Science.gov

Sample records for commute trip reduction

  1. Commute trip reduction in Washington: Base year worksite characteristics and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, D.

    1995-02-01

    Employers in Washington`s eight most populous counties are engaged in an effort to reduce their employees` use of single occupant automobiles for commuting. This report documents the status of those employers at the beginning of the Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) program as a basis for evaluating the impacts of the program. The first section provides a brief exploration of the Washington CTR Law and a history of the first steps in its implementation. The second section presents a summary of the characteristics of the worksites affected by the law. The CTR Law calls for reductions in single occupant vehicle (SOV) commuting and in vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The third section of this report presents baseline measurements of SOV and VMT and goals for reducing them. The fourth section provides summary information on the first year of programs employers planned to implement. The final section very briefly outlines actions the Commute Trip Reduction law calls for between 1995 and 1999.

  2. Spatial interaction models from Irish commuting data: variations in trip length by occupation and gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, Morton E.; Niedzielski, Michael A.; Gleeson, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Core and peripheral contrasts in journey-to-work trip length can be interpreted as imputing the relative value of origin and destination accessibility (yielding theoretical proxies for rent and wages). Because the main variables are shown to be critically dependent on spatial structure, they may be interpreted as showing the shadow prices due to comparative location. There is also a unifying connection between these results and the existing literature on many dimensions: rent gradients, accessibility, and emissivity. In an empirical example, the advantages of a panoramic view of national commuting statistics are shown, using an Irish data set. Variations in the rates of participation in trip making by location, occupation, and gender are examined. Places that emit more trips than would be expected from their relative location are identified. Further, examining ways in which such emissivity is sensitive to a change in trip length highlights the regions where trips could possibly be adjusted to produce a shorter average trip length or which might be especially sensitive to reduction in employment. A careful reinterpretation of one of the key outputs from a calibrated spatial interaction model is shown to be consistent with the declining rent gradient expected from Alonso's theory of land use.

  3. Developing flexibility within the Employer Trip Reduction Program: Developing a VMT credit for ETR

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Employer Trip Reduction Program (ETR) was established in Texas to comply with requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The federal program on which the ETR program is based is called Employer Commute Options (ECO). The ETR program has had no provisions for including work trip distance as a method of meeting the program`s mandate, although various states have proposed ways by which trip length could be considered. Recently the US Environmental Protection Agency has indicated its interest in providing additional flexibility to states in meeting ECO requirements. The following examines a method by which mileage credit could be included in the Texas ETR program. This method would give a vehicle miles traveled (VMT) credit to employers who have achieved shorter average commute distances. There are two basic approaches that were examined which can be used to calculate a VMT credit for the ETR program; one based on average work trip distance and one based on work trip emissions. The first would simply adjust the ETR requirements in direct proportion with mileage. The second would calculate comparable emissions as the basis for offsetting ETR requirements. Both are explained.

  4. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... live at the educational institution and who travels to and from classes by any mode of travel....

  5. Commutator identities on associative algebras, the non-Abelian Hirota difference equation and its reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebkov, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the non-Abelian Hirota difference equation is directly related to a commutator identity on an associative algebra. Evolutions generated by similarity transformations of elements of this algebra lead to a linear difference equation. We develop a special dressing procedure that results in an integrable non-Abelian Hirota difference equation and propose two regular reduction procedures that lead to a set of known equations, Abelian or non-Abelian, and also to some new integrable equations.

  6. "Trip-Sitting" in the Black Hole: A Netnographic Study of Dissociation and Indigenous Harm Reduction.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Evelyn; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2016-01-01

    An array of dissociative novel psychoactive substances, including "methoxetamine," "3-MeO-PCP," and "methoxphenidine," have emerged as substitutes for the illicit substance "ketamine." A netographic research methodology aimed to describe online, dissociative novel psychoactive substance users' perceptions of risk, informed knowledge around use, and indigenous harm-reduction practices as advocated within online drug fora, so as to provide credible information which can be used to inform public online health education and drug prevention. Systematic Internet searches were performed using the terms "synthetic dissociative," "methoxetamine," "methoxphenidine," "diphenidine," "3-MeO-PCP," "4-MeO-PCP," "2-MDP," and "dissociative research chemical" in combination with "forum." Following screening of 3,476 forum threads with removal of duplicates and exclusion criteria, 90 user trip reports and 115 fora threads from seven drug fora websites were analyzed by conducting content analysis. Five themes emerged with 43 categories. The findings illustrated how forum activity within the cyber drug user community disseminated and exchanged "communal folk pharmacology" relating to the use of dissociative novel psychoactive substances. Further research and consistent monitoring of Internet drug fora are advised to explore variations in harm-reduction tactics throughout dissociative NPS populations, and to consider how existing harm-reduction initiatives are influencing these hard-to-reach groups.

  7. "Trip-Sitting" in the Black Hole: A Netnographic Study of Dissociation and Indigenous Harm Reduction.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Evelyn; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2016-01-01

    An array of dissociative novel psychoactive substances, including "methoxetamine," "3-MeO-PCP," and "methoxphenidine," have emerged as substitutes for the illicit substance "ketamine." A netographic research methodology aimed to describe online, dissociative novel psychoactive substance users' perceptions of risk, informed knowledge around use, and indigenous harm-reduction practices as advocated within online drug fora, so as to provide credible information which can be used to inform public online health education and drug prevention. Systematic Internet searches were performed using the terms "synthetic dissociative," "methoxetamine," "methoxphenidine," "diphenidine," "3-MeO-PCP," "4-MeO-PCP," "2-MDP," and "dissociative research chemical" in combination with "forum." Following screening of 3,476 forum threads with removal of duplicates and exclusion criteria, 90 user trip reports and 115 fora threads from seven drug fora websites were analyzed by conducting content analysis. Five themes emerged with 43 categories. The findings illustrated how forum activity within the cyber drug user community disseminated and exchanged "communal folk pharmacology" relating to the use of dissociative novel psychoactive substances. Further research and consistent monitoring of Internet drug fora are advised to explore variations in harm-reduction tactics throughout dissociative NPS populations, and to consider how existing harm-reduction initiatives are influencing these hard-to-reach groups. PMID:27430659

  8. Making almost commuting matrices commute

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    Suppose two Hermitian matrices A, B almost commute ({parallel}[A,B]{parallel} {<=} {delta}). Are they close to a commuting pair of Hermitian matrices, A', B', with {parallel}A-A'{parallel},{parallel}B-B'{parallel} {<=} {epsilon}? A theorem of H. Lin shows that this is uniformly true, in that for every {epsilon} > 0 there exists a {delta} > 0, independent of the size N of the matrices, for which almost commuting implies being close to a commuting pair. However, this theorem does not specifiy how {delta} depends on {epsilon}. We give uniform bounds relating {delta} and {epsilon}. The proof is constructive, giving an explicit algorithm to construct A' and B'. We provide tighter bounds in the case of block tridiagonal and tridiagnonal matrices. Within the context of quantum measurement, this implies an algorithm to construct a basis in which we can make a projective measurement that approximately measures two approximately commuting operators simultaneously. Finally, we comment briefly on the case of approximately measuring three or more approximately commuting operators using POVMs (positive operator-valued measures) instead of projective measurements.

  9. Gravity from a modified commutator

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We show that a suitably chosen position-momentum commutator can elegantly describe many features of gravity, including the IR/UV correspondence and dimensional reduction (''holography''). Using the most simplistic example based on dimensional analysis of black holes, we construct a commutator which qualitatively exhibits these novel properties of gravity. Dimensional reduction occurs because the quanta size grow quickly with momenta, and thus cannot be ''packed together'' as densely as naively expected. We conjecture that a more precise form of this commutator should be able to quantitatively reproduce all of these features.

  10. Transport improvement, commuting costs, and residential location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stucker, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of introducing new transportation on residential travel patterns is presented. Data are based on changes in residential location of urban commuters that alter the mode and length of work trips as well as economic factors.

  11. Exposure of commuters to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons from petrol exhaust.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, L; Persson, K; Strömvall, A M; Petersson, G

    1991-10-15

    Twenty-two volatile aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in the air of an automobile during commuting. Sampling was made on Tenax cartridges and laboratory determinations were carried out using thermal desorption combined with temperature-programmed capillary gas chromatography. Selected hydrocarbons representative of petrol exhaust were determined in the automobile and in an electric commuter train during eight parallel commuter trips. In the automobile, the concentrations of benzene were 35-70 micrograms/m3 and those of total aromatic hydrocarbons 200-400 micrograms/m3. The petrol exhaust levels were 5-10 times higher in the automobile than in the compartment of the commuter train.

  12. Reduction in order turnaround time, telephone calls, and trips to the pharmacy by means of facsimile transceivers.

    PubMed

    Newberg, D F; Stevens, J

    1988-02-01

    The facsimile transceiver (FAX) was trialed at Beverly Hospital, Beverly Massachusetts, on the Intensive Care Unit and the Pediatric Floor from March 13 to April 27, 1987. Beverly Hospital is a 233 bed non profit community hospital. The facsimile unit was used to transmit medication orders to the pharmacy over existing telephone lines. The purpose of the trial was to determine the time saved between the writing of the medication order and the arrival of the medication on the nursing unit. This time was considered as medication turnaround time. During the trial period, a total of 1767 medication order sheets were processed via the FAX machine. The results of the trial showed that medication turnaround time has improved by an average of 90 minutes for each order placed. In addition, it was found that a total of 60 phone calls and 14 trips to the pharmacy, per day, were eliminated from both trial units combined. This resulted in an estimated time savings of 6.5 staff hours per day on these two units alone. On a hospital-wide basis, this would result in considerable labor savings for nursing staff on the floors. In addition, supply costs of medication order sheets will be reduced by approximately $3200 per year if the FAX units were used throughout the hospital. As a result of the trial, Beverly Hospital purchased 9 units, at a cost of $17,325 and implemented a hospital-wide policy of sending medication orders to the pharmacy using this equipment. This will result in improved ability of the pharmacy to respond to new orders in a more timely manner, supply cost reductions and improved use of staff.

  13. Battery cars on superconducting magnetically levitated carriers: One commuting solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, B. Mike; Oman, Henry

    1992-01-01

    Commuting to work in an urban-suburban metropolitan environment is becoming an unpleasant time-wasting process. We applied the technology of communication management to this commuting problem. Communication management is a system-engineering tool that produced today's efficient telephone network. The resulting best commuting option is magnetically levitated carriers of two-passenger, battery-powered, personally-owned local-travel cars. A commuter drives a car to a nearby station, selects a destination, drives on a waiting carrier, and enters an accelerating ramp. A central computer selects an optimum 100 miles-per-hour trunk route, considering existing and forecast traffic; assigns the commuter a travel slot, and subsequently orders switching-station actions. The commuter uses the expensive facilities for only a few minutes during each trip. The cost of travel could be less than 6 cents per mile.

  14. TRIPPING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Lees, G.W.; McCormick, E.D.

    1962-05-22

    A tripping circuit employing a magnetic amplifier for tripping a reactor in response to power level, period, or instrument failure is described. A reference winding and signal winding are wound in opposite directions on the core. Current from an ion chamber passes through both windings. If the current increases at too fast a rate, a shunt circuit bypasses one or the windings and the amplifier output reverses polarity. (AEC)

  15. Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  16. Interplanetary round trip mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, James R.

    2004-08-01

    This paper defines the basic constraints for interplanetary round trip travel or, equivalently, for round trip travel from and to a natural or artificial satellite, such as round trips from the International Space Station to another satellite and back. While the constraints are straightforward, they do not seem to have been discussed previously in the literature, perhaps because round trip travel has not been a realistic option for most missions. We call the location that we are leaving and returning to the home planet or satellite and the spacecraft which makes the round trip the traveler. In round trip space travel, the traveler and the home planet must begin and end at the same true anomaly. Consequently, the fundamental constraint for mission design is as follows: Over the duration of the mission the difference in the change in true anomaly for the home planet and the change in true anomaly for the traveler must be an integral number of revolutions. This fundamental constraint implies a number of interesting properties for round trip travel to other locations in the solar system. For example: For Hohmann minimum energy transfers, going to nearby objects takes longer than going to some which are further. The shortest Hohmann round trip to a destination further from the Sun is a 2-yr trip to a heliocentric distance of 2.2 AU, i.e., 1.2 AU outward from the Earth. Increasing the transfer velocity has only a very small effect on total trip time, except at discrete "jumps" where the total trip time can change by a year or more. One way to reduce the round trip time is to go beyond the target planet and visit the target "on the way back". Some scenarios that go above a Δ V threshold can dramatically reduce the total round trip time, i.e., a reduction in round trip time for a Mars mission from the traditional 2.5 yr to less than 6 months. This paper discusses the general constraint equations and the resulting implications for round trip mission design. These equations

  17. Impact of commuter-rail services in Toronto region

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.S.; Hutchinson, B.G.

    1996-07-01

    Ridership of the commuter-rail system that was implemented in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in 1967 increased at an annual, average compound rate of 11.4% until 1989. Demand has leveled substantially during 1990--94 and has averaged only 2.1% per year, which probably reflects the suburbanization of employment. Urban economic theory is used to explain the way in which central-business-district (CBD) employees respond differently to suburban commuter-rail services and rapid transit services, mainly serving the inner intermediate suburbs. Travel data collected in 1986 and 1991 confirmed the effects suggested by the theory. Commuter-rail passengers are drawn from the larger suburban households, living principally in single-family houses, and commuter-rail passengers are more sensitive to access and egress distances than subway passengers. Policies that improve the quality of access and egress components of commuting trips from the suburbs stimulate passenger demand. Also, land-use policies that promote high-density, residential development at suburban commuter-rail stations are unlikely to contribute significantly to commuter-rail demand, and the lakeshore commuter-rail line that has been in service since 1967 has not had a significant impact on residential sorting and on the generation of additional demands.

  18. Field Trips. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally; Aronson, Susan S.; Stacey, Susan; Winbush, Olga

    2001-01-01

    Five articles highlight benefits and organization of field trips: (1) "Field Trips Promote Child Learning at Its Best"; (2) "Planning for Maximum Benefit, Minimum Risk"; (3) "Coaching Community Hosts"; (4) "The Story of a Field Trip: Trash and Its Place within Children's Learning and Community"; and (5) "Field Trip Stories and Perspectives" (from…

  19. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  20. Analysis of the equilibrium trip cost without late arrival and the corresponding traffic properties using a car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai-Jun; Song, Ziqi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we first apply a generalized car-following model to study the commuter trip cost without late arrival from an analytical perspective; and then use the full velocity difference (FVD) model to verify the analytical results and explore the corresponding traffic properties from a numerical perspective. Finally, we explore the evolutions of traffic flow on a road with an open boundary under three traffic situations (i.e., the number of commuters is low, moderate, and high) and find that the evolution of traffic flow is related to the number of commuters. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the analytical results and illustrate that car-following models can be used to study each commuter's trip cost without late arrival and that the car-following model can accurately quantify each commuter's trip cost.

  1. Planning a Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forecast for Home Economics, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The showroom of a button manufacturer was the site of a successful field trip for a New York City home economics class. Suggestions for field trip preparation are included as well as directions for making button jewelry. (EA)

  2. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  3. Connecting with Commuters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    For the last few years, Georgia State University has taken steps toward becoming a more traditional college instead of a commuter school. It bought two Atlanta hotels to be used as residence halls, started a football team, and is building townhouses for Greek fraternities and sororities. "When alumni come back to campus, they are shocked at all…

  4. Limits of Predictability in Commuting Flows in the Absence of Data for Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingxiang; Herrera, Carlos; Eagle, Nathan; González, Marta C.

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of commuting flows at different spatial scales is a fundamental problem for different areas of study. Many current methods rely on parameters requiring calibration from empirical trip volumes. Their values are often not generalizable to cases without calibration data. To solve this problem we develop a statistical expression to calculate commuting trips with a quantitative functional form to estimate the model parameter when empirical trip data is not available. We calculate commuting trip volumes at scales from within a city to an entire country, introducing a scaling parameter α to the recently proposed parameter free radiation model. The model requires only widely available population and facility density distributions. The parameter can be interpreted as the influence of the region scale and the degree of heterogeneity in the facility distribution. We explore in detail the scaling limitations of this problem, namely under which conditions the proposed model can be applied without trip data for calibration. On the other hand, when empirical trip data is available, we show that the proposed model's estimation accuracy is as good as other existing models. We validated the model in different regions in the U.S., then successfully applied it in three different countries. PMID:25012599

  5. The effect of commuting microenvironment on commuter exposures to vehicular emission in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Qin, Y.

    Vehicular exhaust emission has gradually become the major air pollution source in modern cities and traffic related exposure is found to contribute significantly to total human exposure level. A comprehensive survey was conducted from November 1995 to July 1996 in Hong Kong to assess the effect of traffic-induced air pollution inside different commuting microenvironments on commuter exposure. Microenvironmental monitoring is performed for six major public commuting modes (bus, light bus, MTR, railway, tram, ferry), plus private car and roadside pavement. Traffic-related pollutants, CO, NO x, THC and O 3 were selected as the target pollutants. The results indicate that commuter exposure is highly influenced by the choice of commuting microenvironment. In general, the exposure level in decreasing order of measured pollutant level for respective commuting microenvironments are: private car, the group consisting light bus, bus, tram and pavement, MTR and train, and finally ferry. In private car, the CO level is several times higher than that in the other microenvironments with a trip averaged of 10.1 ppm and a maximum of 24.9 ppm. Factors such as the body position of the vehicle, intake point of the ventilation system, fuel used, ventilation, transport mode, road and driving conditions were used in the analysis. Inter-microenvironment, intra-microenvironment and temporal variation of CO concentrations were used as the major indicator. The low body position and low intake point of the ventilation system of the private car are believed to be the cause of higher intake of exhaust of other vehicles and thus result in high pollution level in this microenvironment. Compared with other metropolis around the world and the Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (HKAQO), exposure levels of commuter to traffic-related air pollution in Hong Kong are relatively low for most pollutants measured. Only several cases of exceedence of HKAQO by NO 2 were recorded. The strong prevailing wind

  6. Gauge transformation and symmetries of the commutative multicomponent BKP hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanzhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new multi-component B type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy that takes values in a commutative subalgebra of {gl}(N,{{C}}). After this, we give the gauge transformation of this commutative multicomponent BKP (CMBKP) hierarchy. Meanwhile, we construct a new constrained CMBKP hierarchy that contains some new integrable systems, including coupled KdV equations under a certain reduction. After this, the quantum torus symmetry and quantum torus constraint on the tau function of the commutative multi-component BKP hierarchy will be constructed.

  7. Probing deformed quantum commutators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Giani, Tommaso; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Several quantum gravity theories predict a minimal length at the order of magnitude of the Planck length, under which the concepts of space and time lose their physical meaning. In quantum mechanics, the insurgence of such a minimal length can be described by introducing a modified position-momentum commutator, which in turn yields a generalized uncertainty principle, where the uncertainty on position measurements has a lower bound. The value of the minimal length is not predicted by theories and must be estimated experimentally. In this paper, we address the quantum bound to the estimability of the minimal uncertainty length by performing measurements on a harmonic oscillator, which is analytically solvable in the deformed algebra induced by the deformed commutation relations.

  8. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  9. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

  10. Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Aziz, I. S.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace.

  11. NYPA/TH!NK Clean Commute Program Final Report - Inception through December 2004

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Don Karner

    2005-11-01

    The Clean Commute Program uses TH!NK city electric vehicles from Ford Motor Company’s electric vehicle group, TH!NK Mobility, to demonstrate the feasibility of using electric transportation in urban applications. Suburban New York City railroad commuters use the TH!NK city vehicles to commute from their private residences to railroad stations, where they catch commuter trains into New York City. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure for the TH!NK city vehicles is located at the commuters’ private residences as well as seven train stations. Ford leased at total of 97 TH!NK city electric vehicles to commuters from Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk counties for $199 per month. First Clean Commute Program vehicle deliveries occurred late in 2001, with data collection commencing in February 2002. Through May, 2004, 24 of the lessees have returned their vehicles to Ford and no longer participate in the Clean Commute Program. Reasons given for leaving the Program include relocation out of the Program area, change in employment status, change in commuting status, and, in a few cases, dissatisfaction with the vehicle. Additionally, 13 vehicles were returned to Ford when the lease was completed. In August 2002, Ford announced that it was ceasing production of the TH!NK city and would not extend any TH!NK city leases. Mileage accumulation dropped in the last quarter of the program as vehicle leases were returned to Ford. The impact of the program overall was significant as participants in the Clean Commute Program drove their vehicles over 406,074 miles, avoiding the use of over 18,887 gallons of gasoline. During the active portion of the program, the TH!NK city vehicles were driven an average of between 180 and 230 miles per month. Over 95% of all trips taken with the TH!NK city vehicles replaced trips previously taken in gasoline vehicles. This report covers the period from Program inception through December 2004.

  12. NYPA/TH!NK Clean Commute Program Report – Inception Through May 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Don Karner; James Francfort; Randall Solomon

    2004-11-01

    The Clean Commute Program uses TH!NK city electric vehicles from Ford Motor Company’s electric vehicle group, TH!NK Mobility, to demonstrate the feasibility of using electric vehicles for transportation in urban applications. Suburban New York City railroad commuters use the TH!NK city vehicles to commute from their private residences to railroad stations, where they catch commuter trains into New York City. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure for the TH!NK city vehicles is located at the commuters’ private residences as well as seven train stations. Ford leased 97 TH!NK city electric vehicles to commuters from Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk counties for $199 per month per vehicle. The first Clean Commute Program vehicle deliveries occurred late in 2001, with data collection commencing in February 2002. Through May 2004, 24 of the lessees have returned their vehicles to Ford and no longer participate in the Clean Commute Program. Reasons given for returning the vehicles include relocation out of the Program area, change in employment status, change in commuting status, and, in a few cases, dissatisfaction with the vehicle. Additionally, 13 vehicles have been returned to Ford as their leases have completed. In August 2002, Ford announced that it was ceasing production of the TH!NK city and would not extend any TH!NK city leases. Through May 2004, participants in the Clean Commute Program have driven their vehicles over 370,000 miles, avoiding the use of over 17,000 gallons of gasoline. The TH!NK city vehicles are driven an average of between 180 and 230 miles per month, and over 95% of all trips taken with the TH!NK city vehicles replace trips previously taken in gasoline vehicles. This report covers the period from Program inception through May 2004.

  13. Modeling the Commuting Travel Activities within Historic Districts in Chinese Cities

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fengjun; Hu, Qizhou

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics of commuting activities within the historical districts in cities of China. The impacts of various explanatory variables on commuters' travels are evaluated using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The household survey was conducted in the historical districts in Yangzhou, China. Based on the data, various individual and household attributes were considered exogenous variables, while the subsistence activity characteristics, travel times, numbers of three typical home-based trip chains, trip chains, and travel mode were considered as the endogenous variables. Commuters in our study were classified into two main groups according to their working location, which were the commuters in the historic district and those out of the district. The modeling results show that several individual and household attributes of commuters in historic district have significant impacts on the characteristics of travel activities. Additionally, the characteristics of travel activities within the two groups are quite different, and the contributing factors related to commuting travels are different as well. PMID:25435864

  14. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  15. A Classroom Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Rita

    1977-01-01

    A description of a week-long, vicarious trip to France in a high school French class. The "trip" required students to do all the things a tourist does, and it utilized the four skills for communication purposes. Techniques for facilitating the process and for student evaluation are described. (AMH)

  16. A Biomes Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  17. Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gail; Cooper, Garry

    The Internet field trips in this directory allow teachers to take students almost anywhere--without the usual ordeals associated with field trips. Organized by subject and cross-referenced for quick and easy access, this book leads educators and students to the most exciting, educational, and innovative Web sites on the Internet. Chapters cover…

  18. Field Trip Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to prepare for and conduct a safe and worry-free educational experience. She shares a few tips that will ensure field trips will be fun, safe, engaging, and productive. She stresses that with proper planning, field trips can be unique ways to explore the world with students.

  19. Geological Field Trip Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Harriet E.

    1978-01-01

    Geological field trip guidebooks, developed for use during a field trip or field conference, are considered ephemeral publications by their compilers and publishers. Too few copies are printed and little attention is paid to bibliographic format and information. These difficulties are discussed and recommendations are made to alleviate the…

  20. Field Trips: Tradition in Jeopardy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Ginger

    2011-01-01

    The school field trip: something fun, different, exciting, exhausting--a break from the school day grind. But the field trip has ramifications beyond just getting out of school for the day. For students, the field trip is to the classroom what the big game is to athletes. For museums and other attractions, the field trip is a way to cultivate…

  1. Commuting projections on graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Zikatanov, Ludmil T.

    2013-02-19

    For a given (connected) graph, we consider vector spaces of (discrete) functions defined on its vertices and its edges. These two spaces are related by a discrete gradient operator, Grad and its adjoint, ₋Div, referred to as (negative) discrete divergence. We also consider a coarse graph obtained by aggregation of vertices of the original one. Then a coarse vertex space is identified with the subspace of piecewise constant functions over the aggregates. We consider the ℓ2-projection QH onto the space of these piecewise constants. In the present paper, our main result is the construction of a projection π H from the original edge-space onto a properly constructed coarse edge-space associated with the edges of the coarse graph. The projections π H and QH commute with the discrete divergence operator, i.e., we have div π H = QH div. The respective pair of coarse edge-space and coarse vertexspace offer the potential to construct two-level, and by recursion, multilevel methods for the mixed formulation of the graph Laplacian which utilizes the discrete divergence operator. The performance of one two-level method with overlapping Schwarz smoothing and correction based on the constructed coarse spaces for solving such mixed graph Laplacian systems is illustrated on a number of graph examples.

  2. Fast Overcurrent Tripping Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.

    1993-01-01

    Fast overcurrent tripping circuit designed for incorporation into power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) switching circuit. Serves as fast electronic circuit breaker by sensing voltage across MOSFET's during conduction and switching MOSFET's off within 1 microsecond after voltage exceeds reference value corresponding to tripping current. Acts more quickly than Hall-effect current sensor and, in comparison with shunt current-measuring circuits, smaller and consumes less power. Also ignores initial transient overcurrents during first 5 microseconds of switching cycle.

