canonical commutators is developed. It is the simple and straightforward generalization of Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule on the basis of Kugo-Ojima operator formalism of a non-abelian gauge theory and a suitable subtraction of UV divergences. By applying the method to the vector and axial vector current in QCD, the exact Weinberg’s sum rules are examined. Vector current sum rules and new fractional power sum rules are also discussed.

  8. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  9. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  10. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  11. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  12. Rotating ring-disk electrode with dual dynamic potential control: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Vesztergom, Soma; Barankai, Norbert; Kovács, Noémi; Ujvári, Mária; Wandlowski, Thomas; Láng, Győző G

    2014-01-01

    Using the LabVIEW™ graphical programming language designed by National Instruments®, a digital simulation model has been developed in order to describe electrochemical processes occurring at rotating ring-disk electrodes. The model allows for taking into consideration independent potential control of the two working electrodes, homogeneous electrode reactions, as well as spatial inhomogeneities of the working electrode surfaces. The main programming concepts, as well as the operation of the simulation software is presented. Several test simulations have been carried out in order to evaluate the accuracy of the calculations.

  13. Reprint of : Semiclassical theory of persistent current fluctuations in ballistic chaotic rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Piet W.; Danon, Jeroen

    2016-08-01

    The persistent current in a mesoscopic ring has a Gaussian distribution with small non-Gaussian corrections. Here we report a semiclassical calculation of the leading non-Gaussian correction, which is described by the three-point correlation function. The semiclassical approach is applicable to systems in which the electron dynamics is ballistic and chaotic, and includes the dependence on the Ehrenfest time. At small but finite Ehrenfest times, the non-Gaussian fluctuations are enhanced with respect to the limit of zero Ehrenfest time.

  14. Proton velocity ring-driven instabilities in the inner magnetosphere: Linear theory and particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Linear dispersion theory and electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used to investigate linear growth and nonlinear saturation of the proton velocity ring-driven instabilities, namely, ion Bernstein instability and Alfvén-cyclotron instability, which lead to fast magnetosonic waves and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere, respectively. The proton velocity distribution is assumed to consist of 10% of a ring distribution and 90% of a low-temperature Maxwellian background. Here two cases with ring speeds vr/vA=1 and 2 (vA is the Alfvén speed) are examined in detail. For the two cases, linear theory predicts that the maximum growth rate γm of the Bernstein instability is 0.16Ωp and 0.19Ωp, respectively, and γm of the Alfvén-cyclotron instability is 0.045Ωp and 0.15Ωp, respectively, where Ωp is the proton cyclotron frequency. Two-dimensional PIC simulations are carried out for the two cases to examine the instability development and the corresponding evolution of the particle distributions. Initially, Bernstein waves develop and saturate with strong electrostatic fluctuations. Subsequently, electromagnetic Alfvén-cyclotron waves grow and saturate. Despite their smaller growth rate, the saturation levels of the Alfvén-cyclotron waves for both cases are larger than those of the Bernstein waves. Resonant interactions with the Bernstein waves lead to scattering of ring protons predominantly along the perpendicular velocity component (toward both decreasing and, at a lesser extent, increasing speeds) without substantial change of either the parallel temperature or the temperature anisotropy. Consequently, the Alfvén-cyclotron instability can still grow. Furthermore, the free energy resulting from the pitch angle scattering by the Alfvén-cyclotron waves is larger than the free energy resulting from the perpendicular energy scattering, thereby leading to the larger saturation level of the Alfvén-cyclotron waves.

  15. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  16. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  17. Theory of severe slowdown in the relaxation of rings and clusters with antiferromagnetic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Läuchli, Andreas; Borsa, Ferdinando; Luban, Marshall

    2009-02-01

    We show that in the severe slowing-down temperature regime the relaxation of antiferromagnetic rings and similar magnetic nanoclusters is governed by the quasicontinuum portion of their quadrupolar fluctuation spectrum and not by the lowest excitation lines. This is at the heart of the intriguing near-universal power-law temperature dependence of the electronic correlation frequency ωc with an exponent close to 4. The onset of this behavior is defined by an energy scale which is fixed by the lowest spin gap Δ0 . This explains why the experimental curves of ωc for different cluster sizes and spins nearly coincide when T is rescaled by Δ0 .

  18. Theory of a modified Wadsworth monochromator matched to a low energy storage ring source

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The concave diffraction grating in the Wadsworth mounting has been popular with synchrotron radiation spectroscopists because of its use of parallel light. This is well matched to experimental stations which are a great distance away from the source as would be the case in using a high energy synchrotron. For low energy storage rings the working distance is quite small and in this case it is appropriate to use a collimating mirror. Large collection angles are possible with this arrangement and reasonable resolution can be obtained using spherical surfaces. Astigmatism is much lower than for Rowland circle mountings. These questions are analyzed using an optical path function development and calculations are presented which include the aberrations both in the two optics and those caused by the large extension of the source in the direction of the radiation emission.

  19. Toronto bicycle commuter safety rates.

    PubMed

    Aultman-Hall, L; Kaltenecker, M G

    1999-11-01

    This analysis uses data from a survey of Toronto commuter cyclists that collected information regarding accident history as well as regular commute route to work or school. By relating the route information of the 1196 respondents to facility attributes in a Geographic Information System (GIS), defensible estimates of travel exposure on roads, off-road paths and sidewalks were developed. The rate of collision on off-road paths and sidewalks was lower than for roads. The relative rates for falls and injuries suggest these events are least common on-road followed by off-road paths, and finally most common on sidewalks. The rate of major injuries, an injury that required medical attention, was greatest on sidewalks and the difference between paths and sidewalks was negligible. These rates suggest a need for detailed analysis of sidewalk and off-road path bicycle safety. The absolute event rates per bicycle kilometer were found to be between 26 and 68 times higher than similar rates for automobile travel, re-confirming the urgent bicycle safety crisis. Examination of rates for sub-groups of cyclists suggest that experience is an important factor in bicycle safety. The same survey conducted in Ottawa, Canada found event rates much lower than Toronto. This result may confirm urban form, traffic levels and attitude do affect bicycle safety. The analysis also demonstrates a successful method to quantify bicycle travel exposure information and should be considered for further use as complement to other existing techniques.

  20. Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Lars E.; Garling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Fujii, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to…

  1. Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Lars E.; Garling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Fujii, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to…

  2. On non-commutative geodesic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulhoa, S. C.; Amorim, R. G. G.; Santos, A. F.

    2014-07-01

    In this work we study the geodesic motion on a noncommutative space-time. As a result we find a non-commutative geodesic equation and then we derive corrections of the deviation angle per revolution in terms of the non-commutative parameter when we specify the problem of Mercury's perihelion. In this way, we estimate the noncommutative parameter based in experimental data.

  3. The dynamics of particle disks. III - Dense and spinning particle disks. [development of kinetic theory for planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araki, Suguru

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic theory of planetary rings developed by Araki and Tremaine (1986) and Araki (1988) is extended and refined, with a focus on the implications of finite particle size: (1) nonlocal collisions and (2) finite filling factors. Consideration is given to the derivation of the equations for the local steady state, the low-optical-depth limit, and the steady state at finite filling factors (including the effects of collision inelasticity, spin degrees of freedom, and self-gravity). Numerical results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. The importance of distinguishing effects (1) and (2) at low optical depths is stressed, and the existence of vertical density profiles with layered structures at high filling factors is demonstrated.

  4. The dynamics of particle disks. III - Dense and spinning particle disks. [development of kinetic theory for planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araki, Suguru

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic theory of planetary rings developed by Araki and Tremaine (1986) and Araki (1988) is extended and refined, with a focus on the implications of finite particle size: (1) nonlocal collisions and (2) finite filling factors. Consideration is given to the derivation of the equations for the local steady state, the low-optical-depth limit, and the steady state at finite filling factors (including the effects of collision inelasticity, spin degrees of freedom, and self-gravity). Numerical results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. The importance of distinguishing effects (1) and (2) at low optical depths is stressed, and the existence of vertical density profiles with layered structures at high filling factors is demonstrated.

  5. Electronic and Redox Properties of Stacked-Ring Silicon Phthalocyanines from Molecular Orbital Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-19

    a molecular orbital approximation to the electron delocalization energy.1 8 The ASED theory is derived from the Hellmann- Feynman formula for...34 . . 4.•" " ., .7% . r .- - - . , .-. - . . _ .-.- :.- .- . v ._ . _ . " - . ’ " _ _ 12. Wheeler , B. L.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Bard, A. J

  6. Adsorption and ring-opening of lactide on the chiral metal surface Pt(321){sup S} studied by density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, J.-H.; Kosov, D. S.

    2015-01-28

    We study the adsorption and ring-opening of lactide on the naturally chiral metal surface Pt(321){sup S}. Lactide is a precursor for polylactic acid ring-opening polymerization, and Pt is a well known catalyst surface. We study, here, the energetics of the ring-opening of lactide on a surface that has a high density of kink atoms. These sites are expected to be present on a realistic Pt surface and show enhanced catalytic activity. The use of a naturally chiral surface also enables us to study potential chiral selectivity effects of the reaction at the same time. Using density functional theory with a functional that includes the van der Waals forces in a first-principles manner, we find modest adsorption energies of around 1.4 eV for the pristine molecule and different ring-opened states. The energy barrier to be overcome in the ring-opening reaction is found to be very small at 0.32 eV and 0.30 eV for LL- and its chiral partner DD-lactide, respectively. These energies are much smaller than the activation energy for a dehydrogenation reaction of 0.78 eV. Our results thus indicate that (a) ring-opening reactions of lactide on Pt(321) can be expected already at very low temperatures, and Pt might be a very effective catalyst for this reaction; (b) the ring-opening reaction rate shows noticeable enantioselectivity.

  7. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with urban children's active commuting to school

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been proposed as a method to increase physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. The objective of this st...

  8. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with children's active commuting to school

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been associated with higher levels of physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. To examine the relations...

  9. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  10. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  11. Rings Around Uranus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1977-01-01

    Events leading up to the discovery of the rings of Uranus are described. The methods used and the logic behind the methods are explained. Data collected to prove the existence of the rings are outlined and theories concerning the presence of planetary rings are presented. (AJ)

  12. Rings Around Uranus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1977-01-01

    Events leading up to the discovery of the rings of Uranus are described. The methods used and the logic behind the methods are explained. Data collected to prove the existence of the rings are outlined and theories concerning the presence of planetary rings are presented. (AJ)

  13. Soft normed rings.

    PubMed

    Uluçay, Vakkas; Şahin, Mehmet; Olgun, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft normed rings by soft set theory. The notions of soft normed rings, soft normed ideals, soft complete normed rings are introduced and also several related properties and examples are given.

  14. Persistent current and Drude weight of one-dimensional interacting fermions on imperfect ring from current lattice density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akande, Akinlolu; Sanvito, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    We perform a numerical study of interacting one-dimensional Hubbard rings with a single impurity potential and pierced by a magnetic flux. Our calculations are carried out at the level of current lattice density functional theory (CLDFT) for the Hubbard model and compared to known results obtained in the thermodynamical limit from the Bethe ansatz. In particular, we investigate the effects of disorder and Coulomb interaction on the persistent current (PC) and the Drude weight. It is found that CLDFT is able to accurately describe qualitative and quantitative features of these ground state properties in the presence of disorder and electronic interaction. When the impurity potential is switched off, the CLDFT approach describes well the velocity of the Luttinger liquid excitations as a function of both interaction strength and electron filling. Then, when the impurity scattering potential is finite, we find the PC to vanish as {{L}-{{α\\text{B}}-1}} for large L and independent on the strength of the scattering potential, in good agreement with Luttinger liquid theory.

  15. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school.

  16. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  17. Modelling the relation between income and commuting distance.

    PubMed

    Carra, Giulia; Mulalic, Ismir; Fosgerau, Mogens; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the distribution of commuting distances and its relation to income. Using data from Denmark, the UK and the USA, we show that the commuting distance is (i) broadly distributed with a slow decaying tail that can be fitted by a power law with exponent γ ≈ 3 and (ii) an average growing slowly as a power law with an exponent less than one that depends on the country considered. The classical theory for job search is based on the idea that workers evaluate the wage of potential jobs as they arrive sequentially through time, and extending this model with space, we obtain predictions that are strongly contradicted by our empirical findings. We propose an alternative model that is based on the idea that workers evaluate potential jobs based on a quality aspect and that workers search for jobs sequentially across space. We also assume that the density of potential jobs depends on the skills of the worker and decreases with the wage. The predicted distribution of commuting distances decays as 1/r(3) and is independent of the distribution of the quality of jobs. We find our alternative model to be in agreement with our data. This type of approach opens new perspectives for the modelling of mobility.

  18. Computer simulation and high level virial theory of Saturn-ring or UFO colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Martin A.; Dennison, Matthew; Masters, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to map out the complete phase diagram of hard body UFO systems, in which the particles are composed of a concentric sphere and thin disk. The equation of state and phase behavior are determined for a range of relative sizes of the sphere and disk. We show that for relatively large disks, nematic and solid phases are observed in addition to the isotropic fluid. For small disks, two different solid phases exist. For intermediate sizes, only a disordered fluid phase is observed. The positional and orientational structure of the various phases are examined. We also compare the equations of state and the nematic-isotropic coexistence densities with those predicted by an extended Onsager theory using virial coefficients up to B8.

  19. Computer simulation and high level virial theory of Saturn-ring or UFO colloids.

    PubMed

    Bates, Martin A; Dennison, Matthew; Masters, Andrew

    2008-08-21

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to map out the complete phase diagram of hard body UFO systems, in which the particles are composed of a concentric sphere and thin disk. The equation of state and phase behavior are determined for a range of relative sizes of the sphere and disk. We show that for relatively large disks, nematic and solid phases are observed in addition to the isotropic fluid. For small disks, two different solid phases exist. For intermediate sizes, only a disordered fluid phase is observed. The positional and orientational structure of the various phases are examined. We also compare the equations of state and the nematic-isotropic coexistence densities with those predicted by an extended Onsager theory using virial coefficients up to B(8).

  20. How well do cognitive and environmental variables predict active commuting?

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Mélanie; Godin, Gaston

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been growing interest in theoretical studies integrating cognitions and environmental variables in the prediction of behaviour related to the obesity epidemic. This is the approach adopted in the present study in reference to the theory of planned behaviour. More precisely, the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of cognitive and environmental variables in the prediction of active commuting to get to and from work or school. Methods A prospective study was carried out with 130 undergraduate and graduate students (93 females; 37 males). Environmental, cognitive and socio-demographic variables were evaluated at baseline by questionnaire. Two weeks later, active commuting (walking/bicycling) to get to and from work or school was self-reported by questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict intention and behaviour. Results The model predicting behaviour based on cognitive variables explained more variance than the model based on environmental variables (37.4% versus 26.8%; Z = 3.86, p < 0.001). Combining cognitive and environmental variables with socio-demographic variables to predict behaviour yielded a final model explaining 41.1% (p < 0.001) of the variance. The significant determinants were intention, habit and age. Concerning intention, the same procedure yielded a final model explaining 78.2% (p < 0.001) of the variance, with perceived behavioural control, attitude and habit being the significant determinants. Conclusion The results showed that cognitive variables play a more important role than environmental variables in predicting and explaining active commuting. When environmental variables were significant, they were mediated by cognitive variables. Therefore, individual cognitions should remain one of the main focuses of interventions promoting active commuting among undergraduate and graduate students. PMID:19267911

  1. On the linearization of nonlinear supersymmetry based on the commutator algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Motomu

    2017-01-01

    We discuss a linearization procedure of nonlinear supersymmetry (NLSUSY) based on the closure of the commutator algebra for variations of functionals of Nambu-Goldstone fermions and their derivative terms under NLSUSY transformations in Volkov-Akulov NLSUSY theory. In the case of a set of bosonic and fermionic functionals, which leads to (massless) vector linear supermultiplets, we explicitly show that general linear SUSY transformations of basic components defined from those functionals are uniquely determined by examining the commutation relation in the NLSUSY theory.

  2. Planning for rotorcraft and commuter air transportationn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, W. L.; Stowers, J.

    1981-01-01

    Community planning needs, criteria, and other considerations such as intermodal coordination and regulatory requirements, for rotorcraft and fixed wing commuter air transportation were identified. A broad range of community planning guidelines, issues, and information which can be used to: (1) direct anticipated aircraft technological improvements; (2) assist planners in identifying and evaluating the opportunities and tradeoffs presented by rotorcraft and commuter aircraft options relative to other modes; and (3) increase communication between aircraft technologists and planners for the purpose of on going support in capitalizing on rotorcraft and commuter air opportunities are provided. The primary tool for identifying and analyzing planning requirements was a detailed questionnaire administered to a selected sample of 55 community planners and other involved in planning for helicopters and commuter aviation.

  3. Can advanced technology improve future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Snow, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The short-haul service abandoned by the trunk and local airlines is being picked up by the commuter airlines using small turboprop-powered aircraft. Most of the existing small transport aircraft currently available represent a relatively old technology level. However, several manufacturers have initiated the development of new or improved commuter transport aircraft. These aircraft are relatively conservative in terms of technology. An examination is conducted of advanced technology to identify those technologies that, if developed, would provide the largest improvements for future generations of these aircraft. Attention is given to commuter aircraft operating cost, aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion, aircraft systems, and technology integration. It is found that advanced technology can improve future commuter aircraft and that the largest of these improvements will come from the synergistic combination of technological advances in all of the aircraft disciplines. The most important goals are related to improved fuel efficiency and increased aircraft productivity.

  4. Opportunities and benefits. [commuter air travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    The service characteristics and changes affecting commuter airline operations are summarized. Community and passenger considerations are addressed and the benefits identified in NASA-sponsored aircraft studies are discussed.

  5. Corporate/commuter airlines meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The meteorological information requirements of corporate and commuter airlines are reviewed. The skill level and needs of this class of aviator were assessed. An overview of the methodology by which meteorological data is communicated to these users is presented.

  6. On nth commutativity degree of some 3-Engel groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, Zainab; Mohd Ali, Nor Muhainiah; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Sabani, Muhammad Syafiq; Zakaria, Mardhiah

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on some 3-Engel groups. Suppose x and y are elements of a group G. The commutativity degree of a group is the probability that two elements in the group commute and is denoted by P(G). Meanwhile, the nth commutativity degree of a group G is the probability that for any pairs of x and y in G, xn and y commute. In this paper, the nth commutativity degree of some 3-Engel groups is determined.

  7. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  8. Effect of Siloxane Ring Strain and Cation Charge Density on the Formation of Coordinately Unsaturated Metal Sites on Silica: Insights from Density Functional Theory (DFT) Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Ujjal; Zhang, Guanghui; Hu, Bo; ...

    2015-10-28

    Amorphous silica (SiO2) is commonly used as a support in heterogeneous catalysis. However, due to the structural disorder and temperature induced change of surface morphology, the structures of silica supported metal catalysts are difficult to determine. Most studies are primarily focused on understanding the interactions of different types of surface hydroxyl groups with metal ions. In comparison, the effect of siloxane ring size on the structure of silica supported metal catalysts and how it affects catalytic activity is poorly understood. Here, we have used density functional theory calculations to understand the effect of siloxane ring strain on structure and activitymore » of different monomeric Lewis acid metal sites on silica. In particular, we have found that large siloxane rings favor strong dative bonding interaction between metal ion and surface hydroxyls, leading to the formation of high-coordinate metal sites. In comparison, metal-silanol interaction is weak in small siloxane rings, resulting in low-coordinate metal sites. The physical origin of this size dependence is associated with siloxane ring strain, and, a correlation between metal-silanol interaction energy and ring strain energy has been observed. In addition to ring strain, the strength of the metal-silanol interaction also depends on the positive charge density of the cations. In fact, a correlation also exists between metal-silanol interaction energy and charge density of several first-row transition and post-transition metals. The theoretical results are compared with the EXAFS data of monomeric Zn(II) and Ga(III) ions grafted on silica. In conclusion, the molecular level insights of how metal ion coordination on silica depends on siloxane ring strain and cation charge density will be useful in the synthesis of new catalysts.« less

  9. Effect of Siloxane Ring Strain and Cation Charge Density on the Formation of Coordinately Unsaturated Metal Sites on Silica: Insights from Density Functional Theory (DFT) Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ujjal; Zhang, Guanghui; Hu, Bo; Hock, Adam S.; Redfern, Paul C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2015-10-28

    Amorphous silica (SiO2) is commonly used as a support in heterogeneous catalysis. However, due to the structural disorder and temperature induced change of surface morphology, the structures of silica supported metal catalysts are difficult to determine. Most studies are primarily focused on understanding the interactions of different types of surface hydroxyl groups with metal ions. In comparison, the effect of siloxane ring size on the structure of silica supported metal catalysts and how it affects catalytic activity is poorly understood. Here, we have used density functional theory calculations to understand the effect of siloxane ring strain on structure and activity of different monomeric Lewis acid metal sites on silica. In particular, we have found that large siloxane rings favor strong dative bonding interaction between metal ion and surface hydroxyls, leading to the formation of high-coordinate metal sites. In comparison, metal-silanol interaction is weak in small siloxane rings, resulting in low-coordinate metal sites. The physical origin of this size dependence is associated with siloxane ring strain, and, a correlation between metal-silanol interaction energy and ring strain energy has been observed. In addition to ring strain, the strength of the metal-silanol interaction also depends on the positive charge density of the cations. In fact, a correlation also exists between metal-silanol interaction energy and charge density of several first-row transition and post-transition metals. The theoretical results are compared with the EXAFS data of monomeric Zn(II) and Ga(III) ions grafted on silica. In conclusion, the molecular level insights of how metal ion coordination on silica depends on siloxane ring strain and cation charge density will be useful in the synthesis of new catalysts.

  10. Commutativity-Based Concurrency Control for Abstract Data Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    34...oS.(SI($)). 13 and is -± otherwise. Thus, P(Q(s)) is s if ies, and is -L otherwise, while Q(P(s)) = sv(i). Hence Pand Qdo not commute backward. In...References [1] Allchin, J. E. An architecture for reliable decentralized systems. PhD thesis , Georgia Institute of Technology, September, 1983...International Conference on Database Theory. [181 Moss, J.E.B. Nested transactions: an approach to reliable distributed compulng. PhD thesis , Massachusetts

  11. A geometrical characterization of commutative positive operator valued measures

    SciTech Connect

    Beneduci, Roberto

    2006-06-15

    We show that a POV measure F on the Borel {sigma}-algebra of the reals B(R) is commutative if and only if there exists a PV measure E on B(R) and, for every {lambda} in the spectrum of E, a probability measure {gamma}{sub ({center_dot})}({lambda}) on B(R) such that the effect F({delta}) coincides with {gamma}{sub {delta}}(A), where A is the self-adjoint operator associated to E. The relevance of this result to the theory of the sharp reconstruction is analyzed.

  12. Derivation of a true (t → 0+) quantum transition-state theory. I. Uniqueness and equivalence to ring-polymer molecular dynamics transition-state-theory.

    PubMed

    Hele, Timothy J H; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2013-02-28

    Surprisingly, there exists a quantum flux-side time-correlation function which has a non-zero t → 0+ limit and thus yields a rigorous quantum generalization of classical transition-state theory (TST). In this Part I of two articles, we introduce the new time-correlation function and derive its t → 0+ limit. The new ingredient is a generalized Kubo transform which allows the flux and side dividing surfaces to be the same function of path-integral space. Choosing this function to be a single point gives a t → 0+ limit which is identical to an expression introduced on heuristic grounds by Wigner in 1932; however, this expression does not give positive-definite quantum statistics, causing it to fail while still in the shallow-tunnelling regime. Positive-definite quantum statistics is obtained only if the dividing surface is invariant to imaginary-time translation, in which case the t → 0+ limit is identical to ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) TST. The RPMD-TST rate is not a strict upper bound to the exact quantum rate, but is a good approximation to one if real-time coherence effects are small. Part II will show that the RPMD-TST rate is equal to the exact quantum rate in the absence of recrossing.

  13. Commuters and Parking at UNC-G. Preliminary Findings from the Commuting Student Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Donald J.; McArver, Patricia P.

    Data gleaned from items relating to transportation and parking from the Commuting Student Survey are reported. The survey questionnaire was designed to provide an overview of several aspects of the commuting student's relationship with the university and was sent to a stratified random sample of 2,140 students who were enrolled for the spring 1975…

  14. Persistence in Higher Education through Student-Faculty Interactions in the Classroom of a Commuter Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    Student-faculty interactions are a component of social integration, a key concept in Tinto's theory of student persistence which has received empirical support. However, the influence of social integration for commuting students has been questioned. Furthermore, student-faculty interactions in the classroom are under-researched and arguably…

  15. Underlying mechanisms for commuting and migration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simini, Filippo; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Bagrow, James

    2012-02-01

    Both frequent commuting and long-term migration are complex human processes that strongly depend on socio-demographic, spatial, political, and even economic factors. We can describe both processes using weighted networks, in which nodes represent geographic locations and link weights denote the flux of individuals who commute (or migrate) between locations. Although both processes concern the movements of individuals, they are very different: commuting takes place on a daily (or weekly) basis and always between the same two locations, while migration is a rare, one-way displacement. Despite these differences, a recently proposed stochastic model, the Radiation model, provides evidence that both processes may be successfully described by the same underlying mechanism. For example, quantities of interest for either process, such as the distributions of trip length and destination populations, appear remarkably similar to the model's predictions. We explore the similarities and differences between commuting and migration both empirically, using census data for the United States, and theoretically, by comparing these commuting and migration networks to the predictions given by the Radiation model.