  3. Trade-offs between commuting time and health-related activities.

    PubMed

    Christian, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    To further understand documented associations between obesity and urban sprawl, this research describes individuals' trade-offs between health-related activities and commuting time. A cross-section of 24,861 working-age individuals employed full-time and residing in urban counties is constructed from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010). Data are analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions to quantify health-related activity decreases in response to additional time spent commuting. Outcomes are total daily minutes spent in physical activity at a moderate or greater intensity, preparing food, eating meals with family, and sleeping. Commuting time is measured as all travel time between home and work and vice versa. The mean commuting time is 62 min daily, the median is 55 min, and 10.1% of workers commute 120 min or more. Spending an additional 60 min daily commuting above average is associated with a 6% decrease in aggregate health-related activities and spending an additional 120 min is associated with a 12% decrease. The greatest percentage of commuting time comes from sleeping time reductions (28-35%). Additionally, larger proportions of commuting time are taken from physical activity and food preparation relative to the mean commuting length: of 60 min spent commuting, 16.1% is taken from physical activity and 4.1% is taken from food preparation; of 120 min commuting, 20.3% is taken from physical activity and 5.6% is taken from food preparation. The results indicate that longer commutes are associated with behavioral patterns which over time may contribute to obesity and other poor health outcomes. These findings will assist both urban planners and researchers wishing to understand time constraints' impacts on health. PMID:22689293

  4. Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1997-01-01

    Virtual field trips can provide experiences beyond the reach of average K-12 students. Describes multimedia products for school use: Africa Trail, Dinosaur Hunter, Louvre Museum, Magic School Bus Explores the Rainforest, and Up to the Himalayas: Kingdoms in the Clouds and provides book and Internet connections for additional learning, highlighting…

  5. Real Students and Virtual Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bailey, J. E.; Schott, R. C.; Treves, R.; Scientific Team Of Www. Digitalplanet. Org

    2010-12-01

    Field trips have always been one of the major attractions of geoscience education, distinguishing courses in geology, geography, oceanography, etc., from laboratory-bound sciences such as nuclear physics or biochemistry. However, traditional field trips have been limited to regions with educationally useful exposures and to student populations with the necessary free time and financial resources. Two-year or commuter colleges serving worker-students cannot realistically insist on completion of field assignments and even well-endowed universities cannot take students to more than a handful of the best available field localities. Many instructors have attempted to bring the field into the classroom with the aid of technology. So-called Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) cannot replace the real experience for those that experience it but they are much better than nothing at all. We have been working to create transformative improvements in VFTs using four concepts: (i) self-drive virtual vehicles that students use to navigate the virtual globe under their own control; (ii) GigaPan outcrops that reveal successively more details views of key locations; (iii) virtual specimens scanned from real rocks, minerals, and fossils; and (iv) embedded assessment via logging of student actions. Students are represented by avatars of their own choosing and travel either together in a virtual field vehicle, or separately. When they approach virtual outcrops, virtual specimens become collectable and can be examined using Javascript controls that change magnification and orientation. These instructional resources are being made available via a new server under the domain name www.DigitalPlanet.org. The server will log student progress and provide immediate feedback. We aim to disseminate these resources widely and welcome feedback from instructors and students.

  6. A Trip to the Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Karen K.

    1995-01-01

    A trip to the zoo can be a terrific way for young children to learn about animals, especially using planned learning experiences. Presents some activities for use before, during, and after a trip to the zoo. (NB)

  7. Computer Based Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth F.; Hosticka, Alice; Schriver, Martha; Bedell, Jackie

    This paper discusses computer based virtual field trips that use technologies commonly found in public schools in the United States. The discussion focuses on the advantages of both using and creating these field trips for an instructional situation. A virtual field trip to Cumberland Island National Seashore, St. Marys, Georgia is used as a point…

  8. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  9. How to Conduct a Research Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David G.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the three phases of a three-day intensive research study field trip: planning and pre-trip training; actual trip; and post-trip report, research and data organization, and final trip evaluation. Included is a sample program of the limnology field trip taken by the Grafton High School, Wisconsin. (CC)

  10. Commuting Patterns of Nonmetro Household Heads, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Data from the Annual Housing Survey indicated that 22% of all employed United States household heads commuted to a county different from that in which they lived in 1975. Commuting was more prevalent among men than among women and slightly higher for whites than for Blacks. Commuting tended to increase until age 25-34 and then to decline after age…

  11. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  12. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  13. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  14. NYPA/TH!NK Clean Commute Program Report – Inception through February 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Don Karner; James Francfort

    2003-07-01

    The Clean Commute Program uses TH!NK city electric vehicles from Ford Motor Company’s electric vehicle group, TH!NK Mobility, to demonstrate the feasibility of using electric transportation in urban applications. The primary Program partners are the New York Power Authority (NYPA) and Ford. The other Program partners providing funding and other support include the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Metro North Railroad, Long Island Railroad, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Long Island Power Authority, New York State Department of Transportation, New York City Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). The data in this report is being collected via an internet-based questionnaire system by the AVTA through its subcontractor Electric Transportation Applications. Suburban New York City railroad commuters use the TH!NK city vehicles to commute from their private residences to railroad stations where they catch commuter trains into New York City. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure for the TH!NK cities is located at the commuters’ private residences as well as seven train stations. Eighty-seven commuters are using the TH!NK city vehicles, with 80% actively providing data to the AVTA. The participants have driven the vehicles nearly 150,000 miles since Program inception, avoiding the use of almost 7,000 gallons of gasoline. The TH!NK city vehicles are driven an average of between 180 and 230 miles per month, and over 95% of all trips taken with the TH!NK city vehicles replace trips previously taken in gasoline vehicles. This report covers the period from Program inception through February 2003.

  15. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  16. Vehicle emissions during children's school commuting: impacts of education policy.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julian D; Wilson, Ryan D; Meyer, Katie L; Rajangam, Santhosh K; McDonald, Noreen C; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2010-03-01

    We explore how school policies influence the environmental impacts of school commutes. Our research is motivated by increased interest in school choice policies (in part because of the U.S. "No Child Left Behind" Act) and in reducing bus service to address recent budget shortfalls. Our analysis employs two samples of elementary-age children, age 5-12: a travel survey (n = 1246 respondents) and a school enrollment data set (n = 19,655 students). Multinomial logistic regression modeled the determinants of travel mode (automobile, school bus, and walking; n = 803 students meeting selection criteria). Travel distance has the single greatest effect on travel mode, though school choice, trip direction (to- or from-school), and grade play a role. Several policies were investigated quantitatively to predict the impact on school travel, vehicle emissions, and costs. We find that eliminating district-wide school choice (i.e., returning to a system with neighborhood schools only) would have significant impacts on transport modes and emissions, whereas in many cases proposed shifts in school choice and bus-provision policies would have only modest impacts. Policies such as school choice and school siting may conflict with the goal of increasing rates of active (i.e., nonmotorized) school commuting. Policies that curtail bus usage may reduce bus emissions but yield even larger increases in private-vehicle emissions. Our findings underscore the need to critically evaluate transportation-related environmental and health impacts of currently proposed changes in school policy.

  17. Commuter exposure to aerosol pollution on public transport in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Norford, L.

    2013-12-01

    Personal exposure to aerosol pollutants in the transport microenvironment of Singapore has not been well documented. Studies from many cities suggest that brief periods of exposure to high concentrations of airborne pollutants may have significant health impacts. Thus, a large proportion of aerosol exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips due to the proximity to traffic. A better understanding of the variability across transport modes is therefore needed to design transport policies that minimize commuters' exposure. In light of this, personal exposure measurements of PM10 and PM2.5, particle number (PN), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and active surface area (SA) were conducted on a selected route in downtown Singapore. Portable and real-time monitoring instruments were carried onto three different modes of public transport (bus, taxi, subway) and by foot. Simultaneous measurements were taken at a nearby park to capture the background concentrations. Large variability was observed amongst the various transport modes investigated. For example, the particle number concentration was on average 1.5, 1.6, 0.8, and 2.2 times higher inside buses, taxis, subway and by foot, respectively, than at the background site. Based on the results, it is possible to come up with a ranking of the 'cleanest' transport mode for Singapore.

  18. Let's Justify the Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Duane

    1984-01-01

    Defends the need for field trips, citing studies that show improved methodology and process knowledge. Also stresses the need for planning to ensure success of such trips and to defend them on a cost basis. Includes two field studies: a north/south slope comparison, and fossil record study. (JM)

  19. Field Trips Within Easy Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    Provides suggestions for conducting field trips at the local school site. Points of interest might include building materials, evidence of chemical/physical weathering, variations in soil type, changes in elevation on school ground, and others. Three simple field trips are described. (JN)

  20. Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Lars E; Gärling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Fujii, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to overall happiness. It is also found that feelings during the commutes are predominantly positive or neutral. Possible explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom. Satisfaction with being employed in a recession may also spill over to positive experiences of work commutes. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0003-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  1. Apollo 14 Road Trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valleli, P.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) In January-February 1971, five astronomy enthusiasts, Dennis Milon, Alan Rowher, Sal LaRiccia, Mike Mattei, and Paul Valleli, drove from New Haven, Connecticut, to the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida. They joined with ALPO Jupiter Recorder Julius Benton in Atlanta. After several stops along the way, the six arrived at the Apollo 14 launch site to observe pre-launch activity, met NASA personnel, and toured various facilities. On launch day, thanks to press passes provided by Dennis Milon who was there as the official photojournalist for Sky & Telescope, they met the Apollo crew and witnessed the launch. On the return trip, they made time to meet Mike Mattei's new girlfriend, Janet Akyü;z, who was working on her Master's at Leander-McCormick Observatory in Charlottesville, Virginia. Janet gave the six men a tour of the observatory, including the the 26-inch Clark Telescope.

  2. Squishy Physics Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Eric R.; Cianci, Gianguido; Habdas, Piotr

    2008-03-01

    Our laboratory studies soft condensed matter, which means we investigate squishy materials such as foams, emulsions, and colloidal suspensions. These materials include common things such as peanut butter, toothpaste, mayonnaise, shampoo, and shaving cream. We have conducted several field trips for grade school students, where they come to our laboratory and play with squishy materials. They do both hands-on table-top projects and also look at samples with a microscope. We have also developed some of these activities into labs appropriate for first-year college students. Our first goal for these activities is to show students that science is fun, and the second goal is to get them intrigued by the idea that there are more phases than just solids, liquids, and gases.

  3. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  4. Imprecise probability for non-commuting observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.

    2015-08-01

    It is known that non-commuting observables in quantum mechanics do not have joint probability. This statement refers to the precise (additive) probability model. I show that the joint distribution of any non-commuting pair of variables can be quantified via upper and lower probabilities, i.e. the joint probability is described by an interval instead of a number (imprecise probability). I propose transparent axioms from which the upper and lower probability operators follow. The imprecise probability depend on the non-commuting observables, is linear over the state (density matrix) and reverts to the usual expression for commuting observables.

  5. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  6. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  7. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  8. The Societal Costs and Benefits of Commuter Bicycling: Simulating the Effects of Specific Policies Using System Dynamics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shifting to active modes of transport in the trip to work can achieve substantial co-benefits for health, social equity, and climate change mitigation. Previous integrated modeling of transport scenarios has assumed active transport mode share and has been unable to incorporate acknowledged system feedbacks. Objectives: We compared the effects of policies to increase bicycle commuting in a car-dominated city and explored the role of participatory modeling to support transport planning in the face of complexity. Methods: We used system dynamics modeling (SDM) to compare realistic policies, incorporating feedback effects, nonlinear relationships, and time delays between variables. We developed a system dynamics model of commuter bicycling through interviews and workshops with policy, community, and academic stakeholders. We incorporated best available evidence to simulate five policy scenarios over the next 40 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Injury, physical activity, fuel costs, air pollution, and carbon emissions outcomes were simulated. Results: Using the simulation model, we demonstrated the kinds of policies that would likely be needed to change a historical pattern of decline in cycling into a pattern of growth that would meet policy goals. Our model projections suggest that transforming urban roads over the next 40 years, using best practice physical separation on main roads and bicycle-friendly speed reduction on local streets, would yield benefits 10–25 times greater than costs. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first integrated simulation model of future specific bicycling policies. Our projections provide practical evidence that may be used by health and transport policy makers to optimize the benefits of transport bicycling while minimizing negative consequences in a cost-effective manner. The modeling process enhanced understanding by a range of stakeholders of cycling as a complex system. Participatory SDM can be a helpful method

  9. A geography of moral hazard: sources and sinks of motor-vehicle commuting externalities.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Bland, Widmer; Scott, Darren M

    2014-09-01

    Motor-vehicles are responsible for harms to health that are not directly experienced by individual drivers - such as air pollution and risk of injury to pedestrians. In addition to their direct effects on health, these harms also represent a moral hazard since drivers are not required to consider their effects as part of their decision to drive. We describe an approach for estimating sources of motor-vehicle commuter externalities as a means of understanding the geography of moral hazard, and in particular, the spatial displacement of negative health externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuting. This approach models motor-vehicle commuter traffic flow by trip origin for small geographic areas within the City of Toronto, Ontario. We find that most health-related externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuters are not locally generated, with a large share coming from outside Toronto. Low income is associated with externalities originating outside the municipal boundary, but not with locally sourced externalities. We discuss the impact of geographical moral hazard on the agency of citizens as well as policy options aimed at addressing motor-vehicle externalities.

  10. Tsirelson's problem and asymptotically commuting unitary matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Narutaka

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, we consider quantum correlations of bipartite systems having a slight interaction, and reinterpret Tsirelson's problem (and hence Kirchberg's and Connes's conjectures) in terms of finite-dimensional asymptotically commuting positive operator valued measures. We also consider the systems of asymptotically commuting unitary matrices and formulate the Stronger Kirchberg Conjecture.

  11. Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Lars E.; Garling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Fujii, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to…

  12. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  13. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  14. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  15. Student-Conducted Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senff, Leah M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a microbiology course in which the students plan, attend, and report on their own field trips. Method of reporting included a detailed presentation to the class complete with photographic record. (GS)

  16. Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Alice M; Jones, Andrew P; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well modelled routes reflect those actually taken, and what characteristics explain these differences. We compared modelled GIS shortest path routes with actual routes measured using QStarz BT-Q1000X Global Positioning System (GPS) devices in a free-living sample of adults working in Cambridge and using varying travel modes. Predictors of differences, according to length and percentage overlap, between the two route sets were assessed using multilevel regression models and concordance coefficients. The 276 trips, made by 51 participants, were on average 27% further than modelled routes, with an average geographical overlap of 39%. However, predictability of the route depended on travel mode. For route length, there was moderate-to-substantial agreement for journeys made on foot and by bicycle. Route overlap was lowest for trips made by car plus walk (22%). The magnitude of difference depended on other journey characteristics, including travelling via intermediate destinations, distance, and use of busy roads. In conclusion, GIS routes may be acceptable for distance estimation and to explore potential routes, particularly active commuting. However, GPS should be used to obtain accurate estimates of environmental contexts in which commuting behaviour actually occurs. Public health researchers should bear these considerations in mind when studying the geographical determinants and health implications of commuting behaviour, and when recommending policy changes to encourage active travel. PMID

  17. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  18. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  19. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  20. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  1. Planning for rotorcraft and commuter air transportationn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, W. L.; Stowers, J.

    1981-01-01

    Community planning needs, criteria, and other considerations such as intermodal coordination and regulatory requirements, for rotorcraft and fixed wing commuter air transportation were identified. A broad range of community planning guidelines, issues, and information which can be used to: (1) direct anticipated aircraft technological improvements; (2) assist planners in identifying and evaluating the opportunities and tradeoffs presented by rotorcraft and commuter aircraft options relative to other modes; and (3) increase communication between aircraft technologists and planners for the purpose of on going support in capitalizing on rotorcraft and commuter air opportunities are provided. The primary tool for identifying and analyzing planning requirements was a detailed questionnaire administered to a selected sample of 55 community planners and other involved in planning for helicopters and commuter aviation.

  2. Non-commutativity measure of quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Quantum discord is a manifestation of quantum correlations due to non-commutativity rather than entanglement. Two measures of quantum discord by the amount of non-commutativity via the trace norm and the Hilbert-Schmidt norm respectively are proposed in this paper. These two measures can be calculated easily for any state with arbitrary dimension. It is shown by several examples that these measures can reflect the amount of the original quantum discord.

  3. Extreme commutative quantum observables are sharp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka

    2011-08-01

    It is well known that, in the description of quantum observables, positive operator valued measures (POVMs) generalize projection valued measures (PVMs) and they also turn out be more optimal in many tasks. We show that a commutative POVM is an extreme point in the convex set of all POVMs if and only if it is a PVM. This results implies that non-commutativity is a necessary ingredient to overcome the limitations of PVMs.

  4. Non-commutativity measure of quantum discord

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Quantum discord is a manifestation of quantum correlations due to non-commutativity rather than entanglement. Two measures of quantum discord by the amount of non-commutativity via the trace norm and the Hilbert-Schmidt norm respectively are proposed in this paper. These two measures can be calculated easily for any state with arbitrary dimension. It is shown by several examples that these measures can reflect the amount of the original quantum discord. PMID:27122226

  5. A Nontraditional Geology Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, William Willard

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design and logistics of a one-month, 1600 km bicycle tour field trip in which the travel, not the stops, is the major teaching tool. Provides a map and a summarized itinerary of the geology experience of southern California and Nevada. (RT)

  6. Katimavik Out-Trip Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    A supplement to the active leisure learning student manual for Katimavik (the 9-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17-21 year old Canadians) provides in greater detail the procedure for preparing and implementing the Outdoor Wilderness Trip. Sections presented are definition of terms, national training,…

  7. Learning from a Bike Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koren, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a bike trip which marks the culmination of a unit reviewing map-reading capabilities. In seventh grade, students develop various map skills, including cardinal and intermediate directions, how to measure distance on a map using a scale of miles, how to interpret the legend of a map, and how to locate places…

  8. Mobile Collector for Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravcik, Milos; Kaibel, Andreas; Specht, Marcus; Terrenghi, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Current e-Learning is based on learning management systems that provide certain standard services--course authoring and delivery, tutoring, administration and collaboration facilities. Rapid development of mobile technologies opens a new area of m-Learning to enhance the current educational opportunities. Field trips are a relevant part of the…

  9. 30 CFR 57.14162 - Trip lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trip lights. 57.14162 Section 57.14162 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14162 Trip lights. On underground rail haulage, trip...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14162 - Trip lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trip lights. 57.14162 Section 57.14162 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14162 Trip lights. On underground rail haulage, trip...

  11. One-trip drum operating instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  12. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate. PMID:26507004

  13. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-06-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate. PMID:26507004

  14. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-06-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate.

  15. Commuters' exposure to PM1 by common travel modes in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qi; Lu, Yi; Xiao, Shan; Shen, Junxiu; Li, Xun; Ma, Weichun; Chen, Limin

    2012-11-01

    A study on commuter's exposure to PM1 in Shanghai was presented. Commuters' real-time exposure concentrations by the common travel modes (bus, walking, cycling, taxi and subway) were measured by DustTrak™ dust monitors, and the average exposure concentrations and inhalation doses were analyzed. The lengths of the routes were designed to be within 30-min walking distance. The average PM1 exposure concentrations during commuting were 0.147 ± 0.092 mg m-3, 0.145 ± 0.088 mg m-3, 0.140 ± 0.086 mg m-3, 0.139 ± 0.086 mg m-3 and 0.122 ± 0.077 mg m-3 for the bus, walking, cycling, taxi and subway trips respectively. The concentrations in the microenvironments were 0.147 ± 0.096 mg m-3, 0.155 ± 0.098 mg m-3, 0.142 ± 0.092 mg m-3 and 0.079 ± 0.051 mg m-3 for the bus station, bus, taxi and train respectively. The concentrations in the microenvironments were close to those in Guangzhou and higher compared to the results in London, Sydney, Florence, etc. The combined effect of exposure concentration, travel time and inhalation rate led to different inter-mode relationship of inhalation doses compared to that of exposure concentrations. The inhalation doses were 54.5 ± 38.9 μg, 45.2 ± 30.1 μg, 29.2 ± 25.4 μg, 28.6 ± 25.9 μg and 12.8 ± 13.4 μg for the cycling, walking, bus, subway and taxi trips respectively. The outdoor fractions of the inhalation doses by bus, taxi and subway were much higher than the indoor fractions.

  16. Tertiary Student Attitudes to Bicycle Commuting in a Regional Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whannell, Patricia; Whannell, Robert; White, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide executive management at a regional university with empirical data to justify, or otherwise, a substantial outlay of funds to support bicycle commuting as a viable strategy for the reduction of traffic congestion. Design/methodology/approach: A custom designed questionnaire was completed by 270…

  17. Holographic charge transport in non commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, based on the holographic techniques, we explore the hydrodynamics of charge diffusion phenomena in non commutative SYM plasma at strong coupling. In our analysis, we compute the R charge diffusion rates both along commutative as well as the non commutative coordinates of the brane. It turns out that unlike the case for the shear viscosity, the DC conductivity along the non commutative direction of the brane differs significantly from that of its cousin corresponding to the commutative direction of the brane. Such a discrepancy however smoothly goes away in the limit of the vanishing non commutativity.

  18. 28 CFR 570.41 - Medical escorted trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Non-emergency medical escorted trip. A pre-planned escorted trip for the purpose of providing an... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Medical escorted trips. 570.41 Section... COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.41 Medical escorted trips. (a) Medical escorted trips are...

  19. 28 CFR 570.41 - Medical escorted trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Non-emergency medical escorted trip. A pre-planned escorted trip for the purpose of providing an... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical escorted trips. 570.41 Section... COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.41 Medical escorted trips. (a) Medical escorted trips are...

  20. 28 CFR 570.41 - Medical escorted trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Non-emergency medical escorted trip. A pre-planned escorted trip for the purpose of providing an... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical escorted trips. 570.41 Section... COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.41 Medical escorted trips. (a) Medical escorted trips are...

  1. Probing deformed commutators with macroscopic harmonic oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Bawaj, Mateusz; Biancofiore, Ciro; Bonaldi, Michele; Bonfigli, Federica; Borrielli, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Marconi, Lorenzo; Marino, Francesco; Natali, Riccardo; Pontin, Antonio; Prodi, Giovanni A.; Serra, Enrico; Vitali, David; Marin, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A minimal observable length is a common feature of theories that aim to merge quantum physics and gravity. Quantum mechanically, this concept is associated with a nonzero minimal uncertainty in position measurements, which is encoded in deformed commutation relations. In spite of increasing theoretical interest, the subject suffers from the complete lack of dedicated experiments and bounds to the deformation parameters have just been extrapolated from indirect measurements. As recently proposed, low-energy mechanical oscillators could allow to reveal the effect of a modified commutator. Here we analyze the free evolution of high-quality factor micro- and nano-oscillators, spanning a wide range of masses around the Planck mass mP (≈22 μg). The direct check against a model of deformed dynamics substantially lowers the previous limits on the parameters quantifying the commutator deformation. PMID:26088965

  2. Commutative Families of the Elliptic Macdonald Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yosuke

    2014-03-01

    In the paper [J. Math. Phys. 50 (2009), 095215, 42 pages], Feigin, Hashizume, Hoshino, Shiraishi, and Yanagida constructed two families of commuting operators which contain the Macdonald operator (commutative families of the Macdonald operator). They used the Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the trigonometric Feigin-Odesskii algebra. In the previous paper [arXiv:1301.4912], the present author constructed the elliptic Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the free field realization of the elliptic Macdonald operator. In this paper, we show that by using the elliptic Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the elliptic Feigin-Odesskii algebra, we can construct commutative families of the elliptic Macdonald operator. In Appendix, we will show a relation between the elliptic Macdonald operator and its kernel function by the free field realization.

  3. Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

  4. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  5. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A', B and B' to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation.

  6. Commutating Permanent-Magnet Motors At Low Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit provides forced commutation during starting. Forced commutation circuit diverts current from inverter SCR's and turns SCR's off during commutation intervals. Silicon controlled rectifier in circuit unnecessary when switch S10 replaced by high-current, high-voltage transistor. At present, high-current, low-voltage device must suffice.

  7. Employees' Perceptions of Cycle Commuting: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide an in-depth individual level understanding of the psychological factors that affect cycle commuting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 15 participants (eight cycle commuters and seven potential cycle commuters) from a "cycle-friendly" employer based in a Scottish city took part in the study.…

  8. Computer simulation of equilibrium conditions following a plant 'trip'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limb, D.

    When a process or part of a process experiences an emergency 'trip', the contained fluids redistribute themselves based upon the prevailing pressure gradients and depending upon the positions of valves at the time of the trip. Reverse flow through rotating compression machinery may occur, depending upon the locations of non-return valves. Reduction in pressure and mixing of cryogenic fluids of different compositions and/or temperatures can both lead to generation of significant volumes of vapour. This equilibration process is usually largely over in a matter of seconds rather than minutes. Key questions facing process and mechanical designers are: what is the settle-out pressure, and can we ensure relief valves do not lift following a trip? To answer these related questions it is necessary to analyse the state of the system prior to the trip, and then, based upon valve positions, etc., construct a model of the worst case probable scenarios for the qualitative redistribution of fluid inventory. At this point the simulation program may be employed to help calculate rigorously the final settle out conditions for each of the possible scenarios. This technique is particularly appropriate for cryogenic processes including refrigeration cycles. It is illustrated here with the help of a multistage hydrocarbon compressor example. Other related non-standard applications of the steady state process simulation program are identified.

  9. Quantum Gibbs Samplers: The Commuting Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastoryano, Michael J.; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the problem of preparing quantum Gibbs states of lattice spin Hamiltonians with local and commuting terms on a quantum computer and in nature. Our central result is an equivalence between the behavior of correlations in the Gibbs state and the mixing time of the semigroup which drives the system to thermal equilibrium (the Gibbs sampler). We introduce a framework for analyzing the correlation and mixing properties of quantum Gibbs states and quantum Gibbs samplers, which is rooted in the theory of non-commutative {mathbb{L}_p} spaces. We consider two distinct classes of Gibbs samplers, one of them being the well-studied Davies generator modelling the dynamics of a system due to weak-coupling with a large Markovian environment. We show that their spectral gap is independent of system size if, and only if, a certain strong form of clustering of correlations holds in the Gibbs state. Therefore every Gibbs state of a commuting Hamiltonian that satisfies clustering of correlations in this strong sense can be prepared efficiently on a quantum computer. As concrete applications of our formalism, we show that for every one-dimensional lattice system, or for systems in lattices of any dimension at temperatures above a certain threshold, the Gibbs samplers of commuting Hamiltonians are always gapped, giving an efficient way of preparing the associated Gibbs states on a quantum computer.

  10. Nontraditional, Female, Commuter Students: Coping with College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The unique needs of nontraditional, female, commuter students at Northern Kentucky University were examined as a result of active recruitment of nontraditional students in the dwindling market for traditional college students. Women over the age of 25 are entering Northern Kentucky University, bringing unique personal and career problems. Problem…

  11. Propulsion opportunities for future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Circa 1990 propulsion improvement concepts are discussed for 1000 to 5000 SHP conventional turboprop powerplants including engines, gearboxes, and propellers. Cycle selection, power plant configurations and advanced technology elements are defined and evaluated using average stage length DOC for commuter aircraft as the primary merit criterion.

  12. Application of an Ir tracer to determine soot exposure to students commuting to school on Baltimore public buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Charles C.; Suarez, Ana E.; Lin, Zhibo; Kidwell, Christopher B.; Borgoul, Polina V.; Caffrey, Peter F.; Ondov, John M.; Sattler, Barbara

    An important component of urban aerosol, diesel soot is a known respiratory irritant and contains mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds. To estimate student exposures to soot emitted from public diesel buses during commutes to city high schools, a portion of the Baltimore municipal fuel supply was tagged with an iridium tracer and exposure was monitored during commutes with personal aerosol monitors as a part of an Environmental Justice Project. A total of 68.2 g of Ir as iridium(III)-2,4-pentanedionate were used to induce a concentration of 48.5 μg Ir ℓ -1 of fuel. Twenty samples were collected over 10 days while four students commuted on regularly scheduled buses and a fifth student commuted by private car. Individual samples integrated from 1 to 4 round trips. Iridium analyses were performed instrumentally after neutron activation with a detection limit (DL) of about 500 fg. For students commuting by bus and following protocols, Ir tracer concentrations ranged from 53±38 to >1980±49 fg m -3. Concentrations up to 3530±220 fg m -3 were observed for student #5, who sampled only when boarding and disembarking. Exposure were greatest for students commuting through the heavily trafficked central business district. Corresponding estimates of exposures to soot emitted from municipal buses ranged from ⩽3 to 82 ng soot m -3 (⩽145 ng m -3 for student #5), i.e. well below the exposure level of 2-10 μg m -3 total C from all sources, including the more than 30,000 diesel trucks which pass through the city's major toll facilities each day. Ir was undetectable in samples collected by the student commuting by car when its windows were closed, but comparable to those of the other students when commutes were made with windows open. The Ir tracer DL corresponds to about 21 ng soot, about half of which is carbon. This is far below the 230 ng reported for analysis by a highly sensitive thermal-optical technique.

  13. Class 2 design update for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creighton, Thomas R.; Hendrich, Louis J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the final report of seven on the design of a family of commuter airplanes. This design effort was performed in fulfillment of NASA/USRA grant NGT-8001. Its contents are as follows: (1) the class 1 baseline designs for the commuter airplane family; (2) a study of takeoff weight penalties imposed on the commuter family due to implementing commonality objectives; (3) component structural designs common to the commuter family; (4) details of the acquisition and operating economics of the commuter family, i.e., savings due to production commonality and handling qualities commonality are determined; (5) discussion of the selection of an advanced turboprop propulsion system for the family of commuter airplanes, and (6) a proposed design for an SSSA controller design to achieve similar handling for all airplanes. Final class 2 commuter airplane designs are also presented.

  14. 28 CFR 570.42 - Non-medical escorted trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... trip for such purposes as allowing an inmate to attend the funeral of, or to make a bedside visit to, a...-medical escorted trip. An escorted trip for such purposes as allowing inmates to participate in program... account prior to the trip. Funds paid by the inmate for purposes of the escorted trip are then...

  15. 28 CFR 570.42 - Non-medical escorted trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... trip for such purposes as allowing an inmate to attend the funeral of, or to make a bedside visit to, a...-medical escorted trip. An escorted trip for such purposes as allowing inmates to participate in program... account prior to the trip. Funds paid by the inmate for purposes of the escorted trip are then...

  16. 28 CFR 570.42 - Non-medical escorted trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... trip for such purposes as allowing an inmate to attend the funeral of, or to make a bedside visit to, a...-medical escorted trip. An escorted trip for such purposes as allowing inmates to participate in program... account prior to the trip. Funds paid by the inmate for purposes of the escorted trip are then...

  17. Can Walking or Biking to Work Really Make a Difference? Compact Development, Observed Commuter Choice and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Wojan, Timothy R.; Hamrick, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Promoting active commuting is viewed as one strategy to increase physical activity and improve the energy balance of more sedentary individuals thereby improving health outcomes. However, the potential effectiveness of promotion policies may be seriously undermined by the endogenous choice of commute mode. Policy to promote active commuting will be most effective if it can be demonstrated that 1) those in compact cities do not necessarily have a preference for more physical activity, and 2) that current active commuting is not explained by unobserved characteristics that may be the true source of a lower body mass index (BMI). Methods Daily time-use diaries are used in combination with geographical characteristics of where respondents live and work to test 1) whether residents of more compact settlements are characterized by higher activity levels; and 2) whether residents of more compact settlements are more likely to bike or walk to work. An endogenous treatment model of active commuting allows testing whether reductions in BMI associated with walking or biking to work are in fact attributable to that activity or are more strongly associated with unobserved characteristics of these active commuters. Results The analysis of general activity levels confirms that residents of more compact cities do not expend more energy than residents of more sprawling cities, indicating that those in compact cities do not necessarily have a preference for more physical activity. The endogenous treatment model is consistent with walking or biking to work having an independent effect on BMI, as unobserved factors that contribute to a higher likelihood of active commuting are not associated with lower BMI. Conclusions Despite evidence that more compact settlement patterns enable active commuting, only a small share of workers in these areas choose to walk or bike to work. In general, the activity level of residents in more compact cities and residents in more sprawling

  18. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  19. Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M

    2012-03-01

    Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space. PMID:22269497

  20. Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M

    2012-03-01

    Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space.

  1. The Case of the Field Trip Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Loucrecia; Redcross, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    For decades, the instructional field trip has been viewed as a strategy to enhance students' learning experiences. Yet what happens when an award-winning teacher is accused of choking a student while on a field trip? Tempers flare among community members, parents contact the police, and the principal is assigned the daunting task of investigating…

  2. Geology Field Trip Studies to New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, John H.

    1976-01-01

    A two week, 3,000 mile, geology field trip for secondary school earth science students through New England is discussed. Student expenses, preparation details, accommodations, meals, transportation, course credit, and fieldwork are considered. A detailed trip itinerary is included. (BT)

  3. Reflections on a Trip: Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Berman, Jennifer; Berman, Dene

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal qualitative study that involves the interviews of four adults who participated in one of two 10-day wilderness therapy trips 25 years ago. Using qualitative data collection techniques, we conducted in-depth interviews. Respondents were asked to reflect on their lives, the wilderness therapy trip, and the…

  4. Discover and Create Your Own Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of virtual field trips based on experiences in a grade 6 science classroom. Considers cost effectiveness, lists online resources, and includes a chart and descriptions of 11 specific virtual field trip sites suitable for elementary and secondary school classes. (LRW)

  5. On the merits of ``Unusual Field Trips''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Dean E.

    1999-11-01

    This note is a synopsis of an ``unusual field trip'' (as it is categorized by our county's office of risk management) taken by a group of physics students to New Mexico during their 1998 spring break. On our four-day trip we visited points of scientific interest related to the Manhattan Project and astronomy.

  6. What? A Field Trip on the Playground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barb

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: In this day and age of budget problems, school districts are cutting back on many programs, one of which is field trips. Why worry? There must be dozens of trips that can be made on the playground of your school. Let's look into activities that can be accomplished there. SOIL STUDIES: Have you ever…

  7. Creating Enrichment Trips for Your Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Robert M.; Parker, James L. F.

    The paper describes "enrichment trips" in which disadvantaged handicapped students travel to various parts of the country to broaden students' awareness. Students had to earn their way through regular attendance, appropriate school behavior, academic achievement, and active participation in fund raising for the trip. Students and teachers worked…

  8. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  9. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is

  10. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  11. Power ascension strategy following a reactor trip during EOC coastdown

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.L.; Heibel, M.D. ); Lesnick, D.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties associated with returning a reactor to the pretrip power level following a reactor trip during an end-of-cycle (EOC) power coastdown maneuver, and maintaining it once achieved, have caused utilities to abandon the restart and enter their refueling outages ahead of schedule. The Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) Braidwood and Byron units have experienced reactor trips during EOC power coastdown maneuvers and have successfully performed restarts. The installation of the BEACON core monitoring system, which provides core monitoring, measurement reduction, core analysis and follow, and core prediction capability utilizing a very fast and accurate three-dimensional nodal code, at the CECo Byron, Braidwood, and Zion stations allows the reactor engineers at these units to accurately determine reactor response. The capabilities of the BEACON system allow an optimal return to power strategy to be developed and continuously updated. This paper presents a method for establishing the optimal return to power strategy utilizing the BEACON system.

  12. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  13. A study of commuter air service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belina, F. W.; Bush, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A regionally oriented overview of the commuter air service industry is provided. A framework for an eventual assessment of potential technology directions that may be of benefit to the industry is presented. Data are provided on the industry's market characteristics, service patterns, patronage characteristics, aircraft and airport needs, economic characteristics and institutional issues. Using personal interview and literature survey methods, investigation of a considerable cross-section of the industry was made.

  14. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  15. p-adic commutation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochubei, Anatoly N.

    1996-10-01

    Representations of the canonical and deformed commutation relations by bounded operators on p-adic Banach spaces are constructed. Functions from the Mahler basis of the space of p-adic continuous functions and their multiplicative analogues are shown to be the p-adic counterparts of the Hermite and q-Hermite functions. The analogue of the Stone - von Neumann uniqueness theorem fails in the p-adic case.

  16. Collective Human Mobility Pattern from Taxi Trips in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chengbin; Jin, Xiaogang; Wong, Ka-Chun; Shi, Meixia; Liò, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. PMID:22529917

  17. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  18. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  19. A review of commuter exposure to ultrafine particles and its health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knibbs, Luke D.; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Morawska, Lidia

    2011-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs, <100 nm) are produced in large quantities by vehicular combustion and are implicated in causing several adverse human health effects. Recent work has suggested that a large proportion of daily UFP exposure may occur during commuting. However, the determinants, variability and transport mode-dependence of such exposure are not well-understood. The aim of this review was to address these knowledge gaps by distilling the results of 'in-transit' UFP exposure studies performed to-date, including studies of health effects. We identified 47 exposure studies performed across 6 transport modes: automobile, bicycle, bus, ferry, rail and walking. These encompassed approximately 3000 individual trips where UFP concentrations were measured. After weighting mean UFP concentrations by the number of trips in which they were collected, we found overall mean UFP concentrations of 3.4, 4.2, 4.5, 4.7, 4.9 and 5.7 × 10 4 particles cm -3 for the bicycle, bus, automobile, rail, walking and ferry modes, respectively. The mean concentration inside automobiles travelling through tunnels was 3.0 × 10 5 particles cm -3. While the mean concentrations were indicative of general trends, we found that the determinants of exposure (meteorology, traffic parameters, route, fuel type, exhaust treatment technologies, cabin ventilation, filtration, deposition, UFP penetration) exhibited marked variability and mode-dependence, such that it is not necessarily appropriate to rank modes in order of exposure without detailed consideration of these factors. Ten in-transit health effects studies have been conducted and their results indicate that UFP exposure during commuting can elicit acute effects in both healthy and health-compromised individuals. We suggest that future work should focus on further defining the contribution of in-transit UFP exposure to total UFP exposure, exploring its specific health effects and investigating exposures in the developing world.

  20. The green valley: the use of mobile narratives for reducing stress in commuters.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Alessandra; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    New technologies have influenced communication and interaction among people, enabling them to overcome face-to-face limitations and eliminating the need for persons in a communicative relationship to be in the same place at the same time. This project aimed to test the effectiveness of mobile phone usage applied to emotion induction. The authors wanted to check whether or not mobile narratives supported by multimedia mobile phones can enhance relaxation and reduce anxiety in a sample of commuters. The project sample consisted of 120 commuters, college students aged 20 to 25 years. The sample was randomly assigned into four conditions: the Vidnar group experienced the mobile narrative on a mobile phone during their daily train trip; the Nonar group experienced only video content proposed on a mobile phone; the MP3 group experienced only the audio content proposed on an MP3 player; and the Control group provided a no-intervention condition. The study measured participants' emotional state (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] State questionnaire), trait (STAI Trait questionnaire, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale), and sense of presence (Slater-Usoh-Steed Questionnaire [UCL-SUS] and the International Test Commission-Sense of Presence Inventory [ITC-SOPI]) before and after the experience. The main results showed a significant decrease in anxiety level (p < 0.05, assessed by STAI State questionnaire) and an increase in relaxation level (p < 0.001) assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). No significant differences were found in other conditions. PMID:19275475

  1. MWD study says system saves trips, time

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, R.; Kite, R.L.; Stone, F.A.

    1980-12-01

    Through analysis of drilling experience on the Claymore platform (100 miles northeast of Aberdeen, Scotland) it is possible to make an accurate comparison of direct time savings resulting from the use of MWD over conventional surveying methods under similar conditions. The Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) system consists of a sensor and transmitter mounted in a nonmagnetic drill collar and surface display equipment located on the drilling platform. The system uses mud pulse telemetry to transmit data and hence there is no wire line. The Claymore analysis resulted in identification and quantification of some of the second-tier benefits resulting from the use of MWD in directional drilling. The second-tier benefits are as substantial as the primary benefit, direct time savings. For the conditions prevailing in the Claymore Field, the use of MWD in surveying a 14,000-foot well could result in: a direct reduction in survey time of about 3 days; approximately six fewer trips for bit and bottomhole assemblies with a resultant time saving of 3 days; one less mud motor correction run on average per two wells drilled; 42% longer bit runs; and perhaps eight fewer bits to drill the well. (DP)

  2. Fellows in the Middle: Fabulous Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Mary Lou

    2008-05-01

    Montclair State University's NSF GK-12 Program focuses on grades 7 and 8 in five urban public school districts in northern New Jersey. Each year four fieldtrips are taken by the students, middle school teachers, and graduate student Fellows. Many interdisciplinary hands-on lessons are written for use before, during and after each trip with this year's theme of Earth history. The Sterling Hill Mine trip evoked lessons on geology, economics, crystal structure, density, and pH. A virtual trip (webcam link) to scientists in the rainforest of Panama prompted critical thinking, categorizing layers and animals, and construction of model food webs. In the field trip to the NJ School of Conservation the students will build model aquifers, measure tree heights, and measure stream flow to compare to their Hackensack River. Finally the students will travel to MSU for a Math/Science Day with research talks, lab tours, hands-on activities, and a poster session. In January 2008 seventeen teachers, Fellows, and grant personnel took a field trip to China to set up collaborations with researchers and schools in Beijing and Xi'an, including the Beijing Ancient Observatory. All field trips are fabulous! Next year (IYA) our theme will be planetary science and will feature field trips to the Newark Museum's Dreyfuss Planetarium, BCC Buehler Challenger & Science Center, and star parties. We look forward to invigorating middle school science and mathematics with exciting astronomy. Funded by NSF #0638708

  3. Trip time comparison of conventional and exchange container mode for solid waste collection a case study of Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aremu, A S; Vijay, Ritesh; Adeleke, O O

    2013-01-01

    The use of hauled container system for municipal solid waste collection and transportation often results in socio-economic and environmental impacts which are linearly related to trip time. In this study, trip times for the conventional and exchange container mode of solid waste collection by the hauled container system were evaluated. A trip time model was developed for this evaluation through field studies. The model was applied on ten trips to collect solid waste bins and its transportation to disposal site in the city of Ilorin, Nigeria. The results of the model for both modes were compared and Showed that at 5 % significance level,.the trip time for the conventional mode was greater than the trip time for the exchange container mode. Also, the exchange container mode resulted in haul distance reduction by 3 to 15% and trip time reduction by 2.5 to 13 %. This reduction could help in improving logistics and also reduce the negative, impacts associated with collection operation.

  4. Non-commutative tools for topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews several analytic tools for the field of topological insulators, developed with the aid of non-commutative calculus and geometry. The set of tools includes bulk topological invariants defined directly in the thermodynamic limit and in the presence of disorder, whose robustness is shown to have nontrivial physical consequences for the bulk states. The set of tools also includes a general relation between the current of an observable and its edge index, a relation that can be used to investigate the robustness of the edge states against disorder. The paper focuses on the motivations behind creating such tools and on how to use them.

  5. Dodge the Jet Lag, Enjoy Your Trip

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159864.html Dodge the Jet Lag, Enjoy Your Trip Sleep specialist offers tips ... HealthDay News) -- People crossing time zones may assume jet lag is something they have to endure -- like ...

  6. University Students as Leaders for Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack L.; Troxel, Verne A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory school environmental science program that utilizes university students of all majors to develop and teach lessons for field trips. Activities include water analysis and stream gradient determination. (MA)

  7. The Vo-Ag Spring Educational Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanning, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    A vocational agriculture teacher discusses values, planning procedures, and logistics of an annual 6-day trip in which 40 Future Farmers of America (FFA) members visit farms, ranches, agribusiness units, and other points of interest to rural oriented youth. (JT)

  8. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  9. Shock Waves and Commutation Speed of Memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shao; Tesler, Federico; Marlasca, Fernando Gomez; Levy, Pablo; Dobrosavljević, V.; Rozenberg, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Progress of silicon-based technology is nearing its physical limit, as the minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 10 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next-generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade, and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, this progress has mainly been the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of the essence. In the present work, we report the striking result of a connection between the resistive switching and shock-wave formation, a classic topic of nonlinear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen vacancies that migrate during the commutation forms a shock wave that propagates through a highly resistive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations and experiments in a manganese-oxide-based memristor device, and we extend our theory to the case of binary oxides. The shock-wave scenario brings unprecedented physical insight and enables us to rationalize the process of oxygen-vacancy-driven resistive change with direct implications for a key technological aspect—the commutation speed.

  10. Bicycle weight and commuting time: randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the author’s 20.9 lb (9.5 kg) carbon frame bicycle reduced commuting time compared with his 29.75 lb (13.5 kg) steel frame bicycle. Design Randomised trial. Setting Sheffield and Chesterfield, United Kingdom, between mid-January 2010 and mid-July 2010. Participants One consultant in anaesthesia and intensive care. Main outcome measure Total time to complete the 27 mile (43.5 kilometre) journey from Sheffield to Chesterfield Royal Hospital and back. Results The total distance travelled on the steel frame bicycle during the study period was 809 miles (1302 km) and on the carbon frame bicycle was 711 miles (1144 km). The difference in the mean journey time between the steel and carbon bicycles was 00:00:32 (hr:min:sec; 95% CI –00:03:34 to 00:02:30; P=0.72). Conclusions A lighter bicycle did not lead to a detectable difference in commuting time. Cyclists may find it more cost effective to reduce their own weight rather than to purchase a lighter bicycle. PMID:21148220

  11. Using the TRIP model to disseminate an IT-based pressure ulcer intervention.

    PubMed

    Tschannen, Dana; Talsma, Akkeneel; Gombert, Jan; Mowry, Jolé L

    2011-04-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are among the most common harms experienced by patients in health care facilities. Despite the existence of evidence-based guidelines and protocols for PU prevention and treatment, the sustained success in reducing the development of PUs is elusive. The purpose of this article is to describe how the Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) model was used to support implementation of a care management solution (i.e., the Daily Project) aimed at preventing PUs. Using a case study approach, the development and implementation of the Daily Project is described in relation to the TRIP model. Initial success was evidenced by a 34% reduction in PU rates and an 86% reduction in missed patient turns 3 months postimplementation of the Daily intervention. Based on our experiences, the TRIP model successfully can assist with the implementation and diffusion of a tool that addresses a complex clinical issue such as PU prevention and treatment.

  12. Non-commutative relativistic equation with a Coulomb potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zaim, Slimane; Khodja, Lamine; Delenda, Yazid

    2012-06-27

    We improve the previous study of the Klein-Gordon equation in a non-commutative space-time as applied to the Hydrogen atom to extract the energy levels, by considering the secondorder corrections in the non-commutativity parameter. Phenomenologically we show that noncommutativity plays the role of spin.

  13. Understanding What Influences Successful Black Commuter Students' Engagement in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, Trina Lynn; Jones, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Black and commuter students are disadvantaged when it comes to higher education. Although black students are enrolling in college more than they did in previous years, fewer are earning degrees compared with their counterparts. Research asserts that students who live on campus are more engaged compared with students who commute. This is troubling…

  14. Unraveling the Image of Commutation Spark Generated in Universal Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanazawa, Tamio; Almazroui, Ali; Egashira, Torao

    A universal motor, which is mainly used in vacuum cleaners, generates commutation sparks at the moment when the brush and the commutator segment are separated from each other during rotation. This study investigates the mechanism of commutation spark generation by analyzing high-speed camera images and its electrical aspect. We invented a new external trigger method that used laser light as the trigger signal for the shuttering a high-speed camera. This method enabled us to photograph sparks on any desired commutator segments during high-speed rotation, and that made the analysis after photographing easier. This paper shows that commutation sparks in universal motors are generated on every other commutator segment and at the peak of pulses in the voltage between the brush and commutator segment. Other aspects are also clarified, such as the generation of the singular and plural number of sparks on one commutator segment at a time, the time from the moment of spark generation to extinction, and spark generation during a single rotation.

  15. Active Commuting Patterns at a Large, Midwestern College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew; Wittman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand patterns and influences on active commuting (AC) behavior. Participants: Students and faculty/staff at a university campus. Methods: In April-May 2008, respondents answered an online survey about mode of travel to campus and influences on commuting decisions. Hierarchical regression analyses predicted variance in walking…

  16. Parabosonic string and space-time non-commutativity

    SciTech Connect

    Seridi, M. A.; Belaloui, N.

    2012-06-27

    We investigate the para-quantum extension of the bosonic strings in a non-commutative space-time. We calculate the trilinear relations between the mass-center variables and the modes and we derive the Virasoro algebra where a new anomaly term due to the non-commutativity is obtained.

  17. Soft commutated direct current motor [summary of proposed paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S.

    1998-10-22

    A novel soft commutated direct current (DC) motor is introduced. The current of the commutated coil is intentionally drained before the brush disconnects the coil. This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. A similar principle can be applied for DC generators.

  18. Effects of urban growth controls on intercity commuting.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Laudo M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of the effects of urban growth controls on the intercity commuting of workers. Growth controls (land use regulations that attempt to restrict population growth and urban sprawl) have increased housing prices and diverted population growth to uncontrolled cities. It has been suggested that resulting changes in local labour supply might stimulate intercity commuting from uncontrolled to controlled cities. To test this hypothesis, a gravity model of commuting flows between places in California is estimated using alternative econometric methods (OLS, Heckman selection and count-data). The possibility of spatial dependence in commuting flows is also taken into consideration. Results suggest larger commuting flows to destination places that restrict residential growth. PMID:20722227

  19. Euler polynomials and identities for non-commutative operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Valerio; Vignat, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Three kinds of identities involving non-commutating operators and Euler and Bernoulli polynomials are studied. The first identity, as given by Bender and Bettencourt [Phys. Rev. D 54(12), 7710-7723 (1996)], expresses the nested commutator of the Hamiltonian and momentum operators as the commutator of the momentum and the shifted Euler polynomial of the Hamiltonian. The second one, by Pain [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 035304 (2013)], links the commutators and anti-commutators of the monomials of the position and momentum operators. The third appears in a work by Figuieira de Morisson and Fring [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 9269 (2006)] in the context of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems. In each case, we provide several proofs and extensions of these identities that highlight the role of Euler and Bernoulli polynomials.

  20. Effects of urban growth controls on intercity commuting.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Laudo M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of the effects of urban growth controls on the intercity commuting of workers. Growth controls (land use regulations that attempt to restrict population growth and urban sprawl) have increased housing prices and diverted population growth to uncontrolled cities. It has been suggested that resulting changes in local labour supply might stimulate intercity commuting from uncontrolled to controlled cities. To test this hypothesis, a gravity model of commuting flows between places in California is estimated using alternative econometric methods (OLS, Heckman selection and count-data). The possibility of spatial dependence in commuting flows is also taken into consideration. Results suggest larger commuting flows to destination places that restrict residential growth.

  1. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant’s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s). The outcomes were changes in the share of commute trips (i) involving any active travel, (ii) involving any public transport, and (iii) made entirely by car. Variability and change data were derived from a self-reported seven-day record collected before (2009) and after (2012) the intervention. Separate multinomial regression models were estimated to assess the influence of baseline variability on behaviour change, both independently and as an interaction effect with exposure to the intervention. Results All three measures of variability predicted changes in mode share in most models. The effect size for the intervention was slightly strengthened after including variability. Commuters with higher baseline variability were more likely to increase their active mode share (e.g. for HHI: relative risk ratio [RRR] for interaction 3.34, 95% CI 1.41, 7.89) and decrease their car mode share in response to the intervention (e.g. for HHI: RRR 7.50, 95% CI 2.52, 22.34). Conclusions People reporting a higher level of variability in mode choice were more likely to change their travel behaviour following an intervention. Future research should consider such variability as a potential predictor and effect modifier of travel and physical activity behaviour change, and its significance for the design and targeting of interventions. PMID

  2. A non-commuting stabilizer formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten; Buerschaper, Oliver

    2015-05-15

    We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.

  3. Accelerating commutation circuits in quantum computer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Min; Huang, Xu; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zeng-ke

    2012-12-01

    In a high speed and packet-switched quantum computer network, a packet routing delay often leads to traffic jams, becoming a severe bottleneck for speeding up the transmission rate. Based on the delayed commutation circuit proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 110502 (2006), we present an improved scheme for accelerating network transmission. For two more realistic scenarios, we utilize the characteristic of a quantum state to simultaneously implement a data switch and transmission that makes it possible to reduce the packet delay and route a qubit packet even before its address is determined. This circuit is further extended to the quantum network for the transmission of the unknown quantum information. The analysis demonstrates that quantum communication technology can considerably reduce the processing delay time and build faster and more efficient packet-switched networks.

  4. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  5. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  6. Electronically commutated motors for vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echolds, E. F.

    1980-02-01

    Two permanent magnet electronically commutated motors for electric vehicle traction are discussed. One, based on existing technology, produces 23 kW (peak) at 26,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 18,000 rpm. The motor has a conventional design: a four-pole permanent magnet rotor and a three-phase stator similar to those used on ordinary induction motors. The other, advanced technology motor, is rated at 27 kW (peak) at 14,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 10,500 rpm. The machine employs a permanent magnet rotor and a novel ironless stator design in an axial air gap, homopolar configuration. Comparison of the new motors with conventional brush type machines indicates potential for substantial cost savings.

  7. Commuting behavior of western U.S. residents

    SciTech Connect

    Caviglia, J. |

    1996-06-01

    Estimation and interpretation of commutes to work has been studied extensively with respect to gender, race, and income. While the literature is extensive in these areas, there has been little research on regional differences between US states and territories. Since data which reports the commute to work is in average minutes, the distance traveled is estimated using estimates of the distance between home and work county centroids. The models differ in estimation of in-county commutes. The first assumes that the commute is equal to the radius of the county and the second estimates the commute as a weighted distance based on place location. Two data sets are compared, US National Guard data and US census data. Goal of this paper is to make conclusions about the commuting behavior of western residents through the use of these estimates, and therefore to provide a estimation method for distance commutes which can be used in further research. It is concluded that the radius method of estimation may be an over estimation, in particular in the western states. Since the non-western states are generally more homogeneously populated, this overestimation is not observed. It is recommended that the place location method be used for similar research, in particular studies dealing with western states. Suggestions are made for further research and recommendations are made for the US Army National Guard in regards to recruiting.

  8. Physical activity during leisure and commuting in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Pekkarinen, Heikki; Hänninen, Osmo; Yu, Zhijie; Tian, Huiguang; Guo, Zeyu; Nissinen, Aulikki

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate physical activity during leisure time and commuting among persons aged 15-69 years in the urban population of Tianjin, China, and to assess its associations with demographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: In 1996 a cross-sectional survey of 2002 males and 1974 females provided information on physical activity during leisure time and commuting and on demographics and health behaviours. FINDINGS: No leisure-time physical activity was engaged in by 67% of females and 61% of males. However, only 4% of females and 9% of males reported an absence of physical activity during commuting. The mean duration of leisure-time physical activity for the whole population was about 10 min per day. The average commuting time on foot or by bicycle was about 30 min. Leisure-time physical activity was more frequent among highly educated people, people with high incomes, white-collar workers, married people, non-smokers, or people commuting on foot or by bicycle than among other people. Persons with low incomes, male blue-collar workers and married people were more likely than others to engage in 30 min or more per day of physical activity on foot or by bicycle when commuting. CONCLUSION: People in Tianjin engaged in a high level of physical activity when commuting and a low level of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:12571720

  9. Predictive Process Optimization for Fracture Ductility in Automotive TRIP Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jiadong

    stabilizing aging treatment was proposed to address the enhancement of hole-expansion ductility in this class of steel, through optimization of retained austenite stability for transformation toughening. Using a commercial galvannealed TRIP steel of 800 MPa strength level as an example, the paraequilibrium model was established with carbon partition stored energy fitted with experimental data and applied in the thermodynamic simulations by Thermo-CalcRTM and DICTRARTM. It is found the specimens aged at 447 °C for 2 minutes demonstrate evident improvement in the fracture ductility compared with original as-received galvannealed TRIP steel. The true fracture strain grows from 0.45 to 0.71, associated with a reduction of Ms sigma from 70 °C to 15 °C. Further application of the computational design model on a series of similar TRIP steels confirms the effect of the stability optimization on enhancing the hole-expansion ratio by ˜ 30% on average. The optimum processing parameters along with the new stabilizing aging heat-treatment was predictively designed to successfully improve the material meeting the objectives.