  16. Commuting Distance, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Allen, Peg; Schootman, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists on themetabolic and cardiovascul ar risk correlates of commuting by vehicle, a habitual form of sedentary behavior. Purpose To examine the association between commuting distance, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk indicators. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4297 adults who had a comprehensive medical examination between 2000 and 2007 and geocoded home and work addresses in 12 Texas metropolitan counties. Commuting distance was measured along the road network. Outcome variables included weekly MET-minutes of self-reported physical activity, CRF, BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and continuously measured metabolic syndrome. Outcomes were also dichotomized using established cut-points. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, and history of high cholesterol, as well as BMI and weekly MET-minutes of physical activity and CRF (for BMI and metabolic risk models). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results Commuting distance was negatively associated with physical activity and CRF and positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and continuous metabolic score in fully adjusted linear regression models. Logistic regression analyses yielded similar associations; however, of the models with metabolic risk indicators as outcomes, only the associations with elevated blood pressure remained significant after adjustment for physical activity and CRF. Conclusions Commuting distance was adversely associated with physical activity, CRF, adiposity, and indicators of metabolic risk. PMID:22608372

  17. Relativistic spectrum of hydrogen atom in the space-time non-commutativity

    SciTech Connect

    Moumni, Mustafa; BenSlama, Achour; Zaim, Slimane

    2012-06-27

    We study space-time non-commutativity applied to the hydrogen atom and its phenomenological effects. We find that it modifies the Coulomb potential in the Hamiltonian and add an r{sup -3} part. By calculating the energies from Dirac equation using perturbation theory, we study the modifications to the hydrogen spectrum. We find that it removes the degeneracy with respect to the total angular momentum quantum number and acts like a Lamb shift. Comparing the results with experimental values from spectroscopy, we get a new bound for the space-time non-commutative parameter.

  18. Radiative corrections to the non commutative photon propagator at one-loop order

    SciTech Connect

    Boutalbi, E.; Kouadik, S.

    2012-06-27

    We study the non-commutative gauge theory on the Moyal space. We add the harmonic potential introduced by Grosse and Wulkenhaar to the Maxwell Lagrange as well as the Gauge fixation. We determine the non-commutative U{sub *}(1) Gauge action which is invariant under the BRST transformations in the matrix basis. We determine in this basis the quadratic parts and the vertex of the Gauge field A{sub {mu}} and of the Faddeev-Popov ghost fields c(bar sign)andc. Finally, we study the perturbative correction to one loop order of the one point function in the matrix basis.

  19. Ballistic transport in planetary ring systems due to particle erosion mechanisms. I - Theory, numerical methods, and illustrative examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, Richard H.; Murphy, Brian W.; Cramer, Nichael Lynn; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Mullikin, Thomas L.

    1989-01-01

    Ballistic transport, defined as the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum due to exchanges of meteoroid hypersonic-impact ejecta by neighboring planetary ring regions on time-scales orders-of-magnitude shorter than the age of the solar system, is presently considered as a problem in mathematical physics. The preliminary results of a numerical scheme for following the combined effects of ballistic transport and viscous diffusion demonstrate that ballistic transport generates structure near sharp edges already present in the ring-mass distribution; the entire ring system ultimately develops an undulatory structure whose length scale is typically of the order of the radial excursion of the impact ejecta.

  20. Ballistic transport in planetary ring systems due to particle erosion mechanisms. I - Theory, numerical methods, and illustrative examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, Richard H.; Murphy, Brian W.; Cramer, Nichael Lynn; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Mullikin, Thomas L.

    1989-01-01

    Ballistic transport, defined as the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum due to exchanges of meteoroid hypersonic-impact ejecta by neighboring planetary ring regions on time-scales orders-of-magnitude shorter than the age of the solar system, is presently considered as a problem in mathematical physics. The preliminary results of a numerical scheme for following the combined effects of ballistic transport and viscous diffusion demonstrate that ballistic transport generates structure near sharp edges already present in the ring-mass distribution; the entire ring system ultimately develops an undulatory structure whose length scale is typically of the order of the radial excursion of the impact ejecta.

  1. Ballistic transport in planetary ring systems due to particle erosion mechanisms. I - Theory, numerical methods, and illustrative examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durisen, R. H.; Cramer, N. L.; Murphy, B. W.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Mullikin, T. L.; Cederbloom, S. E.

    1989-07-01

    Ballistic transport, defined as the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum due to exchanges of meteoroid hypersonic-impact ejecta by neighboring planetary ring regions on time-scales orders-of-magnitude shorter than the age of the solar system, is presently considered as a problem in mathematical physics. The preliminary results of a numerical scheme for following the combined effects of ballistic transport and viscous diffusion demonstrate that ballistic transport generates structure near sharp edges already present in the ring-mass distribution; the entire ring system ultimately develops an undulatory structure whose length scale is typically of the order of the radial excursion of the impact ejecta.

  2. Commutative Families of the Elliptic Macdonald Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yosuke

    2014-03-01

    In the paper [J. Math. Phys. 50 (2009), 095215, 42 pages], Feigin, Hashizume, Hoshino, Shiraishi, and Yanagida constructed two families of commuting operators which contain the Macdonald operator (commutative families of the Macdonald operator). They used the Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the trigonometric Feigin-Odesskii algebra. In the previous paper [arXiv:1301.4912], the present author constructed the elliptic Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the free field realization of the elliptic Macdonald operator. In this paper, we show that by using the elliptic Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the elliptic Feigin-Odesskii algebra, we can construct commutative families of the elliptic Macdonald operator. In Appendix, we will show a relation between the elliptic Macdonald operator and its kernel function by the free field realization.

  3. Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

  4. Almost commuting self-adjoint matrices: The real and self-dual cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, Terry A.; Sørensen, Adam P. W.

    2016-08-01

    We show that a pair of almost commuting self-adjoint, symmetric matrices is close to a pair of commuting self-adjoint, symmetric matrices (in a uniform way). Moreover, we prove that the same holds with self-dual in place of symmetric and also for paths of self-adjoint matrices. Since a symmetric, self-adjoint matrix is real, we get a real version of Huaxin Lin’s famous theorem on almost commuting matrices. Similarly, the self-dual case gives a version for matrices over the quaternions. To prove these results, we develop a theory of semiprojectivity for real C*-algebras and also examine various definitions of low-rank for real C*-algebras.

  5. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    PubMed

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  6. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A', B and B' to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation.

  7. A new inverter topology using GTO commutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippel, W. E.

    A new N-phase, forced commutated bridge inverter topology has been developed wherein a single Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO) is used to commutate each of 2N main Thyristors (SCRs). Since, for most applications, the primary loss mechanism is the SCR forward drop, very high efficiencies are possible. Compared with conventional pure SCR and pure GTO inverters, cost per kW is lower - in the former case due to the large cost differential between GTOs and SCRs. Other advantages of the new inverter include high power density, low switching losses and stresses, modulation flexibility and amenability to high voltage and high frequency operation.

  8. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  9. On the non-commutative CP{sup 1} model

    SciTech Connect

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Maceda, Marco

    2010-07-12

    We present some results on the moduli space for the charge two-soliton solution of the non-commutative CP{sup 1} model. The associated Kaehler potential and its relation to the commutative case are discussed.

  10. Real Structures on Almost-Commutative Spectral Triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2013-07-01

    We refine the reconstruction theorem for almost-commutative spectral triples to a result for real almost-commutative spectral triples, clarifying in the process both concrete and abstract definitions of real commutative and almost-commutative spectral triples. In particular, we find that a real almost-commutative spectral triple algebraically encodes the commutative *-algebra of the base manifold in a canonical way, and that a compact oriented Riemannian manifold admits real (almost-)commutative spectral triples of arbitrary KO-dimension. Moreover, we define a notion of smooth family of real finite spectral triples and of the twisting of a concrete real commutative spectral triple by such a family, with interesting KK-theoretic and gauge-theoretic implications.

  11. On the Path Integral in Non-Commutative (nc) Qft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehne, Christoph

    2008-09-01

    As is generally known, different quantization schemes applied to field theory on NC spacetime lead to Feynman rules with different physical properties, if time does not commute with space. In particular, the Feynman rules that are derived from the path integral corresponding to the T*-product (the so-called naïve Feynman rules) violate the causal time ordering property. Within the Hamiltonian approach to quantum field theory, we show that we can (formally) modify the time ordering encoded in the above path integral. The resulting Feynman rules are identical to those obtained in the canonical approach via the Gell-Mann-Low formula (with T-ordering). They preserve thus unitarity and causal time ordering.

  12. Commutating Permanent-Magnet Motors At Low Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit provides forced commutation during starting. Forced commutation circuit diverts current from inverter SCR's and turns SCR's off during commutation intervals. Silicon controlled rectifier in circuit unnecessary when switch S10 replaced by high-current, high-voltage transistor. At present, high-current, low-voltage device must suffice.

  13. Employees' Perceptions of Cycle Commuting: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide an in-depth individual level understanding of the psychological factors that affect cycle commuting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 15 participants (eight cycle commuters and seven potential cycle commuters) from a "cycle-friendly" employer based in a Scottish city took part in the study.…

  14. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter highway... investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A qualifying...

  15. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter highway... investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A qualifying...

  16. Propulsion opportunities for future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Circa 1990 propulsion improvement concepts are discussed for 1000 to 5000 SHP conventional turboprop powerplants including engines, gearboxes, and propellers. Cycle selection, power plant configurations and advanced technology elements are defined and evaluated using average stage length DOC for commuter aircraft as the primary merit criterion.

  17. Nontraditional, Female, Commuter Students: Coping with College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The unique needs of nontraditional, female, commuter students at Northern Kentucky University were examined as a result of active recruitment of nontraditional students in the dwindling market for traditional college students. Women over the age of 25 are entering Northern Kentucky University, bringing unique personal and career problems. Problem…

  18. Parsing and Generating English Using Commutative Transformations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD-A1l? 4440 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTE--ETC F/ G/7 PARSING AND GENERATING ENGLISH USING COMMUTATIVE TRANSFORMATION-EC MAT...English sentence, the auxiliary determines the form of the following verb: an infinitive follows a modal, the past participle follows HAVE, and the

  19. Transport improvement, commuting costs, and residential location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stucker, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of introducing new transportation on residential travel patterns is presented. Data are based on changes in residential location of urban commuters that alter the mode and length of work trips as well as economic factors.

  20. Commuter Students: References & Resources, 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon L., Comp.; And Others

    A bibliography of 505 references concerning commuter students is presented along with a list of 44 associations and organizations. Topics and the number of references on each topic (in parentheses) are as follows: adult learners/nontraditional students (63 references), community colleges (37) community/environmental impact (16), comparative…

  1. Factors Affecting Consumers' Green Commuting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kai, Chen; Haokai, Liang

    2016-01-01

    As Chinese air pollution and other environmental problems were paid much attention by the public, appeals about reducing private car use and adopting public transport had come into being. In view of this context, the current study extended the theory of planned behavior by including environmental concerns to explore the effect of subjective…

  2. Factors Affecting Consumers' Green Commuting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kai, Chen; Haokai, Liang

    2016-01-01

    As Chinese air pollution and other environmental problems were paid much attention by the public, appeals about reducing private car use and adopting public transport had come into being. In view of this context, the current study extended the theory of planned behavior by including environmental concerns to explore the effect of subjective…

  3. The IBEX Ribbon and the Pickup Ion Ring Stability in the Outer Heliosheath. I. Theory and Hybrid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinski, V.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ernst, A.

    2016-08-01

    The nearly circular band of energetic neutral atom emission dominating the field of view of the Interplanetary Boundary Explorer (IBEX ) satellite, is most commonly attributed to the effect of charge exchange of secondary pickup ions (PUIs) gyrating about the magnetic field in the outer heliosheath and the interstellar space beyond. Several models for the PUI dynamics of this mechanism have been proposed, each requiring either strong or weak scattering of the initial pitch angle. Conventional wisdom states that ring distributions tend to generate waves and scatter onto a shell on timescales too short for charge exchange to occur. We performed a careful study of ring and thin shell proton distribution stability using theoretical tools and hybrid plasma simulations. We show that the kinetic behavior of a freshly injected proton ring is a far more complicated process than previously thought. In the presence of a warm Maxwellian core, narrower rings could be more stable than broader toroidal distributions. The scattered rings possess a fine structure that can only be revealed using very large numbers of macroparticles in a simulation. It is demonstrated that a “stability gap” in ring temperature exists where the protons could retain large gyrating anisotropies for years, and the wave activity could remain below the level of the ambient magnetic fluctuations in interstellar space. In the directions away from the ribbon, however, a partial shell distribution is more likely to be unstable, leading to significant scattering into one hemisphere in velocity space. The process is accompanied by turbulence production, which is puzzling given the very low level of magnetic fluctuations measured in the outer heliosheath by Voyager 1.

  4. The nth commutativity degree of some 2-Engel groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, Zainab; Mohd Ali, Nor Muhainiah; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Johari, Nor Azwin

    2013-04-01

    Suppose x and y are elements of a group G. The commutativity degree of a group G is defined as the total number of pair (x, y) for which x and y commute divided by the total number of pair (x, y) which is possible. Moreover, the nth commutativity degree of a group G is the total number of pair (x, y) for which xn and y commute divided by the total number of (x, y) which is possible. In this research, all 2-Engel groups of order at most 25 are first determined. Then, the nth commutativity degree of those groups are computed.

  5. Class 2 design update for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creighton, Thomas R.; Hendrich, Louis J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the final report of seven on the design of a family of commuter airplanes. This design effort was performed in fulfillment of NASA/USRA grant NGT-8001. Its contents are as follows: (1) the class 1 baseline designs for the commuter airplane family; (2) a study of takeoff weight penalties imposed on the commuter family due to implementing commonality objectives; (3) component structural designs common to the commuter family; (4) details of the acquisition and operating economics of the commuter family, i.e., savings due to production commonality and handling qualities commonality are determined; (5) discussion of the selection of an advanced turboprop propulsion system for the family of commuter airplanes, and (6) a proposed design for an SSSA controller design to achieve similar handling for all airplanes. Final class 2 commuter airplane designs are also presented.

  6. Motivations for active commuting: a qualitative investigation of the period of home or work relocation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting) could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (re)assess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Methods Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Results Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Conclusions Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work, particularly for people who live too

  7. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  8. Role of the substituent effect over the squarate oxocarbonic ring: spectroscopy, crystal structure, and density functional theory calculations of 1,2-dianilinosquairane.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlos E; Dos Santos, Hélio F; Speziali, Nivaldo L; Diniz, Renata; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C

    2010-09-23

    This work presents the crystal structure and the investigation under a supramolecular perspective of a squaric acid derivative obtained from the replacement of the hydroxyl groups by anilines. The squaraine obtained (1,2-dianilinesquaraine) crystallizes in the Pbcn space group, in a unit cell with a = 26.5911(8) Å, b = 6.1445(10) Å, and c = 7.5515(5) Å. The bond lengths in the oxocarbon ring, squarate-N and C−O bonds present the character of double bonds. Also the difference between the longer and shorter C-C bond in the four-membered ring (ΔCC) is 0.0667 Å, showing a good degree of equalization of these bond lengths. The phenyl rings are slightly distorted in relation to the squarate ring, and the angle measured between the best plane fitted in each ring is 37.2(9)°. Each molecule is connected to the other through a hydrogen bond involving the N-H···O moieties, where the donor···acceptor distance is 2.826(1) Å, forming ribbons in a unidimensional arrangement C(5)R22(10) along the b axis. These structures are mutually connected by π-stacking interactions extending the supramolecular structure in a two-dimensional fashion. Besides, an interesting crossed structure can be easily identified in the formed sheets that are built through the C-H/π interactions. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory show an approximately planar molecular structure for the isolated molecule. However, when a dimer model built from hydrogen bonds is considered, the optimized structure presents considerable torsion between the phenyl and squarate rings, as observed in the experimental data. The electronic spectrum shows a strong absorption band at 341 nm that is red-shifted compared to the squarate maximum absorption (290 nm), indicating a more effective electronic delocalization. The most characteristic vibrational modes of the oxocarbon species were used as spectroscopic probe to understand how the substituent groups affect the oxocarbon moiety and

  9. Impact of commuting in epidemic invasion threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcan, Duygu; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Structured metapopulation models constitute one of the main approaches to the modeling of epidemic spread. While the contagion dynamics in each subpopulation is realized in a coarse-grained scheme, these models rely on the integration of multi-layered mobility data and accurate representations of human movements in different scales. Different scales are not just embedded in the spatial component of the process (long-range versus short-range movements) but also in the duration of the trips (long versus short visits). In this context, commuting, the daily movement of people between home and workplace or home and school, is one of the essential ingredients in multi-scale mobility networks. We consider an SIR-epidemic in a metapopulation system whose subpopulations are coupled by commuting. We investigate analytically and numerically the global epidemic invasion threshold.

  10. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion.

    PubMed

    Tonchev, N S

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra.

  11. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, N. S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra.

  12. QED commutation relations for inhomogeneous Kramers-Kronig dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Stefan; Knöll, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    1998-07-01

    Recently a quantization scheme for the phenomenological Maxwell theory of the full electromagnetic field in an inhomogeneous three-dimensional, dispersive, and absorbing dielectric medium has been developed and applied to a system consisting of two infinite half-spaces with a common planar interface (H.T. Dung, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3931 (1998)). Here we show that the scheme, which is based on the classical Green-tensor integral representation of the electromagnetic field, applies to any inhomogeneous medium. For this purpose we prove that the fundamental equal-time commutation relations of QED are preserved for an arbitrarily space-dependent, Kramers-Kronig consistent permittivity. Further, an extension of the quantization scheme to linear media with bounded regions of amplification is given, and the problem of anisotropic media is briefly addressed.

  13. Commutative deformations of general relativity: nonlocality, causality, and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vegvar, P. G. N.

    2017-01-01

    Hopf algebra methods are applied to study Drinfeld twists of (3+1)-diffeomorphisms and deformed general relativity on commutative manifolds. A classical nonlocality length scale is produced above which microcausality emerges. Matter fields are utilized to generate self-consistent Abelian Drinfeld twists in a background independent manner and their continuous and discrete symmetries are examined. There is negligible experimental effect on the standard model of particles. While baryonic twist producing matter would begin to behave acausally for rest masses above {˜ }1-10 TeV, other possibilities are viable dark matter candidates or a right-handed neutrino. First order deformed Maxwell equations are derived and yield immeasurably small cosmological dispersion and produce a propagation horizon only for photons at or above Planck energies. This model incorporates dark matter without any appeal to extra dimensions, supersymmetry, strings, grand unified theories, mirror worlds, or modifications of Newtonian dynamics.

  14. Commuting behaviors and exposure to air pollution in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Bouchard, Michèle; Chen, Dongmei; Rosenberg, Mark W; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-03-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of outdoor air pollution in urban areas, and studies have shown that air pollution is worse during hours of commuting to and from work and school. However, it is unclear to what extent different commuting behaviors are a source of air pollution compared to non-commuters, and if air pollution exposure actually differs by the mode of commuting. This study aimed to examine the relationships between commuting behaviors and air pollution exposure levels measured by urinary 1-OHP (1-hydroxypyrene), a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A cross-sectional study of 174 volunteers living in Montreal, 92 females and 82 males, aged 20 to 53 years was conducted in 2011. Each participant completed a questionnaire regarding demographic factors, commuting behaviors, home and workplace addresses, and potential sources of PAH exposure, and provided a complete first morning void urine sample for 1-OHP analysis. Multivariable general linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between different types of commuting and urinary 1-OHP levels. Compared to non-commuters, commuters traveling by foot or bicycle and by car or truck had a significantly higher urinary 1-OHP concentration in urine (p=0.01 for foot or bicycle vs. non-commuters; p=0.02 for car or truck vs. non-commuters); those traveling with public transportation and combinations of two or more types of modes tended to have an increased 1-OHP level in urine (p=0.06 for public transportation vs. non-commuters; p=0.05 for commuters with combinations of two or more types of modes vs. non-commuters). No significant difference in urinary 1-OHP variation was found by mode of commuting. This preliminary study suggests that despite the mode of commuting, all types of commuting during rush hours increase exposure to air pollution as measured by a sensitive PAH metabolite biomarker, and mode of commuting did not explain exposure variation. Copyright

  15. Real-time propagation time-dependent density functional theory study on the ring-opening transformation of the photoexcited crystalline benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Oyama, Norihisa; Ohno, Takahisa; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2006-03-01

    Mechanism of the ring-opening transformation in the photoexcited crystalline benzene is investigated on the femtosecond scale by a computational method based on the real-time propagation (RTP) time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The excited-state dynamics of the benzene molecule is also examined not only for the distinction between the intrinsic properties of molecule and the intermolecular interaction but for the first validation using the vibration frequencies for the RTP-TDDFT approach. It is found that the vibration frequencies of the excited and ground states in the molecule are well reproduced. This demonstrates that the present method of time evolution using the Suzuki-Trotter-type split operator technique starting with the Franck-Condon state approximated by the occupation change of the Kohn-Sham orbitals is adequately accurate. For the crystalline benzene, we carried out the RTP-TDDFT simulations for two typical pressures. At both pressures, large swing of the C-H bonds and subsequent twist of the carbon ring occurs, leading to tetrahedral (sp3-like) C-H bonding. The ν4 and ν16 out-of-plane vibration modes of the benzene molecule are found mostly responsible for these motions, which is different from the mechanism proposed for the thermal ring-opening transformation occurring at higher pressure. Comparing the results between different pressures, we conclude that a certain increase of the intermolecular interaction is necessary to make seeds of the ring opening (e.g., radical site formation and breaking of the molecular character) even with the photoexcitation, while the hydrogen migration to fix them requires more free volume, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the transformation substantially proceeds on the decompression.

  16. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  17. Delayed Commutation in Quantum Computer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Escartín, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2006-09-01

    In the same way that classical computer networks connect and enhance the capabilities of classical computers, quantum networks can combine the advantages of quantum information and communication. We propose a nonclassical network element, a delayed commutation switch, that can solve the problem of switching time in packet switching networks. With the help of some local ancillary qubits and superdense codes, we can route a qubit packet after part of it has left the network node.

  18. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  19. A study of commuter air service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belina, F. W.; Bush, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A regionally oriented overview of the commuter air service industry is provided. A framework for an eventual assessment of potential technology directions that may be of benefit to the industry is presented. Data are provided on the industry's market characteristics, service patterns, patronage characteristics, aircraft and airport needs, economic characteristics and institutional issues. Using personal interview and literature survey methods, investigation of a considerable cross-section of the industry was made.

  20. Classical mechanics in non-commutative phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gao-Feng; Long, Chao-Yun; Long, Zheng-Wen; Qin, Shui-Jie; Fu, Qiang

    2008-05-01

    In this paper the laws of motion of classical particles have been investigated in a non-commutative phase space. The corresponding non-commutative relations contain not only spatial non-commutativity but also momentum non-commutativity. First, new Poisson brackets have been defined in non-commutative phase space. They contain corrections due to the non-commutativity of coordinates and momenta. On the basis of this new Poisson brackets, a new modified second law of Newton has been obtained. For two cases, the free particle and the harmonic oscillator, the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified second law of Newton and the linear transformation (Phys. Rev. D, 2005, 72: 025010). The consistency between both methods is demonstrated. It is shown that a free particle in commutative space is not a free particle with zero-acceleration in the non-commutative phase space, but it remains a free particle with zero-acceleration in non-commutative space if only the coordinates are non-commutative. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10347003, 60666001), Planned Training Excellent Scientific and Technological Youth Foundation of Guizhou Province, China (2002,2013), Science Foundation of Guizhou Province, China, and Creativity Foundation for Graduate Guizhou University, China (2006031)

  1. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  2. Quantum Brownian Motion on Non-Commutative Manifolds: Construction, Deformation and Exit Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Biswarup; Goswami, Debashish

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a review and analytical construction of quantum Gaussian process (and quantum Brownian motions) in the sense of Franz (The Theory of Quantum Levy Processes, http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0407488v1 [math.PR], 2009), Schürmann (White noise on bioalgebras. Volume 1544 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993) and others, and then formulate and study in details (with a number of interesting examples) a definition of quantum Brownian motions on those non-commutative manifolds (a la Connes) which are quantum homogeneous spaces of their quantum isometry groups in the sense of Goswami (Commun Math Phys 285(1):141-160, 2009). We prove that bi-invariant quantum Brownian motion can be `deformed' in a suitable sense. Moreover, we propose a non-commutative analogue of the well-known asymptotics of the exit time of classical Brownian motion. We explicitly analyze such asymptotics for a specific example on non-commutative two-torus {mathcal{A}_θ} , which seems to behave like a one-dimensional manifold, perhaps reminiscent of the fact that {mathcal{A}_θ} is a non-commutative model of the (locally one-dimensional) `leaf-space' of the Kronecker foliation.

  3. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    . Many theories are present regarding the formation of rings for example when moons collide, when moon breaks up and due to dust formation in supernova. But the most important question is, that how they maintain their orbit and why they are present there.