  10. The FM-007: An advanced jet commuter for HUB to spoke transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blouke, Peter Scott; Engel, George Bryan; Fordham, Kari Suzanne; Layne, Steven James; Moore, Joel David; Shaver, Frederick Martin; Thornton, Douglas Hershal, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the increasing need for new commuter aircraft, the FM-007 is proposed, a technologically advanced jet propelled short takeoff and landing (STOL) airplane. The proposed commuter is designed for hub to spoke air travel. In order to reduce drag, natural laminar flow technology is integrated into the design using the natural laminar flow airfoil section for the wing. A three lifting surface configuration provides for more efficient cruise flight. This unique design includes a small forward wing (canard), a rear mounted high aspect ratio main wing, and a small horizontal stabilizer high atop the vertical tail. These three surfaces act together to reduce drag by minimizing the downward force the horizontal stabilizer has to account for due to the nose down pitching moment. Commuter aircraft must also incorporate passenger comfort. This is achieved by providing a spacious pressurized cabin with a large galley and reduced cabin noise due to incorporation of noise reduction gear. A basic oval design is adopted, as opposed to a circular design in order to allow for the seating of five passengers abreast. To get STOL capability, an over the wing blown flap is used using a Rolls Royce Tay series engine.

  11. Generalized Uncertainty Relation in the Non-commutative Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ≥ {θ}/{2}, {Δ} p1 {Δ } p2 ≥ {bar{θ}}/{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ≥ {hbar _{eff}}/{2} is discussed. Four each uncertainty relation, wave functions saturating each uncertainty relation are explicitly constructed. The unitary operators relating the non-commutative position and momentum operators to the commutative position and momentum operators are also investigated. We also discuss the uncertainty relation related to the harmonic oscillator.

  12. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Jeffrey F.

    1992-06-23

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  13. MCMII and the TriP chip

    SciTech Connect

    Juan Estrada et al.

    2003-12-19

    We describe the development of the electronics that will be used to read out the Fiber Tracker and Preshower detectors in Run IIb. This electronics is needed for operation at 132ns bunch crossing, and may provide a measurement of the z coordinate of the Fiber Tracker hits when operating at 396ns bunch crossing. Specifically, we describe the design and preliminary tests of the Trip chip, MCM IIa, MCM IIb and MCM IIc. This document also serves as a user manual for the Trip chip and the MCM.

  14. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  15. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  16. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  17. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  18. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  19. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  20. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... evaluation of commuter category airplanes. 23.574 Section 23.574 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes. For commuter category airplanes— (a) Metallic damage tolerance....

  1. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... evaluation of commuter category airplanes. 23.574 Section 23.574 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes. For commuter category airplanes— (a) Metallic damage tolerance....

  2. Round-Trip System Available to Measure Path Length Variation in Korea VLBI System for Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Hongjong; Kondo, Tetsuro; Lee, Jinoo; Kim, Tuhwan; Kim, Myungho; Kim, Suchul; Park, Jinsik; Ju, Hyunhee

    2010-01-01

    The construction project of Korea Geodetic VLBI officially started in October 2008. The construction of all systems will be completed by the end of 2011. The project was named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG), and its main purpose is to maintain the Korea Geodetic Datum. In case of the KVG system, an observation room with an H-maser frequency standard is located in a building separated from the antenna by several tens of meters. Therefore KVG system will adopt a so-called round-trip system to transmit reference signals to the antenna with reduction of the effect of path length variations. KVG s round-trip system is designed not only to use either metal or optical fiber cables, but also to measure path length variations directly. We present this unique round trip system for KVG.

  3. Naturalistic Cycling Study: Identifying Risk Factors for On-Road Commuter Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Marilyn; Charlton, Judith; Oxley, Jennifer; Newstead, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to identify risk factors for collisions/near-collisions involving on-road commuter cyclists and drivers. A naturalistic cycling study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, with cyclists wearing helmet-mounted video cameras. Video recordings captured cyclists’ perspective of the road and traffic behaviours including head checks, reactions and manoeuvres. The 100-car naturalistic driving study analysis technique was adapted for data analysis and events were classified by severity: collision, near-collision and incident. Participants were adult cyclists and each filmed 12 hours of commuter cycling trips over a 4-week period. In total, 127 hours and 38 minutes were analysed for 13 participants, 54 events were identified: 2 collisions, 6 near-collisions and 46 incidents. Prior to events, 88.9% of cyclists travelled in a safe/legal manner. Sideswipe was the most frequent event type (40.7%). Most events occurred at an intersection/intersection-related location (70.3%). The vehicle driver was judged at fault in the majority of events (87.0%) and no post-event driver reaction was observed (83.3%). Cross tabulations revealed significant associations between event severity and: cyclist reaction, cyclist post-event manoeuvre, pre-event driver behaviour, other vehicle involved, driver reaction, visual obstruction, cyclist head check (left), event type and vehicle location (p<0.05). Frequent head checks suggest cyclists had high situational awareness and their reactive behaviour to driver actions led to successful avoidance of collisions/near-collisions. Strategies to improve driver awareness of on-road cyclists and to indicate early before turning/changing lanes when sharing the roadway with cyclists are discussed. Findings will contribute to the development of effective countermeasures to reduce cyclist trauma. PMID:21050610

  4. NEWS: A trip to CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, A. D.

    2000-07-01

    the canteen. Over lunch we mixed with physicists of many different nationalities and backgrounds. Figure 1 Figure 1. In the afternoon we visited Microcosm, the CERN visitors centre, and the LEP control room and also the SPS. Here the students learned new applications for much of the physics of standing waves and resonance that they had been taught in the classroom. Later that night, we visited a bowling alley where momentum and collision theory were put into practice. The following morning we returned to CERN and visited the large magnet testing facility. Here again physics was brought to life. We saw superconducting magnets being assembled and tested and the students gained a real appreciation of the problems and principles involved. The afternoon was rounded off by a visit to a science museum in Geneva - well worth a visit, as some of us still use some of the apparatus on display. Friday was our last full day so we visited Chamonix in the northern Alps. In the morning, we ascended the Aiguille de Midi - by cable car. Twenty minutes and 3842 m later we emerged into 50 km h-1 winds and -10 °C temperature, not counting the -10 °C wind chill factor. A crisp packet provided an unusual demonstration of the effects of air pressure (figure 2). Figure 2 Figure 2. The views from the summit were very spectacular though a few people experienced mild altitude sickness. That afternoon the party went to the Mer de Glace. Being inside a 3 million year-old structure moving down a mountain at 3 cm per day was an interesting experience, as was a tot of whisky with 3 million year-old water. Once again the local scenery was very photogenic and the click and whirr of cameras was a constant background noise. Saturday morning saw an early start for the long drive home. Most students - and some staff - took the opportunity to catch up on their sleep. Thanks are due to many people without whom the trip would never have taken place. Anne Craige, Stuart Williams

  5. Leptogenesis from a Non Commutative FRW Like Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mebarki, O.; Mebarki, N.; Aissaoui, H.

    2010-10-31

    A pure NCG leptonic asymmetry is obtained for particles propagating in a curved non commutative FRW universe. It is shown that because of the space-time deformation, an axial like symmetry is generated.

  6. On the renormalization of non-commutative field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Daniel N.; Garschall, Thomas; Gieres, François; Heindl, Franz; Schweda, Manfred; Wohlgenannt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses three topics concerning the quantization of non-commutative field theories (as defined in terms of the Moyal star product involving a constant tensor describing the non-commutativity of coordinates in Euclidean space). To start with, we discuss the Quantum Action Principle and provide evidence for its validity for non-commutative quantum field theories by showing that the equation of motion considered as insertion in the generating functional Z c [ j] of connected Green functions makes sense (at least at one-loop level). Second, we consider the generalization of the BPHZ renormalization scheme to non-commutative field theories and apply it to the case of a self-interacting real scalar field: Explicit computations are performed at one-loop order and the generalization to higher loops is commented upon. Finally, we discuss the renormalizability of various models for a self-interacting complex scalar field by using the approach of algebraic renormalization.

  7. Strong Planck constraints on braneworld and non-commutative inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: skuro@rs.tus.ac.jp E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2014-03-01

    We place observational likelihood constraints on braneworld and non-commutative inflation for a number of inflaton potentials, using Planck, WMAP polarization and BAO data. Both braneworld and non-commutative scenarios of the kind considered here are limited by the most recent data even more severely than standard general-relativity models. At more than 95 % confidence level, the monomial potential V(φ)∝φ{sup p} is ruled out for p ≥ 2 in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld cosmology and, for p > 0, also in the high-curvature limit of the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) braneworld and in the infrared limit of non-commutative inflation, due to a large scalar spectral index. Some parameter values for natural inflation, small-varying inflaton models and Starobinsky inflation are allowed in all scenarios, although some tuning is required for natural inflation in a non-commutative spacetime.

  8. Classical limits of quantum mechanics on a non-commutative configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Benatti, Fabio; Gouba, Laure

    2013-06-15

    We consider a model of non-commutative quantum mechanics given by two harmonic oscillators over a non-commutative two dimensional configuration space. We study possible ways of removing the non-commutativity based on the classical limit context known as anti-Wick quantization. We show that removal of non-commutativity from the configuration space and from the canonical operators is not commuting operation.

  9. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  10. 30 CFR 57.14162 - Trip lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trip lights. 57.14162 Section 57.14162 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14162 - Trip lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trip lights. 57.14162 Section 57.14162 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14162 - Trip lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trip lights. 57.14162 Section 57.14162 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment...

  13. Trip Leaders Guide. Outdoor Expeditions and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Bob

    Written to help teachers or leaders plan and lead field trips, excursions, or expeditions which stimulate a motivation to positive action, this pamphlet provides assistance in conducting learning experiences outside the classroom. Topics and subtopics discussed include: (1) Campsites: selection; firebuilding; knives, axes, saws; neat campsites;…

  14. Reconceptualizing Electronic Field Trips: A Deweyian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Mullen, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic field tripping is a relatively new form of large-scale distance education that attempts to provide contextually rich learning materials embedded within a coherent educational content base. Using Dewey's (1943) framework for the natural learning impulses of children, we describe the potential pedagogical benefits afforded by electronic…

  15. On the Merits of "Unusual Field Trips."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the organization and completion of a scientific field trip for a group of high school physics students that was organized primarily around a study of the Manhattan Project. The group visited the Trinity site, Los Alamos, several museums, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array. Contact information for the various…

  16. Make that Field Trip More Meaningful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larabee, Dave

    2000-10-01

    Ideas for using local museums (science, amusement park, etc.) are presented, with an eye toward making the trip more than just "let's look at things and run around." The collaboration of The Local Group (a Toledo-area physics group) with COSI-Toledo is the model.

  17. 49 CFR 236.834 - Trip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.834 Trip. A movement of a locomotive over all or any portion of automatic train stop, train control or cab signal territory between the terminals for that locomotive; a movement in one direction. Cross Reference:...

  18. A Trip to Europe; A Multimedia Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Samuel B., Jr.

    Green Chimneys School, a private school, used its summer session to take an imaginary trip to Europe. In each subject students took part in activities related to travel and European countries. For example, mathematics classes dealt with the monetary system, latitude, longitude, units of measurement, and conversion of money for the countries being…

  19. Virtual Field Trips through Video Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pachnowski, Lynne M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of videoconferencing for field trips in elementary and secondary education. Discusses how it works, videoconferencing providers, time involved, costs, amount of interactivity, supplemental hands-on material, content standards, technical support, class preparation, and the need for back-up plans in case of technical difficulties.…

  20. Field Trip to a Rocky Shore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Field trip activities designed for use on Maine's coast are provided, with brief definitions of the major physical zones to be found in this area. An introduction to the study of zonation of plants and animals living on the rocky shore is presented along with a list of the materials needed and the procedures to be followed when making a study of…

  1. The Educational Value of Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Kisida, Brian; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The school field trip has a long history in American public education. For decades, students have piled into yellow buses to visit a variety of cultural institutions, including art, natural history, and science museums, as well as theaters, zoos, and historical sites. Schools gladly endured the expense and disruption of providing field trips…

  2. Helpful Hints for Successful Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Candy; Cave, Lance

    1998-01-01

    Presents tips for organizing and conducting effective science-related field trips. Topics include: Develop a Thematic Approach; Engage Expert Leaders; Provide Important Creature Comforts (transportation and facilities); Supply Useful Learning Materials; Provide Delicious Creature Comforts (food); Create a Comfortable Networking Environment;…

  3. Class Trips in Cyberspace: No Passports Required.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes examples of electronic field trips for elementary and secondary school students taking place during the 1996-97 school year. Topics include Mayan civilization, wildlife migration, geothermal hot spots, Antarctica, sailboat voyages, baseball and math, viruses, Hong Kong, and offerings from National Geographic. (LRW)

  4. 9 Tips for Affordable Student Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The trick to having a successful and affordable trip is planning ahead and planning thoroughly. Keep the spirits high and the costs low by following a well-traveled ensemble director's suggestions as presented in this article. These tips include finding local attractions that are unique to the city that the group will be visiting, looking at…

  5. The TRIP from ULF to ARF.

    PubMed

    Collado, Manuel; Serrano, Manuel

    2010-04-13

    ARF is a key activator of p53, and together they form a critical duo for protection against cancer. Previous evidence had recognized the regulatory potential of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ARF. The recent identification of TRIP12/ULF as a ubiquitin ligase of ARF adds an important missing piece to the ARF/p53 pathway.

  6. Field Trips, Minus the Smelly Bus Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barack, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    As school boards nationwide are forced to wield the budget ax-extracurricular activities are often the first items to go. Sports, art classes, and even field trips are increasingly rare. Still, children are curious--and so some schools are turning to virtual means to take students out of the classroom. This article briefly discusses virtual…

  7. Field Trips: Liability Issues and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Michelle H.; Getskow, Veronica; Dicker, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip for preschool children can be a rewarding experience, but if not properly planned and executed it can be a legal nightmare for teachers and owners. This article will take teachers through a hypothetical outing. If one spots mistakes before the authors highlight them, great, and if not, one will learn some fine points during this…

  8. Engineering Active and Effective Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Andrea Sabatini

    2004-01-01

    New teachers expect many things in educational life to be complex (e.g., classroom management, lesson planning, administrative paperwork, relationships with colleagues and students' parents), they still underestimate the amount of detail that goes into creating effective learning experiences daily. Field trips, for example, always sound like a…

  9. A Quasi-Practical Interstellar Rocket Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, James D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Mathematically shows that in principle a spaceship could travel eight light years in ten earth years, with the passengers arriving 4.6 years older than when they left earth and having experienced an acceleration induced effective gravity of one g for the entire trip. (MLH)

  10. Non-commutativity, teleology and GRB time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Pang, Yi; Wang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model in which an energy-dependent time delay of a photon originates from space-time non-commutativity, the time delay is due to a non-commutative coupling between dilaton and photon. We predict that in our model, high energy photons with different momentum can either be delayed or superluminal, this may be related to a possible time delay reported by the Fermi LAT and Fermi GBM Collaborations.

  11. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-03-27

    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  12. Advanced propfan analysis for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gerald A.; Creighton, Tom; Haddad, Raphael; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Russell, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Advanced propfans were selected to be used throughout the family of commuters. These propulsion systems offer a 25 to 28 percent fuel savings over comparably sized turbofans operating in the 1990s. A brief study of the propulsion systems available for the family of commuters is provided and the selection of the advanced turboprops justified. The propeller and engine designs and performance are discussed. The integration of these designs are examined. Also addressed is the noise considerations and constraints due to propfan installation.

  13. Non-commutativity and Local Indistinguishability of Quantum States

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We study the local indistinguishability problem of quantum states. By introducing an easily calculated quantity, non-commutativity, we present an criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for the local indistinguishability of a complete set of pure orthogonal product states. A constructive distinguishing procedure to obtain the concrete local measurements and classical communications is given. The non-commutativity of ensembles can be also used to characterize the quantumness for classical-quantum or quantum-classical correlated states. PMID:25208830

  14. What interventions increase commuter cycling? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Glenn; Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify interventions that will increase commuter cycling. Setting All settings where commuter cycling might take place. Participants Adults (aged 18+) in any country. Interventions Individual, group or environmental interventions including policies and infrastructure. Primary and secondary outcome measures A wide range of ‘changes in commuter cycling’ indicators, including frequency of cycling, change in workforce commuting mode, change in commuting population transport mode, use of infrastructure by defined populations and population modal shift. Results 12 studies from 6 countries (6 from the UK, 2 from Australia, 1 each from Sweden, Ireland, New Zealand and the USA) met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 2 studies were randomised control trials and the remainder preintervention and postintervention studies. The majority of studies (n=7) evaluated individual-based or group-based interventions and the rest environmental interventions. Individual-based or group-based interventions in 6/7 studies were found to increase commuter cycling of which the effect was significant in only 3/6 studies. Environmental interventions, however, had small but positive effects in much larger but more difficult to define populations. Almost all studies had substantial loss to follow-up. Conclusions Despite commuter cycling prevalence varying widely between countries, robust evidence of what interventions will increase commuter cycling in low cycling prevalence nations is sparse. Wider environmental interventions that make cycling conducive appear to reach out to hard to define but larger populations. This could mean that environmental interventions, despite their small positive effects, have greater public health significance than individual-based or group-based measures because those interventions encourage a larger number of people to integrate physical activity into their everyday lives. PMID:26275902

  15. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 μm) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ≤ 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of

  16. Review on δ-Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) Steels with Low Density: The Concept and Current Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, H. L.

    2014-09-01

    Novel alloys with high aluminum addition, so-called δ-transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP), have been developed recently for the third generation of advanced high strength steels for automotive applications, which are promising owing to the potential weldability as well as the combination of strength and ductility. In addition, the high aluminum addition results in a density reduction of approximately 5% in these δ-TRIP alloys without sacrificing the Young's modulus in uniaxial tensile tests. The origin of δ-TRIP concept is introduced first with a review of the published work on δ-TRIP alloys. This review will include methodology for retention of δ-ferrite in casting, rolling and welding conditions, microstructure evolution by austempering, as well as microstructures-properties relationship involving the roles of blocky and lath retained austenite. In addition, currently unresolved problems will be discussed regarding the fundamentals of materials design, automotive application, and industrial manufacturing.

  17. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: the SCAR TRIP initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Morin, Richard L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Carrino, John A.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Horii, Steven C.; Piraino, David W.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Seibert, James A.; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2004-04-01

    The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster inter-disciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP will focus on the following basic objectives: improving the efficiency of interpretation of large data sets, improving the timeliness and effectiveness of communication, and decreasing medical errors. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to improve the quality and safety of patient care. Interdisciplinary research into several broad areas will be necessary to make progress in managing the ever-increasing volume of data. The six concepts involved include: human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection (CAD), visualization, navigation and usability, databases and integration, and evaluation and validation of methods and performance. The result of this transformation will affect several key processes in radiology, including image interpretation; communication of imaging results; workflow and efficiency within the health care enterprise; diagnostic accuracy and a reduction in medical errors; and, ultimately, the overall quality of care.

  18. The Langley turbo-prop commuter design: A complete project description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttram, Greg; Horton, Keith; Keeter, Tim; Millhouse, Paul; Newberry, Kelli; Obyrne, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to propose and prove the possibility of a new, advanced technology commuter aircraft design. Among the specifications were short to medium range capabilities, low seat per mile cost, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort. Based on market evaluation, we found that the optimum size for new regional aircraft is around 50 passengers; we have designed our aircraft for this capacity. Turboprop engines provide substantial reductions in operating costs due to lower fuel consumption. We have therefore chosen an advanced turboprop engine. Composite materials, while more expensive to purchase and manufacture, result in decreased costs later through weight savings and ease of replacement.

  19. The impact of a Bus Rapid Transit system on commuters' exposure to Benzene, CO, PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Zuk, Miriam; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Cerón, Julia; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    Carbon monoxide (CO), benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and suspended particles PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured inside public transportation vehicles, before and after a new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system was implemented in Mexico City in June 2005. The objective was to evaluate the BRT system's impact on commuters' exposure to these air pollutants. The BRT system replaced conventional transport modes along 20 km of Insurgentes Avenue, and features confined corridors and new articulated diesel buses. We assessed the impact of the transportation mode on commuters' exposure using least squares regression models. We also analyzed the chemical composition of VOCs to evaluate the possible origin of these species. The implementation of the BRT system resulted in reductions in commuters' exposure to CO, benzene and PM 2.5 ranging between 20% and 70%. No significant reductions in PM 10 exposure were observed. Lower commuting times further reduced total commuters' exposure. Major sources affecting VOCs inside all transport modes are likely to be related to traffic and to emissions from the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. The results suggest that BRT systems could in general be an effective means of reducing human exposure to traffic related air pollutants and associated health impacts.

  20. Probabilistic methods in a study of trip setpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Kaulitz, D. E.

    2012-07-01

    Most early vintage Boiling Water Reactors have a high head and high capacity High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) pump to keep the core covered following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). However, the protection afforded by the HPCI pump for mitigating a LOCA introduces the potential that a spurious start of the HPCI pump could oversupply the reactor vessel and lead to an automatic trip of the main turbine due to high water level. A turbine trip and associated increase in moderator density could challenge the bases of fuel integrity operating limits. To prevent turbine trip during spurious operation of the HPCI pump, the reactor protection system includes instrumentation and logic to sense high water level and automatically trip the HPCI pump prior to reaching the turbine trip setpoint. This paper describes an analysis that was performed to determine if existing reactor vessel water level trip instrumentation, logic and setpoints result in a high probability that the HPCI pump will trip prior to actuation of the turbine trip. Using nominal values for the initial water level and for the HPCI pump and turbine trip setpoints, and using the probability distribution functions for measurement uncertainty in these setpoints, a Monte Carlo simulation was employed to determine probabilities of successfully tripping the HPCI pump prior to tripping of the turbine. The results of the analysis established that the existing setpoints, instrumentation and logic would be expected to reliably prevent a trip of the main turbine. (authors)

  1. Geography via Aerial Field Trips: Do It This Way, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.; Guell, Carl E.

    To provide guidance for geography teachers, this booklet presents information on how to plan and execute aerial field trips. The aerial field trip can be employed as an effective visual aid technique in the teaching of geography, especially for presenting earth generalizations and interrelationships. The benefits of an aerial field trip are…

  2. 26 CFR 49.4264(e)-1 - Round trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other hand, transportation from New York to Miami via Bermuda does not qualify as “open jaw... shorter segment traveled. For example, a trip from New York to New Orleans via Panama would be considered as one trip from New York to Panama and separate trip from Panama to New Orleans, since the...

  3. A Trip to the Zoo: Children's Words and Photographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene

    Field trips are a regular part of many programs for young children. Field trips can serve a variety of purposes, such as exposing children to new things or helping children to see familiar things in new ways. The purpose of this study was to learn the meaning children gave to a field trip. Cameras were made available to each of the children in a…

  4. Revisiting Virtual Field Trips: Perspectives of College Science Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Simon A.

    2015-01-01

    Field trips are an important component of upper undergraduate and graduate-level science courses, especially in the fields of biology, geoscience, and environmental science. Field trips can provide a new perspective to a course's content and quality. Science field trips can facilitate active student learning, yet often can be constrained by time,…

  5. Teachers' Sources of Knowledge for Field Trip Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebar, Bryan M.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers draw from many personal and professional experiences when organising and leading field trips. In order to identify the influences on teachers' field trip practices, I used surveys, interviews, artifacts and observations gathered from teachers who led trips to an aquarium. Findings clarified the types of influence and the impact that these…

  6. The Use of Experiential Education and Field Trips for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my action research is to create meaningful virtual field trips that give students many of the same benefits as actual field trips. Since educational budget cuts are preventing students from participating in real field trips there needs to be an alternative way to deliver that content. I hope to demonstrate how I am improving my…

  7. Using Virtual Field Trips to Connect Students with University Scientists: Core Elements and Evaluation of zipTrips[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Hetzel, Kristin; Parker, Loran Carleton; Loizzo, Jamie; Burgess, Wilella D.; Robinson, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Physical field trips to scientists' work places have been shown to enhance student perceptions of science, scientists and science careers. Although virtual field trips (VFTs) have emerged as viable alternatives (or supplements) to traditional physical fieldtrips, little is known about the potential of virtual field trips to provide the same or…

  8. The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES): development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people's behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possible relationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists' and pedestrians' perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof. Methods Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation. Results There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups' ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 'moderate' (0.42) to 'almost perfect' (0.87). Conclusions The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. PMID:20609250

  9. The Return Trip Is Felt Shorter Only Postdictively: A Psychophysiological Study of the Return Trip Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Ryosuke; Fujii, Keisuke; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed. PMID:26061138

  10. Field trips along the Geological Transpyrenean Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, Marion; Dekeyser, Dominique; Richert, Jean Paul; Gruneisen, Pierre; Vazquez-Prada, Diego; Lacazedieu, Annie

    2015-04-01

    GeolVal association, www.geolval.fr , in collaboration with Geoambiente association, created a serie of pedagogical explanations about Pyrenees landscapes along the road from France to Spain, linking the towns of Pau, Oloron,Jaca and Mallos de Riglos. It was a ten years work that lasted in 2008. http://www.routetranspyreneenne.com/home_f.php We can now use this "treasure" with tourists, students and mix some landscapes explanations from a road site with a little field trip along mountain in order to "touch" the rocks. We are working about the importance of field in the way the students understand geosciences and try to organize field trips that aim to simplify and make concrete some key concepts. We also began an interactive software version of this work, presented through a pilot application, made in collaboration with Total petroleum firm.

  11. Study of an intraurban travel demand model incorporating commuter preference variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holligan, P. E.; Coote, M. A.; Rushmer, C. R.; Fanning, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    The model is based on the substantial travel data base for the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area, provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. The model is of the abstract type, and makes use of commuter attitudes towards modes and simple demographic characteristics of zones in a region to predict interzonal travel by mode for the region. A characterization of the STOL/VTOL mode was extrapolated by means of a subjective comparison of its expected characteristics with those of modes characterized by the survey. Predictions of STOL demand were made for the Bay Area and an aircraft network was developed to serve this demand. When this aircraft system is compared to the base case system, the demand for STOL service has increased five fold and the resulting economics show considerable benefit from the increased scale of operations. In the previous study all systems required subsidy in varying amounts. The new system shows a substantial profit at an average fare of $3.55 per trip.

  12. 2005 Earth-Mars Round Trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the 2005 Earth-Mars Round Trip. The contents include: 1) Lander; 2) Mars Sample Return Project; 3) Rover; 4) Rover Size Comparison; 5) Mars Ascent Vehicle; 6) Return Orbiter; 7) A New Mars Surveyor Program Architecture; 8) Definition Study Summary Result; 9) Mars Surveyor Proposed Architecture 2003, 2005 Opportunities; 10) Mars Micromissions Using Ariane 5; 11) Potential International Partnerships; 12) Proposed Integrated Architecture; and 13) Mars Exploration Program Report of the Architecture Team.

  13. Scrutinized: The TRIPS Agreement and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Subhan, Junaid

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY The World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of 1994 seeks to implement a uniform set of intellectual property protection across member nations to provide greater stability in international economic relations. Critics argue that the TRIPS agreement provides unnecessarily strong protection of intellectual property rights which serves to prevent the ill in developing nations from having access to affordable essential medications. The first recommendation that this paper makes is to provide two sets of intellectual property protection, one that applies to essential medications such as AIDS drugs and certain antibiotics and another that applies to drugs that treat non-life threatening conditions. The second recommendation builds upon the first recommendation: if two sets of intellectual property protection legislation are enacted, patents on essential medications should be restricted to patents on processes rather than the product itself. The third recommendation seeks to amend the language of the TRIPS agreement to make it obligatory for member nations to implement provisions on compulsory licensing within their domestic legislation. PMID:18523624

  14. Fast round-trip Mars trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sam

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of limiting the overall duration or else the one-way flight time of a round trip to Mars, as reflected in the sum of impulsive velocity increments required of the spacecraft propulsion system. Ignition-to-burnout mass ratios for a hypothetical single stage spacecraft, obtained from the rocket equation by combining these delta-V sums with appropriate values of specific impulse, are used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of four high-thrust propulsion alternatives. If the flight crew goes to the surface of Mars and stays there for the duration of their stopover, it is much cheaper (in terms of delta-V) to minimize their zero-g exposure by limiting the interplanetary transit time of a conjunction-class mission (round trip time = 800-1000 days, Mars stopover = 450-700 days) than to impose the same limit on an opposition-class mission (round trip time less than 600 days, stopover = 40 days). Using solid-core nuclear thermal propulsion to fly a conjunction-class mission, for a moderate mass penalty the interplanetary transit time (each way) probably could be limited to something in the range of 4 to 6 months, depending on the launch year.

  15. Evaluation of pediatric community field trips.

    PubMed

    Molnar, E T; Knasel, A L

    1987-05-01

    A field trip program for junior medical students on a pediatric clinical clerkship acquainted students with the care of normal and handicapped children in community settings of school, day care center, residential treatment, or diagnostic facilities.A program evaluation by pre and post-trip survey demonstrated a positive change in students' knowledge and attitude in general, which was unaffected by such factors as sex, previous experience in a medical setting, and previous experience with handicapped children.As an integral part of the pediatric clerkship, the field trip appears to have been a positive experience for students, as it met their educational and emotional needs. Subjective evaluation indicated that many students formed insightful and compassionate judgments about handicapped children.Although the increase in knowledge and sensitivity of the students, as reflected in the pre-and post-test, was not statistically significant, the benefit to the students, to the personnel of the agencies, and ultimately to the children and families with whom they dealt during their professional careers was important.

  16. Gate drive latching circuit for an auxiliary resonant commutation circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Inventor); Kheraluwala, Mustansir Hussainy (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A gate drive latching circuit for an auxiliary resonant commutation circuit for a power switching inverter includes a current monitor circuit providing a current signal to a pair of analog comparators to implement latching of one of a pair of auxiliary switching devices which are used to provide commutation current for commutating switching inverters in the circuit. Each of the pair of comparators feeds a latching circuit which responds to an active one of the comparators for latching the associated gate drive circuit for one of the pair of auxiliary commutating switches. An initial firing signal is applied to each of the commutating switches to gate each into conduction and the resulting current is monitored to determine current direction and therefore the one of the switches which is carrying current. The comparator provides a latching signal to the one of the auxiliary power switches which is actually conducting current and latches that particular power switch into an on state for the duration of current through the device. The latching circuit is so designed that the only time one of the auxiliary switching devices can be latched on is during the duration of an initial firing command signal.

  17. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    PubMed

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  18. A non-commutative framework for topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, C.; Carey, A. L.; Rennie, A.

    2016-04-01

    We study topological insulators, regarded as physical systems giving rise to topological invariants determined by symmetries both linear and anti-linear. Our perspective is that of non-commutative index theory of operator algebras. In particular, we formulate the index problems using Kasparov theory, both complex and real. We show that the periodic table of topological insulators and superconductors can be realized as a real or complex index pairing of a Kasparov module capturing internal symmetries of the Hamiltonian with a spectral triple encoding the geometry of the sample’s (possibly non-commutative) Brillouin zone.

  19. Adaptive control reduces trip-induced forward gait instability among young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Yun; Bhatt, Tanvi; Yang, Feng; Pai, Yi-Chung

    2012-04-30

    A vital functional plasticity of humans is their ability to adapt to threats to posture stability. The purpose of this study was to investigate adaptation to repeated trips in walking. Sixteen young adults were recruited and exposed to the sudden (electronic-mechanical) release of an obstacle, 11-cm in height, in the path of over ground walking during the mid-to-late left swing phase. Although none of the subjects fell on the first of eight unannounced, consecutive trips, all of them had to rely on compensatory step with a step length significantly longer than their regular to reduce their instability. In the subsequent trials, they were able to rapidly make adaptive adjustments in the control of their center-of-mass (COM) stability both proactively and reactively (i.e., before and after hitting or crossing the obstacle), such that the need for taking compensatory step was substantially diminished. The proactive adaptations included a reduced forward COM velocity that lessened forward instability in mid-to-late stance and an elevated toe clearance that reduced the likelihood of obstacle contact. The reactive adjustments were characterized by improved trunk control (by reducing its forward rotation) and limb support (by increasing hip height), and reduced forward instability (by both the posterior COM shift and the reduction in its forward velocity). These findings suggest that young adults can adapt appropriately to repeated trip perturbations and to reduce trip-induced excessive instability in both proactive and reactive manners.

  20. 77 FR 4326 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Health Innovations in Commuting Challenge”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this challenge is to highlight the role of health data during commutes and how it may play a critical role in improving the health of commuters. The ``Health Innovations...

  1. Associations between long commutes and subjective health complaints among railway workers in Norway.

    PubMed

    Urhonen, Terhi; Lie, Arve; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-12-01

    Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes. The mean number of complaints was 7.5 among the former group and 6.4 for the latter group (p = 0.009). In a regression model, in which the authors controlled for age, gender, education, self-rated health, and coping, the employees with long commutes reported more complaints than those with short commutes. Significant associations were found between those with long commutes and the number and degree of incidences of self-reported musculoskeletal pain, pseudo-neurologic complaints, and gastrointestinal problems. Commuters who had had long commutes for more than 10 years reported more gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal complaints than those with long commutes for less than 2 years. Also, commuters with long commutes spent less time with their families and leisure activities compared with those with short commutes. The authors conclude that the association between long commute times and higher levels of subjective health complaints should attract the attention of transport planners, employers, and public health policymaker.

  2. Associations between long commutes and subjective health complaints among railway workers in Norway.

    PubMed

    Urhonen, Terhi; Lie, Arve; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-12-01

    Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes. The mean number of complaints was 7.5 among the former group and 6.4 for the latter group (p = 0.009). In a regression model, in which the authors controlled for age, gender, education, self-rated health, and coping, the employees with long commutes reported more complaints than those with short commutes. Significant associations were found between those with long commutes and the number and degree of incidences of self-reported musculoskeletal pain, pseudo-neurologic complaints, and gastrointestinal problems. Commuters who had had long commutes for more than 10 years reported more gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal complaints than those with long commutes for less than 2 years. Also, commuters with long commutes spent less time with their families and leisure activities compared with those with short commutes. The authors conclude that the association between long commute times and higher levels of subjective health complaints should attract the attention of transport planners, employers, and public health policymaker. PMID:27660744

  3. Hunton Group core workshop and field trip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.S.

    1993-12-31

    The Late Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group is a moderately thick sequence of shallow-marine carbonates deposited on the south edge of the North American craton. This rock unit is a major target for petroleum exploration and reservoir development in the southern Midcontinent. The workshop described here was held to display cores, outcrop samples, and other reservoir-characterization studies of the Hunton Group and equivalent strata throughout the region. A field trip was organized to complement the workshop by allowing examination of excellent outcrops of the Hunton Group of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  4. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies

  5. 78 FR 75483 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances; Commuted Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ40 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances; Commuted Rate AGENCY: Office of..., OGP, is providing a workable commuted rate to be used by agencies in determining a benchmark for... treated by Federal agencies as the commuted rate; that is, when a Federal employee moved his/her...

  6. 49 CFR 37.87 - Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.87 Section 37.87 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....87 Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, Amtrak or a commuter authority purchasing or leasing a used intercity or commuter...

  7. 49 CFR 37.87 - Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.87 Section 37.87 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....87 Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, Amtrak or a commuter authority purchasing or leasing a used intercity or commuter...

  8. Research Refutes a Myth: Commuter Students Do Want to Be Involved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likins, Jeanne M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined commuter college students' (n=326) involvement in the university community. Results refute myth that commuter college students do not want to be involved or feel a part of the university community. Claims debunking myths about commuter students is a prerequisite to providing effective services and programs for students today. (ABL)

  9. On the Need for Separate Commuter Programs: San Diego State Looks at Its Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, Barbie

    1980-01-01

    A self-assessment of commuter student programs and services at San Diego State University (SDSU) indicated that the university was doing well in meeting the needs of this population. For many years, most of the students at SDSU have been commuter students. Services and programs that were developed were created with the commuter student in mind.…

  10. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  11. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  12. How To Give 'Em What They Want: Assessment Basics for Commuters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rue, Penny

    1981-01-01

    Commuter students are often left out of college programs because their needs and schedules differ substantially from the traditional student for whom the programs are planned. Once the basic educational needs of the commuter student are being met, planners can focus on developing programs geared to other needs of the commuter such as personal…

  13. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on...

  14. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  15. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  16. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  17. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  18. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  19. A perspective on non-commutative quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Rachel A. D.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present some of the concepts underlying a program of non-commutative quantum gravity and recall some of the results. This program includes a novel approach to spectral triple categorification and also a precise connection between Fell bundles and Connes' non-commutative geometry. Motivated by topics in quantization of the non-commutative standard model and introduction of algebraic techniques and concepts into quantum gravity (following for example Crane, Baez and Barrett), we define spectral C*-categories, which are deformed spectral triples in a sense made precise. This definition gives to representations of a C*-category on a small category of Hilbert spaces and bounded linear maps, the interpretation of a topological quantum field theory. The construction passes two mandatory tests: (i) there is a classical limit theorem reproducing a Riemannian spin manifold manifesting Connes' and Schücker's non-commutative counterpart of Einstein's equivalence principle, and (ii) there is consistency with the experimental fermion mass matrix. We also present an algebra invariant taking the form of a partition function arising from a C*-bundle dynamical system in connection with C*-subalgebra theory.

  20. Some Transportation Alternatives for Commuter Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Mark W.; Kazlo, Martha P.

    This document is written in an effort to urge commuter colleges and universities to use their technical expertise in solving the automobile problem, which adds to the congestion and pollution in college communities. It has become a necessity that colleges and universities begin to explore ways to offer a variety of less expensive transportation…

  1. Active commuting to elementary school and adiposity: An observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth grade adiposity. This study was a secondary analysis of the Early ...

  2. 75 FR 13680 - Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 571 RIN 1120-AB54 Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: This document makes a minor technical change to... Sentence: Technical Change This document makes a minor technical change to the Bureau regulations...

  3. Commute alternatives systems handbook. Report for July 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, P.L.; Rudge, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Commute Alternative Handbook (CASH) provides a general introduction to Transportation Demand Management (TDM) that includes an overview of the national conditions which have led to increased TDM activities. This manual also describes various TDM strategies, implementation mechanisms and performance measurements.

  4. Analyses of School Commuting Data for Exposure Modeling Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure models often make the simplifying assumption that school children attend school in the same Census tract where they live. This paper analyzes that assumption and provides information on the temporal and spatial distributions associated with school commuting. The d...

  5. FACTORS EFFECTING EXPOSURES TO VOCS DURING COMMUTING IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the average, Californian's spend between one and three hours each day commuting. The contribution from in-vehicle exposures to air toxics may be a significant component of total air exposure. Although pollutant concentration data are important for exposure assessments, onl...

  6. The Business Case for Commuter Benefits at Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavon, Patty

    2005-01-01

    Transportation and parking-related issues are common challenges for many colleges and universities today. Most institutions have far fewer parking spaces than they do commuters, and constructing and maintaining new parking facilities can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. In this article, an Environmental Protection Agency representative…

  7. Regenerative Snubber For GTO-Commutated SCR Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed regenerative snubbing circuit substituted for dissipative snubbing circuit in inverter based on silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) commutated by gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO). Intended to reduce loss of power that occurs in dissipative snubber. Principal criteria in design: low cost, simplicity, and reliability.

  8. Venus round trip using solar sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, KaiJian; Zhang, RongZhi; Xu, Dong; Wang, JiaSong; Li, ShaoMin

    2012-08-01

    Trajectory optimization and simulation is performed for Venus round trip (VeRT) mission using solar sail propulsion. Solar gravity is included but atmospheric drag and shadowing effects are neglected in the planet-centered escape and capture stages. The spacecraft starts from the Geostationary orbit (GEO) at a predetermined time to prepare a good initial condition for the Earth-Venus transfer, although the launch window is not an issue for spacecraft with solar sails. The Earth-Venus phase and the return trip are divided into three segments. Two methods are adopted to maintain the mission trajectory for the VeRT mission and then compared through a numerical simulation. According to the first approach, Planet-centered and heliocentric maneuvers are modeled using a set of blended analytical control laws instead of the optimal control techniques. The second procedure is the Direct Attitude Angle Optimization in which the attitude angles of the solar sail are adopted as the optimization variables during the heliocentric transfer. Although neither of the two methods guarantees a globally optimal trajectory, they are more efficient and will produce a near-optimal solution if employed properly. The second method has produced a better result for the minimum-time transfer of the VeRT mission demonstrating the effectiveness of the methods in the preliminary design of the complex optimal interplanetary orbit transfers.

  9. Personal exposure to black carbon during commuting in peak and off-peak hours in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Lei, Xiao-ning; Xiu, Guang-li; Gao, Chi-yuan; Gao, Shuang; Qian, Ni-sheng

    2015-08-15

    A study on a commuter's exposure to black carbon (BC) in five different traffic modes (taxi, bus, subway, cycling and walking) was conducted in Xuhui District, Shanghai. A commuter's real-time exposure concentrations were recorded by MicroAeth AE51 BC monitors, and the average BC exposure concentration and inhalation dose were analyzed. Data collected by cyclist was applied to characterize the micro-variability in relation to traffic density and street topology. The distance to the traffic and the street topology as well as the volume of heavy diesel trucks were the dominant factors influencing the BC concentrations. In this study, a high variability of BC concentrations between streets and even within streets was observed, and also between days and hour of the day. The average BC exposure concentrations were 5.59±1.02 μg/m(3), 6.58±1.78 μg/m(3), 7.28±1.87 μg/m(3), 8.62±4.13 μg/m(3) and 9.43±2.89 μg/m(3) for walking, cycling, bus, taxi and subway trips, respectively. Exposure levels of in-vehicle microenvironments were 8.66±3.66 μg/m(3), 9.39±6.98 μg/m(3) and 10.96±2.72 μg/m(3) for bus, taxi and subway, respectively. While inhalation doses were 0.68±0.33 μg, 0.95±0.29 μg, 1.36±0.37 μg, 1.50±0.39 μg and 1.58±0.29 μg for taxi, subway, cycling, bus and walking, respectively. BC exposure level of walking was the lowest among all the traffic modes, but its inhalation dose was the highest. PMID:25909267

  10. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. Method We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n = 801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10–2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. Conclusions This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. PMID:26740344

  11. Epidemic process over the commute network in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival.

  12. INSTRUCTIONAL TRIPS, A PROGRAM FOR ENRICHING EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FINK, ALLAN; AND OTHERS

    A TEACHER GUIDE FOR FIELD TRIPS IN THE PASADENA, CALIFORNIA, AREA IS PRESENTED. EACH TRIP SHOULD BE PRECEDED BY AN EXPLANATION OF THE PURPOSES OF THE TRIP IN RELATION TO PRESENT COURSE OF STUDY. AS A FOLLOWUP ACTIVITY, DISCUSSION OF IDEAS GAINED DURING THE TRIP SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED. THE RULES, REGULATIONS AND PROCEDURES OF THE TRIP ARE GIVEN. TRIP…

  13. Association Between User-Generated Commuting Data and Population-Representative Active Commuting Surveillance Data - Four Cities, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs. PMID:27632357

  14. Association Between User-Generated Commuting Data and Population-Representative Active Commuting Surveillance Data - Four Cities, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M

    2016-09-16

    Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs.

  15. Mass Commuting and Influenza Vaccination Prevalence in New York City: Protection in a Mixing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Burton; Wilcosky, Tim; Wagener, Diane; Cooley, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Objective Assess influenza vaccination among commuters using mass transit in New York City (NYC). Methods We used the 2006 NYC Community Health Survey (CHS) to analyze the prevalence of influenza immunization by commuting behaviors and to understand what socioeconomic and geographic factors may explain any differences found. Results Vaccination prevalence is significantly lower for New Yorkers who commute on public transportation compared to other New Yorkers. This difference is largely attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood of residence. Conclusions The analysis identified a low prevalence of immunization among commuters, and given the transmissibility in that setting, targeting commuters for vaccination campaigns may impede influenza spread. PMID:21218159

  16. TAZ-level variation in work trip mode choice between 1990 and 2000 and the presence of rail transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Bradley W.

    2011-06-01

    Rail transit continues to be a popular alternative for cities as a tool for alleviating automobile congestion and for redeveloping areas into transit and pedestrian-friendly environments. Ideally, rail transit will draw trips away from cars, but the quantitative work that tests this notion has often been either case studies of neighborhoods, in which conclusions are tough to generalize, or citywide comparisons where important spatial variation is lost in aggregation. This study seeks to narrow this gap in the research by using multivariate analysis of covariance to isolate the effect of covariates and cities on changes in work trip mode choice at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level for nine cities between 1990 and 2000. The results suggest differences by city in the change at the TAZ level of the proportion of people driving alone and taking transit. Increases in transit usage were associated with cities that built rail transit, while increases in automobile commuting and decreases in transit usage were associated with cities that did not.

  17. Commuter rail state-of-the-art: A study of current systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Wu, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    The report documents the results of the state-of-the-art study on current commuter rail systems in the United States. Detailed information on operations, fare collection, stations, maintenance facilities, patronage, railcars, and feeder systems are presented. This commuter rail report is intended to provide a database of actual operation statistics for the 12 commuter rail systems in the United States. Statistics were collected on existing commuter rail services through Federal Transit Administration (FTA) reports, American Public Transit Association (APTA) and railroad industry publications. In addition, a survey was also conducted to collect the pertinent information on existing systems. A comparative analysis of commuter rail service with respect to other mass transit systems was conducted. New and proposed systems are also discussed. Current trends in commuter rail operations are presented. Startup costs for new systems were analyzed. This report found that many cities are considering commuter rail as a potential part of the solution to local transportation problems.

  18. Relationships Between Commuting and Social Capital Among Men and Women in Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Carita; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The societal need for a mobile workforce increases time spent commuting and thus also the total workday. How this affects individual well-being and social life is, however, surprisingly little known. We investigated the relation between commuting time and mode, and social participation and general trust in other people as measures of social capital, using data from public health surveys conducted in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden: in all, 21,088 persons ages 18 to 65 and working at least 30 hr per week. Commuting by car was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of low social participation and low general trust compared with active commuting, and the association increased with the duration of commuting time. In contrast, public commuting was not significantly associated with decreased social capital measures except among long-duration commuters, who reported lower social participation. The overall pattern was similar for men and for women. PMID:26273107

  19. Field Trips as Cognitive Motivators for High Level Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a composite example of field trips from several years of traveling to Yellowstone with high school biology students, the author illustrates how to raise the cognitive level of science instruction and student learning through science field trips. The author examines what teachers can do to raise the level of both teaching and learning in all…

  20. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  1. Collecting Planarians: A Good Choice for a Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Heeyoung

    2001-01-01

    Describes a field trip to collect planarians as successful in generating interest in the sciences. This activity is suitable for all grade levels as a field trip or biology lab. Planarians can be easily collected from streams across the United States. Once in the classroom, planaria are easily fed and cared for. (SAH)

  2. Psychological Sense of Community and Group Cohesion on Wilderness Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Todd, Sharon; Young, Anderson; Anderson, Lynn; Anderson, Dale

    2008-01-01

    A primary purpose of many wilderness trip programs is the development of positive interpersonal relationships and group experiences that lead to enhanced sense of community among group members. Although there is anecdotal evidence to support the development of sense of community on wilderness trips, there is little empirical evidence to support…

  3. Creating Local Field Trips: Seeing Geographical Principles through Empirical Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, James O.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how instructors can design a local field trip for undergraduate students enrolled in an economic geography class. The purpose of the field trip is to help students observe and interpret familiar scenes in terms of geographical concepts such as central place theory, changing land use, and spatial competition. (RM)

  4. Development of Teacher Attitude Scale towards the Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    A field trip is an excursion by group of students with teachers to a place away from classroom such as natural field, science center, and zoo. So, it is an important tool for renewable energy education. This study was carried out to develop a new scale for measuring teacher attitudes towards the field trip. Teacher attitude scale towards the field…

  5. 28 CFR 570.45 - Violation of escorted trip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Violation of escorted trip. 570.45 Section 570.45 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND... against an inmate who fails to comply with any of the conditions of the escorted trip....

  6. 28 CFR 570.45 - Violation of escorted trip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Violation of escorted trip. 570.45 Section 570.45 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND... against an inmate who fails to comply with any of the conditions of the escorted trip....

  7. 28 CFR 570.45 - Violation of escorted trip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Violation of escorted trip. 570.45 Section 570.45 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND... against an inmate who fails to comply with any of the conditions of the escorted trip....

  8. 28 CFR 570.45 - Violation of escorted trip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Violation of escorted trip. 570.45 Section 570.45 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND... against an inmate who fails to comply with any of the conditions of the escorted trip....

  9. 28 CFR 570.45 - Violation of escorted trip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Violation of escorted trip. 570.45 Section 570.45 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND... against an inmate who fails to comply with any of the conditions of the escorted trip....

  10. A Field Trip to Gettysburg: A Model Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Using Gettysburg as an example, the author addresses the major components of a successful field trip, such as pre-teaching, memorizing, and the study of primary sources. Includes information on student participation and other factors of a successful field trip. (GEA)

  11. Mechanisms Influencing Student Understanding on an Outdoor Guided Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the…

  12. 30 CFR 57.19067 - Trips during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trips during shift changes. 57.19067 Section 57.19067 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19067 Trips during shift changes. During shift changes, an...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19067 - Trips during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trips during shift changes. 56.19067 Section 56.19067 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19067 Trips during shift changes. During shift changes, an authorized person...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19067 - Trips during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trips during shift changes. 56.19067 Section 56.19067 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19067 Trips during shift changes. During shift changes, an authorized person...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19067 - Trips during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trips during shift changes. 57.19067 Section 57.19067 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19067 Trips during shift changes. During shift changes, an...

  16. The "Science" Behind a Successful Field Trip to the Zoo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine Marie; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip to the local zoo is often a staple in many elementary school curricula. Many zoos offer free entry to local teachers and their students. Teachers take students on field trips to enrich the curriculum, make connections to what students are learning in school, and provide students with meaningful learning experiences (Kisiel 2007).…

  17. The Beginner's Guide to Interactive Virtual Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanetis, Jan

    2010-01-01

    For students, field trips can be the best of both worlds: a welcome and exciting break from day-to-day classroom activities and a memorable, real-world experience that will solidify the curriculum in their minds. Unfortunately, the most desirable trips--those to far-away, enticing destinations--have long been inaccessible to all but a select few,…

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Field Trips on Instruction in Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Norval L.

    To determine the effect of field trips on student achievement in each of four subject matter areas in vocational agriculture, 12 schools offering approved programs were randomly selected and divided into a treatment group and a control group. Uniform teaching outlines and reference materials were provided to each group. While no field trips were…

  19. Slip, trip, and fall injuries among nursing care facility workers.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Tiesman, Hope M; Ridenour, Marilyn; Konda, Srinivas; Wolf, Laurie; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the slip, trip, and fall injury experience and trends in a population of nursing home workers, identify risk factors for slip, trip, and fall injuries, and develop prevention strategies for slip, trip, and fall hazards. Workers' compensation injury claims data and payroll data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained from six nursing homes and used to calculate injury incidence rates. Narrative information was used to describe details of slip, trip, and fall events. A total of 86 slip, trip, and fall-related workers' compensation claims were filed during the 8-year period. Slip, trip, and fall claim rates showed a nonsignificant increase during the 8-year period. Most slips, trips, and falls were attributed to hazards that can be mitigated (e.g., water on the floor or loose cords in a walkway). Nursing home workers experience more slip, trip, and fall-related injury claims than workers in other industries. Preventive programs should be implemented and evaluated in this industry. PMID:23521142

  20. Effectiveness of Field Trips in Teaching Groundwater Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Darryll T.

    1979-01-01

    The field trip procedures described were devised for use with freshman college students as an alternative to a classroom or laboratory session. Pre-test and post-test of students' knowledge of groundwater concepts show significant change in students' understanding of groundwater occurance and movement following such a trip. (RE)

  1. Should You Rule Out Fund Raising, Trips, and Contests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Stewart L.

    1992-01-01

    Schools need not rule out fund raising, trips, and contests. Well-organized groups of music students washing cars at local gas stations can create more positive publicity and goodwill toward music programs than can hundreds of news releases. Exchange concerts, trips to nearby schools, and competition against a predetermined scale can substitute…

  2. Toward a Virtual Field Trip Model for the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    In the current state of social studies education, field trips are being cut from many schools' curriculum. While not a true substitution, today's technologies provide some opportunities through virtual field trips (VFTs) to simulate these experiences, engage students in knowledge production and disciplined inquiry, and have interactions with the…

  3. Evidence, Explanations, and Recommendations for Teachers' Field Trip Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebar, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Field trips are well recognized by researchers as an educational approach with the potential to complement and enhance classroom science teaching by exposing students to unique activities, resources, and content in informal settings. The following investigation addresses teachers' field trip practices in three related manuscripts: (1) A study…

  4. [Managing health risks of workers in business trip].

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data of prospective observation over the risk management system concerning health of international oil and gas company workers in business trips. The management system included training and screening of workers under risk, specific prophylaxis and other measures. The authors described problems of the risk management system implementation, suggested recommendations to control risks connected with business trips.

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-30 - Trial-trip observance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trial-trip observance. 58.01-30 Section 58.01-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-30 Trial-trip observance. The operation of...