  4. Battery cars on superconducting magnetically levitated carriers: One commuting solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, B. Mike; Oman, Henry

    1992-05-01

    Commuting to work in an urban-suburban metropolitan environment is becoming an unpleasant time-wasting process. We applied the technology of communication management to this commuting problem. Communication management is a system-engineering tool that produced today's efficient telephone network. The resulting best commuting option is magnetically levitated carriers of two-passenger, battery-powered, personally-owned local-travel cars. A commuter drives a car to a nearby station, selects a destination, drives on a waiting carrier, and enters an accelerating ramp. A central computer selects an optimum 100 miles-per-hour trunk route, considering existing and forecast traffic; assigns the commuter a travel slot, and subsequently orders switching-station actions. The commuter uses the expensive facilities for only a few minutes during each trip. The cost of travel could be less than 6 cents per mile.

  5. Battery cars on superconducting magnetically levitated carriers: One commuting solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, B. Mike; Oman, Henry

    1992-01-01

    Commuting to work in an urban-suburban metropolitan environment is becoming an unpleasant time-wasting process. We applied the technology of communication management to this commuting problem. Communication management is a system-engineering tool that produced today's efficient telephone network. The resulting best commuting option is magnetically levitated carriers of two-passenger, battery-powered, personally-owned local-travel cars. A commuter drives a car to a nearby station, selects a destination, drives on a waiting carrier, and enters an accelerating ramp. A central computer selects an optimum 100 miles-per-hour trunk route, considering existing and forecast traffic; assigns the commuter a travel slot, and subsequently orders switching-station actions. The commuter uses the expensive facilities for only a few minutes during each trip. The cost of travel could be less than 6 cents per mile.

  6. Battery cars on superconducting magnetically levitated carriers: One commuting solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, B. Mike; Oman, Henry

    1992-01-01

    Commuting to work in an urban-suburban metropolitan environment is becoming an unpleasant time-wasting process. We applied the technology of communication management to this commuting problem. Communication management is a system-engineering tool that produced today's efficient telephone network. The resulting best commuting option is magnetically levitated carriers of two-passenger, battery-powered, personally-owned local-travel cars. A commuter drives a car to a nearby station, selects a destination, drives on a waiting carrier, and enters an accelerating ramp. A central computer selects an optimum 100 miles-per-hour trunk route, considering existing and forecast traffic; assigns the commuter a travel slot, and subsequently orders switching-station actions. The commuter uses the expensive facilities for only a few minutes during each trip. The cost of travel could be less than 6 cents per mile.

  7. Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Yifu; Wang Yi E-mail: wangyi@itp.ac.cn

    2008-01-15

    The quantum behavior of non-commutative eternal inflation is quite different from the usual scenario. Unlike the usual eternal inflation, non-commutative eternal inflation has quantum fluctuation suppressed by the Hubble parameter. Because of this, we need to reconsider many conceptions of eternal inflation. In this paper we study the Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation using the stochastic approach. We obtain a brand new form of tunneling probability for this process and find that the Hawking-Moss tunneling is more unlikely to take place in the non-commutative case than in the usual one. We also conclude that the lifetime of a metastable de Sitter vacuum in the non-commutative spacetime is longer than that in the commutative case.

  8. Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    The rings are changing before our eyes; structure varies on all timescales and unexpected things have been discovered. Many questions have been answered, but some answers remain elusive (see Cuzzi et al 2010 for a review). Here we highlight the major ring science progress over the mission to date, and describe new observations planned for Cassini's final three years. Ring Composition and particle sizes: The rings are nearly all water ice with no other ices - so why are they reddish? The C Ring and Cassini Division are "dirtier" than the more massive B and A Rings, as shown by near-IR and, recently, microwave observations. Particle sizes, from stellar and radio occultations, vary from place to place. Ring structure, micro and macro: numerous spiral density waves and ubiquitous "self-gravity wakes" reveal processes which fostered planet formation in the solar system and elsewhere. However, big puzzles remain regarding the main ring divisions, the C Ring plateau structures, and the B Ring irregular structure. Moonlets, inside and out, seen and unseen: Two gaps contain sizeable moonlets, but more gaps seem to contain none; even smaller embedded "propeller" objects wander, systematically or randomly, through the A ring. Rubble pile ringmoons just outside the rings may escaped from the rings, and the recently discovered "Peggy" may be trying this as we watch. Impact bombardment of the rings: Comet fragments set the rings to rippling on century-timescales, and boulders crash through hourly; meanwhile, the constant hail of infalling Kuiper belt material has a lower mass flux than previously thought. Origin and Age of the Rings: The ring mass and bombardment play key roles. The ring mass is well known everywhere but in the B Ring (where most of it is). New models suggest how tidal breakup of evolving moons may have formed massive ancient rings, of which the current ring is just a shadow. During its last three years, the Cassini tour profile will allow entirely new

  9. On submodule characterization and decomposition of modules over group rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uc, Mehmet; Alkan, Mustafa

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, for a commutative unity ring R and a finite group G, we characterize some submodule properties of RG- module MG introduced in [8]. Our aim is to decompose MG into RG-submodules by defining an idempotent in EndRG MG and to verify the relation between the quotient of group module and the quotient of related module.

  10. Marginal and non-commutative deformations via non-abelian T-duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; Thompson, Daniel C.

    2017-02-01

    In this short article we develop recent proposals to relate Yang-Baxter sigmamodels and non-abelian T-duality. We demonstrate explicitly that the holographic spacetimes associated to both (multi-parameter)- β-deformations and non-commutative deformations of N = 4 super Yang-Mills gauge theory including the RR fluxes can be obtained via the machinery of non-abelian T-duality in Type II supergravity.

  11. Dirac Oscillator in a Galilean Covariant Non-commutative Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, G. R.; de Montigny, M.; Pompeia, P. J.; Santos, E. S.

    2013-02-01

    We study the Galilean Dirac oscillator in a non-commutative situation, with space-space and momentum-momentum non-commutativity. The wave equation is obtained via a `Galilean covariant' approach, which consists in projecting the covariant equations from a (4,1)-dimensional manifold with light-cone coordinates, to a (3,1)-dimensional Galilean space-time. We obtain the exact wave functions and their energy levels for the plane and discuss the effects of non-commutativity.

  12. Blocks in cycles and k-commuting permutations.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Rutilo; Rivera, Luis Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce and study k-commuting permutations. One of our main results is a characterization of permutations that k-commute with a given permutation. Using this characterization, we obtain formulas for the number of permutations that k-commute with a permutation [Formula: see text], for some cycle types of [Formula: see text]. Our enumerative results are related with integer sequences in "The On-line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences", and in some cases provide new interpretations for such sequences.

  13. Commuting by car: weight gain among physically active adults.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Ding, Ding; Owen, Neville

    2013-02-01

    Prolonged sitting, including time spent sitting in cars, is detrimentally associated with health outcomes. This study examined whether commuting by car was associated with adults' weight gain over 4 years. Among 822 adult residents of Adelaide, Australia, weight change was ascertained from self-reported weight at baseline (2003-2004) and at follow-up (2007-2008). Using time spent for car commuting and work status at baseline, participants were categorized as non-car commuters, occasional car commuters, and daily car commuters. Multilevel linear regression (conducted in 2012) examined associations of weight change with car-commuting category, adjusting for potential confounding variables, for the whole sample, and among those who were physically inactive or active (≥150 minutes/week) in their leisure time. For the overall sample, adjusted mean weight gain (95% CI) over 4 years was 1.26 (0.64, 1.89) kg for non-car commuters; 1.53 (0.69, 2.37) kg for occasional car commuters; and 2.18 (1.44, 2.92) kg for daily car commuters (p for trend=0.090). Stratified analyses found a stronger association for those with sufficient leisure-time physical activity. For non-car commuters with sufficient leisure-time physical activity, the adjusted mean weight gain was 0.46 (-0.43, 1.35) kg, which was not significantly greater than 0. Over 4 years, those who used cars daily for commuting tended to gain more weight than those who did not commute by car. This relationship was pronounced among those who were physically active during leisure time. Reducing sedentary time may prevent weight gain among physically active adults. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neptune's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by the Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged. Also visible in this image is the inner faint ring and the faint band which extends smoothly from the ring roughly halfway between the two bright rings. Both of these newly discovered rings are broad and much fainter than the two narrow rings. The bright glare is due to over-exposure of the crescent on Neptune. Numerous bright stars are evident in the background. Both bright rings have material throughout their entire orbit, and are therefore continuous. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  15. Ring World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-01

    Our robotic emissary, flying high above Saturn, captured this view of an alien copper-colored ring world. The overexposed planet has deliberately been removed to show the unlit rings alone, seen from an elevation of 60 degrees

  16. Neptune Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-29

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by NASA Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged.

  17. Ring Backdrop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-03

    Saturn moon Enceladus brightly reflects sunlight before a backdrop of the planet rings and the rings shadows cast onto the planet. NASA Cassini spacecraft captured this snapshot during its flyby of the moon on Nov. 30, 2010.

  18. Quantum groups, non-commutative differential geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, Peter

    1993-12-09

    The topic of this thesis is the development of a versatile and geometrically motivated differential calculus on non-commutative or quantum spaces, providing powerful but easy-to-use mathematical tools for applications in physics and related sciences. A generalization of unitary time evolution is proposed and studied for a simple 2-level system, leading to non-conservation of microscopic entropy, a phenomenon new to quantum mechanics. A Cartan calculus that combines functions, forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations along general vector fields into one big algebra is constructed for quantum groups and then extended to quantum planes. The construction of a tangent bundle on a quantum group manifold and an BRST type approach to quantum group gauge theory are given as further examples of applications. The material is organized in two parts: Part I studies vector fields on quantum groups, emphasizing Hopf algebraic structures, but also introducing a ``quantum geometric`` construction. Using a generalized semi-direct product construction we combine the dual Hopf algebras A of functions and U of left-invariant vector fields into one fully bicovariant algebra of differential operators. The pure braid group is introduced as the commutant of {Delta}(U). It provides invariant maps A {yields} U and thereby bicovariant vector fields, casimirs and metrics. This construction allows the translation of undeformed matrix expressions into their less obvious quantum algebraic counter parts. We study this in detail for quasitriangular Hopf algebras, giving the determinant and orthogonality relation for the ``reflection`` matrix. Part II considers the additional structures of differential forms and finitely generated quantum Lie algebras -- it is devoted to the construction of the Cartan calculus, based on an undeformed Cartan identity.

  19. Campus Commuters: A Survey of the Service Needs of Commuter Students at the University of Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ron; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Service-related needs and behaviors of University of Minnesota-Twin Cities students were surveyed in 1981. Based on responses of 2,112 students in selected classes, it was found that 81 percent of the respondents were commuters. Approximately 32 percent said they were not at all involved in campus life, while about 47 percent were only slightly…

  20. Future Propulsion Opportunities for Commuter Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Commuter airplane propulsion opportunities are summarized. Consideration is given to advanced technology conventional turboprop engines, advanced propellers, and several unconventional alternatives: regenerative turboprops, rotaries, and diesels. Advanced versions of conventional turboprops (including propellers) offer 15-20 percent savings in fuel and 10-15 percent in DOC compared to the new crop of 1500-2000 SHP engines currently in development. Unconventional engines could boost the fuel savings to 30-40 percent. The conclusion is that several important opportunities exist and, therefore, powerplant technology need not plateau.

  1. The effect of commuting microenvironment on commuter exposures to vehicular emission in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Qin, Y.

    Vehicular exhaust emission has gradually become the major air pollution source in modern cities and traffic related exposure is found to contribute significantly to total human exposure level. A comprehensive survey was conducted from November 1995 to July 1996 in Hong Kong to assess the effect of traffic-induced air pollution inside different commuting microenvironments on commuter exposure. Microenvironmental monitoring is performed for six major public commuting modes (bus, light bus, MTR, railway, tram, ferry), plus private car and roadside pavement. Traffic-related pollutants, CO, NO x, THC and O 3 were selected as the target pollutants. The results indicate that commuter exposure is highly influenced by the choice of commuting microenvironment. In general, the exposure level in decreasing order of measured pollutant level for respective commuting microenvironments are: private car, the group consisting light bus, bus, tram and pavement, MTR and train, and finally ferry. In private car, the CO level is several times higher than that in the other microenvironments with a trip averaged of 10.1 ppm and a maximum of 24.9 ppm. Factors such as the body position of the vehicle, intake point of the ventilation system, fuel used, ventilation, transport mode, road and driving conditions were used in the analysis. Inter-microenvironment, intra-microenvironment and temporal variation of CO concentrations were used as the major indicator. The low body position and low intake point of the ventilation system of the private car are believed to be the cause of higher intake of exhaust of other vehicles and thus result in high pollution level in this microenvironment. Compared with other metropolis around the world and the Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (HKAQO), exposure levels of commuter to traffic-related air pollution in Hong Kong are relatively low for most pollutants measured. Only several cases of exceedence of HKAQO by NO 2 were recorded. The strong prevailing wind

  2. Satisfaction with transport and enjoyment of the commute by commuting mode in inner Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris; Crane, Melanie; Wen, Li Ming; Greaves, Stephen; Standen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Travel satisfaction has become an increasingly popular construct for the assessment and monitoring of transport systems and services. However, satisfaction may not adequately assess emotion or mood towards walking and cycling, especially when infrastructure is biased towards motor vehicle modes. In this exploratory study we sought to examine the associations of both satisfaction with transport and enjoyment from the commute to work or study by commute mode in an Australian inner city context where transport mode choices are readily available. Methods As part of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, 675 baseline study participants (2013) were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September/October 2014 and 512 did so (76% response rate). Participants who did not travel to work were removed from analyses, giving complete data for 473. Participants provided data on usual travel mode to work or study, satisfaction with transport, enjoyment from their commute, and demographics and neighbourhood factors. Results The main mode of travel to work or study in this inner city sample was public transport (41%), followed by motor vehicle (27%), walking (21%) and cycling (10%). Most participants were satisfied with their transport (82%), with little variation by mode. Walkers (49%) and cyclists (52%) reported far higher levels of enjoyment from their commute than car drivers (14%) or public transport users (10%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.18 (95% confidence interval 3.10-12.29, P<0.001) for walking and an adjusted odds ratio of 6.15 (95% confidence interval 2.68-14.08, P<0.001) for cycling. Conclusions People who walked or cycled to work or study in inner Sydney reported higher levels of enjoyment from their commute compared with those who drove. This suggests enjoyment may be another benefit of active travel. So what? Focusing on 'enjoyment' associated with walking or cycling to work may be a positive motivator to encourage active travel.

  3. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardzell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  4. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardzell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  5. Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Aziz, I. S.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace.

  6. Bicycle weight and commuting time: randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the author’s 20.9 lb (9.5 kg) carbon frame bicycle reduced commuting time compared with his 29.75 lb (13.5 kg) steel frame bicycle. Design Randomised trial. Setting Sheffield and Chesterfield, United Kingdom, between mid-January 2010 and mid-July 2010. Participants One consultant in anaesthesia and intensive care. Main outcome measure Total time to complete the 27 mile (43.5 kilometre) journey from Sheffield to Chesterfield Royal Hospital and back. Results The total distance travelled on the steel frame bicycle during the study period was 809 miles (1302 km) and on the carbon frame bicycle was 711 miles (1144 km). The difference in the mean journey time between the steel and carbon bicycles was 00:00:32 (hr:min:sec; 95% CI –00:03:34 to 00:02:30; P=0.72). Conclusions A lighter bicycle did not lead to a detectable difference in commuting time. Cyclists may find it more cost effective to reduce their own weight rather than to purchase a lighter bicycle. PMID:21148220

  7. Impulse commutating circuit with transformer to limit reapplied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconville, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Silicon controlled rectifier opens circuit with currents flowing up to values of 30 amperes. Switching concept halves both current and voltage in middle of commutating cycle thereby lowering size and weight requirements. Commutating circuit can be turned on or off by command and will remain on in absence of load due to continuous gate.

  8. Understanding What Influences Successful Black Commuter Students' Engagement in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, Trina Lynn; Jones, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Black and commuter students are disadvantaged when it comes to higher education. Although black students are enrolling in college more than they did in previous years, fewer are earning degrees compared with their counterparts. Research asserts that students who live on campus are more engaged compared with students who commute. This is troubling…

  9. Understanding What Influences Successful Black Commuter Students' Engagement in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, Trina Lynn; Jones, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Black and commuter students are disadvantaged when it comes to higher education. Although black students are enrolling in college more than they did in previous years, fewer are earning degrees compared with their counterparts. Research asserts that students who live on campus are more engaged compared with students who commute. This is troubling…

  10. Active Commuting Patterns at a Large, Midwestern College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew; Wittman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand patterns and influences on active commuting (AC) behavior. Participants: Students and faculty/staff at a university campus. Methods: In April-May 2008, respondents answered an online survey about mode of travel to campus and influences on commuting decisions. Hierarchical regression analyses predicted variance in walking…

  11. Unraveling the Image of Commutation Spark Generated in Universal Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanazawa, Tamio; Almazroui, Ali; Egashira, Torao

    A universal motor, which is mainly used in vacuum cleaners, generates commutation sparks at the moment when the brush and the commutator segment are separated from each other during rotation. This study investigates the mechanism of commutation spark generation by analyzing high-speed camera images and its electrical aspect. We invented a new external trigger method that used laser light as the trigger signal for the shuttering a high-speed camera. This method enabled us to photograph sparks on any desired commutator segments during high-speed rotation, and that made the analysis after photographing easier. This paper shows that commutation sparks in universal motors are generated on every other commutator segment and at the peak of pulses in the voltage between the brush and commutator segment. Other aspects are also clarified, such as the generation of the singular and plural number of sparks on one commutator segment at a time, the time from the moment of spark generation to extinction, and spark generation during a single rotation.

  12. Soft commutated direct current motor [summary of proposed paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S.

    1998-10-22

    A novel soft commutated direct current (DC) motor is introduced. The current of the commutated coil is intentionally drained before the brush disconnects the coil. This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. A similar principle can be applied for DC generators.

  13. Parity-dependent non-commutative quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with parity (or space reflection) in two dimensions. Using the parity operators Ri, we construct the deformed Heisenberg algebra with parity in the non-commutative plane. We use this algebra to discuss the isotropic harmonic Hamiltonian with parity.

  14. Weather factor impacts on commuting to work by bicycle.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian S; Dana, Greg S; Sears, Justine; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2012-02-01

    Quantify the impact of weather conditions on individual decisions to commute to work by bicycle among a diverse panel of adults who commute ≥2 miles each way. Working adults (n=163) in a northern U.S. state reported transportation mode for four seven-day periods in 2009-2010 that maximized seasonal weather variations. Personal characteristics, trip to work distances, and commuting mode data were linked to location- and time-specific weather data and daylight hours. Analyses focused on effect of weather conditions on reports of commuting by bicycle. Participants were diverse in age, gender and bicycle use, but were relatively well-educated; they traveled to work by bicycle on 34.5% of the logged commuting days. Modeling indicated that the likelihood of bicycle commuting increased in the absence of rain (odds ratio=1.91; 95% confidence interval 1.42, 2.57) and with higher temperatures (1.03; 1.02, 1.04), and decreased with snow (0.90; 0.84, 0.98) and wind (0.95; 0.92, 0.97). Independent effects also were found for bicycle commuting distance, gender, and age, but not for daylight hours. Precipitation, temperature, wind and snow conditions had significant and substantial independent effects on the odds of travel to work by bicycle among a diverse panel of adult bicycle commuters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parabosonic string and space-time non-commutativity

    SciTech Connect

    Seridi, M. A.; Belaloui, N.

    2012-06-27

    We investigate the para-quantum extension of the bosonic strings in a non-commutative space-time. We calculate the trilinear relations between the mass-center variables and the modes and we derive the Virasoro algebra where a new anomaly term due to the non-commutativity is obtained.

  16. Non-commutative relativistic equation with a Coulomb potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zaim, Slimane; Khodja, Lamine; Delenda, Yazid

    2012-06-27

    We improve the previous study of the Klein-Gordon equation in a non-commutative space-time as applied to the Hydrogen atom to extract the energy levels, by considering the secondorder corrections in the non-commutativity parameter. Phenomenologically we show that noncommutativity plays the role of spin.

  17. The Neglected Majority: Facilities for Commuting Students. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Commuting students enrolled in colleges and universities outnumber their residential counterparts by about three to one. Studies and surveys reveal that the expectations of commuting students are modest and convential. Often they can be satisfied without a great capital investment, by reallocating existing resources, renovating space and making…

  18. Self-adjoint commuting differential operators of rank two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    This is a survey of results on self-adjoint commuting ordinary differential operators of rank two. In particular, the action of automorphisms of the first Weyl algebra on the set of commuting differential operators with polynomial coefficients is discussed, as well as the problem of constructing algebro-geometric solutions of rank l>1 of soliton equations. Bibliography: 59 titles.

  19. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... vehicles. (a) In general. Section 46(c)(6) provides that the applicable percentage to determine qualified investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A...

  20. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... vehicles. (a) In general. Section 46(c)(6) provides that the applicable percentage to determine qualified investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A...

  1. 77 FR 45715 - Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...] Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION... Lime Air Corporation fit, willing, and able, and awarding it a Commuter Air Carrier...

  2. 75 FR 26645 - Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, Supplemental, Commuter, and On-Demand Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ..., Supplemental, Commuter, and On-Demand Operations: Corrections and Editorial Changes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Requirements: Domestic, Flag, Supplemental, Commuter, and On-Demand Operations: Corrections and Editorial...

  3. Extended commuting and migration in the Taipei metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chen, C

    1992-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the relative size and extent of labor force commuting and migration among the population 15 years and older in the Taipei, Taiwan, metropolitan area (city, periphery, and other areas), and the variation by labor group. The hypothesis was that extended commuting patterns occur before migration and migrants and commuters come from different groups. There was a well-developed transportation system for long commuters. It was also suspected that commuting and migration were alternatives for each other, because of the long commutes (over 40 minutes) and the young, unmarried age groups associated with migration. Data were obtained from a stratified sample from the October round of the labor force survey in 1988. Data were stratified by degree of urbanization and industrial composition, and within village level units. The migration streams were identified as from Taipei periphery to the city, from other areas to the city, from the city to the periphery, from other areas to the periphery, from the city to other areas, and from the periphery to other areas. Commuter patterns were designated by commuting from the city to the periphery, from the city to other areas, from the periphery to the city, from the periphery to other areas, from other areas to the city, and from other areas to the periphery. The sample population of 8,384,587 was greater than the official estimates by 3.4%. In the weighted sample, 13.5% were missing data, which resulted in an employed population of 1,271,309 persons. The trend has been for stability of population growth of 2% in the city, and a decline to a rate of growth of 1.3% in peripheral areas. Both the city and periphery gained population from other areas: 70,000 and 35,000 persons, respectively; there was a balanced stream between the city and periphery of 30,000 persons. 24.1% of periphery workers were commuters to the city with a commuting population of 250,000 daily. Explanations

  4. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10- 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of

  5. Perfect commuting-operator strategies for linear system games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleve, Richard; Liu, Li; Slofstra, William

    2017-01-01

    Linear system games are a generalization of Mermin's magic square game introduced by Cleve and Mittal. They show that perfect strategies for linear system games in the tensor-product model of entanglement correspond to finite-dimensional operator solutions of a certain set of non-commutative equations. We investigate linear system games in the commuting-operator model of entanglement, where Alice and Bob's measurement operators act on a joint Hilbert space, and Alice's operators must commute with Bob's operators. We show that perfect strategies in this model correspond to possibly infinite-dimensional operator solutions of the non-commutative equations. The proof is based around a finitely presented group associated with the linear system which arises from the non-commutative equations.

  6. Effects of urban growth controls on intercity commuting.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Laudo M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of the effects of urban growth controls on the intercity commuting of workers. Growth controls (land use regulations that attempt to restrict population growth and urban sprawl) have increased housing prices and diverted population growth to uncontrolled cities. It has been suggested that resulting changes in local labour supply might stimulate intercity commuting from uncontrolled to controlled cities. To test this hypothesis, a gravity model of commuting flows between places in California is estimated using alternative econometric methods (OLS, Heckman selection and count-data). The possibility of spatial dependence in commuting flows is also taken into consideration. Results suggest larger commuting flows to destination places that restrict residential growth.

  7. A double commutant theorem for Murray–von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Murray–von Neumann algebras are algebras of operators affiliated with finite von Neumann algebras. In this article, we study commutativity and affiliation of self-adjoint operators (possibly unbounded). We show that a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of the Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a finite von Neumann algebra is the Murray–von Neumann algebra , where is a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of and, in addition, is . We also prove that the Murray–von Neumann algebra with the center of is the center of the Murray–von Neumann algebra . Von Neumann’s celebrated double commutant theorem characterizes von Neumann algebras as those for which , where , the commutant of , is the set of bounded operators on the Hilbert space that commute with all operators in . At the end of this article, we present a double commutant theorem for Murray–von Neumann algebras. PMID:22543165

  8. Euler polynomials and identities for non-commutative operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Valerio; Vignat, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Three kinds of identities involving non-commutating operators and Euler and Bernoulli polynomials are studied. The first identity, as given by Bender and Bettencourt [Phys. Rev. D 54(12), 7710-7723 (1996)], expresses the nested commutator of the Hamiltonian and momentum operators as the commutator of the momentum and the shifted Euler polynomial of the Hamiltonian. The second one, by Pain [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 035304 (2013)], links the commutators and anti-commutators of the monomials of the position and momentum operators. The third appears in a work by Figuieira de Morisson and Fring [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 9269 (2006)] in the context of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems. In each case, we provide several proofs and extensions of these identities that highlight the role of Euler and Bernoulli polynomials.

  9. Translucent Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-08

    Although solid-looking in many images, Saturn's rings are actually translucent. In this picture, we can glimpse the shadow of the rings on the planet through (and below) the A and C rings themselves, towards the lower right hand corner. For centuries people have studied Saturn's rings, but questions about the structure and composition of the rings lingered. It was only in 1857 when the physicist James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that the rings must be composed of many small particles and not solid rings around the planet, and not until the 1970s that spectroscopic evidence definitively showed that the rings are composed mostly of water ice. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 17 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 12, 2014 in near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.4 million miles (2.3 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 24 degrees. Image scale is 85 miles (136 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18295

  10. Electric-vehicle commuter car battery requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Harbaugh, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    In order for the battery-powered commuter car to become a realistic transportation alternative to the gasoline-powered vehicle, it must be capable of being safely integrated with existing traffic; have sufficient range to accomplish the driver`s mission objectives; be competitively priced in initial cost, cost per mile, and total life-cycle cost, and be convenient to use and inexpensive to maintain. The electric vehicle drive system is inherently less complicated than the conventional internal-combustion engine vehicle and should be less expensive when produced in the same quantities. The Achilles heel of the electric vehicle (EV) is, therefore, the battery, which is the subject of this paper. 1 ref.

  11. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  12. A non-commuting stabilizer formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten; Buerschaper, Oliver

    2015-05-15

    We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.

  13. Electronically commutated motors for vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echolds, E. F.

    1980-02-01

    Two permanent magnet electronically commutated motors for electric vehicle traction are discussed. One, based on existing technology, produces 23 kW (peak) at 26,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 18,000 rpm. The motor has a conventional design: a four-pole permanent magnet rotor and a three-phase stator similar to those used on ordinary induction motors. The other, advanced technology motor, is rated at 27 kW (peak) at 14,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 10,500 rpm. The machine employs a permanent magnet rotor and a novel ironless stator design in an axial air gap, homopolar configuration. Comparison of the new motors with conventional brush type machines indicates potential for substantial cost savings.

  14. Commutation Relations and Discrete Garnier Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Christopher M.; Rains, Eric M.

    2016-11-01

    We present four classes of nonlinear systems which may be considered discrete analogues of the Garnier system. These systems arise as discrete isomonodromic deformations of systems of linear difference equations in which the associated Lax matrices are presented in a factored form. A system of discrete isomonodromic deformations is completely determined by commutation relations between the factors. We also reparameterize these systems in terms of the image and kernel vectors at singular points to obtain a separate birational form. A distinguishing feature of this study is the presence of a symmetry condition on the associated linear problems that only appears as a necessary feature of the Lax pairs for the least degenerate discrete Painlevé equations.

  15. Eulerian Dynamics with a Commutator Forcing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-09

    class of L’s which are neither positive nor bounded. We have three typical examples in mind . 1.1. Examples. Consider L = Lφ of the form (1.4) Lφ(f)(x...1.1),(1.2) reads , (1.9) { ρt + (ρu)x = 0, (ρu)t + (ρu 2)x = ρL(ρu)− ρL(ρ)u, (x, t) ∈ Ω× R+. We shall make a detailed study on the propagation of...a priori control estimates via e. The study of global well-posedness for all three cases of commutator forcing we have in mind — bounded, sin- gular

  16. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  17. Physical activity during leisure and commuting in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Pekkarinen, Heikki; Hänninen, Osmo; Yu, Zhijie; Tian, Huiguang; Guo, Zeyu; Nissinen, Aulikki

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate physical activity during leisure time and commuting among persons aged 15-69 years in the urban population of Tianjin, China, and to assess its associations with demographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: In 1996 a cross-sectional survey of 2002 males and 1974 females provided information on physical activity during leisure time and commuting and on demographics and health behaviours. FINDINGS: No leisure-time physical activity was engaged in by 67% of females and 61% of males. However, only 4% of females and 9% of males reported an absence of physical activity during commuting. The mean duration of leisure-time physical activity for the whole population was about 10 min per day. The average commuting time on foot or by bicycle was about 30 min. Leisure-time physical activity was more frequent among highly educated people, people with high incomes, white-collar workers, married people, non-smokers, or people commuting on foot or by bicycle than among other people. Persons with low incomes, male blue-collar workers and married people were more likely than others to engage in 30 min or more per day of physical activity on foot or by bicycle when commuting. CONCLUSION: People in Tianjin engaged in a high level of physical activity when commuting and a low level of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:12571720

  18. Commuting behavior of western U.S. residents

    SciTech Connect

    Caviglia, J. |

    1996-06-01

    Estimation and interpretation of commutes to work has been studied extensively with respect to gender, race, and income. While the literature is extensive in these areas, there has been little research on regional differences between US states and territories. Since data which reports the commute to work is in average minutes, the distance traveled is estimated using estimates of the distance between home and work county centroids. The models differ in estimation of in-county commutes. The first assumes that the commute is equal to the radius of the county and the second estimates the commute as a weighted distance based on place location. Two data sets are compared, US National Guard data and US census data. Goal of this paper is to make conclusions about the commuting behavior of western residents through the use of these estimates, and therefore to provide a estimation method for distance commutes which can be used in further research. It is concluded that the radius method of estimation may be an over estimation, in particular in the western states. Since the non-western states are generally more homogeneously populated, this overestimation is not observed. It is recommended that the place location method be used for similar research, in particular studies dealing with western states. Suggestions are made for further research and recommendations are made for the US Army National Guard in regards to recruiting.

  19. Widening Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-18

    Saturn rings and its moon Rhea are imaged before a crescent of the planet in this image captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The shadows of the rings continue to grow wider after their disappearing act during the planet August 2009 equinox.

  20. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  1. Ring Slicer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-06

    Saturn's moon Prometheus, seen here looking suspiciously blade-like, is captured near some of its sculpting in the F ring. Prometheus' (53 miles or 86 kilometers across) orbit sometimes takes it into the F ring. When it enters the ring, it leaves a gore where its gravitational influence clears out some of the smaller ring particles. Below Prometheus, the dark lanes interior to the F ring's bright core provide examples of previous ring-moon interactions. This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 7 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on March 15, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 286,000 miles (461,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 115 degrees. Image scale is 1.7 miles (2.8 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18324

  2. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  3. Gauge transformation and symmetries of the commutative multicomponent BKP hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanzhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new multi-component B type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy that takes values in a commutative subalgebra of {gl}(N,{{C}}). After this, we give the gauge transformation of this commutative multicomponent BKP (CMBKP) hierarchy. Meanwhile, we construct a new constrained CMBKP hierarchy that contains some new integrable systems, including coupled KdV equations under a certain reduction. After this, the quantum torus symmetry and quantum torus constraint on the tau function of the commutative multi-component BKP hierarchy will be constructed.

  4. On Spaces of Commuting Elements in Lie Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-25

    rank isotropy. J. Topol., 5(2):431–457, 2012. [9] T. Baird. Cohomology of the space of commuting n-tuples in a compact Lie group. Algebr . Geom. Topol...ON SPACES OF COMMUTING ELEMENTS IN LIE GROUPS By Frederick R. Cohen and Mentor Stafa with an appendix by V. Reiner IMA Preprint...2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE On Spaces of Commuting Elements in Lie Groups 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  5. Mechanism For Adjustment Of Commutation Of Brushless Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanism enables adjustment of angular position of set of Hall-effect devices that sense instantaneous shaft angle of brushless dc motor. Outputs of sensors fed to commutation circuitry. Measurement of shaft angle essential for commutation; that is, application of voltage to stator windings must be synchronized with shaft angle. To obtain correct angle measurement for commutation, Hall-effect angle sensors positioned at proper reference angle. The present mechanism accelerates adjustment procedure and makes it possible to obtain more accurate indication of minimum-current position because it provides for adjustment while motor running.

  6. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  7. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  8. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  9. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  10. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  11. Elementary Particle Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Catterall, Simon; Hubisz, Jay; Balachandran, Aiyalam; Schechter, Joe

    2013-01-05

    This final report describes the activities of the high energy theory group at Syracuse University for the period 1 January 2010 through April 30 2013. The research conducted by the group includes lattice gauge theory, non-commutative geometry, phenomenology and mathematical physics.

  12. Southern Nevadas Club Ride Commuter Service Wins EPA Honor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    · Clean Air Partners Program - CLEAN AIR Force of Central Texas · Club Ride Commuter Services - Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada · Air Quality Partnership of the Delaware Valley - Delaware Valley Regional Planning

  13. 75 FR 13680 - Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... commutation order. However, in 2005, the Bureau centralized its designation and sentence computation functions... economy of $100,000,000 or more; a major increase in costs or prices; or significant adverse effects on...

  14. Leptogenesis from a Non Commutative FRW Like Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mebarki, O.; Mebarki, N.; Aissaoui, H.

    2010-10-31

    A pure NCG leptonic asymmetry is obtained for particles propagating in a curved non commutative FRW universe. It is shown that because of the space-time deformation, an axial like symmetry is generated.

  15. Strong Planck constraints on braneworld and non-commutative inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: skuro@rs.tus.ac.jp E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2014-03-01

    We place observational likelihood constraints on braneworld and non-commutative inflation for a number of inflaton potentials, using Planck, WMAP polarization and BAO data. Both braneworld and non-commutative scenarios of the kind considered here are limited by the most recent data even more severely than standard general-relativity models. At more than 95 % confidence level, the monomial potential V(φ)∝φ{sup p} is ruled out for p ≥ 2 in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld cosmology and, for p > 0, also in the high-curvature limit of the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) braneworld and in the infrared limit of non-commutative inflation, due to a large scalar spectral index. Some parameter values for natural inflation, small-varying inflaton models and Starobinsky inflation are allowed in all scenarios, although some tuning is required for natural inflation in a non-commutative spacetime.

  16. Classical limits of quantum mechanics on a non-commutative configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Benatti, Fabio; Gouba, Laure

    2013-06-15

    We consider a model of non-commutative quantum mechanics given by two harmonic oscillators over a non-commutative two dimensional configuration space. We study possible ways of removing the non-commutativity based on the classical limit context known as anti-Wick quantization. We show that removal of non-commutativity from the configuration space and from the canonical operators is not commuting operation.

  17. Saturn's rings - high resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  18. What interventions increase commuter cycling? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Glenn; Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify interventions that will increase commuter cycling. Setting All settings where commuter cycling might take place. Participants Adults (aged 18+) in any country. Interventions Individual, group or environmental interventions including policies and infrastructure. Primary and secondary outcome measures A wide range of ‘changes in commuter cycling’ indicators, including frequency of cycling, change in workforce commuting mode, change in commuting population transport mode, use of infrastructure by defined populations and population modal shift. Results 12 studies from 6 countries (6 from the UK, 2 from Australia, 1 each from Sweden, Ireland, New Zealand and the USA) met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 2 studies were randomised control trials and the remainder preintervention and postintervention studies. The majority of studies (n=7) evaluated individual-based or group-based interventions and the rest environmental interventions. Individual-based or group-based interventions in 6/7 studies were found to increase commuter cycling of which the effect was significant in only 3/6 studies. Environmental interventions, however, had small but positive effects in much larger but more difficult to define populations. Almost all studies had substantial loss to follow-up. Conclusions Despite commuter cycling prevalence varying widely between countries, robust evidence of what interventions will increase commuter cycling in low cycling prevalence nations is sparse. Wider environmental interventions that make cycling conducive appear to reach out to hard to define but larger populations. This could mean that environmental interventions, despite their small positive effects, have greater public health significance than individual-based or group-based measures because those interventions encourage a larger number of people to integrate physical activity into their everyday lives. PMID:26275902

  19. Non-commutativity and Local Indistinguishability of Quantum States

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We study the local indistinguishability problem of quantum states. By introducing an easily calculated quantity, non-commutativity, we present an criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for the local indistinguishability of a complete set of pure orthogonal product states. A constructive distinguishing procedure to obtain the concrete local measurements and classical communications is given. The non-commutativity of ensembles can be also used to characterize the quantumness for classical-quantum or quantum-classical correlated states. PMID:25208830

  20. Advanced propfan analysis for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gerald A.; Creighton, Tom; Haddad, Raphael; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Russell, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Advanced propfans were selected to be used throughout the family of commuters. These propulsion systems offer a 25 to 28 percent fuel savings over comparably sized turbofans operating in the 1990s. A brief study of the propulsion systems available for the family of commuters is provided and the selection of the advanced turboprops justified. The propeller and engine designs and performance are discussed. The integration of these designs are examined. Also addressed is the noise considerations and constraints due to propfan installation.

  1. Quantum walled Brauer algebra: commuting families, Baxterization, and representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikhatov, A. M.; Tipunin, I. Yu

    2017-02-01

    For the quantum walled Brauer algebra, we construct its Specht modules and (for generic parameters of the algebra) seminormal modules. The latter construction yields the spectrum of a commuting family of Jucys-Murphy elements. We also propose a Baxterization prescription; it involves representing the quantum walled Brauer algebra in terms of morphisms in a braided monoidal category and introducing parameters into these morphisms, which allows constructing a ‘universal transfer matrix’ that generates commuting elements of the algebra.

  2. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S

    2012-03-27

    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  3. Ring King

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    Saturn reigns supreme, encircled by its retinue of rings. Although all four giant planets have ring systems, Saturn's is by far the most massive and impressive. Scientists are trying to understand why by studying how the rings have formed and how they have evolved over time. Also seen in this image is Saturn's famous north polar vortex and hexagon. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 37 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on May 4, 2014 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 2 million miles (3 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 110 miles (180 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18278

  4. Vascular rings.

    PubMed

    Backer, Carl L; Mongé, Michael C; Popescu, Andrada R; Eltayeb, Osama M; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Rigsby, Cynthia K

    2016-06-01

    The term vascular ring refers to congenital vascular anomalies of the aortic arch system that compress the esophagus and trachea, causing symptoms related to those two structures. The most common vascular rings are double aortic arch and right aortic arch with left ligamentum. Pulmonary artery sling is rare and these patients need to be carefully evaluated for frequently associated tracheal stenosis. Another cause of tracheal compression occurring only in infants is the innominate artery compression syndrome. In the current era, the diagnosis of a vascular ring is best established by CT imaging that can accurately delineate the anatomy of the vascular ring and associated tracheal pathology. For patients with a right aortic arch there recently has been an increased recognition of a structure called a Kommerell diverticulum which may require resection and transfer of the left subclavian artery to the left carotid artery. A very rare vascular ring is the circumflex aorta that is now treated with the aortic uncrossing operation. Patients with vascular rings should all have an echocardiogram because of the incidence of associated congenital heart disease. We also recommend bronchoscopy to assess for additional tracheal pathology and provide an assessment of the degree of tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. The outcomes of surgical intervention are excellent and most patients have complete resolution of symptoms over a period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aerodynamically balanced ailerons for a commuter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinne, Erkki

    2001-08-01

    This review paper describes the state of designing aerodynamically balanced ailerons with a practical application to commuter aircraft, with Saab 2000 being used as an example. A modern design method is presented based on the application of CFD computations to determine the aileron aerodynamic data combined with flight mechanical simulations to study the impact on airplane rolling maneuvers and aileron dynamics. Dynamic response of aileron deflection, airplane roll rate and roll acceleration to the applied wheel force is determined by frequency analysis. A review on the design requirements on ailerons and practical design considerations is presented. The CFD computations are described in detail with comparisons against wind tunnel experiments and flight tests for validation of the methodology. Description of the flight mechanical simulation system includes the modeling of the aileron control system. The frequency analysis summarizes the equations of the employed Fourier analysis, spectrum analysis and system identification. Numerical results are presented on aileron hinge moment coefficient, airplane rolling moment coefficient, wheel force in sideslip and rolling maneuvers and gain and phase lag in frequency analysis results to highlight the key discussion points including the effects of aileron control system and aileron and tab gap sizes. Overall, aerodynamically balanced ailerons, together with a mechanical control system, offer large cost savings on small- and medium-sized airplanes.

  6. Saturn Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-12

    Like Earth, Saturn has an invisible ring of energetic ions trapped in its magnetic field. This feature is known as a "ring current." This ring current has been imaged with a special camera on Cassini sensitive to energetic neutral atoms. This is a false color map of the intensity of the energetic neutral atoms emitted from the ring current through a processed called charged exchange. In this process a trapped energetic ion steals and electron from cold gas atoms and becomes neutral and escapes the magnetic field. The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument's ion and neutral camera records the intensity of the escaping particles, which provides a map of the ring current. In this image, the colors represent the intensity of the neutral emission, which is a reflection of the trapped ions. This "ring" is much farther from Saturn (roughly five times farther) than Saturn's famous icy rings. Red in the image represents the higher intensity of the particles, while blue is less intense. Saturn's ring current had not been mapped before on a global scale, only "snippets" or areas were mapped previously but not in this detail. This instrument allows scientists to produce movies (see PIA10083) that show how this ring changes over time. These movies reveal a dynamic system, which is usually not as uniform as depicted in this image. The ring current is doughnut shaped but in some instances it appears as if someone took a bite out of it. This image was obtained on March 19, 2007, at a latitude of about 54.5 degrees and radial distance 1.5 million kilometres (920,000 miles). Saturn is at the center, and the dotted circles represent the orbits of the moon's Rhea and Titan. The Z axis points parallel to Saturn's spin axis, the X axis points roughly sunward in the sun-spin axis plane, and the Y axis completes the system, pointing roughly toward dusk. The ion and neutral camera's field of view is marked by the white line and accounts for the cut-off of the image on the left. The

  7. A case study in automated theorem proving: A difficult problem about commutators

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, W.

    1995-02-01

    This paper shows how the automated deduction system OTTER. was used to prove the group theory theorem {chi}{sup 3} = e {implies} [[[y, z], u], v] = e, where e is the identity, and [XI Y] is the commutator {chi}{prime}y{prime}{chi}y. This is a difficult problem for automated provers, and several lengthy searches were run before a proof was found. Problem formulation and search strategy played a key role in the success. I believe that ours is the first automated proof of the theorem.

  8. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for a commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, T. A.; Downing, D. R.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft with low wing loading that operate at low altitudes are particularly susceptible to unwanted accelerations caused by atmospheric gusts. This paper describes the design and analysis of a longitudinal digital Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS). The RQAS designs were conducted for a Cessna 402B aircraft using the flaps and the elevator as the control surfaces. The designs are generated using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. Nominal designs are presented at five flight conditions that cover a total mission. Trade-off studies are conducted to investigate the effect of sample time, computational delay time, servo bandwidth and control power.

  9. Black rings at large D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    We study the effective theory of slowly rotating black holes at the infinite limit of the spacetime dimension D. This large D effective theory is obtained by integrating the Einstein equation with respect to the radial direction. The effective theory gives equations for non-linear dynamical deformations of a slowly rotating black hole by effective equations. The effective equations contain the slowly rotating Myers-Perry black hole, slowly boosted black string, non-uniform black string and black ring as stationary solutions. We obtain the analytic solution of the black ring by solving effective equations. Furthermore, by perturbation analysis of effective equations, we find a quasinormal mode condition of the black ring in analytic way. As a result we confirm that thin black ring is unstable against non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also include 1 /D corrections to the effective equations and discuss the effects by 1 /D corrections.

  10. Uniqueness theorem for charged dipole rings in five-dimensional minimal supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Tomizawa, Shinya; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Yasui, Yukinori

    2010-04-15

    We show a uniqueness theorem for charged dipole rotating black rings in the bosonic sector of five-dimensional minimal supergravity, generalizing our previous work [arXiv:0901.4724] on the uniqueness of charged rotating black holes with topologically spherical horizon in the same theory. More precisely, assuming the existence of two commuting axial Killing vector fields and the same rod structure as the known solutions, we prove that an asymptotically flat, stationary charged rotating black hole with nondegenerate connected event horizon of cross-section topology S{sup 1}xS{sup 2} in the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory - if exists - is characterized by the mass, charge, two independent angular momenta, dipole charge, and the ratio of the S{sup 2} radius to the S{sup 1} radius. As anticipated, the necessity of specifying dipole charge - which is not a conserved charge - is the new, distinguished ingredient that highlights difference between the present theorem and the corresponding theorem for vacuum case, as well as difference from the case of topologically spherical horizon within the same minimal supergravity. We also consider a similar boundary value problem for other topologically nontrivial black holes within the same theory, and in particular, discuss some nontrivial issues that arise when attempting to generalize the present uniqueness results to include black lenses--provided there exists such a solution in the theory.

  11. Luminescent Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This view shows the unlit face of Saturn's rings, visible via scattered and transmitted light. In these views, dark regions represent gaps and areas of higher particle densities, while brighter regions are filled with less dense concentrations of ring particles.

    The dim right side of the image contains nearly the entire C ring. The brighter region in the middle is the inner B ring, while the darkest part represents the dense outer B Ring. The Cassini Division and the innermost part of the A ring are at the upper-left.

    Saturn's shadow carves a dark triangle out of the lower right corner of this image.

    The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on June 8, 2005, at a distance of approximately 433,000 kilometers (269,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 22 kilometers (14 miles) per pixel.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

    For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

  12. Cave Rings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-13

    hypothesis, that cave rings are formed in the same manner as coffee rings[3], that is, due to the enhanced deposition at the edges of sessile drops ...Literature The ‘splash ring’ conjecture is described in [5]. It is claimed that 45◦ is the most probable angle for secondary drops to be ejected at, and that...ring’ is the deposit formed when a sessile drop of a solution containing dissolved particles, such as coffee or salt, dries. This was investigated by

  13. Gate drive latching circuit for an auxiliary resonant commutation circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Inventor); Kheraluwala, Mustansir Hussainy (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A gate drive latching circuit for an auxiliary resonant commutation circuit for a power switching inverter includes a current monitor circuit providing a current signal to a pair of analog comparators to implement latching of one of a pair of auxiliary switching devices which are used to provide commutation current for commutating switching inverters in the circuit. Each of the pair of comparators feeds a latching circuit which responds to an active one of the comparators for latching the associated gate drive circuit for one of the pair of auxiliary commutating switches. An initial firing signal is applied to each of the commutating switches to gate each into conduction and the resulting current is monitored to determine current direction and therefore the one of the switches which is carrying current. The comparator provides a latching signal to the one of the auxiliary power switches which is actually conducting current and latches that particular power switch into an on state for the duration of current through the device. The latching circuit is so designed that the only time one of the auxiliary switching devices can be latched on is during the duration of an initial firing command signal.

  14. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    PubMed

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  15. A double commutant theorem for Murray-von Neumann algebras.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe

    2012-05-15

    Murray-von Neumann algebras are algebras of operators affiliated with finite von Neumann algebras. In this article, we study commutativity and affiliation of self-adjoint operators (possibly unbounded). We show that a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra A of the Murray-von Neumann algebra A(f)(R) associated with a finite von Neumann algebra R is the Murray-von Neumann algebra A(f)(A(0)), where A(0) is a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of R and, in addition, A(0) is A Π R. We also prove that the Murray-von Neumann algebra A(f)(C) with C the center of R is the center of the Murray-von Neumann algebra A(f)(R). Von Neumann's celebrated double commutant theorem characterizes von Neumann algebras R as those for which R'' = R, where R', the commutant of R, is the set of bounded operators on the Hilbert space that commute with all operators in R. At the end of this article, we present a double commutant theorem for Murray-von Neumann algebras.

  16. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples

    PubMed Central

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham RD; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals. PMID:25678726

  17. Swarming rings of bacteria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, M. P.; Levitov, L. S.

    1996-03-01

    The behavior of bacterii controlled by chemotaxis can lead to a complicated spatial organization, producing swarming rings, and steady or moving aggregates( E. O. Budrene, and H. C. Berg, Complex patterns formed by motile cells of Escherichia coli. Nature 349, 630-633 (1991). ). We present a simple theory that explains the experimentally observed structures, by solving analytically two coupled differential equations, for the densities of bacterii and of chemoattractant. The equations have an interesting relation to the exactly solvable Burgers equation, and admit soliton-like solutions, that can be steady or moving. In addition, we find that there are singular solutions to the equations in which the bacterial density diverges. The theory agrees very well with the experiment: the solitons correspond to the observed travelling rings, the singularities describe formation of aggregates. In particular, the theory explains why the velocity of swarming rings decreases with the increase of the food concentration, the fact apparently not accounted by other existing approaches( L. Tsimring et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 75, 1859 (1995); Woodward, et al, Biophysical Journal, 68, 2181-2189 (1995). ).

  18. A Topos for Algebraic Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heunen, Chris; Landsman, Nicolaas P.; Spitters, Bas

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to relate algebraic quantum mechanics to topos theory, so as to construct new foundations for quantum logic and quantum spaces. Motivated by Bohr’s idea that the empirical content of quantum physics is accessible only through classical physics, we show how a noncommutative C*-algebra of observables A induces a topos {mathcal{T}(A)} in which the amalgamation of all of its commutative subalgebras comprises a single commutative C*-algebra {A} . According to the constructive Gelfand duality theorem of Banaschewski and Mulvey, the latter has an internal spectrum {\\underline{Σ}(A)} in {mathcal{T}(A)} , which in our approach plays the role of the quantum phase space of the system. Thus we associate a locale (which is the topos-theoretical notion of a space and which intrinsically carries the intuitionistic logical structure of a Heyting algebra) to a C*-algebra (which is the noncommutative notion of a space). In this setting, states on A become probability measures (more precisely, valuations) on {\\underline{Σ}} , and self-adjoint elements of A define continuous functions (more precisely, locale maps) from {\\underline{Σ}} to Scott’s interval domain. Noting that open subsets of {\\underline{Σ}(A)} correspond to propositions about the system, the pairing map that assigns a (generalized) truth value to a state and a proposition assumes an extremely simple categorical form. Formulated in this way, the quantum theory defined by A is essentially turned into a classical theory, internal to the topos {mathcal{T}(A)}. These results were inspired by the topos-theoretic approach to quantum physics proposed by Butterfield and Isham, as recently generalized by Döring and Isham.