  6. Application of variable-sweep wings to commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Turriiziani, R. V.; Washburn, F. F.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of using variable-sweep wings on the riding quality and mission-performance characteristics of commuter-type aircraft were studied. A fixed-wing baseline vehicle and a variable-sweep version of the baseline were designed and evaluated. Both vehicles were twin-turboprop, pressurized-cabin, 30-passenger commuter aircraft with identical mission requirements. Mission performance was calculated with and without various ride-quality constraints for several combinations of cruise altitude and stage lengths. The variable-sweep aircraft had a gross weight of almost four percent greater than the fixed-wing baseline in order to meet the design-mission requirements. In smooth air, the variable sweep configuration flying with low sweep had a two to three percent fuel-use penalty. However, the imposition of quality constraints in rough air can result in advantages in both fuel economy and flight time for the variable-sweep vehicle flying with high sweep.

  7. Commuting flows and conservation laws for noncommutative Lax hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamanaka, Masashi

    2005-05-01

    We discuss commuting flows and conservation laws for Lax hierarchies on noncommutative spaces in the framework of the Sato theory. On commutative spaces, the Sato theory has revealed essential aspects of the integrability for wide class of soliton equations which are derived from the Lax hierarchies in terms of pseudodifferential operators. Noncommutative extension of the Sato theory has been already studied by the author and Toda, and the existence of various noncommutative Lax hierarchies are guaranteed. In this paper, we present conservation laws for the noncommutative Lax hierarchies with both space-space and space-time noncommutativities and prove the existence of infinite number of conserved densities. We also give the explicit representations of them in terms of Lax operators. Our results include noncommutative versions of KP, KdV, Boussinesq, coupled KdV, Sawada-Kotera, modified KdV equation and so on.

  8. Determination of the flight equipment maintenance costs of commuter airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Labor and materials costs associated with maintaining and operating 12 commuter airlines carrying an average of from 42 to 1,100 passengers daily in a variety of aircraft types were studied to determine the total direct maintenance cost per flight hour for the airframe, engine, and avionics and other instruments. The distribution of maintenance costs are analyzed for two carriers, one using turboprop aircraft and the other using piston engine aircraft.

  9. Rapid commutation duplexer with phase-related outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveda, R.; Cattarin, G.; Digregorio, C.; Parrucci, U.

    Design criteria and the realization of an X-band waveguide rapid commutation duplexer, in production, are presented. By means of a digital TTL command it is capable of operating in three different conditions: all the power is conveyed to a single output; the poweer is equally divided between two in-phase outputs; and it is equally divided between two counter-phase outputs. In a monopulse radar this permits the electronic scanning of the antenna beam.

  10. Semiclassical and quantum motions on the non-commutative plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldiotti, M. C.; Gazeau, J. P.; Gitman, D. M.

    2009-10-01

    We study the canonical and the coherent state quantizations of a particle moving in a magnetic field on the non-commutative plane. Using a θ-modified action, we perform the canonical quantization and analyze the gauge dependence of the theory. We compare coherent states quantizations obtained through Malkin-Man'ko states and circular squeezed states. The relation between these states and the “classical” trajectories is investigated, and we present numerical explorations of some semiclassical quantities.

  11. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M.; Barry, Catherine P.; Choi, Won S.; Abravaya, Klara B.; Schneider, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  12. Skip the Trip: Air Travelers' Behavioral Responses to Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over “swine flu,” as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  13. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  14. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  15. Modelling the relation between income and commuting distance.

    PubMed

    Carra, Giulia; Mulalic, Ismir; Fosgerau, Mogens; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the distribution of commuting distances and its relation to income. Using data from Denmark, the UK and the USA, we show that the commuting distance is (i) broadly distributed with a slow decaying tail that can be fitted by a power law with exponent γ ≈ 3 and (ii) an average growing slowly as a power law with an exponent less than one that depends on the country considered. The classical theory for job search is based on the idea that workers evaluate the wage of potential jobs as they arrive sequentially through time, and extending this model with space, we obtain predictions that are strongly contradicted by our empirical findings. We propose an alternative model that is based on the idea that workers evaluate potential jobs based on a quality aspect and that workers search for jobs sequentially across space. We also assume that the density of potential jobs depends on the skills of the worker and decreases with the wage. The predicted distribution of commuting distances decays as 1/r(3) and is independent of the distribution of the quality of jobs. We find our alternative model to be in agreement with our data. This type of approach opens new perspectives for the modelling of mobility. PMID:27278365

  16. Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation

    PubMed Central

    Reiskarimian, Negar; Krishnaswamy, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time. PMID:27079524

  17. Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.

  18. Student perspectives on their school trips to zoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Susan Kay

    This dissertation aimed to explore students' perspectives on their school trips to informal education sites. In particular, what did students think they learned, what did they want to do, what was fun or boring, and how did their trip relate to classroom activities? The two case studies presented here explore these ideas with 11-12-year olds in New Zealand and their class trips to zoos, in contrasting situations: one is a class in which the teacher thoughtfully and explicitly linked the trip to classroom learning both before and after the trip; the other classroom teacher did not. These differences impacted how students thought about their learning and how they valued the trip. Despite the differences, students had similarities in some of their perspectives, particularly in their focus on social interactions with peers and their desire to see the animals at the zoos. This study concludes with recommendations for informal and classroom educators, especially to find out what students are interested in, give them choices, and connect trips to classroom activities.

  19. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and their places of employment. A trip for this purpose includes driving the vehicle before or after employees are in the vehicle, so long as the mileage driven is necessary either to pick up or drop off... employees between their residences and their places of employment unless at least one-half the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and their places of employment. A trip for this purpose includes driving the vehicle before or after employees are in the vehicle, so long as the mileage driven is necessary either to pick up or drop off... employees between their residences and their places of employment unless at least one-half the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and their places of employment. A trip for this purpose includes driving the vehicle before or after employees are in the vehicle, so long as the mileage driven is necessary either to pick up or drop off... employees between their residences and their places of employment unless at least one-half the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and their places of employment. A trip for this purpose includes driving the vehicle before or after employees are in the vehicle, so long as the mileage driven is necessary either to pick up or drop off... employees between their residences and their places of employment unless at least one-half the...

  3. Hybrid generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states on non-commutative residuated lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen Ming; Yang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states, which are useful for the development of an algebraic theory of probabilistic models for commutative or non-commutative fuzzy logics, have been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a new way arising from generalizing residuated lattice-based filters from commutative case to non-commutative one is applied to introduce new notions of generalized Bosbach and Rie c̆ an states, which are called hybrid ones, on non-commutative residuated lattices is provided, and the relationships between hybrid generalized states and those existing ones are studied, examples show that they are different. In particular, two problems from L.C. Ciungu, G. Georgescu, and C. Mure, "Generalized Bosbach States: Part I" (Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (2013):335-376) are solved, and properties of hybrid generalized states, which are similar to those on commutative residuated lattices, are obtained without the condition "strong".

  4. Peer Pressure Road Trip 2012 - A Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popnoe, Olivia

    2012-10-01

    Each year since 2005 the Angelo State University SPS ``Peer Pressure Team'' has travelled for a week in May to promote physics and other sciences for grades K-12. This year, the Peer Pressure Team visited schools in West Texas and New Mexico. This was the first year the team has traveled outside of Texas, inspired by the SPS 2012 theme ``Physics Beyond Borders.'' The purpose of the Road Tours is to encourage an interest in science in children in grades K-12 and give experience in presenting and explaining physics to the undergraduate volunteers. The schools attended are carefully selected based on socioeconomic need and an underrepresentation in physics, as well as other sciences. During this week, the Peer Pressure Team saw about 1,500 students over 10 shows. Surveys were given to teachers post-demonstration to have students complete and return so the Team could gauge the effectiveness of the outreach program. In addition, the surveys allow the Team to determine which demonstrations had the most impact. We present the details of this year's road trip with the results and analysis of the survey data.

  5. You Can't Reach for the Stars if You are Tripping Over the Ground! (Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Darcy; Raysich, Mark; Kirkland, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Although there are very few mishaps related to ground, vehicle or payload processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), employees have experienced a significant number of injuries due to slips, trips, and falls outside of performing flight processing operations. Slips, trips, and falls are major causes of occupational injuries at KSC, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and in general industry. To help KSC employees avoid these injuries, and allow them to be fully productive, KSC launched an initiative in 2013 to reduce slips, trips, and falls. This initiative is based on a four-part model focusing on DATA analysis, HAZARD awareness, PREVENTIVE methods, and BALANCE.

  6. Field-Trip Tips--A Baker's Dozen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoke, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve strategies for planning and implementing successful field trips are presented. Preplanning, bad weather, safety, budget, travel, chaperones, facilities of destination, lesson planning, time constraints, snacking, and special guests are topics of discussion. (KR)

  7. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  8. 50 CFR 622.278 - Commercial trip limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and... trip limit specified in this section taken in the EEZ may not be transferred at sea, regardless...

  9. 50 CFR 622.385 - Commercial trip limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal... a trip limit specified in this section taken in the EEZ may not be transferred at sea, regardless...

  10. 50 CFR 622.278 - Commercial trip limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and... trip limit specified in this section taken in the EEZ may not be transferred at sea, regardless...

  11. 50 CFR 622.385 - Commercial trip limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal... a trip limit specified in this section taken in the EEZ may not be transferred at sea, regardless...

  12. 18. Blacksmith Shop (first floor): view looking north; trip hammer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Blacksmith Shop (first floor): view looking north; trip hammer and coal bin in background, shears and swage block in foreground - Ben Thresher's Mill, State Aid No. 1, Barnet, Caledonia County, VT

  13. Human round trip to Mars: Six months and radiation safe

    SciTech Connect

    Lazareth, O.W.; Schmidt, E.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a different type of round trip to Mars, using a combination of spacecraft. Compared to typical proposals, this flight is relatively fast and relatively safe from biological radiation dosage. Our study is concerned with the trip from Earth orbit to Mars orbit. Four spacecraft are required for the round trip. The crew spends most of their time on board a comparatively large, well shielded spacecraft (LC) which is in free (non-powered) orbit about the sun. The crew travels from Earth orbit to the LC while on board a comparatively small, powered spacecraft (SC). At Mars, the procedure is reversed and the crew returns on a second LC. In addition, a cargo craft, with no crew, is sent to Mars prior to the crew leaving Earth orbit. The trip time is about six months and the radiation dose equivalent is within guidelines recommended by the National Commission on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  14. Potential health impact of switching from car to public transportation when commuting to work.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo; Mirer, Franklin E; Amstislavski, Tashia M; Eisl, Holger M; Werbe-Fuentes, Jordan; Gorczynski, John; Goranson, Chris; Wolff, Mary S; Markowitz, Steven B

    2010-12-01

    We assessed humidity-corrected particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposure and physical activity (using global positioning system monitors and diaries) among 18 people who commuted by car to Queens College, New York, New York, for 5 days, and then switched to commuting for the next 5 days via public transportation. The PM(2.5) differed little between car and public transportation commutes (1.41 μg/M(3)·min; P = .226). Commuting by public transportation rather than by car increased energy expenditure (+124 kcal/day; P < .001) equivalent to the loss of 1 pound of body fat per 6 weeks.

  15. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  16. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  17. Language Travel or Language Tourism: Have Educational Trips Changed So Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the changes in organization, students and language learning that language trips, as contrasted with educational trips (of which language trips are a subgroup) have gone through in the last years. The article emphasizes the need to differentiate between language trips and language tourism based on issues of additional…

  18. A Field Trip without Buses: Connecting Your Students to Scientists through a Virtual Visit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola; Parker, Loran Carleton; Loizzo, Jamie; Burgess, Wilella; Robinson, J. Paul

    2011-01-01

    One school offers zipTrips as an alternative to actual field trips taken outside of school. ZipTrips are web- and broadcast-delivered electronic field trips that include online videos, lesson plans, and a live, 45-minute interactive program consisting of four core components: an in-studio audience, live interaction with scientists, prerecorded…

  19. Field Trips Put Chemistry in Context for Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Keith E.

    2008-01-01

    Field trips can provide excellent real-world learning situations for students in non-science major chemistry courses. The field trips described in this article are accessible, most trips can be completed within a scheduled three-hour laboratory time period, and they can be conducted at minimal cost. These field trips significantly enhanced student…

  20. Open the Door Let's Explore: Neighborhood Field Trips for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redleaf, Rhoda

    Designed as a resource for teachers and parents, this guide contains activities to help children from 2 to 8 years old learn from neighborhood walks and field trips. Information is presented on: field trips as an approach to learning, learning processes of children, and techniques to make trips meaningful. Teaching material for each trip includes…

  1. Causal models of trip replanning in TravTek

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    The TravTek operational field test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of route planning, route guidance and various navigational aiding modalities for Advanced Traveler Information Systems in ground vehicles. A causal network was constructed in order to achieve a better understanding of the dependencies among variables implicated in the replanning process. Causal inferences were modeled using path analysis techniques. The original Yoked Driver study reported that addition of real-time navigation planning did not increase trip efficiency during initial trip planning. Data mining of the relatively complete database revealed that the incidence of dynamic trip replanning was only 0.51% or 1 out of every 198 trips. Nevertheless, the replanning acceptance rate was 92.8%, suggesting that less conservative criteria might have been acceptable to drivers. Several points can be made based upon the path analysis techniques. Drivers who rejected better route offers were more likely to be male renters; rejected routes were apparently offered at earlier times with a lower predicted time savings and fewer maneuvers. Failure to accept a better route also apparently resulted in fewer wrong-turn deviations. Contrary to expectations, wrong-turn count and time loss appeared as semi-independent hubs in the resultant causal network. Implications of the path analysis are discussed. Proposals for in-vehicle information systems are formulated to increase driver participation as co-planner, and increase the likelihood that trip replanning will positively impact trip efficiency.

  2. Round trip landing missions to the asteroid Eros, 1981 opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zambo, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive, Del V (magnitude of impulsive velocity-change vector) study of short staytime (0 to 30 days), short total trip time (10 to 160 days) round trip landing missions (fast missions) is presented. The characteristics of the following selected round trip landing missions are described: mission A (fast mission) with 120-day total trip time, 0-day stay-time, and 73,000-fps total mission Del V; mission B (opposition class) with 380-day total trip time, 0-day staytime, and 52,000-fps total mission Del V; and mission C (conjuction class) with 540-day total trip time, 175-day staytime, and 39,000-fps total mission Del V. A study of large-tank Agena, chemical propulsion stage (CPS), and nuclear stage was conducted. A payload of 5000 pounds was assumed. The propulsion requirements for mission A were found to be two large-tank Agenas and ten CPSs (or alternatively, two large-tank Agenas and five nuclear stages) while mission B required two large-tank Agenas and two CPSs. Mission C can be performed with one large-tank Agena and one CPS.

  3. Managing the effect of TRIPS on availability of priority vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, Julie; Kaddar, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    The stated purpose of intellectual property protection is to stimulate innovation. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) requires all Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to enact national laws conferring minimum standards of intellectual property protection by certain deadlines. Critics of the Agreement fear that such action is inconsistent with ensuring access to medicines in the developing world. A WHO convened meeting on intellectual property rights and vaccines in developing countries, on which this paper is based, found no evidence that TRIPS has stimulated innovation in developing market vaccine development (where markets are weak) or that protection of intellectual property rights has had a negative effect on access to vaccines. However, access to future vaccines in the developing world could be threatened by compliance with TRIPS. The management of such threats requires adherence of all countries to the Doha Declaration on TRIPS, and the protections guaranteed by the Agreement itself, vigilance on TRIPS-plus elements of free trade agreements, developing frameworks for licensing and technology transfer, and promoting innovative vaccine development in developing countries. The role of international organizations in defining best practices, dissemination of information, and monitoring TRIPS impact will be crucial to ensuring optimal access to priority new vaccines for the developing world. PMID:16710544

  4. Tripping Effects on the Friction Factor in Turbulent Pipe Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Bayoumi, O. A.; Durst, F.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2004-11-01

    Tripping devices are usually installed at the entrance of laboratory-scale pipe test sections to obtain a fully developed turbulent flow sooner. The tripping of laminar flow to induce turbulence can be carried out in different ways, such as using cylindrical wires, sand papers, well-organized tape letters, fences, etc. Claims of tripping effects have been made periodically since the classical experiments of Nikuradse (1932), which covered a significant range of Reynolds numbers. NikuradseÂ's data have become the metric by which theories are established, and have also been the subject of intense scrutiny. Several subsequent experiments reported friction factors as much as 5% lower than those measured by Nikuradse, and the authors of those reports attributed the difference to tripping effects. In the present study, measurements with and without ring tripping devices of different blocking areas of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% have been carried out to determine the effect of entrance condition on the developing flow field in pipes. Along with pressure drop measurements to compute the skin friction, both Pitot tube and hot-wire anemometry measurements have been used to accurately determine the mean velocity profile over the working test section at different Reynolds numbers in the range of 1× 10^5--4.5 × 10^5. The results we obtained suggest that the tripping technique has an insignificant effect on the wall friction factor, in agreement with Nikuradse's original data.

  5. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  6. Commuting alternatives in the United States: Recent trends and a look to the future. Final report, July 1993-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    Commuting in the U.S. has evolved substantially over the past several decades, from the more traditional commute with a majority of destinations in the central business district to new travel patterns where commuting from suburb to suburb has grown to be the dominant commuting pattern. The report was prepared to assist in developing a through understanding of recent trends in commuting alternatives in the U.S. Using data from the Census, American Housing Survey (AHS), and the Nationwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS), general trends in commuting are presented, including those related to mode choice, vehicle occupancy, departure time, travel time, and travel distance.

  7. Analysis of School Commuting Data for Exposure Modeling Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jianping; McCurdy, Thomas; Burke, Janet; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Liu, Cheng; Nutaro, James J; Patterson, Lauren A

    2010-01-01

    Human exposure models often make the simplifying assumption that school children attend school in the same census tract where they live. This paper analyzes that assumption and provides information on the temporal and spatial distributions associated with school commuting. The data were obtained using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s LandScan USA population distribution model (Bhaduri et al., 2007) applied to Philadelphia PA. It is a high-resolution model used to allocate individual school-aged children to both a home and school location, and to devise a minimum-time home-to school commuting path (called a trace) between the two locations. LandScan relies heavily on Geographic Information System (GIS) data. Our GIS analyses found that in Philadelphia: (1) about 32% of the students walk across 2 or more census tracts and 40% of them walk across 4 or more census blocks; (2) 60% drive across 4 or more census tracts going to school and 50% drive across 10 or more census blocks; (3) five-minute commuting time intervals result in misclassification as high as 90% for census blocks, 70% for block groups, and 50% for census tracts; (4) a one-minute time interval is needed to reasonably resolve time spent in the various census unit designations; (5) approximately 50% of both schoolchildren s homes and schools are located within 160 m of highly-traveled roads, and 64% of the schools are located within 200 m. These findings are very important when modeling school children s exposures, especially when ascertaining the impacts of near-roadway concentrations on their total daily body burden. Since many school children also travel along these streets and roadways to get to school, a majority of children in Philadelphia are in mobile-source dominated locations most of the day. We hypothesize that exposures of school children in Philadelphia to benzene and particulate matter will be much higher than if home and school locations and commuting paths at a 1-minute time resolution are

  8. On the essential spectrum of certain non-commutative oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeggiani, Alberto Venni, Alberto

    2013-12-15

    We show here that the spectrum of the family of non-commutative harmonic oscillators Q{sub (α,β)}{sup w}(x,D) for α,β∈R{sub +} in the range αβ = 1 is [0, +∞) and is entirely essential spectrum. The previous existing results concern the case αβ > 1 (case in which Q{sub (α,β)}{sup w}(x,D) is globally elliptic with a discrete spectrum whose qualitative properties are being extensively studied), and ours therefore extend the picture to the range of parameters αβ ⩾ 1.

  9. Size and seasonal distributions of airborne bioaerosols in commuting trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Wang, Che-Hsu; Hsu, Kai-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Aerobiological studies in commuting trains in northern Taiwan were carried out from August, 2007 until July, 2008. Two six-stage (>7 μm, 4.7˜7 μm, 3.3˜4.7 μm, 2.1˜3.3 μm, 1.1˜2.1 μm, 0.65˜1.1 μm) cascade impactors of 400 orifices were used to collect viable bacteria and fungi, respectively. The levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), formaldehyde (HCHO), temperature, and relative humidity in the commuting trains were also recorded during the sampling period. Results show that bacterial concentrations ranged from 25 to 1530 CFU m -3, and averaged 417 CFU m -3. The fungal concentrations ranged from 45 to 1906 CFU m -3, and averaged 413 CFU m -3. Additionally, the highest fractions occurred in the fifth stage (1.1˜2.1 μm) for both bacteria and fungi. The respirable fractions, Rb and Rf, for bacteria and fungi were 62.8% and 81.4%, respectively, which are higher than those in other studies. Furthermore, the bacterial concentration reached its highest level in autumn, and its lowest level in winter. However, the fungal concentration was highest in spring and lowest in winter. Though the total bacterial or fungal concentration did not exceed the recommendation standard in Taiwan, the relatively high respirable fraction in commuting trains probably implies a higher adverse health risk for sensitive commuters. This study further conducted multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship of various stage fractions of airborne bacteria and fungi with indoor air pollutants (CO and HCHO) and environmental parameters (CO 2, temperature, and relative humidity). The correlation coefficients of multiple regression analysis for total bacteria and fungi concentrations with indoor air pollutants and environmental parameters were 0.707 ( p < 0.00376) and 0.612 ( p < 0.00471), respectively. There are currently no formally regulated laws for indoor air quality (IAQ) in Taiwan, and this preliminary study can provide references to the Taiwan

  10. Promoting health and safety for traveling and commuting employees.

    PubMed

    Pochat-Debroux, Sophia

    2008-09-01

    In a society that relies on a growing market economy and free enterprise, Americans spend inordinate time commuting and traveling for work. Aircraft and private vehicles are the two primary modes of work-related travel, with each having its own inherit risks and hazards. Although much has been written about international travel health, little has been published about protecting the health and safety of workers during domestic business travel. The intent of this article is to highlight the statistics associated with domestic business travel and present sound rationale for an inclusive and comprehensive domestic travel health and safety program for employees. PMID:18792614

  11. Using a micromachined magnetostatic relay in commutating a DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Wright, John A. (Inventor); Lilienthal, Gerald (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A DC motor is commutated by rotating a magnetic rotor to induce a magnetic field in at least one magnetostatic relay in the motor. Each relay is activated in response to the magnetic field to deliver power to at least one corresponding winding connected to the relay. In some cases, each relay delivers power first through a corresponding primary winding and then through a corresponding secondary winding to a common node. Specific examples include a four-pole, three-phase motor in which each relay is activated four times during one rotation of the magnetic rotor.

  12. Rotating turkeys and self-commutating artificial muscle motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Gisby, Todd A.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2012-02-01

    Electrostatic motors—first used by Benjamin Franklin to rotisserie a turkey—are making a comeback in the form of high energy density dielectric elastomer artificial muscles. We present a self-commutated artificial muscle motor that uses dielectric elastomer switches in the place of bulky external electronics. The motor simply requires a DC input voltage to rotate a shaft (0.73 Nm/kg, 0.24 Hz) and is a step away from hard metallic electromagnetic motors towards a soft, light, and printable future.

  13. Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous trend toward miniaturized sensing systems demands novel concepts for compact and versatile spectroscopic tools. Conventional optical sensing setups include a light source, an analyte interaction region, and a separate external detector. We present a compact sensor providing room-temperature operation of monolithic surface-active lasers and detectors integrated on the same chip. The differentiation between emitter and detector is eliminated, which enables mutual commutation. Proof-of-principle gas measurements with a limit of detection below 400 ppm are demonstrated. This concept enables a crucial miniaturization of sensing devices. PMID:27785455

  14. User satisfaction with commuter walk-in centres.

    PubMed

    Coster, Joanne; O'Cathain, Alicia; Nicholl, Jon; Salisbury, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Pilot commuter walk-in centres have been located close to national rail stations in major English cities, provided by private healthcare companies for the NHS, and offering access to doctors and nurses. This study used a survey to evaluate user satisfaction levels with this new service. Thirty-three per cent (1828/5574) of users completed a questionnaire. Centres demonstrated high levels of user satisfaction (69% 'very satisfied', 95% confidence interval = 58% to 79%) overall, but satisfaction was lower for some aspects of care such as waiting times. PMID:20875252

  15. [Impact of commuting on partnership and family life. A literature review of the current state of research with special emphasis on commuter marriages].

    PubMed

    Häfner, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Because of modern working conditions, for many people commuting has increasingly become a necessity with many consequences for their health as well as for their family life and partnership. To date, little research has been done concerning the impact of this modern lifestyle on partnership and family life, particularly on dual-career couples and long-distance commuters. The results of a literature review are presented based on age, sex, family cycle and consequences for children; research questions are formulated. Sex-specific differences seem to be especially important, confirming the "household responsibility hypothesis." The commuter marriage as a new lifestyle seems to have become a coping mechanism for the increasing necessity in our society to commute.

  16. Field Trips and Their Effect on Student Achievement and Attitudes: A Comparison of Physical versus Virtual Field Trips to the Indian River Lagoon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Lesley C.; Gallo, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote…

  17. An overview of the small engine component technology (SECT) studies. [commuter, rotorcraft, cruise missile and auxiliary power applications in year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanco, M. R.; Wintucky, W. T.; Niedwiecki, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the joint NASA/Army SECT studies were to identify high payoff technologies for year 2000 small gas turbine engine applications and to provide a technology plan for guiding future research and technology efforts applicable to rotorcraft, commuter and general aviation aircraft and cruise missiles. Competitive contracts were awarded to Allison, AVCO Lycoming, Garrett, Teledyne CAE and Williams International. This paper presents an overview of the contractors' study efforts for the commuter, rotorcraft, cruise missile, and auxiliary power (APU) applications with engines in the 250 to 1,000 horsepower size range. Reference aircraft, missions and engines were selected. Advanced engine configurations and cycles with projected year 2000 component technologies were evaluated and compared with a reference engine selected by the contractor. For typical commuter and rotorcraft applications, fuel savings of 22 percent to 42 percent can be attained. For $1/gallon and $2/gallon fuel, reductions in direct operating cost range from 6 percent to 16 percent and from 11 percent to 17 percent respectively. For subsonic strategic cruise missile applications, fuel savings of 38 percent to 54 percent can be achieved which allows 35 percent to 60 percent increase in mission range and life cycle cost reductions of 40 percent to 56 percent. High payoff technologies have been identified for all applications.

  18. Commuting mode and pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam W; Hang, Jing-Qing; Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Zhang, Feng-Ying; Christiani, David C

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution can be particularly high during commuting and may depend on the mode of transportation. We investigated the impact of commuting mode on pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.The Shanghai Putuo Study is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Our primary outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted, and the secondary outcome was spirometric airflow obstruction. We tested the association between mode of transportation and these outcomes after adjusting for confounders.The study population consisted of 20 102 subjects. After adjusting for confounders, the change (95% CI) in FEV1 was -2.15% pred (-2.88- -1.42% pred) among pedestrians, -1.32% pred (-2.05- -0.59% pred) among those taking buses without air conditioning, -1.33% pred (-2.05- -0.61% pred) among those taking buses with air conditioning and -2.83% pred (-5.56- -0.10% pred) among those using underground railways, as compared to cyclists (the reference group). The effects of mode on FVC % predicted were in the same direction. Private car use had a significant protective effect on FVC % predicted and the risk of airflow obstruction (defined by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease but not by lower limit of normal criteria).Mode of transportation is associated with differences in lung function, which may reflect pollution levels in different transportation microenvironments. PMID:26541519

  19. Differences in active commuting among younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Campbell, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥ 50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors.