  19. Local discrimination of qudit lattice states via commutativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Guojing; Yu, Sixia; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiaoyan; Oh, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Qudit lattice states, as the generalization of qubit lattice states, are the maximally entangled states determined by qudit lattice unitaries in a pr⊗pr quantum system with p being a prime and r being an integer. Based on the partitions of qudit lattice unitaries into commuting sets, we present a sufficient condition for local discrimination of qudit lattice states, in which the commutativity plays an efficient role. It turns out that any set of l qudit lattice states with 2 ≤l ≤pr , including k ≤l mutually commuting qudit lattice unitaries and satisfying l (l -1 ) -(k +1 ) (k -2 ) ≤2 pr , can be locally distinguished, not only extending Fan's result [H. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177905 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.177905] to the prime power quantum system but also involving the local discrimination of a larger number of maximally entangled states.

  20. The effect of a school-based active commuting intervention on children's commuting physical activity and daily physical activity.

    PubMed

    McMinn, David; Rowe, David A; Murtagh, Shemane; Nelson, Norah M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of a school-based intervention called Travelling Green (TG) on children's walking to and from school and total daily physical activity. A quasi-experiment with 166 Scottish children (8-9 years) was conducted in 2009. One group (n=79) received TG and another group (n=87) acted as a comparison. The intervention lasted 6 weeks and consisted of educational lessons and goal-setting tasks. Steps and MVPA (daily, a.m. commute, p.m. commute, and total commute) were measured for 5 days pre- and post-intervention using accelerometers. Mean steps (daily, a.m., p.m., and total commute) decreased from pre- to post-intervention in both groups (TG by 901, 49, 222, and 271 steps/day and comparison by 2528, 205, 120, and 325 steps/day, respectively). No significant group by time interactions were found for a.m., p.m., and total commuting steps. A medium (partial eta squared=0.09) and significant (p<0.05) group by time interaction was found for total daily steps. MVPA results were similar to step results. TG has a little effect on walking to and from school. However, for total daily steps and daily MVPA, TG results in a smaller seasonal decrease than for children who do not receive the intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endomorphism rings of certain Jacobians in finite characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkhin, Yu G

    2002-08-31

    We prove that, under certain additional assumptions, the endomorphism ring of the Jacobian of a curve y{sup l}=f(x) contains a maximal commutative subring isomorphic to the ring of algebraic integers of the lth cyclotomic field. Here l is an odd prime dividing the degree n of the polynomial f and different from the characteristic of the algebraically closed ground field; moreover, n{>=}9. The additional assumptions stipulate that all coefficients of f lie in some subfield K over which its (the polynomial's) Galois group coincides with either the full symmetric group S{sub n} or with the alternating group A{sub n}.

  2. Quantum dynamics of simultaneously measured non-commuting observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacohen-Gourgy, Shay; Martin, Leigh S.; Flurin, Emmanuel; Ramasesh, Vinay V.; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2016-10-01

    In quantum mechanics, measurements cause wavefunction collapse that yields precise outcomes, whereas for non-commuting observables such as position and momentum Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle limits the intrinsic precision of a state. Although theoretical work has demonstrated that it should be possible to perform simultaneous non-commuting measurements and has revealed the limits on measurement outcomes, only recently has the dynamics of the quantum state been discussed. To realize this unexplored regime, we simultaneously apply two continuous quantum non-demolition probes of non-commuting observables to a superconducting qubit. We implement multiple readout channels by coupling the qubit to multiple modes of a cavity. To control the measurement observables, we implement a ‘single quadrature’ measurement by driving the qubit and applying cavity sidebands with a relative phase that sets the observable. Here, we use this approach to show that the uncertainty principle governs the dynamics of the wavefunction by enforcing a lower bound on the measurement-induced disturbance. Consequently, as we transition from measuring identical to measuring non-commuting observables, the dynamics make a smooth transition from standard wavefunction collapse to localized persistent diffusion and then to isotropic persistent diffusion. Although the evolution of the state differs markedly from that of a conventional measurement, information about both non-commuting observables is extracted by keeping track of the time ordering of the measurement record, enabling quantum state tomography without alternating measurements. Our work creates novel capabilities for quantum control, including rapid state purification, adaptive measurement, measurement-based state steering and continuous quantum error correction. As physical systems often interact continuously with their environment via non-commuting degrees of freedom, our work offers a way to study how notions of contemporary

  3. Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.

    2017-04-01

    The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force) or angle ɛ (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis) is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.

  4. The Kaehler Potential of the Non-commutative CP{sup 1} model

    SciTech Connect

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Maceda, Marco

    2010-12-07

    We present some results on the moduli space for the charge two-soliton solution of the non-commutative CP{sup 1} model. The associated Kaehler potential and its relation to the commutative case are discussed.

  5. Passive commuting and dietary intake in fourth and fifth grade students.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Kristine A; Cotterman, Carolyn; Thompson, Hannah R; Rissman, Yedida; Rosen, Nila J; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2015-03-01

    Promoting active commuting by walking or biking to and from school could increase physical activity and reduce obesity among youth. However, exposure to the retail food environment while commuting may lead to greater dietary intake among active commuters. To examine the relationship between commute patterns and dietary intake and quality in elementary students. Fourth and fifth grade students (N=3,316) in 44 California schools reported commute modes to and from school and dietary intake for the same 24-hour period in 2012. Differences between active and passive commuters in total energy intake (kcal), energy from purchased foods, and energy from sweets and snack-type foods were compared, stratified by after-school program (ASP) participation (analysis conducted in 2013). Twenty-three percent of youth actively commuted to school; 27% actively commuted from school. Passive commuters, 87% of whom traveled by car, consumed 78 more kcal from purchased foods (p<0.01) than active commuters in the 24-hour period, though total energy intake did not differ by commute mode overall or by ASP participation. Among the 72% of students who did not attend an ASP, passive commuters consumed 56 more kcal from purchased foods (p<0.01) and 25 more kcal from sweets and snack-type foods (p=0.02) than active commuters. Passive commuters consumed more sweets and snack-type foods and more purchased foods than active commuters. These results, which suggest that parents are providing unhealthy foods for their children during the school commute, reinforce the need for multilevel strategies to promote energy balance in youth. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between long commutes and subjective health complaints among railway workers in Norway.

    PubMed

    Urhonen, Terhi; Lie, Arve; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-12-01

    Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes. The mean number of complaints was 7.5 among the former group and 6.4 for the latter group (p = 0.009). In a regression model, in which the authors controlled for age, gender, education, self-rated health, and coping, the employees with long commutes reported more complaints than those with short commutes. Significant associations were found between those with long commutes and the number and degree of incidences of self-reported musculoskeletal pain, pseudo-neurologic complaints, and gastrointestinal problems. Commuters who had had long commutes for more than 10 years reported more gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal complaints than those with long commutes for less than 2 years. Also, commuters with long commutes spent less time with their families and leisure activities compared with those with short commutes. The authors conclude that the association between long commute times and higher levels of subjective health complaints should attract the attention of transport planners, employers, and public health policymaker.

  7. Biomechanics of Corneal Ring Implants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the biomechanics of corneal ring implants by providing a related mathematical theory and biomechanical model for the treatment of myopia and keratoconus. Methods: The spherical dome model considers the inhomogeneity of the tunica of the eye, dimensions of the cornea, lamellar structure of the corneal stroma, and asphericity of the cornea. It is used in this study for calculating a strengthening factor sf for the characterization of different ring-shaped corneal implant designs. The strengthening factor is a measure of the amount of strengthening of the cornea induced by the implant. Results: For ring segments and incomplete rings, sf = 1.0, which indicates that these implants are not able to strengthen the cornea. The intracorneal continuous complete ring (MyoRing) has a strengthening factor of up to sf = 3.2. The MyoRing is, therefore, able to strengthen the cornea significantly. Conclusions: The result of the presented biomechanical analysis of different ring-shaped corneal implant designs can explain the different postoperative clinical results of different implant types in myopia and keratoconus. PMID:26312619

  8. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  9. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States and...

  10. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States and...

  11. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States and...

  12. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  13. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  14. On the Need for Separate Commuter Programs: San Diego State Looks at Its Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, Barbie

    1980-01-01

    A self-assessment of commuter student programs and services at San Diego State University (SDSU) indicated that the university was doing well in meeting the needs of this population. For many years, most of the students at SDSU have been commuter students. Services and programs that were developed were created with the commuter student in mind.…

  15. How To Give 'Em What They Want: Assessment Basics for Commuters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rue, Penny

    1981-01-01

    Commuter students are often left out of college programs because their needs and schedules differ substantially from the traditional student for whom the programs are planned. Once the basic educational needs of the commuter student are being met, planners can focus on developing programs geared to other needs of the commuter such as personal…

  16. 49 CFR 37.87 - Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... commuter rail cars from any source. (e) Amtrak and commuter authorities purchasing or leasing used... rail cars. 37.87 Section 37.87 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....87 Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars. (a) Except as provided elsewhere...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... employee and a student. (7) Single-passenger commuter vehicle means a motor-driven vehicle with four or...

  18. 77 FR 4326 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Health Innovations in Commuting Challenge”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...: Commuting is an essential and growing component of daily life for most American workers, making up about 20... American economy. Among the 140 million workers in America, 86.1% commuted in a car, truck, or van in 2009... workers took an average of 25.1 minutes to get to work; more than 3.2 million U.S. workers commute...

  19. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  20. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  1. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  2. The Saturn Ring Observer: In situ studies of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. D.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Spilker, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey recently undertaken by the NRC's Space Studies Board for the National Academy of Sciences, studies were commissioned for a number of potential missions to outer planet targets. One of these studies examined the technological feasibility of a mission to carry out in situ studies of Saturn's rings, from a spacecraft placed in a circular orbit above the ring plane: the Saturn Ring Observer. The technical findings and background are discussed in a companion poster by T. R. Spilker et al. Here we outline the science goals of such a mission. Most of the fundamental interactions in planetary rings occur on spatial scales that are unresolved by flyby or orbiter spacecraft. Typical particle sizes in the rings of Saturn are in the 1 cm - 10 m range, and average interparticle spacings are a few meters. Indirect evidence indicates that the vertical thickness of the rings is as little as 5 - 10 m, which implies a velocity dispersion of only a few mm/sec. Theories of ring structure and evolution depend on the unknown characteristics of interparticle collisions and on the size distribution of the ring particles. The SRO could provide direct measurements of both the coefficient of restitution -- by monitoring individual collisions -- and the particles’ velocity dispersion. High-resolution observations of individual ring particles should also permit estimates of their spin states. Numerical simulations of Saturn’s rings incorporating both collisions and self-gravity predict that the ring particles are not uniformly distributed, but are instead clustered into elongated structures referred to as “self-gravity wakes”, which are continually created and destroyed on an orbital timescale. Theory indicates that the average separation between wakes in the A ring is of order 30-100 m. Direct imaging of self-gravity wakes, including their formation and subsequent dissolution, would provide critical validation of these models. Other

  3. Resident and Commuter Students: Is It Only the Living Situation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, John D.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the residence hall and commuter living situations on a freshman's intellectual and personal growth is studied. The study affirms previous findings that residence hall freshmen develop more rapidly, but the results suggest that other college experience factors beyond the living situation are important in facilitating student…

  4. FACTORS EFFECTING EXPOSURES TO VOCS DURING COMMUTING IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the average, Californian's spend between one and three hours each day commuting. The contribution from in-vehicle exposures to air toxics may be a significant component of total air exposure. Although pollutant concentration data are important for exposure assessments, onl...

  5. Analyses of School Commuting Data for Exposure Modeling Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure models often make the simplifying assumption that school children attend school in the same Census tract where they live. This paper analyzes that assumption and provides information on the temporal and spatial distributions associated with school commuting. The d...

  6. Integrating Place and Time with Tasks: Supporting the Student Commuter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Though the role of traveler information in transportation has been widely recognized in Activity Analysis research, the needs of specific populations receive limited attention. The commuting burden on community college students received comparatively little attention, despite first semester attrition rates and sharp declines in observed parking…

  7. 26 CFR 49.4263-1 - Commutation tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Tickets for single trips of less than 30 miles. Amounts paid for commutation or season tickets or books for single trips of less than 30 miles are exempt from the tax imposed by section 4261, regardless of... exempt from the tax regardless of the distance of a single trip. ...

  8. Resident and Commuter Students: Is It Only the Living Situation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, John D.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the residence hall and commuter living situations on a freshman's intellectual and personal growth is studied. The study affirms previous findings that residence hall freshmen develop more rapidly, but the results suggest that other college experience factors beyond the living situation are important in facilitating student…

  9. Active commuting to elementary school and adiposity: An observational study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth grade adiposity. This study was a secondary analysis of the Early ...

  10. Regenerative Snubber For GTO-Commutated SCR Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed regenerative snubbing circuit substituted for dissipative snubbing circuit in inverter based on silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) commutated by gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO). Intended to reduce loss of power that occurs in dissipative snubber. Principal criteria in design: low cost, simplicity, and reliability.

  11. Tape Recorders and the Commuter Student: Bypassing the Red Pen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses several ways in which tape-recorded responses by the instructor to student writing can benefit commuter students. Discusses how the audio cassette responses are paired with a series of questions on the writing process and how the author shapes his tape-recorded comments. Notes student responses about the advantages of this approach. (SR)

  12. Integrating Place and Time with Tasks: Supporting the Student Commuter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Though the role of traveler information in transportation has been widely recognized in Activity Analysis research, the needs of specific populations receive limited attention. The commuting burden on community college students received comparatively little attention, despite first semester attrition rates and sharp declines in observed parking…

  13. The Business Case for Commuter Benefits at Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavon, Patty

    2005-01-01

    Transportation and parking-related issues are common challenges for many colleges and universities today. Most institutions have far fewer parking spaces than they do commuters, and constructing and maintaining new parking facilities can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. In this article, an Environmental Protection Agency representative…

  14. The Business Case for Commuter Benefits at Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavon, Patty

    2005-01-01

    Transportation and parking-related issues are common challenges for many colleges and universities today. Most institutions have far fewer parking spaces than they do commuters, and constructing and maintaining new parking facilities can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. In this article, an Environmental Protection Agency representative…

  15. Retention Strategies at an Open Enrollment Commuter College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittman, Elizabeth; Plumer, Davenport

    The undergraduate population at the New York Institute of Technology (NYIT), an open enrollment four-year commuter college, is highly vulnerable to attrition. Fifty-two percent of the students enrolled between July 1, 1991 and July 1, 1995 either did not graduate after 4 years or did not return to school. In response, the college has developed…

  16. FACTORS EFFECTING EXPOSURES TO VOCS DURING COMMUTING IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the average, Californian's spend between one and three hours each day commuting. The contribution from in-vehicle exposures to air toxics may be a significant component of total air exposure. Although pollutant concentration data are important for exposure assessments, onl...

  17. Commute Maps: Separating Slowly Mixing Molecular Configurations for Kinetic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Noé, Frank; Banisch, Ralf; Clementi, Cecilia

    2016-11-08

    Identification of the main reaction coordinates and building of kinetic models of macromolecular systems require a way to measure distances between molecular configurations that can distinguish slowly interconverting states. Here we define the commute distance that can be shown to be closely related to the expected commute time needed to go from one configuration to the other, and back. A practical merit of this quantity is that it can be easily approximated from molecular dynamics data sets when an approximation of the Markov operator eigenfunctions is available, which can be achieved by the variational approach to approximate eigenfunctions of Markov operators, also called variational approach of conformation dynamics (VAC) or the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The VAC or TICA components can be scaled such that a so-called commute map is obtained in which Euclidean distance corresponds to the commute distance, and thus kinetic models such as Markov state models can be computed based on Euclidean operations, such as standard clustering. In addition, the distance metric gives rise to a quantity we call total kinetic content, which is an excellent score to rank input feature sets and kinetic model quality.

  18. Some Transportation Alternatives for Commuter Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Mark W.; Kazlo, Martha P.

    This document is written in an effort to urge commuter colleges and universities to use their technical expertise in solving the automobile problem, which adds to the congestion and pollution in college communities. It has become a necessity that colleges and universities begin to explore ways to offer a variety of less expensive transportation…

  19. Analyses of School Commuting Data for Exposure Modeling Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure models often make the simplifying assumption that school children attend school in the same Census tract where they live. This paper analyzes that assumption and provides information on the temporal and spatial distributions associated with school commuting. The d...

  20. Physics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkavyi, N.

    2007-08-01

    to assume that the mechanism for the formation of the narrow Saturnian and Uranian rings is the same and that the elliptical Titan, Maxwell and Huygens ringlets are direct relations of the Uranian rings. A reliable theory of the planetary rings would enable us to consider from completely different perspective the evolution of other cosmic disk systems: protosatellite disks [2], zodiacal and protoplanetary disks [3-5]. In this review we also discuss numerical models of the 3D structure and infrared emission of circumstellar dust disks, incorporating all relevant physical processes. We review the resonant structures of a dusty disk induced by the presence of planets [3-5]. It is shown that the planet, via resonances and gravitational scattering, produces an asymmetric resonant dust belt with one or more clumps intermittent with one or a few off-center cavities. These features can serve as indicators of a planet embedded in the circumstellar dust disk and, moreover, can be used to determine its major orbital parameters and even the mass of the planet. The results of our study reveal a remarkable similarity with various types of highly asymmetric circumstellar disks observed with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and other telescopes around Epsilon Eridani and Vega. The proposed interpretation of the clumps in those disks as being resonant patterns is testable - it predicts the asymmetric design around the star to revolve by ∼ 1 deg/yr about Vega and 0.6-0.8 deg/yr about Epsilon Eri. Our simulations indicate that Vega may have a massive planet ∼ 2 Jupiter mass at a distance ∼ 80-100 AU [3,5], and Epsilon Eri may have a less massive planet ∼ 0.2 Jovian mass as a distance of 55-60 AU [3]. Dynamical model of the origin of the warping of the Beta Pictoris disk includes the gravitational influence of a planet with a mass of about 10 masses of Earth, at a distance of 70 AU, and a small inclination (2.5 deg) of the planetary orbit to the main dust disk. The optical

  1. Ringing wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplya, R.A.; Molina, C.

    2005-06-15

    We investigate the response of traversable wormholes to external perturbations through finding their characteristic frequencies and time-domain profiles. The considered solution describes traversable wormholes between the branes in the two brane Randall-Sundrum model and was previously found within Einstein gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field. The evolution of perturbations of a wormhole is similar to that of a black hole and represents damped oscillations (ringing) at intermediately late times, which are suppressed by power-law tails (proportional to t{sup -2} for monopole perturbations) at asymptotically late times.

  2. Epidemic Process over the Commute Network in a Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival. PMID:24905831

  3. Epidemic process over the commute network in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival.

  4. Is active commuting the answer to population health?

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    This brief review examines whether active commuting is an effective method of controlling the current obesity epidemic and enhancing the cardiovascular health of the population. Of the many potential methods of active commuting, walking and cycling are the usual choices. Children and adolescents prefer cycling, but for adults issues of safety, cycle storage and company dress codes make walking the preferred option, particularly in North American cities, where urban design and weather conditions often do not favour cycling. Active transportation is more frequent in some European countries with dedicated cycle and pedestrian paths, but in most developed societies, active transportation has declined in recent years.Attempts to increase walking behaviour in the sedentary population have had only limited success to date. A weekly gross energy expenditure of at least 4 MJ is recommended to reduce all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This can be achieved by walking 1.9 km in 22 minutes twice per day, 5 days per week, or by cycling at 16 km/h for 11 minutes twice per day, 5 days per week. When engaged in level walking, the intensity of effort may be adequate for cardiovascular benefit in older adults, but in fit young workers, it is necessary to either increase the pace or choose a hilly route in order to induce cardio-respiratory benefit; in contrast, cycling is likely to provide an adequate cardiovascular stimulus even for young adults.Empirical data to date have yielded mixed results: a reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been observed more frequently in cyclists than in walkers, and more frequently in women and older men than in young active commuters. More information is needed concerning the typical weekly dose of activity provided by active commuting, and the impact of such commuting on overall attitudes towards physical activity. It is also necessary to find better methods of involving the sedentary population, through both counselling and changes

  5. Predictors of children's active commuting to school: an observational evaluation in 5 U.S. communities.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jason A; Cowan, David; Liu, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Few reports examined long term predictors of children's active commuting to school (walking or cycling to school, ACS). To identify predictors of ACS over 1 school year among a sample of children with relatively high rates of ACS. Parents were surveyed in September 2010 (Time 1) and April 2011 (Time 2). The dependent variable was children's commuting mode to school (active versus passive). Independent variables included: 1) parents' outcome expectations (from Social Cognitive Theory: the expected risks/benefits for their child doing ACS), 2) distance to school, 3) participation in an adult-led walk to school group, 4) temperature, and 5) child demographics. Generalized mixed-models estimated odds ratios for ACS (n = 369 or 49.7% of Time 1 respondents). Males (OR = 2.59, 95% CI [1.57-4.30]), adult-led walk to school group participation (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.14-2.86]), parents' outcome expectations (OR = 1.26, 95% CI [1.14-1.39]), temperature (OR = 1.03, 95% CI [1.01-1.07), distance to school (OR = 0.23, 95% CI [0.14-0.37]), and Latino ethnicity (OR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.12-0.65]) were associated with ACS. Programs and policies sensitive to parents' concerns (eg, adult-led walk to school groups) and targeting Latinos and girls appear promising for increasing ACS.

  6. Mass Commuting and Influenza Vaccination Prevalence in New York City: Protection in a Mixing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Burton; Wilcosky, Tim; Wagener, Diane; Cooley, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Objective Assess influenza vaccination among commuters using mass transit in New York City (NYC). Methods We used the 2006 NYC Community Health Survey (CHS) to analyze the prevalence of influenza immunization by commuting behaviors and to understand what socioeconomic and geographic factors may explain any differences found. Results Vaccination prevalence is significantly lower for New Yorkers who commute on public transportation compared to other New Yorkers. This difference is largely attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood of residence. Conclusions The analysis identified a low prevalence of immunization among commuters, and given the transmissibility in that setting, targeting commuters for vaccination campaigns may impede influenza spread. PMID:21218159

  7. Association Between User-Generated Commuting Data and Population-Representative Active Commuting Surveillance Data - Four Cities, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M

    2016-09-16

    Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs.

  8. Apprehending Mathematical Structure: A Case Study of Coming to Understand a Commutative Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Adrian; Stehlikova, Nada

    2006-01-01

    Abstract algebra courses tend to take one of two pedagogical routes: from examples of mathematics structures through definitions to general theorems, or directly from definitions to general theorems. The former route seems to be based on the implicit pedagogical intention that students will use their understanding of particular examples of an…

  9. Parental perceptions of barriers to active commuting to school in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huertas-Delgado, Francisco Javier; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Villa-González, Emilio; Aranda-Balboa, María Jesús; Cáceres, María Victoria; Mandic, Sandra; Chillón, Palma

    2017-06-01

    : Understanding parental barriers is crucial to promote active commuting to school since the parental perceptions influence how young people commute. This study examined parental barriers to active commuting to school among Spanish children and adolescents, and their association with their gender and the usual mode of commuting. Parents of children ( n = 628) and parents of adolescents ( n = 151) from Granada (Spain) completed a paper-based questionnaire about perceived parental barriers to active commuting to school and mode of commuting. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Among Spanish parents, the most common barriers reported by parents of children were traffic volume and dangerous intersections, whereas the most frequent barriers reported by parents of adolescents were distance to school and dangerous intersections. Compared to parents of children, a greater proportion of parents of adolescents reported distance to school and crime and smaller proportion reported traffic volume as barriers to active commuting to school. Among parents of children, crime was a more commonly reported as a barrier by parents of girls. Although some barriers reported by parents of passive commuters were similar for children and adolescents (such as distance to school and absence of a policeman at crosswalks), other barriers were specific to parents of children. The main parental barriers to active commuting in children were traffic volume and dangerous intersections whereas for adolescents were distance and dangerous intersections. Among Spanish parents, parental barriers to active commuting are influenced by children's age, gender and mode of commuting to school.

  10. Commuter Mobility and the Spread of Infectious Diseases: Application to Influenza in France

    PubMed Central

    Charaudeau, Segolene; Pakdaman, Khashayar; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Commuting data is increasingly used to describe population mobility in epidemic models. However, there is little evidence that the spatial spread of observed epidemics agrees with commuting. Here, using data from 25 epidemics for influenza-like illness in France (ILI) as seen by the Sentinelles network, we show that commuting volume is highly correlated with the spread of ILI. Next, we provide a systematic analysis of the spread of epidemics using commuting data in a mathematical model. We extract typical paths in the initial spread, related to the organization of the commuting network. These findings suggest that an alternative geographic distribution of GP accross France to the current one could be proposed. Finally, we show that change in commuting according to age (school or work commuting) impacts epidemic spread, and should be taken into account in realistic models. PMID:24416152

  11. Commuter mobility and the spread of infectious diseases: application to influenza in France.

    PubMed

    Charaudeau, Segolene; Pakdaman, Khashayar; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Commuting data is increasingly used to describe population mobility in epidemic models. However, there is little evidence that the spatial spread of observed epidemics agrees with commuting. Here, using data from 25 epidemics for influenza-like illness in France (ILI) as seen by the Sentinelles network, we show that commuting volume is highly correlated with the spread of ILI. Next, we provide a systematic analysis of the spread of epidemics using commuting data in a mathematical model. We extract typical paths in the initial spread, related to the organization of the commuting network. These findings suggest that an alternative geographic distribution of GP accross France to the current one could be proposed. Finally, we show that change in commuting according to age (school or work commuting) impacts epidemic spread, and should be taken into account in realistic models.

  12. Commuter rail state-of-the-art: A study of current systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Wu, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    The report documents the results of the state-of-the-art study on current commuter rail systems in the United States. Detailed information on operations, fare collection, stations, maintenance facilities, patronage, railcars, and feeder systems are presented. This commuter rail report is intended to provide a database of actual operation statistics for the 12 commuter rail systems in the United States. Statistics were collected on existing commuter rail services through Federal Transit Administration (FTA) reports, American Public Transit Association (APTA) and railroad industry publications. In addition, a survey was also conducted to collect the pertinent information on existing systems. A comparative analysis of commuter rail service with respect to other mass transit systems was conducted. New and proposed systems are also discussed. Current trends in commuter rail operations are presented. Startup costs for new systems were analyzed. This report found that many cities are considering commuter rail as a potential part of the solution to local transportation problems.

  13. Ring currents in azulene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, A. T.; Todorov, T. N.; Elena, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    We propose a self consistent polarisable ion tight binding theory for the study of push-pull processes in aromatic molecules. We find that the method quantitatively reproduces ab initio calculations of dipole moments and polarisability. We apply the scheme in a simulation which solves the time dependent Schrödinger equation to follow the relaxation of azulene from the second excited to the ground states. We observe rather spectacular oscillating ring currents which we explain in terms of interference between the HOMO and LUMO states.

  14. 49 CFR 37.89 - Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. 37.89 Section 37.89... commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 37.89 - Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remanufacture of intercity and commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. 37.89 Section 37.89... commuter rail cars and purchase or lease of remanufactured intercity and commuter rail cars. (a)...

  16. Small Satellites Embedded in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    A small satellite that inhabits a narrow gap in an dense planetary ring, such as Pan, will excite wakes at the gap edges, as well as spiral waves deeper in the ring. As the satellite disturbs the ring, it also draws angular momentum from the ring matter that orbits just interior to the satellite, while depositing that angular momentum among the ring particles that orbit just exterior. This outward transport of angular momentum causes the orbits of the nearby ring particles to slowly shrink, dragging along with them the satellite in its gap. This inward motion is of course type II migration that is familiar from planet formation theory. The significance of type II migration, if any, will also be assessed for the small satellites that orbit within Saturn's rings.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE FUNDAMENTAL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS OF CHAIN STRUCTURE OF THREE RINGS An approach based in the molecular descriptors of the DFT (Density Functional Theory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Neira B. Oscar; Fabio, Mejía Elio; Elizabeth, y. Rincón B.

    2008-04-01

    The organic molecules of a chain structure containing phenyl, oxazole and oxadiazole rings are used in different combinations as active media for tunable lasers. From this viewpoint, we focused in the theoretical study of organic compounds of three rings, which have similar optical properties (fluorescence and laser properties). The main goal of this study is to compare the electronic structure through the analysis of molecular global descriptors defined in the DFT framework of2-[2-X-phenyl]-5-phenyl-1,3-Oxazole, 2-[2-X-phenyl]-5-phenyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole, and 2-[2-X-phenyl]-5-phenyl-furane with X = H, F and Cl. The basis set used was 6-31G+(d).

  18. Kinetics of ring formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2011-06-01

    We study reversible polymerization of rings. In this stochastic process, two monomers bond and, as a consequence, two disjoint rings may merge into a compound ring or a single ring may split into two fragment rings. This aggregation-fragmentation process exhibits a percolation transition with a finite-ring phase in which all rings have microscopic length and a giant-ring phase where macroscopic rings account for a finite fraction of the entire mass. Interestingly, while the total mass of the giant rings is a deterministic quantity, their total number and their sizes are stochastic quantities. The size distribution of the macroscopic rings is universal, although the span of this distribution increases with time. Moreover, the average number of giant rings scales logarithmically with system size. We introduce a card-shuffling algorithm for efficient simulation of the ring formation process and we present numerical verification of the theoretical predictions.

  19. Non-arcing commutation in explosive opening switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, John P.; Newman, Duane; Ford, Richard; Klug, Reja

    1993-01-01

    Explosively actuated opening switches can develop high impedance without arcing. We examine the commutation performance of the repetitively actuated pyrotechnic (RAP) switch in the USAF Armament Technology Battery Power System (ATBPS). The ATBPS stores over 10 MJ at up to 2.5 MA in an inductor. The RAP switch is used to commutate the current into a railgun load. The RAP switch develops several hundred volts before it completely opens and arcs. We have developed an analytic description of the nonarcing opening powers; it is primarily resistive, with current diffusion plays a central role. Experimental results which validate the theoretical model are also presented. The effect can be exploited to achieve higher nonarcing impedance, thereby reducing the destructive effects of arcs on the opening switch.

  20. Application of variable-sweep wings to commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Turriiziani, R. V.; Washburn, F. F.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of using variable-sweep wings on the riding quality and mission-performance characteristics of commuter-type aircraft were studied. A fixed-wing baseline vehicle and a variable-sweep version of the baseline were designed and evaluated. Both vehicles were twin-turboprop, pressurized-cabin, 30-passenger commuter aircraft with identical mission requirements. Mission performance was calculated with and without various ride-quality constraints for several combinations of cruise altitude and stage lengths. The variable-sweep aircraft had a gross weight of almost four percent greater than the fixed-wing baseline in order to meet the design-mission requirements. In smooth air, the variable sweep configuration flying with low sweep had a two to three percent fuel-use penalty. However, the imposition of quality constraints in rough air can result in advantages in both fuel economy and flight time for the variable-sweep vehicle flying with high sweep.

  1. Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement protocol based on commutative encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiwu; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    A secure multiparty quantum key agreement protocol using single-qubit states is proposed. The agreement key is computed by performing exclusive-OR operation on all the participants' secret keys. Based on the commutative property of the commutative encryption, the exclusive-OR operation can be performed on the plaintext in the encrypted state without decrypting it. Thus, it not only protects the final shared key, but also reduces the complexity of the computation. The efficiency of the proposed protocol, compared with previous multiparty QKA protocols, is also improved. In the presented protocol, entanglement states, joint measurement and even the unitary operations are not needed, and only rotation operations and single-state measurement are required, which are easier to be realized with current technology.

  2. Determination of the flight equipment maintenance costs of commuter airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Labor and materials costs associated with maintaining and operating 12 commuter airlines carrying an average of from 42 to 1,100 passengers daily in a variety of aircraft types were studied to determine the total direct maintenance cost per flight hour for the airframe, engine, and avionics and other instruments. The distribution of maintenance costs are analyzed for two carriers, one using turboprop aircraft and the other using piston engine aircraft.

  3. Study of high current commutation by explosive switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuba, S.; Kakudate, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Miyamoto, M.; Morita, T.; Kubota, A.; den, M.

    1993-01-01

    The study presents the basic experimental data obtained with a large current opening switch for current commutation using explosives. It is shown that currents up to a maximum of 40 kA can be completely interrupted within 30 microsec. The mechanism of current interruption using a thin conductor plate and methods of measuring interrupting current with a pickup coil and taking photographs with a high-speed camera (one frame per microsec) are discussed.

  4. Markov property of Gaussian states of canonical commutation relation algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petz, Dénes; Pitrik, József

    2009-11-01

    The Markov property of Gaussian states of canonical commutation relation algebras is studied. The detailed description is given by the representing block matrix. The proof is short and allows infinite dimension. The relation to classical Gaussian Markov triplets is also described. The minimizer of relative entropy with respect to a Gaussian Markov state has the Markov property. The appendix contains formulas for the relative entropy.

  5. Associations between active commuting and physical activity in working adults: Cross-sectional results from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Panter, Jenna; Griffin, Simon J.; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantify the association between time spent in active commuting and in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of working adults living in both urban and rural locations. Methods In 2009, participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study were sent questionnaires enquiring about sociodemographic characteristics and weekly time spent in active commuting. They were also invited to wear an accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were used to compute the time spent in MVPA. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between time spent in active commuting and MVPA. Results 475 participants (70% female) provided valid data. On average, participants recorded 55 (SD: 23.02) minutes of MVPA per day. For women, reporting 150 or more minutes of active commuting per week was associated with an estimated 8.50 (95% CI: 1.75 to 51.26, p = 0.01) additional minutes of daily MVPA compared to those who reported no time in active commuting. No overall associations were found in men. Conclusions Promoting active commuting might be an important way of increasing levels of physical activity, particularly in women. Further research should assess whether increases in time spent in active commuting are associated with increases in physical activity. PMID:22964003

  6. Exploring universal patterns in human home-work commuting from mobile phone data.

    PubMed

    Kung, Kevin S; Greco, Kael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Home-work commuting has always attracted significant research attention because of its impact on human mobility. One of the key assumptions in this domain of study is the universal uniformity of commute times. However, a true comparison of commute patterns has often been hindered by the intrinsic differences in data collection methods, which make observation from different countries potentially biased and unreliable. In the present work, we approach this problem through the use of mobile phone call detail records (CDRs), which offers a consistent method for investigating mobility patterns in wholly different parts of the world. We apply our analysis to a broad range of datasets, at both the country (Portugal, Ivory Coast, and Saudi Arabia), and city (Boston) scale. Additionally, we compare these results with those obtained from vehicle GPS traces in Milan. While different regions have some unique commute time characteristics, we show that the home-work time distributions and average values within a single region are indeed largely independent of commute distance or country (Portugal, Ivory Coast, and Boston)-despite substantial spatial and infrastructural differences. Furthermore, our comparative analysis demonstrates that such distance-independence holds true only if we consider multimodal commute behaviors-as consistent with previous studies. In car-only (Milan GPS traces) and car-heavy (Saudi Arabia) commute datasets, we see that commute time is indeed influenced by commute distance. Finally, we put forth a testable hypothesis and suggest ways for future work to make more accurate and generalizable statements about human commute behaviors.

  7. Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation

    PubMed Central

    Reiskarimian, Negar; Krishnaswamy, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time. PMID:27079524

  8. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  9. Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

    PubMed

    Reiskarimian, Negar; Krishnaswamy, Harish

    2016-04-15

    Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

  10. Individual Public Transportation Accessibility is Positively Associated with Self-Reported Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. Methods: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter. Results: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age, and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commute distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men, the associations were insignificant. Conclusion: This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning

  11. Ringing phenomenon of the fiber ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Ying, Diqing; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

    2007-08-01

    A resonator fiber-optic gyro (R-FOG) is a high-accuracy inertial rotation sensor based on the Sagnac effect. A fiber ring resonator is the core sensing element in the R-FOG. When the frequency of the fiber ring resonator input laser is swept linearly with time, ringing of the output resonance curve is observed. The output field of the fiber ring resonator is derived from the superposition of the light transmitted through the directional coupler directly and the multiple light components circulated in the fiber ring resonator when the frequency of the laser is swept. The amplitude and phase of the output field are analyzed, and it is found that the difference in time for different light components in the fiber ring resonator to reach a point of destructive interference causes the ringing phenomenon. Finally the ringing phenomenon is observed in experiments, and the experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis well.

  12. The Ring Sculptor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-08

    Prometheus zooms across the Cassini spacecraft field of view, attended by faint streamers and deep gores in the F ring. This movie sequence of five images shows the F ring shepherd moon shaping the ring inner edge

  13. Beyond Bright Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-30

    The tiny moon Pandora appears beyond the bright disk of Saturn rings in this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft. Pandora orbits outside the F ring and, in this image, is farther from Cassini than the rings are.

  14. Asymmetric dipolar ring

    DOEpatents

    Prosandeev, Sergey A.; Ponomareva, Inna V.; Kornev, Igor A.; Bellaiche, Laurent M.

    2010-11-16

    A device having a dipolar ring surrounding an interior region that is disposed asymmetrically on the ring. The dipolar ring generates a toroidal moment switchable between at least two stable states by a homogeneous field applied to the dipolar ring in the plane of the ring. The ring may be made of ferroelectric or magnetic material. In the former case, the homogeneous field is an electric field and in the latter case, the homogeneous field is a magnetic field.

  15. Analysis of Ring Wake Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M. C.; Stewart, G. R.

    1999-09-01

    indent=20pt Collisional N-body simulations at the edge of a perturbed planetary ring are used to model the edges of the Encke gap in Saturn's rings. A small satellite, Pan, orbits inside the Encke gap and excites forced eccentricities and density wakes on both edges of the gap. The simulations use a local cell method to model a narrow ring using particles of the appropriate size for the A-ring at the proper optical depth. In the simulations we see evidence for shear reversal at the wake peaks. Our results imply that the most significant factor in the damping of the wakes is the reduction of the forced eccentricity and not randomization of the phase angles of the particles. The reduction of the forced eccentricity occurs in an orderly fashion with steep drops at each successive wake maximum following the highest density wake peak. indent=20pt At the inner edge (that nearer the perturber) we see phase shifts visible as bending of the line wake maxima. Because the simulations are actually of narrow rings, we also see a number of interesting phenomena at the outer edge. A strong boundary layer forms at that edge, which becomes partially detached from the rest of the ring. The wake patterns persist much further downstream in this boundary layer than they do in the rest of the ring. We also observe that in the less dense region between the main section of the ring and the boundary layer the magnitude of the forced eccentricities reverse their behavior in the main part and increase at each wake maxima. indent=20pt At the talk we will compare our results to the various analytic theories of Borderies, Goldreich, and Tremaine.

  16. Saturn's Spectacular Ring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Saturn's beautiful rings have fascinated astronomers since they were first observed by Galileo in 1610. The main rings consist of solid particles mostly in the 1 cm - 10 m range, composed primarily of water ice. The ring disk is exceptionally thin - the typical local thickness of the bright rings is tens of meters, whereas the diameter of the main rings is 250,000 km! The main rings exhibit substantial radial variations "ringlets", many of which are actively maintained via gravitational perturbations from Saturn's moons. Exterior to the main rings lie tenuous dust rings, which have little mass but occupy a very large volume of space. This seminar will emphasize the physics of ring-moon interactions, recent advances in our understanding of various aspects of the rings obtained from observations taken during 1995 when the rings appeared edge-on to the Earth and then to the Sun, and observations in subsequent years from HST.

  17. Active Commuting: Workplace Health Promotion for Improved Employee Well-Being and Organizational Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Page, Nadine C.; Nilsson, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes a behavior change intervention that encourages active commuting using electrically assisted bikes (e-bikes) for health promotion in the workplace. This paper presents the preliminary findings of the intervention’s impact on improving employee well-being and organizational behavior, as an indicator of potential business success. Method: Employees of a UK-based organization participated in a workplace travel behavior change intervention and used e-bikes as an active commuting mode; this was a change to their usual passive commuting behavior. The purpose of the intervention was to develop employee well-being and organizational behavior for improved business success. We explored the personal benefits and organizational co-benefits of active commuting and compared these to a travel-as-usual group of employees who did not change their behavior and continued taking non-active commutes. Results: Employees who changed their behavior to active commuting reported more positive affect, better physical health and more productive organizational behavior outcomes compared with passive commuters. In addition, there was an interactive effect of commuting mode and commuting distance: a more frequent active commute was positively associated with more productive organizational behavior and stronger overall positive employee well-being whereas a longer passive commute was associated with poorer well-being, although there was no impact on organizational behavior. Conclusion: This research provides emerging evidence of the value of an innovative workplace health promotion initiative focused on active commuting in protecting and improving employee well-being and organizational behavior for stronger business performance. It considers the significant opportunities for organizations pursuing improved workforce well-being, both in terms of employee health, and for improved organizational behavior and business success. PMID:28119640

  18. The Added Benefit of Bicycle Commuting on the Regular Amount of Physical Activity Performed.

    PubMed

    Donaire-Gonzalez, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Curto, Ariadna; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Mendez, Michelle A; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Basagaña, Xavier; Ambros, Albert; Jerrett, Michael; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of death and disability globally. Active transportation such as bicycling may increase physical activity levels. It is currently uncertain whether a shift from motorized transport modes to bicycle commuting leads to increased physical activity overall or substitutes other forms of physical activity. The study aims to disentangle whether bicycle commuting adds to or replaces other physical activities by comparing the physical activity performed by bicycle and motorized commuters. Physical activity, travel behavior, health status, sociodemographic, and built environment characteristics were assessed for 752 adults, between June 2011 and May 2012, in Barcelona, Spain. Statistical analyses, performed in 2013-2014, included linear, non-linear, and mixture models to estimate disparities and the dose-response relationship between physical activity duration and commute mode. Regular bicycle commuters traveled by bicycle an average of 3.1 (SD=2.5) hours in the previous week. Bicycle commuting contributed positively to physical activity duration across participants (p<0.05). It amounted to 2.1 (95% CI=0.84, 3.55) hours/week extra of physical activity for bicycle commuters versus motorized commuters. Among bicycle travelers, there was a positive dose-response relationship between bicycle commuting and physical activity duration, with an average extra physical activity duration of 0.5 (95% CI=0.4, 0.6) hours/week for every additional 1 hour/week of bicycle commuting. Bicycle commuting likely adds to overall physical activity. The extra physical activity performed by bicycle commuters is undertaken as moderate physical activity and follows a sigmoidal dose-response relationship with bicycle duration. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trade-offs between commuting time and health-related activities.

    PubMed

    Christian, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    To further understand documented associations between obesity and urban sprawl, this research describes individuals' trade-offs between health-related activities and commuting time. A cross-section of 24,861 working-age individuals employed full-time and residing in urban counties is constructed from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010). Data are analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions to quantify health-related activity decreases in response to additional time spent commuting. Outcomes are total daily minutes spent in physical activity at a moderate or greater intensity, preparing food, eating meals with family, and sleeping. Commuting time is measured as all travel time between home and work and vice versa. The mean commuting time is 62 min daily, the median is 55 min, and 10.1% of workers commute 120 min or more. Spending an additional 60 min daily commuting above average is associated with a 6% decrease in aggregate health-related activities and spending an additional 120 min is associated with a 12% decrease. The greatest percentage of commuting time comes from sleeping time reductions (28-35%). Additionally, larger proportions of commuting time are taken from physical activity and food preparation relative to the mean commuting length: of 60 min spent commuting, 16.1% is taken from physical activity and 4.1% is taken from food preparation; of 120 min commuting, 20.3% is taken from physical activity and 5.6% is taken from food preparation. The results indicate that longer commutes are associated with behavioral patterns which over time may contribute to obesity and other poor health outcomes. These findings will assist both urban planners and researchers wishing to understand time constraints' impacts on health.

  20. Active Commuting: Workplace Health Promotion for Improved Employee Well-Being and Organizational Behavior.

    PubMed

    Page, Nadine C; Nilsson, Viktor O

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes a behavior change intervention that encourages active commuting using electrically assisted bikes (e-bikes) for health promotion in the workplace. This paper presents the preliminary findings of the intervention's impact on improving employee well-being and organizational behavior, as an indicator of potential business success. Method: Employees of a UK-based organization participated in a workplace travel behavior change intervention and used e-bikes as an active commuting mode; this was a change to their usual passive commuting behavior. The purpose of the intervention was to develop employee well-being and organizational behavior for improved business success. We explored the personal benefits and organizational co-benefits of active commuting and compared these to a travel-as-usual group of employees who did not change their behavior and continued taking non-active commutes. Results: Employees who changed their behavior to active commuting reported more positive affect, better physical health and more productive organizational behavior outcomes compared with passive commuters. In addition, there was an interactive effect of commuting mode and commuting distance: a more frequent active commute was positively associated with more productive organizational behavior and stronger overall positive employee well-being whereas a longer passive commute was associated with poorer well-being, although there was no impact on organizational behavior. Conclusion: This research provides emerging evidence of the value of an innovative workplace health promotion initiative focused on active commuting in protecting and improving employee well-being and organizational behavior for stronger business performance. It considers the significant opportunities for organizations pursuing improved workforce well-being, both in terms of employee health, and for improved organizational behavior and business success.

  1. Haag's theorem in noncommutative quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Antipin, K. V.; Mnatsakanova, M. N.; Vernov, Yu. S.

    2013-08-15

    Haag's theorem was extended to the general case of noncommutative quantum field theory when time does not commute with spatial variables. It was proven that if S matrix is equal to unity in one of two theories related by unitary transformation, then the corresponding one in the other theory is equal to unity as well. In fact, this result is valid in any SO(1, 1)-invariant quantum field theory, an important example of which is noncommutative quantum field theory.

  2. A DFT investigation of base-catalyzed β-elimination reactions in water solution for systems activated by the pyridine ring: Theory vs. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosconi, Edoardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Alunni, Sergio; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    We report a theoretical investigation of β-elimination reactions in systems activated by the pyridine ring. The investigated reaction, the acetohydroxamate-induced β-elimination in protonated N-[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]quinuclidinium, offers a unique opportunity to test computational methodologies since detailed kinetic experimental data are available. We calculated the p Kas of the acetohydroxamic acid and the substrate and thoroughly characterized the reactive free-energy profile. The reaction proceeds via a stable carbanion intermediate. Except a discrepancy in the reproduction of the p Ka of the acetohydroxamic acid, the calculated free-energy profile is in excellent agreement with the experiment, showing the general reliability of the present approach.

  3. 75 FR 4442 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ..., Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Small Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... with certification, maintenance, modifications, and pilot training. Also included in the report is...

  4. The relative commutativity degree of noncyclic subgroups of nonabelian metabelian groups of order at most 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Fadhilah Abu; Ali, Nor Muhainiah Mohd; Rhani, Norarida Abd

    2017-08-01

    A metabelian group is a group G that have at least an abelian normal subgroup N such that the quotient group G/N is also abelian. The concept of commutativity degree plays as important role in determining the abelianness of the group. This concept has been extended to the relative commutativity degree of a subgroup H of a group G which defined as the probability that an element of H commutes with an element of G. In this paper, the relative commutativity degree for noncyclic subgroups of nonabelian metabelian groups of order at most 14 are determined.

  5. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  6. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  7. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  8. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  9. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  10. Potential Health Impact of Switching From Car to Public Transportation When Commuting to Work

    PubMed Central

    Mirer, Franklin E.; Amstislavski, Tashia M.; Eisl, Holger M.; Werbe-Fuentes, Jordan; Gorczynski, John; Goranson, Chris; Wolff, Mary S.; Markowitz, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed humidity-corrected particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and physical activity (using global positioning system monitors and diaries) among 18 people who commuted by car to Queens College, New York, New York, for 5 days, and then switched to commuting for the next 5 days via public transportation. The PM2.5 differed little between car and public transportation commutes (1.41 μg/M3·min; P = .226). Commuting by public transportation rather than by car increased energy expenditure (+124 kcal/day; P < .001) equivalent to the loss of 1 pound of body fat per 6 weeks. PMID:20966368

  11. Potential health impact of switching from car to public transportation when commuting to work.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo; Mirer, Franklin E; Amstislavski, Tashia M; Eisl, Holger M; Werbe-Fuentes, Jordan; Gorczynski, John; Goranson, Chris; Wolff, Mary S; Markowitz, Steven B

    2010-12-01

    We assessed humidity-corrected particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposure and physical activity (using global positioning system monitors and diaries) among 18 people who commuted by car to Queens College, New York, New York, for 5 days, and then switched to commuting for the next 5 days via public transportation. The PM(2.5) differed little between car and public transportation commutes (1.41 μg/M(3)·min; P = .226). Commuting by public transportation rather than by car increased energy expenditure (+124 kcal/day; P < .001) equivalent to the loss of 1 pound of body fat per 6 weeks.

  12. Uranus Tenth Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    On Jan. 23, 1986, NASA Voyager 2 discovered a tenth ring orbiting Uranus. The tenth ring is about midway between the bright, outermost epsilon ring and the next ring down, called delta. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00035

  13. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  14. Birth Control Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A What's in this ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  15. Radon transform on a space over a residue class ring

    SciTech Connect

    Molchanov, Vladimir F

    2012-05-31

    The functions on a space of dimension N over the residue class ring Z{sub n} modulo n that are invariant with respect to the group GL(N,Z{sub n}) form a commutative convolution algebra. We describe the structure of this algebra and find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the operators of multiplication by elements of this algebra. The results thus obtained are applied to solve the inverse problem for the hyperplane Radon transform on Z{sup N}{sub n}. Bibliography: 2 titles.

  16. Commuting alternatives in the United States: Recent trends and a look to the future. Final report, July 1993-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    Commuting in the U.S. has evolved substantially over the past several decades, from the more traditional commute with a majority of destinations in the central business district to new travel patterns where commuting from suburb to suburb has grown to be the dominant commuting pattern. The report was prepared to assist in developing a through understanding of recent trends in commuting alternatives in the U.S. Using data from the Census, American Housing Survey (AHS), and the Nationwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS), general trends in commuting are presented, including those related to mode choice, vehicle occupancy, departure time, travel time, and travel distance.

  17. Ringing in an HNBody Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimlinger, Thomas; Hamilton, Douglas; Hahn, Joseph M.