  20. Examining the Link Between Public Transit Use and Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Gayah, Vikash V.; Campbell, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT) use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC) behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748) completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596) reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related. PMID:25898405

  1. Differences in active commuting among younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Campbell, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥ 50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors. PMID:23689245

  2. Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by commutative noise

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F. Biscay, R.J.; Jimenez, J.C.; Cruz, H. de la

    2007-10-01

    The local linearization (LL) approach has become an effective technique for the numerical integration of ordinary, random and stochastic differential equations. One of the reasons for this success is that the LL method achieves a convenient trade-off between numerical stability and computational cost. Besides, the LL method reproduces well the dynamics of nonlinear equations for which other classical methods fail. However, in the stochastic case, most of the reported works has been focused in Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) driven by additive noise. This limits the applicability of the LL method since there is a number of interesting dynamics observed in equations with multiplicative noise. On the other hand, recent results show that commutative noise SDEs can be transformed into a random differential equation (RDE) by means of a random diffeomorfism (conjugacy). This paper takes advantages of such conjugacy property and the LL approach for defining a LL scheme for SDEs driven by commutative noise. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by means of numerical simulations.

  3. Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective…

  4. Non-commutative holomorphic functions in elements of a Lie algebra and the absolute basis problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosi, Anar A.

    2009-12-01

    We study the absolute basis problem in algebras of holomorphic functions in non-commuting variables generating a finite-dimensional nilpotent Lie algebra \\mathfrak{g}. This is motivated by J. L. Taylor's programme of non-commutative holomorphic functional calculus in the Lie algebra framework.

  5. Real hypersurfaces in the complex quadric with commuting and parallel Ricci tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Young Jin

    2016-08-01

    First we introduce the notion of commuting and parallel Ricci tensor for real hypersurfaces in the complex quadric Qm = SOm+2 / SO2 SOm. Then, according to the A-isotropic unit normal N, we give a complete classification of real hypersurfaces in Qm = SOm+2 / SO2 SOm with commuting and parallel Ricci tensor.

  6. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail...

  7. Communicating with Commuters. Numerous Factors Must Be Considered To Improve Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rue, Penny

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given for producing a newsletter to provide information about campus programs, activities, and services of interest to commuting students. The following questions regarding newsletters are answered: (1) What information do commuting students need? (2) What format would be most effective? (3) How can news and articles be obtained?…

  8. Urban Corridor Consortium Task Force on Part-Time and Commuter Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. Urban Corridor Consortium.

    Ways that urban corridor campuses might respond to the increasing enrollment of part-time and commuter students were reviewed by the University of Wisconsin Urban Corridor Consortium Task Force on Part-Time and Commuter Students. Members of the consortia are the following University of Wisconsin campuses: Green Bay, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, Parkside,…

  9. 77 FR 72432 - Application of Boutique Air, Inc. for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Application of Boutique Air, Inc. for Commuter Air Carrier Authority AGENCY... order finding Boutique Air, Inc., fit, willing, and able, and awarding it commuter air carrier authority... Attachment A to the order. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barbara Snoden, Air Carrier Fitness Division...

  10. [Socio-demographic and spatial structures within commuting range of Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Rakowski, W; Gocal, T

    1989-01-01

    Using official data for 1983, the authors describe the geographic and socioeconomic zones of influence that the city of Warsaw, Poland, exerts on surrounding areas. Special attention is paid to the effects of commuting for work to and from the city on regional labor markets. Some demographic characteristics of commuters are discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  11. Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Chillón, Palma; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frédéric; González-Gross, Marcela; Ward, Dianne S; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-05-01

    We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.

  12. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  13. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Ryosuke; Fujii, Keisuke; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed. PMID:26061138

  14. Appraisal of boundary layer trips for landing gear testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Philip; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic similarity during scaled model testing is difficult to maintain. Forced boundary layer transition via a surface protuberance is a common method used to address this issue, however few guidelines exist for the effective tripping of complex geometries, such as aircraft landing gears. To address this shortcoming, preliminary wind tunnel tests were performed at Re = 500,000. Surface transition visualisation and pressure measurements show that zigzag type trips of a given size and location are effective at promoting transition, thus preventing the formation of laminar separation bubbles and increasing the effective Reynolds number from the critical regime to the supercritical regime. Extension of these experiments to include three additional tripping methods (wires, roughness strips, CADCUT dots) in a range of sizes, at Reynolds number of 200,000 and below, have been performed in a recirculating water channel. Analysis of surface pressure measurements and time resolved PIV for each trip device, size and location has established a set of recommendations for successful use of tripping for future, low Reynolds number landing gear testing.

  15. Understanding intra-urban trip patterns from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Song; Xiao, Yu; Tian, Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Intra-urban human mobility is investigated by means of taxi trajectory data that are collected in Shanghai, China, where taxis play an important role in urban transportation. From the taxi trajectories, approximately 1.5 million trips of anonymous customers are extracted on seven consecutive days. The globally spatio-temporal patterns of trips exhibit a significant daily regularity. Since each trip can be viewed as a displacement in the random walk model, the distributions of the distance and direction of the extracted trips are investigated in this research. The direction distribution shows an NEE-SWW-dominant direction, and the distance distribution can be well fitted by an exponentially truncated power law, with the scaling exponent β = 1.2 ± 0.15. The observed patterns are attributed to the geographical heterogeneity of the study area, which makes the spatial distribution of trajectory stops to be non-uniform. We thus construct a model that integrates both the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect, to interpret the observed patterns. Our Monte Carlo simulation results closely match to the observed patterns and thus validate the proposed model. According to the proposed model, in a single-core urban area, the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect improve each other when influencing human mobility patterns. Geographical heterogeneity leads to a faster observed decay, and the distance decay effect makes the spatial distribution of trips more concentrated.

  16. Evidence, explanations, and recommendations for teachers' field trip strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebar, Bryan

    Field trips are well recognized by researchers as an educational approach with the potential to complement and enhance classroom science teaching by exposing students to unique activities, resources, and content in informal settings. The following investigation addresses teachers' field trip practices in three related manuscripts: (1) A study examining the details of teachers' pedagogical strategies intended to facilitate connections between students' experiences and the school curricula while visiting an aquarium; (2) A study documenting and describing sources of knowledge that teachers draw from when leading field trips to an aquarium; (3) A position paper that reviews and summarizes research on effective pedagogical strategies for field trips. Together these three pieces address key questions regarding teachers' practices on field trips: (1) What strategies are teachers employing (and not employing) during self-guided field trips to facilitate learning tied to the class curriculum? (2) What sources of knowledge do teachers utilize when leading field trips? (3) How can teachers be better prepared to lead trips that promote learning? The Oregon Coast Aquarium served as the field trip site for teachers included in this study. The setting suited these questions because the aquarium serves tens of thousands of students on field trips each year but provides no targeted programming for these students as they explore the exhibits. In other words, the teachers who lead field trips assume much of the responsibility for facilitating students' experience. In order to describe and characterize teachers' strategies to link students' experiences to the curriculum, a number of teachers (26) were observed as they led their students' visit to the public spaces of the aquarium. Artifacts, such as worksheets, used during the visit were collected for analysis as well. Subsequently, all teachers were surveyed regarding their use of the field trip and their sources of knowledge for

  17. Exploring Universal Patterns in Human Home-Work Commuting from Mobile Phone Data

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Kevin S.; Greco, Kael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Home-work commuting has always attracted significant research attention because of its impact on human mobility. One of the key assumptions in this domain of study is the universal uniformity of commute times. However, a true comparison of commute patterns has often been hindered by the intrinsic differences in data collection methods, which make observation from different countries potentially biased and unreliable. In the present work, we approach this problem through the use of mobile phone call detail records (CDRs), which offers a consistent method for investigating mobility patterns in wholly different parts of the world. We apply our analysis to a broad range of datasets, at both the country (Portugal, Ivory Coast, and Saudi Arabia), and city (Boston) scale. Additionally, we compare these results with those obtained from vehicle GPS traces in Milan. While different regions have some unique commute time characteristics, we show that the home-work time distributions and average values within a single region are indeed largely independent of commute distance or country (Portugal, Ivory Coast, and Boston)–despite substantial spatial and infrastructural differences. Furthermore, our comparative analysis demonstrates that such distance-independence holds true only if we consider multimodal commute behaviors–as consistent with previous studies. In car-only (Milan GPS traces) and car-heavy (Saudi Arabia) commute datasets, we see that commute time is indeed influenced by commute distance. Finally, we put forth a testable hypothesis and suggest ways for future work to make more accurate and generalizable statements about human commute behaviors. PMID:24933264

  18. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    PubMed Central

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  19. Communication Networks and Perceptions of Social Support as Antecedents to College Adjustment: A Comparison between Student Commuters and Campus Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somera, Lilnabeth P.; Ellis, Beth Hartman

    1996-01-01

    Presents a two-part study that looks at the impact of social support on college adjustment among "traditional" campus residents and commuters. Begins with a review of social support measures and the relationship between commuting and college adjustment. Finds factors critical to academic adjustment vary in the contexts of commuting students and…

  20. Field trips in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.P.; Erslev, E.A.

    2004-07-01

    The theme of the 2004 GSA Annual Meeting and Exposition, 'Geoscience in a Changing World' covers both new and traditional areas of the earth sciences. The Front Range of the Rocky Mountains and the High Plains preserve an outstanding record of geological processes from Precambrian through Quaternary times, and thus served as excellent educational exhibits for the meeting. The chapters in this field guide all contain technical content as well as a field trip log describing field trip routes and stops. Of the 25 field trips offered at the Meeting. 14 are described in the guidebook, covering a wide variety of geoscience disciplines, with chapters on tectonics (Precambrian and Laramide), stratigraphy and paleoenvironments (e.g., early Paleozoic environments, Jurassic eolian environments, the K-T boundary, the famous Oligocene Florissant fossil beds), economic deposits (coal and molybdenum), geological hazards, and geoarchaeology. Two papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  1. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, M.; Shanta, C.; Asim, T.; Sushil, M.

    2015-04-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path.

  2. TRIPS: The high intensity proton source for the TRASCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Gobin, R.; Ferdinand, R.

    2000-02-01

    The TRASCO project (trasmutazione scorie) is a R&D program whose goal is the design of an accelerator driving system for nuclear waste transmutation. The high current continuous wave proton linear accelerator will drive a subcritical system to transmutate nuclear wastes, while producing energy. The proton source TRIPS is a high intensity microwave source, which should be highly reliable and that should provide a minimum proton current of 50 mA with a r-r' root mean square normalized emittance lower than 0.2 π mm mrad. A program of cooperation has been entered into with CEA-Saclay, where the IPHI project is in progress and the proton source SILHI has been designed and built using goals close to those of TRIPS. The construction of TRIPS is underway and the first beam is scheduled for the first half of 2000. The main features of this source and the results of the optics calculations are presented.

  3. Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Trip Development for Hyper-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Dilley, Authur D.; Calleja, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Boundary layer trip devices for the Hper-X forebody have been experimentally examined in several wind tunnels. Five different trip configurations were compared in three hypersonic facilities, the LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, the LaRC 31 -Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, and in the HYPULSE Reflected Shock Tunnel at GASL. Heat transfer distributions, utilizing the phosphor thermography and thin-film techniques, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 0-deg, 2-deg, and 4-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 1.2 to 15.4 million: and inlet cowl door simulated in both open and closed positions. Comparisons of transition due to discrete roughness elements have led to the selection of a trip configuration for the Hyper-X Mach 7 flight vehicle.

  4. Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of an Aluminum Bearing Trip Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve, Alberto; Guzmán, Alexis; De Barbieri, Flavio; Artigas, Alfredo; Carvajal, Linton; Bustos, Oscar; Garza-Montes-de Oca, Nelson F.; Colás, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of a steel able to sustain the TRIP-effect were studied. The material was prepared by taking in mind the partial substitution of silicon by aluminum following a processing route that included hot forging, hot and cold rolling, intercritical annealing, and a final bainitic isothermal treatment. The mechanical properties that were obtained resulted to be above those of commercial a 780 TRIP steel. The TRIP phenomenon was confirmed by the change in retained austenite before and after deforming the steel; X-ray diffraction was used to evaluate the volume content of retained austenite. Formability of the steel under study can be rationalized in terms of the texture developed in the material.

  5. TILT. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.F.

    1992-06-01

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  6. Bad trip due to anticholinergic effect of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Mangot, Ajish G

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis in its various forms has been known since time immemorial, the use of which has been rising steadily in India. 'Bad trips' have been documented after cannabis use, manifestations ranging from vague anxiety and fear to profoundly disturbing states of terror and psychosis. Cannabis is known to affect various neurotransmitters, but 'bad trip' due to its anticholinergic effect has never been described in literature to the best of author's knowledge. Hereby, the author describes a case of a young adult male experiencing profound anticholinergic effects after being exposed for the first time in his life to bhang, a local oral preparation of cannabis.

  7. WTO ministerial conference adopts declaration on TRIPS and public health.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-03-01

    In November 2001, the 4th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization adopted a Ministerial Declaration on public health and the WTO's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the "TRIPS Agreement"). The declaration represents a modest advance in addressing concerns that strict patent laws, and threats of trade sanctions, will be a barrier to most of the world's people with HIV/AIDS accessing affordable medicines. The full significance of the declaration remains to be seen, as it depends on what political impact it has at the WTO and on its member countries, and what legal impact it will have in the interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement.

  8. Inhibition of TRIP1/S8/hSug1, a component of the human 19S proteasome, enhances mitotic apoptosis induced by spindle poisons.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroshi Y; Gorbsky, Gary J

    2006-01-01

    Mitotic spindle poisons (e.g., Taxol and vinblastine), used as chemotherapy drugs, inhibit mitotic spindle function, activate the mitotic spindle checkpoint, arrest cells in mitosis, and then cause cell death by mechanisms that are poorly understood. By expression cloning, we identified a truncated version of human TRIP1 (also known as S8, hSug1), an AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family ATPase subunit of the 19S proteasome regulatory complex, as an enhancer of spindle poison-mediated apoptosis. Stable expression of the truncated TRIP1/S8/hSug1 in HeLa cells [OP-TRIP1(88-406)] resulted in a decrease of measurable cellular proteasome activity, indicating that OP-TRIP1(88-406) had a dominant-negative effect on proteasome function. OP-TRIP1(88-406) revealed an increased apoptotic response after treatment with spindle poisons or with proteasome inhibitors. The increased apoptosis coincided with a significant decrease in expression of BubR1, a kinase required for activation and maintenance of the mitotic spindle checkpoint in response to treatment with spindle poisons. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRIP1/S8/hSug1 resulted in a reduction of general proteasome activity and an increase in mitotic index. The siRNA treatment also caused increased cell death after spindle poison treatment. These results indicate that inhibition of TRIP1/S8/hSug1 function by expression of a truncated version of the protein or by siRNA-mediated suppression enhances cell death in response to spindle poison treatment. Current proteasome inhibitor drugs in trial as anticancer agents target elements of the 20S catalytic subcomplex. Our results suggest that targeting the ATPase subunits in 19S regulatory complex in the proteasome may enhance the antitumor effects of spindle poisons.

  9. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, N. S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra.

  10. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion.

    PubMed

    Tonchev, N S

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra. PMID:25493736

  11. Complexity and non-commutativity of learning operations on graphs.

    PubMed

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    We present results from numerical studies of supervised learning operations in small recurrent networks considered as graphs, leading from a given set of input conditions to predetermined outputs. Graphs that have optimized their output for particular inputs with respect to predetermined outputs are asymptotically stable and can be characterized by attractors, which form a representation space for an associative multiplicative structure of input operations. As the mapping from a series of inputs onto a series of such attractors generally depends on the sequence of inputs, this structure is generally non-commutative. Moreover, the size of the set of attractors, indicating the complexity of learning, is found to behave non-monotonically as learning proceeds. A tentative relation between this complexity and the notion of pragmatic information is indicated.

  12. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  13. Commuter motorcycle crashes in Malaysia: An understanding of contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Oxley, Jennifer; Yuen, Jeremy; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Hoareau, Effie; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Aziz; Bakar, Harun; Venkataraman, Saraswathy; Nair, Prame Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, two-thirds of reported workplace-related fatal and serious injury incidents are the result of commuting crashes (especially those involving motorcyclists), however, little is known about the contributing factors to these collisions. A telephone survey of 1,750 motorcyclists (1,004 adults who had been involved in a motorcycle commuting crash in the last 2 years and 746 adult motorcyclists who had not been involved in a motorcycle crash in the last 2 years) was undertaken. The contributions of a range of behavioural, attitudinal, employment and travel pattern factors to collision involvement were examined. The findings revealed that the majority of participants were licensed riders, rode substantial distances (most often for work purposes), and reported adopting safe riding practices (helmet wearing and buckling). However, there were some concerning findings regarding speeding behaviour, use of mobile phones while riding, and engaging in other risky behaviours. Participants who had been involved in a collision were younger (aged 25–29 years), had higher exposure (measured by distances travelled, frequency of riding, and riding on high volume and higher speed roads), reported higher rates of riding for work purposes, worked more shift hours and had a higher likelihood of riding at relatively high speeds compared with participants who had not been involved in a collision. Collisions generally occurred during morning and early evening hours, striking another vehicles, and during normal traffic flow. The implications of these findings for policy decisions and development of evidence-based behavioural/training interventions addressing key contributing factors are discussed. PMID:24406945

  14. Commutative law for products of infinitely large isotropic random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Zdzislaw; Livan, Giacomo; Swiech, Artur

    2013-08-01

    Ensembles of isotropic random matrices are defined by the invariance of the probability measure under the left (and right) multiplication by an arbitrary unitary matrix. We show that the multiplication of large isotropic random matrices is spectrally commutative and self-averaging in the limit of infinite matrix size N→∞. The notion of spectral commutativity means that the eigenvalue density of a product ABC... of such matrices is independent of the order of matrix multiplication, for example, the matrix ABCD has the same eigenvalue density as ADCB. In turn, the notion of self-averaging means that the product of n independent but identically distributed random matrices, which we symbolically denote by AAA..., has the same eigenvalue density as the corresponding power An of a single matrix drawn from the underlying matrix ensemble. For example, the eigenvalue density of ABCCABC is the same as that of A2B2C3. We also discuss the singular behavior of the eigenvalue and singular value densities of isotropic matrices and their products for small eigenvalues λ→0. We show that the singularities at the origin of the eigenvalue density and of the singular value density are in one-to-one correspondence in the limit N→∞: The eigenvalue density of an isotropic random matrix has a power-law singularity at the origin ˜|λ|-s with a power s∈(0,2) when and only when the density of its singular values has a power-law singularity ˜λ-σ with a power σ=s/(4-s). These results are obtained analytically in the limit N→∞. We supplement these results with numerical simulations for large but finite N and discuss finite-size effects for the most common ensembles of isotropic random matrices.

  15. Quantum groups, non-commutative differential geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, P

    1993-12-09

    The topic of this thesis is the development of a versatile and geometrically motivated differential calculus on non-commutative or quantum spaces, providing powerful but easy-to-use mathematical tools for applications in physics and related sciences. A generalization of unitary time evolution is proposed and studied for a simple 2-level system, leading to non-conservation of microscopic entropy, a phenomenon new to quantum mechanics. A Cartan calculus that combines functions, forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations along general vector fields into one big algebra is constructed for quantum groups and then extended to quantum planes. The construction of a tangent bundle on a quantum group manifold and an BRST type approach to quantum group gauge theory are given as further examples of applications. The material is organized in two parts: Part I studies vector fields on quantum groups, emphasizing Hopf algebraic structures, but also introducing a ``quantum geometric`` construction. Using a generalized semi-direct product construction we combine the dual Hopf algebras A of functions and U of left-invariant vector fields into one fully bicovariant algebra of differential operators. The pure braid group is introduced as the commutant of {Delta}(U). It provides invariant maps A {yields} U and thereby bicovariant vector fields, casimirs and metrics. This construction allows the translation of undeformed matrix expressions into their less obvious quantum algebraic counter parts. We study this in detail for quasitriangular Hopf algebras, giving the determinant and orthogonality relation for the ``reflection`` matrix. Part II considers the additional structures of differential forms and finitely generated quantum Lie algebras -- it is devoted to the construction of the Cartan calculus, based on an undeformed Cartan identity.

  16. Spontaneous Usage of Different Shortcuts Based on the Commutativity Principle

    PubMed Central

    Gaschler, Robert; Vaterrodt, Bianca; Frensch, Peter A.; Eichler, Alexandra; Haider, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Based on research on expertise a person can be said to possess integrated conceptual knowledge when she/he is able to spontaneously identify task relevant information in order to solve a problem efficiently. Despite the lack of instruction or explicit cueing, the person should be able to recognize which shortcut strategy can be applied – even when the task context differs from the one in which procedural knowledge about the shortcut was originally acquired. For mental arithmetic, first signs of such adaptive flexibility should develop already in primary school. The current study introduces a paper-and-pencil-based as well as an eyetracking-based approach to unobtrusively measure how students spot and apply (known) shortcut options in mental arithmetic. We investigated the development and the relation of the spontaneous use of two strategies derived from the mathematical concept of commutativity. Children from grade 2 to grade 7 and university students solved three-addends addition problems, which are rarely used in class. Some problems allowed the use of either of two commutativity-based shortcut strategies. Results suggest that from grade three onwards both of the shortcuts were used spontaneously and application of one shortcut correlated positively with application of the other. Rate of spontaneous usage was substantial but smaller than in an instructed variant. Eyetracking data suggested similar fixation patterns for spontaneous an instructed shortcut application. The data are consistent with the development of an integrated concept of the mathematical principle so that it can be spontaneously applied in different contexts and strategies. PMID:24086413

  17. Coulomb problem in non-commutative quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Galikova, Veronika; Presnajder, Peter

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to find out how it would be possible for space non-commutativity (NC) to alter the quantum mechanics (QM) solution of the Coulomb problem. The NC parameter {lambda} is to be regarded as a measure of the non-commutativity - setting {lambda}= 0 which means a return to the standard quantum mechanics. As the very first step a rotationally invariant NC space R{sub {lambda}}{sup 3}, an analog of the Coulomb problem configuration space (R{sup 3} with the origin excluded) is introduced. R{sub {lambda}}{sup 3} is generated by NC coordinates realized as operators acting in an auxiliary (Fock) space F. The properly weighted Hilbert-Schmidt operators in F form H{sub {lambda}}, a NC analog of the Hilbert space of the wave functions. We will refer to them as 'wave functions' also in the NC case. The definition of a NC analog of the hamiltonian as a hermitian operator in H{sub {lambda}} is one of the key parts of this paper. The resulting problem is exactly solvable. The full solution is provided, including formulas for the bound states for E < 0 and low-energy scattering for E > 0 (both containing NC corrections analytic in {lambda}) and also formulas for high-energy scattering and unexpected bound states at ultra-high energy (both containing NC corrections singular in {lambda}). All the NC contributions to the known QM solutions either vanish or disappear in the limit {lambda}{yields} 0.

  18. Assessment of full power turbine trip start-up test for C. Trillo 1 with RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, M.F.; Moreno, P.; de la Cal, C.; Larrea, E.; Lopez, A.; Santamaria, J.G.; Lopez, E.; Novo, M.

    1993-07-01

    C. Trillo I has developed a model of the plant with RELAP5/MOD2/36.04. This model will be validated against a selected set of start-up tests. One of the transients selected to that aim is the turbine trip, which presents very specific characteristics that make it significantly different from the same transient in other PWRs of different design, the main difference being that the reactor is not tripped: a reduction in primary power is carried out instead. Pre-test calculations were done of the Turbine Trip Test and compared against the actual test. Minor problems in the first model, specially in the Control and Limitation Systems, were identified and post-test calculations had been carried out. The results show a good agreement with data for all the compared variables.

  19. Simulation of population-based commuter exposure to NO₂ using different air pollution models.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; de Nazelle, Audrey; Schindler, Christian; Ineichen, Alex; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Perez, Laura; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C

    2014-05-12

    We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m(-3), range: 21-61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m(-3); range: 24-51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m(-3); range: 24-54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas.

  20. Simulation of Population-Based Commuter Exposure to NO2 Using Different Air Pollution Models

    PubMed Central

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; de Nazelle, Audrey; Schindler, Christian; Ineichen, Alex; Ducret-Stich, Regina E.; Perez, Laura; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C.

    2014-01-01

    We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21–61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas. PMID:24823664

  1. Photography of the commutation spark using a high-speed camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanazawa, Tamio; Egashira, Torao; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Egoshi, Jun

    1997-12-01

    In the single-phase AC commutator motor (known as a universal motor), which is widely used in cleaners, electrical machines, etc., some problems generated by commutation sparks are wear on the brush and noise impediments. We have therefore attempted to use a high-speed camera to elucidate the commutation spark mechanism visually. The high-speed camera that we used is capable of photographing at 5,000 - 20,000,000 frames/s. Selection of a trigger module can be obtained from the operation unit and the exterior triggering signal. In this paper, we proposed an exterior trigger method that involved opening a hole of several millimeters across in the motor and using argon laser light, so that commutator segments may be photographed in position; we then conducted the experiment. This method enabled us to photograph the motor's commutator segment from any position, and we were able to confirm spark generation at every other commutator segment. Furthermore, after confirming the spark generation position of the commutator segment, we next attempted to accelerate the photographing speed to obtain more detailed photography of the moment of spark generation; we then prepared our report.

  2. The association between access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting.

    PubMed

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-12-05

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  3. Commutability of the First World Health Organization International Standard for Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Preiksaitis, J.; Tong, Y.; Pang, X.; Sun, Y.; Tang, L.; Cook, L.; Pounds, S.; Fryer, J.; Caliendo, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA has become a standard part of care for many groups of immunocompromised patients; recent development of the first WHO international standard for human CMV DNA has raised hopes of reducing interlaboratory variability of results. Commutability of reference material has been shown to be necessary if such material is to reduce variability among laboratories. Here we evaluated the commutability of the WHO standard using 10 different real-time quantitative CMV PCR assays run by eight different laboratories. Test panels, including aliquots of 50 patient samples (40 positive samples and 10 negative samples) and lyophilized CMV standard, were run, with each testing center using its own quantitative calibrators, reagents, and nucleic acid extraction methods. Commutability was assessed both on a pairwise basis and over the entire group of assays, using linear regression and correspondence analyses. Commutability of the WHO material differed among the tests that were evaluated, and these differences appeared to vary depending on the method of statistical analysis used and the cohort of assays included in the analysis. Depending on the methodology used, the WHO material showed poor or absent commutability with up to 50% of assays. Determination of commutability may require a multifaceted approach; the lack of commutability seen when using the WHO standard with several of the assays here suggests that further work is needed to bring us toward true consensus. PMID:26269622

  4. Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and teachers' decisions to support field trips were identified and compared. Private school principals supported field trips. They believed field trips were safe, and easy to arrange, and that the field trips helped students experience culture in the community. Experienced public school principals who were supportive and believed field trips should be required believed field trips fit into the teacher's lesson plan and were taken for enrichment. Public school principals who were less experienced with field trips believed field trips should be extracurricular. They believed that field trips served as a reward, and that they needed more information. They did not support field trips. Private school teachers believed that field trips did not have overly demanding administrative concerns. They believed field trips were safe, easy to arrange, and were supported by their administrator. Public school teachers who supported field trips and believed field trips should be required were white, female, experienced, and older. They believed that field trips were safe, easy to arrange, enjoyable, and that they had enough help to conduct trips. Public school teachers who may not support trips had administrative concerns, and they did not believe field trips met the needs of students. These were male, white or non-white, young or middle-aged, and less experienced. They may believe field trips are a waste of time and money. They believed they had a nonsupportive administrator. Money for transportation was a barrier for older public school teachers and principals. No improvement on

  5. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J. D.; Downing, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft typically have low wing loadings, and fly at low altitudes, and so they are susceptible to undesirable accelerations caused by random atmospheric turbulence. Larger commercial aircraft typically have higher wing loadings and fly at altitudes where the turbulence level is lower, and so they provide smoother rides. This project was initiated based on the goal of making the ride of the commuter aircraft as smooth as the ride experienced on the major commercial airliners. The objectives of this project were to design a digital, longitudinal mode ride quality augmentation system (RQAS) for a commuter aircraft, and to investigate the effect of selected parameters on those designs.