    2017-06-01

    We are in the process of developing a useful extension to the N-body integrator HNBody (Rauch & Hamilton 2002), enabling it to simulate a viscous, self-gravitating ring orbiting an oblate body. Our algorithm follows that used in the symplectic integrator epi_int (Hahn & Spitale 2013), in which the ring is simulated as many (~100) interacting, elliptic, confocal streamlines. This idea was first introduced in an analytic context by Goldreich & Tremaine (1979) and enabled rapid progress in the theory of ring evolution; since then, such discretization has been standard in the literature. While we adopt epi_int’s streamline formalism, we nevertheless improve upon its design in several ways. Epi_int uses epicyclic elements in its drift step; approximating these elements introduces small, systematic errors that build up with time. We sidestep this problem by instead using the more traditional Keplerian osculating elements. In addition, epi_int uses several particles per wire to effectively calculate the inter-gravitational forces everywhere along each streamline. We replicate this ability but can often gain a speed boost by using a single tracer particle per streamline; while this restricts us to simulating rings dominated by the m = 1 mode, this is typical of most observed narrow eccentric ringlets. We have also extended epi_int’s two dimensional algorithm into 3D. Finally, whereas epi_int is written in IDL, HNBody is written in C, which yields considerably faster integrations.Braga-Ribas et al. (2014) reported a set of narrow rings orbiting the Centaur Chariklo, but neither their investigation nor that of Pan & Wu (2016) yielded a satisfactory origin and evolution scenario. Eschewing the assumption that such rings must be short-lived, we instead argue (as in Rimlinger et al. 2016) that sufficiently eccentric rings can self-confine for hundreds of millions of years while circularizing. In this case, Chariklo may have formed rings as a KBO. We are working towards

  18. Predictors of Children’s Active Commuting to School: an Observational Evaluation in Five US Communities

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jason A; Cowan, David; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Few reports examined long term predictors of children’s active commuting to school (walking or cycling to school, ACS). Purpose To identify predictors of ACS over one school year among a sample of children with relatively high rates of ACS. Methods Parents were surveyed in September 2010 (Time 1) and April 2011 (Time 2). The dependent variable was children’s commuting mode to school (active versus passive). Independent variables included: 1) parents’ outcome expectations (from Social Cognitive Theory: the expected risks/benefits for their child doing ACS), 2) distance to school, 3) participation in an adult-led walk to school group, 4) temperature, and 5) child demographics. Generalized mixed-models estimated odds ratios for ACS (n=369 or 49.7% of Time 1 respondents). Results Males (OR=2.59, 95% CI [1.57–4.30]), adult-led walk to school group participation (OR=1.80, 95% CI [1.14–2.86]), parents’ outcome expectations (OR=1.26, 95% CI [1.14–1.39]), temperature (OR=1.03, 95% CI [1.01–1.07), distance to school (OR=0.23, 95% CI [0.14–0.37]), and Latino ethnicity (OR=0.28, 95% CI [0.12–0.65]) were associated with ACS. Conclusions Programs and policies sensitive to parents’ concerns, e.g. adult-led walk to school groups, and targeting Latinos and girls appear promising for increasing ACS. PMID:23575275

  19. G2 generating technique for minimal D=5 supergravity and black rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchareb, Adel; Clément, Gérard; Chen, Chiang-Mei; Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.; Wolf, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    A solution-generating technique is developed for D=5 minimal supergravity with two commuting Killing vectors based on the G2 U-duality arising in the reduction of the theory to three dimensions. The target space of the corresponding 3-dimensional sigma model is the coset G2(2)/[SL(2,R)×SL(2,R)]. Its isometries constitute the set of solution-generating symmetries. These include two electric and two magnetic Harrison transformations with the corresponding two pairs of gauge transformations, three SL(2,R) S-duality transformations, and the three gravitational scale, gauge, and Ehlers transformations (altogether 14). We construct a representation of the coset in terms of 7×7 matrices realizing the automorphisms of split octonions. Generating a new solution amounts to transforming the coset matrices by one-parametric subgroups of G2(2) and subsequently solving the dualization equations. Using this formalism we derive a new charged black ring solution with two independent parameters of rotation.

  20. New Dust Belts of Uranus: One Ring, Two Ring, Red Ring, Blue Ring

    SciTech Connect

    de Pater, I; Hammel, H B; Gibbard, S G; Showalter, M R

    2006-02-02

    We compare near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with HST results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue. Blue is an unusual color for rings; Saturn's enigmatic E ring is the only other known example. By analogy to the E ring, R/2003 U 1 is probably produced via impacts into the embedded moon Mab, which apparently orbits at a location where non-gravitational perturbations favor the survival and spreading of sub-micron sized dust. R/2003 U 2 more closely resembles Saturn's G ring.

  1. Fock representations of Q-deformed commutation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BoŻejko, Marek; Lytvynov, Eugene; Wysoczański, Janusz

    2017-07-01

    We consider Fock representations of the Q-deformed commutation relations ∂s∂t†=Q (s ,t ) ∂t†∂s+δ (s ,t ) for s ,t ∈T . Here T :=Rd (or more generally T is a locally compact Polish space), the function Q :T2→C satisfies |Q (s ,t ) |≤1 and Q (s ,t ) =Q (t ,s ) ¯ , and ∫T2h (s ) g (t ) δ (s ,t ) σ (d s ) σ (d t ) :=∫Th (t ) g (t ) σ (d t ) , σ being a fixed reference measure on T. In the case, where |Q (s ,t ) |≡1 , the Q-deformed commutation relations describe a generalized statistics studied by Liguori and Mintchev. These generalized statistics contain anyon statistics as a special case (with T =R2 and a special choice of the function Q). The related Q-deformed Fock space F (H ) over H :=L2(T →C ,σ ) is constructed. An explicit form of the orthogonal projection of H⊗n onto the n-particle space Fn(H ) is derived. A scalar product in Fn(H ) is given by an operator Pn≥0 in H⊗n which is strictly positive on Fn(H ) . We realize the smeared operators ∂t† and ∂t as creation and annihilation operators in F (H ) , respectively. Additional Q-commutation relations are obtained between the creation operators and between the annihilation operators. They are of the form ∂s†∂t†=Q (t ,s ) ∂t†∂s†, ∂s∂t=Q (t ,s ) ∂t∂s, valid for those s ,t ∈T for which |Q(s, t)| = 1.

  2. Exposure to hydrocarbon concentrations while commuting or exercising in Dublin.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, R T; Gill, L W; McKevitt, R J; Broderick, B

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, several studies have monitored the air pollution due to traffic in both urban and rural environments. However, few studies have attempted to quantify the relative exposure to traffic derived HC pollutants between different modes of commuter transport. In this study, the difference in pollution exposure between bus and cycling commuters on a route in Dublin was compared by sampling for five vehicle related hydrocarbons: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetylene, ethane and ethylene. Samples were collected during both morning and afternoon rush hour periods using a fixed speed pump to gain representative concentrations across the whole journey. Journey times were also measured, as were typical breathing rates in order to calculate the overall dose of pollutant inhaled on the journey. Results clearly picked up significantly higher pollutant concentrations in the bus compared to cycling and also revealed elevated concentrations on the congested side of the road compared to the side moving against the traffic. However, when respiration rates and travel times were taken into account to reveal the mass of pollutants inhaled over the course of a journey, the pattern was reversed, showing slightly enhanced levels of hydrocarbons for the cyclist compared to the bus passenger. In addition, the concentrations of these compounds (excluding ethane), were ascertained at playing pitches in the vicinity of a heavily trafficked suburban motorway and in Dublin city centre. Although the concentrations were relatively low at all sites, when breathing rates were taken into consideration, the average inhaled weights of pollutants were, on occasion, higher than those average values observed for both bus and bicycle commuters.

  3. Analysis of School Commuting Data for Exposure Modeling Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jianping; McCurdy, Thomas; Burke, Janet; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Liu, Cheng; Nutaro, James J; Patterson, Lauren A

    2010-01-01

    Human exposure models often make the simplifying assumption that school children attend school in the same census tract where they live. This paper analyzes that assumption and provides information on the temporal and spatial distributions associated with school commuting. The data were obtained using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s LandScan USA population distribution model (Bhaduri et al., 2007) applied to Philadelphia PA. It is a high-resolution model used to allocate individual school-aged children to both a home and school location, and to devise a minimum-time home-to school commuting path (called a trace) between the two locations. LandScan relies heavily on Geographic Information System (GIS) data. Our GIS analyses found that in Philadelphia: (1) about 32% of the students walk across 2 or more census tracts and 40% of them walk across 4 or more census blocks; (2) 60% drive across 4 or more census tracts going to school and 50% drive across 10 or more census blocks; (3) five-minute commuting time intervals result in misclassification as high as 90% for census blocks, 70% for block groups, and 50% for census tracts; (4) a one-minute time interval is needed to reasonably resolve time spent in the various census unit designations; (5) approximately 50% of both schoolchildren s homes and schools are located within 160 m of highly-traveled roads, and 64% of the schools are located within 200 m. These findings are very important when modeling school children s exposures, especially when ascertaining the impacts of near-roadway concentrations on their total daily body burden. Since many school children also travel along these streets and roadways to get to school, a majority of children in Philadelphia are in mobile-source dominated locations most of the day. We hypothesize that exposures of school children in Philadelphia to benzene and particulate matter will be much higher than if home and school locations and commuting paths at a 1-minute time resolution are

  4. Size and seasonal distributions of airborne bioaerosols in commuting trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Wang, Che-Hsu; Hsu, Kai-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Aerobiological studies in commuting trains in northern Taiwan were carried out from August, 2007 until July, 2008. Two six-stage (>7 μm, 4.7˜7 μm, 3.3˜4.7 μm, 2.1˜3.3 μm, 1.1˜2.1 μm, 0.65˜1.1 μm) cascade impactors of 400 orifices were used to collect viable bacteria and fungi, respectively. The levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), formaldehyde (HCHO), temperature, and relative humidity in the commuting trains were also recorded during the sampling period. Results show that bacterial concentrations ranged from 25 to 1530 CFU m -3, and averaged 417 CFU m -3. The fungal concentrations ranged from 45 to 1906 CFU m -3, and averaged 413 CFU m -3. Additionally, the highest fractions occurred in the fifth stage (1.1˜2.1 μm) for both bacteria and fungi. The respirable fractions, Rb and Rf, for bacteria and fungi were 62.8% and 81.4%, respectively, which are higher than those in other studies. Furthermore, the bacterial concentration reached its highest level in autumn, and its lowest level in winter. However, the fungal concentration was highest in spring and lowest in winter. Though the total bacterial or fungal concentration did not exceed the recommendation standard in Taiwan, the relatively high respirable fraction in commuting trains probably implies a higher adverse health risk for sensitive commuters. This study further conducted multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship of various stage fractions of airborne bacteria and fungi with indoor air pollutants (CO and HCHO) and environmental parameters (CO 2, temperature, and relative humidity). The correlation coefficients of multiple regression analysis for total bacteria and fungi concentrations with indoor air pollutants and environmental parameters were 0.707 ( p < 0.00376) and 0.612 ( p < 0.00471), respectively. There are currently no formally regulated laws for indoor air quality (IAQ) in Taiwan, and this preliminary study can provide references to the Taiwan

  5. Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector.

    PubMed

    Szedlak, Rolf; Harrer, Andreas; Holzbauer, Martin; Schwarz, Benedikt; Waclawek, Johannes Paul; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2016-10-19

    The ubiquitous trend toward miniaturized sensing systems demands novel concepts for compact and versatile spectroscopic tools. Conventional optical sensing setups include a light source, an analyte interaction region, and a separate external detector. We present a compact sensor providing room-temperature operation of monolithic surface-active lasers and detectors integrated on the same chip. The differentiation between emitter and detector is eliminated, which enables mutual commutation. Proof-of-principle gas measurements with a limit of detection below 400 ppm are demonstrated. This concept enables a crucial miniaturization of sensing devices.

  6. Rotating turkeys and self-commutating artificial muscle motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Gisby, Todd A.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2012-02-01

    Electrostatic motors—first used by Benjamin Franklin to rotisserie a turkey—are making a comeback in the form of high energy density dielectric elastomer artificial muscles. We present a self-commutated artificial muscle motor that uses dielectric elastomer switches in the place of bulky external electronics. The motor simply requires a DC input voltage to rotate a shaft (0.73 Nm/kg, 0.24 Hz) and is a step away from hard metallic electromagnetic motors towards a soft, light, and printable future.

  7. Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous trend toward miniaturized sensing systems demands novel concepts for compact and versatile spectroscopic tools. Conventional optical sensing setups include a light source, an analyte interaction region, and a separate external detector. We present a compact sensor providing room-temperature operation of monolithic surface-active lasers and detectors integrated on the same chip. The differentiation between emitter and detector is eliminated, which enables mutual commutation. Proof-of-principle gas measurements with a limit of detection below 400 ppm are demonstrated. This concept enables a crucial miniaturization of sensing devices. PMID:27785455

  8. On commutativity of weighted Hankel operators and their spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Gopal; Porwal, Deepak Kumar

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the conditions on which the nonzero weighted Hankel operators Hφ β and Hψ β on H2(β) induced by ϕ ∈ L∞(β) and ψ ∈ L∞(β) respectively commute, where β = {βn}n∈ℤ is a sequence of positive numbers with β0 = 1. Spectrum of the weighted Hankel operator Hφ β , when ϕ(z) = az-1 + bz-2, is computed and it is also shown that the Weyl's theorem holds for the compact weighted Hankel operators.

  9. Using a micromachined magnetostatic relay in commutating a DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Wright, John A. (Inventor); Lilienthal, Gerald (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A DC motor is commutated by rotating a magnetic rotor to induce a magnetic field in at least one magnetostatic relay in the motor. Each relay is activated in response to the magnetic field to deliver power to at least one corresponding winding connected to the relay. In some cases, each relay delivers power first through a corresponding primary winding and then through a corresponding secondary winding to a common node. Specific examples include a four-pole, three-phase motor in which each relay is activated four times during one rotation of the magnetic rotor.

  10. Black ring deconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Levi, Thomas S.

    2007-06-22

    We present a sample microstate for a black ring in four and five dimensional language. The microstate consists of a black string microstate with an additional D6-brane. We show that with an appropriate choice of parameters the piece involving the black string microstate falls down a long AdS throat, whose M-theory lift is AdS_3 x S2. We wrap a spinning dipole M2-brane on the S2 in the probe approximation. In IIA, this corresponds to a dielectric D2-brane carrying only D0-charge. We conjecture this is the firstapproximation to a cloud of D0-branes blowing up due to their non-abelian degrees of freedom and the Myers effect.

  11. Factors associated with active commuting among parents-to-be in Karlskrona, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Thern, Emelie; Forss, Katarina Sjögren; Jogréus, Claes E; Stjernberg, Louise

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of active commuting and factors associated with participation in active commuting in the municipality of Karlskrona, Sweden. Active commuting is defined here as walking or cycling to and from school/work for at least 15 minutes one-way. A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included baseline data from parents-to-be. Pregnant females and their partners were invited to participate in the study when they contacted either of the municipality's two antenatal clinics. Data collection ran from March 2008 to February 2009. When completing the questionnaire, the participants were asked to reflect on their situation one month before the female became pregnant. The final sample consisted of 432 participants (response rate 51.9% for females and 85.0% for males). The main mode of commuting was motor vehicle (63.0%), with active commuters forming a minority (8.3%). The main facilitating factor for active commuting was living in an urban as opposed to a rural area. Regular participation in outdoor recreational physical activity was significantly positively associated with active commuting. Being Swedish and being surrounded by a green space environment were significantly negatively associated with active commuting. This study found that the number of people who are active commuters is modest and other modes of transportation are preferred. Several facilitating and impeding factors associated with active commuting were also found, indicating the importance of applying a broad health-promoting approach to encouraging active commuting. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. The Remainder Theorem and Factor Theorem for Polynomials over Noncommutative Coefficient Rings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Let R be an associative ring which has a multiplicative identity element but need not be commutative. Let f(X) = a[subscript n]X[superscript n] + a[subscript n-1]X[superscript n-1] + ... + a[subscript 0] [is a member of] R[X] and [alpha] [is a member of] R. It is known that there exist uniquely determined q(X) = b[subscript n-1]X[superscript n-1]…

  13. The Remainder Theorem and Factor Theorem for Polynomials over Noncommutative Coefficient Rings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Let R be an associative ring which has a multiplicative identity element but need not be commutative. Let f(X) = a[subscript n]X[superscript n] + a[subscript n-1]X[superscript n-1] + ... + a[subscript 0] [is a member of] R[X] and [alpha] [is a member of] R. It is known that there exist uniquely determined q(X) = b[subscript n-1]X[superscript n-1]…

  14. SUq( n) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudbery, Anthony

    1996-02-01

    A field theory with local transformations belonging to the quantum group SUq( n) is defined on a classical spacetime, with gauge potentials belonging to a quantum Lie algebra. Gauge transformations are defined for the potentials which lead to the appropriate quantum-group transformations for field strengths and covariant derivatives, defined for all elements of SUq( n) by means of the adjoint action. This guarantees a non-trivial deformation. Gauge-invariant commutation relations are identified.

  15. [Impact of commuting on partnership and family life. A literature review of the current state of research with special emphasis on commuter marriages].

    PubMed

    Häfner, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Because of modern working conditions, for many people commuting has increasingly become a necessity with many consequences for their health as well as for their family life and partnership. To date, little research has been done concerning the impact of this modern lifestyle on partnership and family life, particularly on dual-career couples and long-distance commuters. The results of a literature review are presented based on age, sex, family cycle and consequences for children; research questions are formulated. Sex-specific differences seem to be especially important, confirming the "household responsibility hypothesis." The commuter marriage as a new lifestyle seems to have become a coping mechanism for the increasing necessity in our society to commute.

  16. Number-Theoretic Functions via Convolution Rings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berberian, S. K.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the number theory property that the number of divisors of an integer n times the number of positive integers k, less than or equal to and relatively prime to n, equals the sum of the divisors of n using theory developed about multiplicative functions, the units of a convolution ring, and the Mobius Function. (MDH)

  17. Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by commutative noise

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F. Biscay, R.J.; Jimenez, J.C.; Cruz, H. de la

    2007-10-01

    The local linearization (LL) approach has become an effective technique for the numerical integration of ordinary, random and stochastic differential equations. One of the reasons for this success is that the LL method achieves a convenient trade-off between numerical stability and computational cost. Besides, the LL method reproduces well the dynamics of nonlinear equations for which other classical methods fail. However, in the stochastic case, most of the reported works has been focused in Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) driven by additive noise. This limits the applicability of the LL method since there is a number of interesting dynamics observed in equations with multiplicative noise. On the other hand, recent results show that commutative noise SDEs can be transformed into a random differential equation (RDE) by means of a random diffeomorfism (conjugacy). This paper takes advantages of such conjugacy property and the LL approach for defining a LL scheme for SDEs driven by commutative noise. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by means of numerical simulations.

  18. Breakfast Skipping, Extreme Commutes, and the Sex Composition at Birth.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Bhashkar; Seeskin, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has shown that environmental exposures in the period around conception can affect the sex ratio at birth through selective attrition that favors the survival of female conceptuses. Glucose availability is considered a key indicator of the fetal environment, and its absence as a result of meal skipping may inhibit male survival. We hypothesize that breakfast skipping during pregnancy may lead to a reduction in the fraction of male births. Using time use data from the United States we show that women with commute times of 90 minutes or longer are 20 percentage points more likely to skip breakfast. Using U.S. census data we show that women with commute times of 90 minutes or longer are 1.2 percentage points less likely to have a male child under the age of 2. Under some assumptions, this implies that routinely skipping breakfast around the time of conception leads to a 6 percentage point reduction in the probability of a male child. Skipping breakfast during pregnancy may therefore constitute a poor environment for fetal health more generally.

  19. Examining the Link Between Public Transit Use and Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Gayah, Vikash V.; Campbell, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT) use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC) behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748) completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596) reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related. PMID:25898405

  20. Self-testing of binary observables based on commutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, Jedrzej

    2017-06-01

    We consider the problem of certifying binary observables based on a Bell inequality violation alone, a task known as self-testing of measurements. We introduce a family of commutation-based measures, which encode all the distinct arrangements of two projective observables on a qubit. These quantities by construction take into account the usual limitations of self-testing and since they are "weighted" by the (reduced) state, they automatically deal with rank-deficient reduced density matrices. We show that these measures can be estimated from the observed Bell violation in several scenarios and the proofs rely only on standard linear algebra. The trade-offs turn out to be tight, and in particular, they give nontrivial statements for arbitrarily small violations. On the other extreme, observing the maximal violation allows us to deduce precisely the form of the observables, which immediately leads to a complete rigidity statement. In particular, we show that for all n ≥3 the n -partite Mermin-Ardehali-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality self-tests the n -partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and maximally incompatible qubit measurements on every party. Our results imply that any pair of projective observables on a qubit can be certified in a truly robust manner. Finally, we show that commutation-based measures give a convenient way of expressing relations among more than two observables.

  1. Commuter exposure to aerosol pollution on public transport in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Norford, L.

    2013-12-01

    Personal exposure to aerosol pollutants in the transport microenvironment of Singapore has not been well documented. Studies from many cities suggest that brief periods of exposure to high concentrations of airborne pollutants may have significant health impacts. Thus, a large proportion of aerosol exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips due to the proximity to traffic. A better understanding of the variability across transport modes is therefore needed to design transport policies that minimize commuters' exposure. In light of this, personal exposure measurements of PM10 and PM2.5, particle number (PN), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and active surface area (SA) were conducted on a selected route in downtown Singapore. Portable and real-time monitoring instruments were carried onto three different modes of public transport (bus, taxi, subway) and by foot. Simultaneous measurements were taken at a nearby park to capture the background concentrations. Large variability was observed amongst the various transport modes investigated. For example, the particle number concentration was on average 1.5, 1.6, 0.8, and 2.2 times higher inside buses, taxis, subway and by foot, respectively, than at the background site. Based on the results, it is possible to come up with a ranking of the 'cleanest' transport mode for Singapore.

  2. Assessment of noise exposure during commuting in the Madrid subway.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, M; Pavón, I; Ausejo, M; Asensio, C; Recuero, M

    2011-09-01

    Because noise-induced hearing impairment is the result not only of occupational noise exposure but also of total daily noise exposure, it is important to take the non-occupational exposure of individuals (during commuting to and from their jobs, at home, and during recreational activities) into account. Mass transit is one of the main contributors to non-occupational noise exposure. We developed a new methodology to estimate a representative commuting noise exposure. The methodology was put into practice for the Madrid subway because of all Spanish subway systems it covers the highest percentage of worker journeys (22.6%). The results of the application highlight that, for Madrid subway passengers, noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8 hr (L(Ex,8h-cj) ) depends strongly on the type of train, the presence of squealing noise, and the public address audio system, ranging from 68.6 dBA to 72.8 dBA. These values play an important role in a more complete evaluation of a relationship between noise dose and worker health response.

  3. Commuting mode and pulmonary function in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Adam W.; Hang, Jing-qing; Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Zhang, Fengying; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to air pollution can be particularly high during commuting, and may depend on the mode of transportation. We investigated the impact of commuting mode on pulmonary function in Shanghai, China. Material and methods The Shanghai Putuo Study is a cross-sectional population-based study. Our primary outcomes were FEV1 and FVC percent predicted, and the secondary outcome was spirometric airflow obstruction. We tested the association between mode of transportation and these outcomes after adjusting for confounders. Results The study population consisted of 20,102 subjects. After adjusting for confounders, the FEV1 percent predicted was 2.15 lower (95% CI −2.88, −1.42) among walkers, 1.32 lower (95% CI −2.05, −0.59) among those taking buses without air-conditioning, 1.33 lower (95% CI −2.05, −0.61) among those taking buses with air-conditioning, and 2.83 lower (95% CI −5.56, −0.10) among subway-riders, as compared to cyclists (the reference group). The effects of mode on FVC percent predicted were in the same direction. Private car use had a significant protective effect on FVC percent predicted and the risk of airflow obstruction (defined by GOLD but not by LLN criteria). Conclusions Mode of transportation is associated with differences in lung function, which may reflect pollution levels in different transportation microenvironments. PMID:26541519

  4. The Friction of Piston Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischbein, Hans W

    1945-01-01

    The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... at an educational facility offering secondary level or higher training including vocational...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... at an educational facility offering secondary level or higher training including vocational...

  7. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail...

  8. Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective…

  9. The Student as Commuter: Developing a Comprehensive Institutional Response. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Barbara

    A preview is given of ASHE-ERIC report no. 7 which focuses on commuting students at colleges and universities and how institutions of higher education can begin to respond to these students' special circumstances that are greatly affecting their educational experience. The diversity of commuter students and their educational goals requires the use…

  10. Commuting, leisure-time physical activity, and cardiovascular risk factors in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Pekkarinen, Heikki; Hänninen, Osmo; Yu, Zhijie; Guo, Zeyu; Tian, Huiguang

    2002-02-01

    The relationship between both commuting and leisure-time physical activity and selected cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 1996 in urban Tianjin, China. A total of 2002 male and 1974 female subjects aged 15-69 yr completed the survey. Commuting, leisure-time physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were determined. Doing more than 60 min of commuting physical activity or combined commuting and leisure-time physical activity was related to the highest mean blood pressure and the highest prevalence of hypertension among both genders compared with going to and from work by bus; 31-60 min commuting only or commuting plus leisure-time physical activity was associated with the lowest mean blood pressure in women and the lowest prevalence of hypertension in both genders. Daily time on commuting or leisure-time physical activity was inversely related to mean body mass index and prevalence of overweight among men and prevalence of smoking among both genders. The present study suggests that commuting and leisure-time physical activity were favorably associated with cardiovascular risk factors in this Chinese population, except that more than 60 min of physical activity was associated with high blood pressure.

  11. 78 FR 75483 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances; Commuted Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... cost scenario. This final rule will meet the requirements set forth in the U.S. Code for Relocation... GSA OGP is issuing a new commuted rate chart to meet the requirements of this law. The U.S. Department... treated by Federal agencies as the commuted rate; that is, when a Federal employee moved his/her own...

  12. Communicating with Commuters. Numerous Factors Must Be Considered To Improve Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rue, Penny

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given for producing a newsletter to provide information about campus programs, activities, and services of interest to commuting students. The following questions regarding newsletters are answered: (1) What information do commuting students need? (2) What format would be most effective? (3) How can news and articles be obtained?…

  13. Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective…

  14. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... identify key stations, using the planning and public participation process set forth in paragraph (d) of... with major parking facilities, bus terminals, intercity or commuter rail stations, passenger vessel... commuter authority and responsible person(s) also shall hold at least one public hearing on the plan and...

  15. Active commuting to school and association with physical activity and adiposity among US youth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Walking or bicycling to school, i.e. active commuting, has shown promise for improving physical activity and preventing obesity in youth. Our objectives were to examine, among US youth, whether active commuting was inversely associated with adiposity and positively associated with moderate-to vigoro...

  16. Almost commuting matrices, localized Wannier functions, and the quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Matthew B.; Loring, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    For models of noninteracting fermions moving within sites arranged on a surface in three-dimensional space, there can be obstructions to finding localized Wannier functions. We show that such obstructions are K-theoretic obstructions to approximating almost commuting, complex-valued matrices by commuting matrices, and we demonstrate numerically the presence of this obstruction for a lattice model of the quantum Hall effect in a spherical geometry. The numerical calculation of the obstruction is straightforward and does not require translational invariance or introduce a flux torus. We further show that there is a Z2 index obstruction to approximating almost commuting self-dual matrices by exactly commuting self-dual matrices and present additional conjectures regarding the approximation of almost commuting real and self-dual matrices by exactly commuting real and self-dual matrices. The motivation for considering this problem is the case of physical systems with additional antiunitary symmetries such as time-reversal or particle-hole conjugation. Finally, in the case of the sphere—mathematically speaking, three almost commuting Hermitians whose sum of square is near the identity—we give the first quantitative result, showing that this index is the only obstruction to finding commuting approximations. We review the known nonquantitative results for the torus.

  17. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail...

  18. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail...

  19. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail...

  20. A Comparison of Black and White University Student Commuters. Research Report #2-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, William E.; And Others

    Mail questionnaires sent to 200 commuters (100 white and 100 black) indicated a number of differences and similarities between the two groups, using chi square and t at the .05 level. The black commuter, as compared to the white, tended to be an older married female traveling further and spending more time and money to get to campus, and receiving…

  1. Active Commuting to School and Association With Physical Activity and Adiposity Among US Youth

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jason A.; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Cerin, Ester; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Walking or bicycling to school (ie, active commuting) has shown promise for improving physical activity and preventing obesity in youth. Our objectives were to examine, among US youth, whether active commuting was inversely associated with adiposity and positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We also examined whether MVPA mediated the relationships between active commuting and adiposity. Methods Using data of participants aged 12 to 19 years from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2004 (n = 789 unweighted), we constructed multiple linear regression models that controlled for dietary energy intake and sociodemographics. The main exposure variable was active commuting. The outcomes were BMI z-score, waist circumference, skinfolds and objectively measured MVPA. The product-of-coefficients method was used to test for mediation. Results Active commuting was inversely associated with BMI z-score (β = −0.07, P = .046) and skinfolds (β = −0.06, P = .029), and positively associated with overall daily (β = 0.12, P = .024) and before- and after-school (β = 0.20, P < .001) MVPA. Greater before- and after-school MVPA explained part of the relationship between active commuting and waist circumference (Sobel z = −1.98, P = .048). Conclusions Active commuting was associated with greater MVPA and lower measures of adiposity among US youth. Before- and after-school MVPA mediated the relationships between active commuting and waist circumference. PMID:21597121

  2. Negative Instances and the Acquisition of the Mathematical Concepts of Commutativity and Associativity. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumway, Richard J.

    The role of negative instances in the acquisition of the mathematical concepts of commutativity and associativity of a binary operation was examined. Two levels of instruction (positive instances, and positive and negative instances) for commutativity and for associativity were crossed to form a 2 x 2 factorial design with 16 ninth grade subjects…

  3. 41 CFR 302-7.102 - How is the mileage distance determined under the commuted rate method?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Commuted Rate § 302-7.102 How is the mileage distance determined under the commuted...

  4. 41 CFR 302-7.102 - How is the mileage distance determined under the commuted rate method?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Commuted Rate § 302-7.102 How is the mileage distance determined under the commuted...

  5. 41 CFR 302-7.102 - How is the mileage distance determined under the commuted rate method?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Commuted Rate § 302-7.102 How is the mileage distance determined under the commuted...

  6. 41 CFR 302-7.102 - How is the mileage distance determined under the commuted rate method?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Commuted Rate § 302-7.102 How is the mileage distance determined under the commuted...

  7. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the

  8. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the

  9. Green Commuting in the Health Care Sector: Obstacles and Best Practices.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Susan; Ai, Ning; Orris, Peter; Sriraj, P S

    2016-02-01

    Fossil fuel transportation by health care providers contributes to the prevalence of diseases they treat. We conducted an exploratory study to understand obstacles to, and best practices for, greener commuting among health care providers. We surveyed staff of three hospital clinics as to how they commute and why, and interviewed key staff of five hospital leaders in green commuting about their programs. Factors that might change respondents' commuting choices from driving alone included financial incentives, convenience, and solutions to crime and safety concerns. Successful green commuting programs offer benefits including free or reduced transit passes, shuttle buses to transit stations, and free emergency rides home. Exemplary programs throughout the country demonstrate that modifying those factors within reach can impact the amount of fossil fuel energy used for health care provider transportation.

  10. A reconstruction theorem for Connes-Landi deformations of commutative spectral triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2015-12-01

    We formulate and prove an extension of Connes's reconstruction theorem for commutative spectral triples to so-called Connes-Landi or isospectral deformations of commutative spectral triples along the action of a compact Abelian Lie group G, also known as toric noncommutative manifolds. In particular, we propose an abstract definition for such spectral triples, where noncommutativity is entirely governed by a deformation parameter sitting in the second group cohomology of the Pontryagin dual of G, and then show that such spectral triples are well-behaved under further Connes-Landi deformation, thereby allowing for both quantisation from and dequantisation to G-equivariant abstract commutative spectral triples. We then use a refinement of the Connes-Dubois-Violette splitting homomorphism to conclude that suitable Connes-Landi deformations of commutative spectral triples by a rational deformation parameter are almost-commutative in the general, topologically non-trivial sense.

  11. Topological expansion of the Bethe ansatz, and non-commutative algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eynard, B.; Marchal, O.

    2009-03-01

    In this article, we define a non-commutative deformation of the ``symplectic invariants'' (introduced in [13]) of an algebraic hyperelliptic plane curve. The necessary condition for our definition to make sense is a Bethe ansatz. The commutative limit reduces to the symplectic invariants, i.e. algebraic geometry, and thus we define non-commutative deformations of some algebraic geometry quantities. In particular our non-commutative Bergman kernel satisfies a Rauch variational formula. Those non-commutative invariants are inspired from the large N expansion of formal non-hermitian matrix models. Thus they are expected to be related to the enumeration problem of discrete non-orientable surfaces of arbitrary topologies.

  12. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  13. Commuter exposure to PM2.5, BC, and UFP in six common transport microenvironments in Sacramento, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Walter; Vijayan, Abhilash; Schulte, Nico; Herner, Jorn D.

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to estimate and compare the air pollution exposures experienced by commuters in six common transportation modes utilized by California residents, and to evaluate the impact of practical exposure mitigation strategies in reducing commute exposures. We measured concentrations of fine particle matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFP) for 161 commutes between April 2014 and November 2015 in Sacramento, CA. We collected measurements for six modes including single occupancy vehicles, high occupancy vehicles (multiple occupants), buses, light rail, train, and bicycling. The largest average concentrations for most pollutants were measured during train commutes and the lowest average concentrations were observed during light-rail commutes. Mitigation options were explored for personal vehicles, bicycling, and train commute modes. We found that ventilation settings of personal vehicles can reduce in-vehicle PM2.5, BC, and UFP concentrations by up to 75%. Similarly, bicycle route choice can reduce exposures by 15-75% with the lowest concentrations observed during commutes on dedicated bicycle paths away from traffic sources. Train commuters experienced UFP concentrations an order of magnitude greater when the locomotive engine was pulling the rail cars versus pushing the rail cars. We found that UFP concentrations during bus, bicycling, and train commutes were 1.6-5.3 times greater than personal vehicle commutes, while light rail commutes had 30% lower UFP concentrations than personal vehicle commutes. The largest exposure per mile occurred during bicycle commutes with PM2.5, BC, and UFP exposures of 1.312 μg/mile, 0.097 μg/mile, and 3.0 × 109 particles/mile, respectively. Train commutes experienced the largest exposure per mile of all of the combustion-derived transportation commute modes. BC accounted for 5-20% of total PM mass across all commute modes with an average fraction of ∼7% of PM2.5.

  14. Mysteries of the ringed planets. [colloquium review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment is presented of the recent progress in the theory of planetary rings which was in evidence at the IAU's recent, 75th Colloquium. Observational material was dominated by spacecraft data, and theoretical consideration of the problems posed comes predominantly from gravitational mechanics. An understanding of collective effects, in light of both fluid mechanical and statistical mechanical methodologies, is being approached, and the importance of electromagnetic phenomena studies is noted. Voyager observations of Saturn's rings, and accumulating data from stellar occultations by the rings of Uranus, provided most of the observational material. Jupiter's faint ring was closely examined by the 1979 Voyager flight. These three known ring systems are found to exhibit such family resemblances as their proximity to the parent planet and magnetospheric environment.

  15. Exploring Universal Patterns in Human Home-Work Commuting from Mobile Phone Data

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Kevin S.; Greco, Kael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Home-work commuting has always attracted significant research attention because of its impact on human mobility. One of the key assumptions in this domain of study is the universal uniformity of commute times. However, a true comparison of commute patterns has often been hindered by the intrinsic differences in data collection methods, which make observation from different countries potentially biased and unreliable. In the present work, we approach this problem through the use of mobile phone call detail records (CDRs), which offers a consistent method for investigating mobility patterns in wholly different parts of the world. We apply our analysis to a broad range of datasets, at both the country (Portugal, Ivory Coast, and Saudi Arabia), and city (Boston) scale. Additionally, we compare these results with those obtained from vehicle GPS traces in Milan. While different regions have some unique commute time characteristics, we show that the home-work time distributions and average values within a single region are indeed largely independent of commute distance or country (Portugal, Ivory Coast, and Boston)–despite substantial spatial and infrastructural differences. Furthermore, our comparative analysis demonstrates that such distance-independence holds true only if we consider multimodal commute behaviors–as consistent with previous studies. In car-only (Milan GPS traces) and car-heavy (Saudi Arabia) commute datasets, we see that commute time is indeed influenced by commute distance. Finally, we put forth a testable hypothesis and suggest ways for future work to make more accurate and generalizable statements about human commute behaviors. PMID:24933264

  16. Bicycle commuter injury prevention: it is time to focus on the environment.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Melissa R; Lambert, William E; Peck, Ellen G; Mayberry, John C

    2010-11-01

    Few data exist on the risk of injury while commuting to work or school by bicycle. The proportion of commuters choosing to travel by bike is increasing in the United States, and information on injury incidence and the influences of rider characteristics and environmental factors may suggest opportunities for prevention actions. Bicycle commuters in the Portland, OR, metropolitan area were recruited via the websites and community advertising to participate in a 1-year study. Riders completed an initial online survey along with 12 monthly surveys describing their commutes and injury events from September 2007 to August 2008. A traumatic event was considered a serious traumatic event if medical attention was sought. Nine hundred sixty-two adult bicyclists (52% men and 48% women) with a mean age of 36.7 ± 0.4 years (range, 22-70 years) commuted an average of 135 miles (range, 7-617) per month. There were 225 (23%) beginner, 256 (27%) intermediate, and 481 (50%) advanced riders. Four hundred twenty (44%) had a prior traumatic event. Over the 1-year period, 164 (18%) riders reported 192 traumatic events and 49 (5%) reported 50 serious traumatic events. The incidence rates of traumatic events and serious traumatic events were 15.0 (95% CI, 13.2-17.5) and 3.9 (95% CI, 2.9-5.1) per 100,000 miles commuted. There were no differences in age, gender, safety practices, and experience levels between commuters who experienced a traumatic event and those who did not. Approximately 20% of bicycle commuters experienced a traumatic event and 5% required medical attention during 1 year of commuting. Traumatic events were not related to rider demographics, safety practices, or experience levels. These results imply that injury prevention should focus on improving the safety of the bicycle commuting environment.

  17. 49 CFR 228.405 - Limitations on duty hours of train employees engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hours of Service Requirements for Train Employees Engaged in Commuter or Intercity Rail Passenger Transportation § 228.405 Limitations on duty hours of train employees engaged in commuter or intercity rail... its officers and agents may not require or allow a train employee engaged in commuter or...

  18. 49 CFR 228.405 - Limitations on duty hours of train employees engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hours of Service Requirements for Train Employees Engaged in Commuter or Intercity Rail Passenger Transportation § 228.405 Limitations on duty hours of train employees engaged in commuter or intercity rail... its officers and agents may not require or allow a train employee engaged in commuter or...

  19. 49 CFR 228.405 - Limitations on duty hours of train employees engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hours of Service Requirements for Train Employees Engaged in Commuter or Intercity Rail Passenger Transportation § 228.405 Limitations on duty hours of train employees engaged in commuter or intercity rail... its officers and agents may not require or allow a train employee engaged in commuter or...

  20. Associations between patterns of active commuting and socioeconomic factors in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Ruiz-Montero, Pedro J; Tercedor, Pablo; Girela-Rejón, María José; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Chillón, Palma

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to know whether active commuting behaviour differs between fibromyalgia patients and controls, and to test whether active commuting is associated with socioeconomic factors in this population. This cross-sectional study included 459 women with fibromyalgia (52.2 years) and 214 female control participants (51.3 years) from Andalusia (southern Spain). Participants reported patterns of active commuting and socioeconomic factors (civil status, accompaniment at home, living with, educational level, and current occupational and professional status). On the age group <51 years, women with fibromyalgia revealed a significant higher percentage of active commuting for the variable active worker commuters than control group (p<0.05). On the age group ≥51 years, control group displayed a significant higher percentage of active commuting for commuting to local shops, super-market and active commuters variables (all, p<0.05). Women with fibromyalgia who lived alone were more active commuters in comparison to either those living accompanied, or living with both partner and children, only partner and only children (all, p<0.05). The prevalence of active commuting was similar in women with fibromyalgia and controls aged <51 years. However, fibromyalgia participants aged ≥51 years displayed differences: fibromyalgia women who lived alone were more active commuters than those living accompanied; family demands were inversely associated with commuting patterns. Policies focused on reducing family demands for fibromyalgia patients (i.e. social help on housework, childcare or overprotection) might facilitate the inclusion of daily active behaviours.

  1. [Commuting of workers to the city of Zagreb--a contribution to the typology of spatial mobility].

    PubMed

    Oliveira-roca, M

    1986-01-01

    The author studies trends in commuting to the city of Zagreb in Croatia, Yugoslavia. Commuter surveys and bivariate analysis are used to describe the socioeconomic level, occupational status, transportation method, and place of residence of rural and urban residents who commute to the city. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  2. New dust belts of Uranus: one ring, two ring, red ring, blue ring.

    PubMed

    de Pater, Imke; Hammel, Heidi B; Gibbard, Seran G; Showalter, Mark R

    2006-04-07

    We compared near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with Hubble Space Telescope results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue. Blue is an unusual color for rings; Saturn's enigmatic E ring is the only other known example. By analogy to the E ring, R/2003 U 1 is probably produced by impacts into the embedded moon Mab, which apparently orbits at a location where nongravitational perturbations favor the survival and spreading of submicron-sized dust. R/2003 U 2 more closely resembles Saturn's G ring, which is red, a typical color for dusty rings.

  3. Rings Through Atmosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-26

    NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward the limb of Saturn and, on the right of this image, views part of the rings through the planet atmosphere. Saturn atmosphere can distort the view of the rings from some angles.

  4. Wavy, Wiggly Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-23

    The constant change in Saturn wavy, wiggly F ring is on display in this image obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The image shows a view looking directly down onto the ring with the planet removed from the center.

  5. Saturn Rings in Infrared

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-11

    This mosaic of Saturn rings was acquired by NASA Cassini visual and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument on Sept. 15, 2006, while the spacecraft was in the shadow of the planet looking back towards the rings

  6. The Inner Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-01

    The Cassini spacecraft looks toward the innermost region of Saturn rings, capturing from right to left the C and B rings. The dark, inner edge of the Cassini Division is just visible in the lower left corner

  7. Saturn's F-Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's F Ring was taken through the Clear filter while at a distance of 6.9 million km from Saturn on 8 November 1980. The brightness variations of this tightly-constrained ring shown here indicate that the ring is less uniform in makeup than the larger rings. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science

  8. Saturn's F-Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's F Ring was taken through the Clear filter while at a distance of 6.9 million km from Saturn on 8 November 1980. The brightness variations of this tightly-constrained ring shown here indicate that the ring is less uniform in makeup than the larger rings. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science

  9. Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances) in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive) to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696) were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade) in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y). Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3%) of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school was associated with

  10. The relationship between bicycle commuting and perceived stress: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Palencia, Ione; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Jerrett, Michael; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Active commuting — walking and bicycling for travel to and/or from work or educational addresses — may facilitate daily, routine physical activity. Several studies have investigated the relationship between active commuting and commuting stress; however, there are no studies examining the relationship between solely bicycle commuting and perceived stress, or studies that account for environmental determinants of bicycle commuting and stress. The current study evaluated the relationship between bicycle commuting, among working or studying adults in a dense urban setting, and perceived stress. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 788 adults who regularly travelled to work or study locations (excluding those who only commuted on foot) in Barcelona, Spain. Participants responded to a comprehensive telephone survey concerning their travel behaviour from June 2011 through to May 2012. Participants were categorised as either bicycle commuters or non-bicycle commuters, and (based on the Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-4) as either stressed or non-stressed. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance models of stress status based on exposures with bicycle commuting were estimated and adjusted for potential confounders. Results Bicycle commuters had significantly lower risk of being stressed than non-bicycle commuters (Relative Risk; RR (95% CI)=0.73 (0.60 to 0.89), p=0.001). Bicycle commuters who bicycled 4 days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.42 (0.24 to 0.73), p=0.002) and those who bicycled 5 or more days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.57 (0.42 to 0.77), p<0.001) had lower risk of being stressed than those who bicycled less than 4 days. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual and environmental confounders and when using different cut-offs of perceived stress. Conclusions Stress reduction may be an important consequence of routine bicycle use and should be considered by decision makers as another

  11. The effects of commuter pedestrian traffic on the use of stairs in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ross E; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-01-01

    Most public health physical activity guidelines now encourage people to look for opportunities to accumulate physical activity throughout the day. Climbing stairs in lieu of riding escalators is a prime opportunity to make healthier choices that promote active living. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of pedestrian commuter traffic on choices to ride an escalator, walk up an escalator, or walk up adjacent stairs in a busy urban subway station at rush hour. A total of 9766 commuters were observed by two recorders for a 2.5-hour period during the morning rush hour over 8 weeks as to whether the commuters walked up stairs or rode an adjacent escalator in a subway station. The number of observations per 5-minute block was recorded, and an index of commuter traffic was computed. Demographic information and use of escalators/stairs were also recorded. An urban subway station with a two-flight staircase adjacent to an escalator. Adult commuters travelling to work during the morning rush hour. Physical activity choices were examined in relation to commuter traffic. Demographic information, such as age, race, and weight status, were also considered. A χ(2) analysis was used to examine differences in proportions across variables of interest. Means were compared by using multivariate analysis of variance, and confidence intervals were computed. During the least-heavy commuter traffic period, only 11.2% of commuters chose to walk up the stairs, whereas significantly more did so during moderate 18.7% and high 20.8% commuter traffic periods (χ(2)  =  61.8, p < .001). During low-traffic times, significantly more commuters (21.4%) walked up the escalators compared with moderate-traffic (18.0%) or high-traffic (18.3%) periods. African-American commuters passively rode the escalator more (68.2%) than white commuters (56.7%), and their patterns were less affected by commuter traffic (p < .05). Congestion in public places can have a significant effect

  12. The relationship between bicycle commuting and perceived stress: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Avila-Palencia, Ione; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Jerrett, Michael; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-06-23

    Active commuting - walking and bicycling for travel to and/or from work or educational addresses - may facilitate daily, routine physical activity. Several studies have investigated the relationship between active commuting and commuting stress; however, there are no studies examining the relationship between solely bicycle commuting and perceived stress, or studies that account for environmental determinants of bicycle commuting and stress. The current study evaluated the relationship between bicycle commuting, among working or studying adults in a dense urban setting, and perceived stress. A cross-sectional study was performed with 788 adults who regularly travelled to work or study locations (excluding those who only commuted on foot) in Barcelona, Spain. Participants responded to a comprehensive telephone survey concerning their travel behaviour from June 2011 through to May 2012. Participants were categorised as either bicycle commuters or non-bicycle commuters, and (based on the Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-4) as either stressed or non-stressed. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance models of stress status based on exposures with bicycle commuting were estimated and adjusted for potential confounders. Bicycle commuters had significantly lower risk of being stressed than non-bicycle commuters (Relative Risk; RR (95% CI)=0.73 (0.60 to 0.89), p=0.001). Bicycle commuters who bicycled 4 days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.42 (0.24 to 0.73), p=0.002) and those who bicycled 5 or more days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.57 (0.42 to 0.77), p<0.001) had lower risk of being stressed than those who bicycled less than 4 days. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual and environmental confounders and when using different cut-offs of perceived stress. Stress reduction may be an important consequence of routine bicycle use and should be considered by decision makers as another potential benefit of its promotion. © Article

  13. Modules over hereditary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuganbaev, A A

    1998-04-30

    Let A be a hereditary Noetherian prime ring that is not right primitive. A complete description of {pi}-injective A-modules is obtained. Conditions under which the classical ring of quotients of A is a {pi}-projective A-module are determined. A criterion for a right hereditary right Noetherian prime ring to be serial is obtained.

  14. Eyeing the E Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-24

    NASA Cassini spacecraft takes a look at Saturn diffuse E ring which is formed from icy material spewing out of the south pole of the moon Enceladus. The E ring is seen nearly edge-on from slightly above the northern side of Saturn ring plane.

  15. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  16. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  17. Dusty D Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-24

    Saturn D ring is easy to overlook since it trapped between the brighter C ring and the planet itself. In this view from NASA Cassini spacecraft, all that can be seen of the D ring is the faint and narrow arc as it stretches from top right of the ima

  18. On certain Hecke rings

    PubMed Central

    Evens, Sam; Bressler, Paul

    1987-01-01

    We examine rings that embed into the smash product of the group algebra of the Weyl group with the field of meromorphic functions on the Cartan subalgebra and are generated by elements that satisfy braid relations. We prove that every such ring is isomorphic to either the Hecke algebra, the nil Hecke ring, or the group algebra of the Weyl group. PMID:16593804

  19. Adaptive control system for line-commutated inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C. R.; Bailey, D. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control system for a permanent magnet motor driven by a multiphase line commutated inverter is provided with integration for integrating the back EMF of each phase of the motor. This is used in generating system control signals for an inverter gate logic using a sync and firing angle (alpha) control generator connected to the outputs of the integrators. A precision full wave rectifier provides a speed control feedback signal to a phase delay rectifier via a gain and loop compensation circuit and to the integrators for adaptive control of the attenuation of low frequencies by the integrators as a function of motor speed. As the motor speed increases, the attenuation of low frequency components by the integrators is increased to offset the gain of the integrators to spurious low frequencies.

  20. Counting Unstable Eigenvalues in Hamiltonian Spectral Problems via Commuting Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haragus, Mariana; Li, Jin; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2017-08-01

    We present a general counting result for the unstable eigenvalues of linear operators of the form J L in which J and L are skew- and self-adjoint operators, respectively. Assuming that there exists a self-adjoint operator K such that the operators J L and J K commute, we prove that the number of unstable eigenvalues of J L is bounded by the number of nonpositive eigenvalues of K. As an application, we discuss the transverse stability of one-dimensional periodic traveling waves in the classical KP-II (Kadomtsev-Petviashvili) equation. We show that these one-dimensional periodic waves are transversely spectrally stable with respect to general two-dimensional bounded perturbations, including periodic and localized perturbations in either the longitudinal or the transverse direction, and that they are transversely linearly stable with respect to doubly periodic perturbations.