  6. The Goat Portage: Students' Stories and Learning from Canoe Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    This study explores how high school students learn from their experiences in an extracurricular adventure program and illustrates how students' narrative inquiries relate to experiential learning. Twelve canoe trips were studied by participant observation methods. Data were collected from recorded interviews with students and staff, field notes,…

  7. 28 CFR 570.41 - Medical escorted trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to provide an inmate with medical treatment not available within the institution. There are two types... inmate with medical treatment ordinarily not available at the institution. The required treatment may be... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical escorted trips. 570.41...

  8. 28 CFR 570.41 - Medical escorted trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to provide an inmate with medical treatment not available within the institution. There are two types... inmate with medical treatment ordinarily not available at the institution. The required treatment may be... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical escorted trips. 570.41...

  9. Journal of South African Trip: January 14-March 1, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a personal account, dictated en route, of Carl Rogers' experiences during his trip to South Africa. Documents extensive commitment to people and to a process leading to peace. Journal ends with conviction that violence can be avoided and that no group really wants violence. (Author)

  10. Planning a Class Camping Trip. ERIC Digest: Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mickey; Peterson, Lin

    A well-planned class camping trip is a learning adventure which develops personal values, generates lifelong learning skills, encourages group cooperation, and enhances knowledge of and appreciation for natural environments. This digest is a guide to help teachers offer this unique learning opportunity to their students. Separate sections present…

  11. Exploring Mathematics outside the Classroom through the Field Trip Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munakata, Mika

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Field Trip Assignment, which was developed for a mathematics modeling course for prospective teachers. The objective of the assignment was to motivate students to make connections between mathematics and real-life phenomena while considering how to make those connections explicit to their future students. For the Field…

  12. The Nonverbal Communication Field Trip in Organizational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David W.

    An effective communication learning experience is the nonverbal communication field trip in organizational settings. Objectives for this activity include defining and describing nonverbal areas such as "proxemics,""chronemics,""objectics,""kinesics,""haptics," and "vocalics," and to observe these areas in an organizational setting. The experience…

  13. Using a National Park for a Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Roy K.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a one-week camping trip to Acadia National Park (Maine) as a non-credit educational experience. Includes activities such as population studies in intertidal zones, wild life sketching, nature list hikes (forest devastation by fire, beaver ponds, glacial ponds and streams), fishing and clamming rips, and student projects. (CS)

  14. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test..., each locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal or train stop or train control device...

  15. The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field…

  16. Trip Staff Training Practices: Survey and Discussion Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaagstra, Lynn

    A discussion group and survey examined trip-staff training practices among outdoor and adventure recreation/education programs. Of the 40 participants, 80 percent worked with university noncredit programs, with the remaining participants representing university for-credit, military recreation, nonprofit, and for-profit programs. Although the…

  17. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  18. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  19. 50 CFR 622.495 - Commercial trip limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Queen Conch... trip limit specified in this section taken in the EEZ may not be transferred at sea, regardless of... conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ is 200 queen conch per day....

  20. Cognitive Impact of a Grade School Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Patricia D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study to design and conduct a three-hour field experience for 3rd and 4th grade students on forestry and forest products, and to determine the cognitive effects of participation in this field trip on the children. Reports an increase in student knowledge after participating in this experience. Discusses the reasons for students'…

  1. Tape the Teacher: Easier Field Trips for Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lynne; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes a tape-guided field trip that has been used successfully with college biology students in the University of California Botanical Garden. This program enables large numbers of students to make individual biological observations in the field with the aid of a specially tailored, taped guide. (JR)

  2. Self-Guided Field Trips for Students of Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, G.; Kerr, Roger; Hadgraft, Roger

    2011-01-01

    In many learning institutions around the world, there is a trend towards larger classes, more flexible learning pathways and reduced teaching resources. Experiential learning is often used in the form of site visits or field trips for students studying engineering, natural resource management, geography and similar disciplines. Providing…

  3. The "Long Trip": An Exploration of Progressive Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    1988-01-01

    This article describes preservice teachers' trips to explore progressive public schools (past and present), emphasizing one to Central Park East School in Spanish Harlem. The schools have strong leadership, high expectations, and a commitment to a child-centered approach in common. Future teachers gain perspective and insight from such visits. (SM)

  4. A Classical Mnemonic for Older Learners: A Trip That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson-Tchabo, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A mnemonic procedure, a method of loci, was used with men and women over 60 years old in two studies of free recall. The learners take a mental trip through their residences stopping in order at 16 places. Experimental subjects were able to master the mnemonic and apply it effectively. (Author)

  5. Field Trips as Teaching Tools in the Law Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Noelle; Dewhurst, Elaine; Watkins, Los

    2012-01-01

    While field trips are often employed in primary and even second level education as a pedagogical tool, aimed at exposing students to real life experiences, such activities are not as popular at third level (Falk and Balling, 1982; Muse, Chiarelott and Davidman, 1982; Anderson and Zhang, 2003). However, such experiential learning techniques can be…

  6. Examining the Effects of Field Trips on Science Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Leila A.; Katzman, William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work-in-progress study is to examine science identity of elementary school students in relation to participation in science. The questions asked in this initial analysis were: How will a field trip to a science research and learning center affect students' desires to learn and participate in science and does interviewing…

  7. Goldschmidt Conference 2005: Field Trip Guide to the Columbia River Basalt Group

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Barton S.; Petcovic, Heather L.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-06-16

    This field trip guide was prepared for the 2005 Goldschmidt Conference held in Moscow, Idaho. The field trip guide provides a two day introduction to the features of the Columbia River Basalt Group in eastern Washington.

  8. On Generating Discrete Integrable Systems via Lie Algebras and Commutator Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Tam, Honwah

    2016-03-01

    In the paper, we introduce the Lie algebras and the commutator equations to rewrite the Tu-d scheme for generating discrete integrable systems regularly. By the approach the various loop algebras of the Lie algebra A1 are defined so that the well-known Toda hierarchy and a novel discrete integrable system are obtained, respectively. A reduction of the later hierarchy is just right the famous Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy. Finally, via two different enlarging Lie algebras of the Lie algebra A1, we derive two resulting differential-difference integrable couplings of the Toda hierarchy, of course, they are all various discrete expanding integrable models of the Toda hierarchy. When the introduced spectral matrices are higher degrees, the way presented in the paper is more convenient to generate discrete integrable equations than the Tu-d scheme by using the software Maple. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Innovation Team of Jiangsu Province hosted by China University of Mining and Technology (2014), and Hong Kong Research Grant Council under Grant No. HKBU202512, as well as the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2013AL016

  9. On Generating Discrete Integrable Systems via Lie Algebras and Commutator Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Tam, Honwah

    2016-03-01

    In the paper, we introduce the Lie algebras and the commutator equations to rewrite the Tu-d scheme for generating discrete integrable systems regularly. By the approach the various loop algebras of the Lie algebra A1 are defined so that the well-known Toda hierarchy and a novel discrete integrable system are obtained, respectively. A reduction of the later hierarchy is just right the famous Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy. Finally, via two different enlarging Lie algebras of the Lie algebra A1, we derive two resulting differential-difference integrable couplings of the Toda hierarchy, of course, they are all various discrete expanding integrable models of the Toda hierarchy. When the introduced spectral matrices are higher degrees, the way presented in the paper is more convenient to generate discrete integrable equations than the Tu-d scheme by using the software Maple. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Innovation Team of Jiangsu Province hosted by China University of Mining and Technology (2014), and Hong Kong Research Grant Council under Grant No. HKBU202512, as well as the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2013AL016

  10. Detailed design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent E.; Downing, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is documented. The RQAS is designed for a Cessna 402B, an 8 passenger prop twin representative to this class of aircraft. The purpose of the RQAS is the reduction of vertical and lateral accelerations of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The detailed design of the hardware (the aircraft modifications, the Ride Quality Instrumentation System (RQIS), and the required computer software) is examined. The aircraft modifications, consisting of the dedicated control surfaces and the hydraulic actuation system, were designed at Cessna Aircraft by Kansas University-Flight Research Laboratory. The instrumentation system, which consist of the sensor package, the flight computer, a Data Acquisition System, and the pilot and test engineer control panels, was designed by NASA-Langley. The overall system design and the design of the software, both for flight control algorithms and ground system checkout are detailed. The system performance is predicted from linear simulation results and from power spectral densities of the aircraft response to a Dryden gust. The results indicate that both accelerations are possible.

  11. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after listening to students' conversations during a field trip to the zoo. In order to analyze the preservice teachers' field trip designs, we conducted a review of the literature on field trips to develop the field trip inventory (FTI). The FTI focussed on three major components of field trips: cognitive, procedural, and social. Cognitive components were subdivided into pre-visit, during-visit, and post-visit activities and problem-solving. Procedural components included information about the informal science education facility (the zoo) and the zoo staff and included advanced organizers. Social components on student groups, fun, control during the zoo visit, and control of student learning. The results of the investigation showed that (a) the dominant topic in conversations among elementary school groups at the zoo was management, (b) procedural components were mentioned least often, (c) preservice teachers described during-visit activities more often than any other characteristic central to field trip design, (d) seven of the nine characteristics listed in the FTI were noted more frequently in the preservice teachers' field trip designs after they listened to students' conversations at the zoo, and (e) preservice teachers thought that students were not learning and that planning was important.

  12. 78 FR 65888 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Administrator (RA) to adjust the possession limits for common pool vessels in order to facilitate harvest of, or... (136.1 kg) per trip. lb (907.2 kg) per trip. CC/GOM Yellowtail Flounder.. 500 lb (226.8 kg) 2,000 lb... (226.8 kg) 2,000 lb (907.2 kg) per trip. per trip. White Hake 500 lb (226.8 kg) 1,000 lb (453.6 kg)...

  13. Using city-wide mobile noise assessments to estimate bicycle trip annual exposure to Black Carbon.

    PubMed

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant amount of daily air pollution exposure, in particular Black Carbon (BC), is inhaled during bicycle trips. Previously, the instantaneous BC exposure of cyclists was modeled as the sum of a background concentration and a local traffic related component based on a local assessment of traffic noise. We present a fast and low cost methodology to achieve a city-wide assessment of yearly average BC exposure of cyclists along their trips, based on a city-wide mobile noise sensing campaign. The methodology requires participatory sensing measurements of noise, partially combined with BC and/or other air pollutants sensitive to local traffic variations. The combined measurements cover the spatial and meteorological variability and provide the data for an instantaneous exposure model. The mobile noise-only measurements map the full city; and yearly meteorology statistics are used to extrapolate the instantaneous exposure model to a yearly average map of in-traffic air pollution exposure. Less than four passages at each segment along the network with mobile noise equipment are necessary to reach a standard error of 500 ng/m(3) for the yearly average BC exposure. A strong seasonal effect due to the BC background concentration is detected. The background contributes only 25% to the total trip exposure during spring and summer. During winter the background component increases to 50-60%. Engine related traffic noise along the bicyclist's route is a valid indicator of the BC exposure along the route, independent of the seasonal background. Low exposure route selection results in an exposure reduction of 35% in winter and 60% in summer, sensitive to the weather conditions, specific trip attributes and the available alternatives. The methodology is relevant for further research into the local effects of air pollution on health. Mobile noise mapping adds local traffic data including traffic dynamics into the air pollution exposure

  14. Using city-wide mobile noise assessments to estimate bicycle trip annual exposure to Black Carbon.

    PubMed

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant amount of daily air pollution exposure, in particular Black Carbon (BC), is inhaled during bicycle trips. Previously, the instantaneous BC exposure of cyclists was modeled as the sum of a background concentration and a local traffic related component based on a local assessment of traffic noise. We present a fast and low cost methodology to achieve a city-wide assessment of yearly average BC exposure of cyclists along their trips, based on a city-wide mobile noise sensing campaign. The methodology requires participatory sensing measurements of noise, partially combined with BC and/or other air pollutants sensitive to local traffic variations. The combined measurements cover the spatial and meteorological variability and provide the data for an instantaneous exposure model. The mobile noise-only measurements map the full city; and yearly meteorology statistics are used to extrapolate the instantaneous exposure model to a yearly average map of in-traffic air pollution exposure. Less than four passages at each segment along the network with mobile noise equipment are necessary to reach a standard error of 500 ng/m(3) for the yearly average BC exposure. A strong seasonal effect due to the BC background concentration is detected. The background contributes only 25% to the total trip exposure during spring and summer. During winter the background component increases to 50-60%. Engine related traffic noise along the bicyclist's route is a valid indicator of the BC exposure along the route, independent of the seasonal background. Low exposure route selection results in an exposure reduction of 35% in winter and 60% in summer, sensitive to the weather conditions, specific trip attributes and the available alternatives. The methodology is relevant for further research into the local effects of air pollution on health. Mobile noise mapping adds local traffic data including traffic dynamics into the air pollution exposure

  15. Etude D'onduleurs Triphases a Haute Frequence et a Commutation Douce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheriti, Ahmed

    to the reduction of the electromagnetic interference, the commutation losses and the power switches stresses. However, to avoid that these improvements are obtained at the expense of the efficiency, more importance should be given to the different conception phases of this converter. In particular, the choice of the the type of the power switch, the calculations of the values of the reactive elements and the determination of the commutation frequency.

  16. Parametric Analysis of a Turbine Trip Event in a BWR Using a 3D Nodal Code

    SciTech Connect

    Gorzel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Two essential thermal hydraulics safety criteria concerning the reactor core are that even during operational transients there is no fuel melting and not-permissible cladding temperatures are avoided. A common concept for boiling water reactors is to establish a minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) for steady state operation. For this MCPR it is shown that only a very small number of fuel rods suffers a short-term dryout during the transient. It is known from experience that the limiting transient for the determination of the MCPR is the turbine trip with blocked bypass system. This fast transient was simulated for a German BWR by use of the three-dimensional reactor analysis transient code SIMULATE-3K. The transient behaviour of the hot channels was used as input for the dryout calculation with the transient thermal hydraulics code FRANCESCA. By this way the maximum reduction of the CPR during the transient could be calculated. The fast increase in reactor power due to the pressure increase and to an increased core inlet flow is limited mainly by the Doppler effect, but automatically triggered operational measures also can contribute to the mitigation of the turbine trip. One very important method is the short-term fast reduction of the recirculation pump speed which is initiated e. g. by a pressure increase in front of the turbine. The large impacts of the starting time and of the rate of the pump speed reduction on the power progression and hence on the deterioration of CPR is presented. Another important procedure to limit the effects of the transient is the fast shutdown of the reactor that is caused when the reactor power reaches the limit value. It is shown that the SCRAM is not fast enough to reduce the first power maximum, but is able to prevent the appearance of a second - much smaller - maximum that would occur around one second after the first one in the absence of a SCRAM. (author)

  17. The Practice of Prospective Science Teachers regarding the Planning of Education Based Trips: Evaluation of Six Different Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain how planning educational trips out of school environments for training purposes should be as well as to determine the opinions and the practices of prospective science teachers. The study that lasted for two years was carried out in parallel with the elective course "Science Education in Informal Learning…

  18. The Use of Field Trips in Air-Photo Interpretation and Remote-Sensing Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, John Richard; Fish, Ernest Bertley

    1986-01-01

    Advocates the use of field trips for improving students' image-interpretation abilities. Presents guidelines for developing a field trip for an aerial-photo interpretation class or a remote-sensing class. Reviews methodology employed, content emphasis, and includes an exercise that was used on a trip. (ML)

  19. Questionnaire-based person trip visualization and its integration to quantitative measurements in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2016-06-01

    With telecommunication development in Myanmar, person trip survey is supposed to shift from conversational questionnaire to GPS survey. Integration of both historical questionnaire data to GPS survey and visualizing them are very important to evaluate chronological trip changes with socio-economic and environmental events. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) visualize questionnaire-based person trip data, (b) compare the errors between questionnaire and GPS data sets with respect to sex and age and (c) assess the trip behaviour in time-series. Totally, 345 individual respondents were selected through random stratification to assess person trip using a questionnaire and GPS survey for each. Conversion of trip information such as a destination from the questionnaires was conducted by using GIS. The results show that errors between the two data sets in the number of trips, total trip distance and total trip duration are 25.5%, 33.2% and 37.2%, respectively. The smaller errors are found among working-age females mainly employed with the project-related activities generated by foreign investment. The trip distant was yearly increased. The study concluded that visualization of questionnaire-based person trip data and integrating them to current quantitative measurements are very useful to explore historical trip changes and understand impacts from socio-economic events.

  20. Multiple Stages of Weekend Field Trips To Expose Students to Nature: Emphasis on Discovery and Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupa, James J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the three stages of a field trip and reviews stage 1, weekend field trips, which focuses on an organism's morphology, behavior, and ecology. Presents activities on salamanders, small mammals, fish, birds, and bats. Explains the difficulties of weekend trips. (YDS)

  1. 41 CFR 302-5.2 - What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.2 What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.2 Section 302-5.2 Public Contracts and...

  2. A procedure for calculation of boundary layer trip protuberances in overexpanded rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure is described for sizing, scaling, positioning and performance loss calculation of a boundary layer trip protuberance. The theoretical results are compared with some experimental data. The application of boundary layer trips, such as secondary injection, wall angle discontinuities, circumferential grooves, and circumferential trip protuberances for reducing side loads on rocket nozzle walls is discussed.

  3. 41 CFR 302-5.2 - What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.2 What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.2 Section 302-5.2 Public Contracts and...

  4. 41 CFR 302-5.2 - What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.2 What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.2 Section 302-5.2 Public Contracts and...

  5. 41 CFR 302-5.2 - What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.2 What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.2 Section 302-5.2 Public Contracts and...

  6. 41 CFR 302-5.102 - Under what circumstances may we authorize a househunting trip?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when the purpose of the trip is to assist the employee in deciding whether he or she will accept the... may we authorize a househunting trip? 302-5.102 Section 302-5.102 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES...

  7. 41 CFR 302-5.102 - Under what circumstances may we authorize a househunting trip?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when the purpose of the trip is to assist the employee in deciding whether he or she will accept the... may we authorize a househunting trip? 302-5.102 Section 302-5.102 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES...

  8. 41 CFR 302-5.102 - Under what circumstances may we authorize a househunting trip?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when the purpose of the trip is to assist the employee in deciding whether he or she will accept the... may we authorize a househunting trip? 302-5.102 Section 302-5.102 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES...

  9. 41 CFR 302-5.2 - What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.2 What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.2 Section 302-5.2 Public Contracts and...

  10. 41 CFR 302-5.102 - Under what circumstances may we authorize a househunting trip?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when the purpose of the trip is to assist the employee in deciding whether he or she will accept the... may we authorize a househunting trip? 302-5.102 Section 302-5.102 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES...

  11. 41 CFR 302-5.102 - Under what circumstances may we authorize a househunting trip?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when the purpose of the trip is to assist the employee in deciding whether he or she will accept the... may we authorize a househunting trip? 302-5.102 Section 302-5.102 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES...

  12. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. Contact element of automatic train stop device of the mechanical trip type shall be maintained at a...

  13. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. Contact element of automatic train stop device of the mechanical trip type shall be maintained at a...

  14. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. Contact element of automatic train stop device of the mechanical trip type shall be maintained at a...

  15. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. Contact element of automatic train stop device of the mechanical trip type shall be maintained at a...

  16. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. Contact element of automatic train stop device of the mechanical trip type shall be maintained at a...

  17. Echoes from the Field: An Ethnographic Investigation of Outdoor Science Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxerman, Jonathan Zvi

    2013-01-01

    As popular as field trips are, one might think they have been well-studied. Nonetheless, field trips have not been heavily studied, and little research has mapped what actually transpires during field trips. Accordingly, to address this research gap, I asked two related research questions. The first question is a descriptive one: What happens on…

  18. The Effectiveness of a Virtual Field Trip (VFT) Module in Learning Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haris, Norbaizura; Osman, Kamisah

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT) module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This…

  19. Using GIS for planning field trips: In-situ assessment of Geopoints for field trips with mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Sarah; Kisser, Thomas; Ditter, Raimund

    2016-04-01

    Up to now no application is existing for collecting data via mobile devices using a geographical information system referring to the evaluation of Geopoints. Classified in different geographical topics a Geopark can be rated for suitability of Geopoints for field trips. The systematically acquisition of the suitability of Geopoints is necessary, especially when doing field trips with lower grade students who see a physical-geographic phenomenon for the first time. For this reason, the development of such an application is an invention for easy handling evaluations of Geopoints on the basis of commonly valid criteria like esthetic attraction, interestingness, and pithiness (Streifinger 2010). Collecting data provides the opportunity of receiving information of particularly suitable Geopoints out of the sight from students, tourists and others. One solution for collecting data in a simple and intuitive form is Survey123 for ArcGIS (http://survey123.esri.com/#/). You can create surveys using an ArcGIS Online organizational account and download your own survey or surveys "that may have been shared with you" (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) on your mobile device. "Once a form is downloaded, you will be able to start collecting data."(https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) Free of cost and use while disconnected the application can easily be used via mobile device on field trips. On a 3-day field trip which is held three times per year in the Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald Survey123 is being used to evaluate the suitability of different Geopoints for different topics (geology, soils, vegetation, climate). With every field trip about 25 students take part in the survey and evaluate each Geopoint at the route. So, over the time, the docents know exactly which Geopoints suites perfect for teaching geology for example, and why it suites that good. The field trip is organized in an innovative way. Before

  20. Landau-like Atomic Problem on a Non-commutative Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Jumakari; Dulat, Sayipjamal; Mamatabdulla, Hekim

    2016-06-01

    We study the motion of a neutral particle in symmetric gauge and in the framework of non-commutative Quantum Mechanics. Starting from the corresponding Hamiltonian we derive the eigenfunction and eigenvalues.

  1. 20 CFR 702.142 - Commutation of payments; aliens not residents or about to become nonresidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... surviving spouse or child or children, to surviving father or mother whom the employee has supported, either..., OWCP, may, at his option, or upon the application of the insurance carrier he shall, commute all...

  2. Proceedings of the Monterey Conference on Planning for Rotorcraft and Commuter Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Planning and technological issues involved in rotorcraft and commuter fixed-wing air transportation are discussed. Subject areas include the future community environment, aircraft technology, community transportation planning, and regulatory perspectives.

  3. Research and technology program perspectives for general aviation and commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Simpson, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The uses, benefits, and technology needs of the U.S. general aviation industry were studied in light of growing competition from foreign general aviation manufacturers, especially in the commuter and business jet aircraft markets.

  4. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... travels to and from work by any mode of travel. (4) Student means any full-time day student who does not...) Employer means any person or entity which employs 50 or more employees at any time during a calendar year... any person or entity which has 250 or more employees and students at any time during the academic...

  5. Leakage current and commutation losses reduction in electric drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miliani, El Hadj

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, leakage current and inverter losses, produced by adjustable-speed AC drive systems become one of the main interested subject for researchers on Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. The continuous advancements in solid state device engineering have considerably minimized the switching transients for power switches but the high dv/dt and high switching frequency have caused many adverse effects such as shaft voltage, bearing current, leakage current and electromagnetic interference (EMI). The major objective of this paper is to investigate and suppress of the adverse effects of a PWM inverter feeding AC motor in EV and HEV. A technique to simultaneously reduce the leakage current and the switching losses is presented in this paper. Based on a discontinuous space vector pulse width modulation (DSVPWM) and a modular switches gate resistance, inverter losses and leakage current are reduced. Algorithms are presented and implemented on a DSP controller and experimental results are presented.

  6. Quantum Groups, Non-Commutative Differential Geometry and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schupp, Peter

    The topic of this thesis is the development of a versatile and geometrically motivated differential calculus on non-commutative or quantum spaces, providing powerful but easy-to-use mathematical tools for applications in physics and related sciences. A generalization of unitary time evolution is proposed and studied for a simple 2-level system, leading to non-conservation of microscopic entropy, a phenomenon new to quantum mechanics. A Cartan calculus that combines functions, forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations along general vector fields into one big algebra is constructed for quantum groups and then extended to quantum planes. The construction of a tangent bundle on a quantum group manifold and an BRST type approach to quantum group gauge theory are given as further examples of applications. The material is organized in two parts: Part I studies vector fields on quantum groups, emphasizing Hopf algebraic structures, but also introducing a 'quantum geometric' construction. Using a generalized semi-direct product construction we combine the dual Hopf algebras {cal A} of functions and {cal U} of left-invariant vector fields into one fully bicovariant algebra of differential operators. The pure braid group is introduced as the commutant of Delta({cal U}). It provides invariant maps {cal A} to{cal U} and thereby bicovariant vector fields, casimirs and metrics. This construction allows the translation of undeformed matrix expressions into their less obvious quantum algebraic counter parts. We study this in detail for quasitriangular Hopf algebras, giving the determinant and orthogonality relation for the 'reflection' matrix. Part II considers the additional structures of differential forms and finitely generated quantum Lie algebras--it is devoted to the construction of the Cartan calculus, based on an undeformed Cartan identity. We attempt a classification of various types of quantum Lie algebras and present a fairly general example for their construction

  7. Exposure to traffic pollution, acute inflammation and autonomic response in a panel of car commuters

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zora, Jennifer E.; Bergin, Michael H.; Yip, Fuyuen

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic pollution has been linked to numerous adverse health endpoints. Despite this, limited data examining traffic exposures during realistic commutes and acute response exists. Objectives: We conducted the Atlanta Commuters Exposures (ACE-1) Study, an extensive panel-based exposure and health study, to measure chemically-resolved in-vehicle exposures and corresponding changes in acute oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation and autonomic response. Methods We recruited 42 adults (21 with and 21 without asthma) to conduct two 2-h scripted highway commutes during morning rush hour in the metropolitan Atlanta area. A suite of in-vehicle particulate components were measured in the subjects’ private vehicles. Biomarker measurements were conducted before, during, and immediately after the commutes and in 3 hourly intervals after commutes. Results At measurement time points within 3 h after the commute, we observed mild to pronounced elevations relative to baseline in exhaled nitric oxide, C-reactive-protein, and exhaled malondialdehyde, indicative of pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress initiation, as well as decreases relative to baseline levels in the time-domain heart-rate variability parameters, SDNN and rMSSD, indicative of autonomic dysfunction. We did not observe any detectable changes in lung function measurements (FEV1, FVC), the frequency-domain heart-rate variability parameter or other systemic biomarkers of vascular injury. Water soluble organic carbon was associated with changes in eNO at all post-commute time-points (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our results point to measureable changes in pulmonary and autonomic biomarkers following a scripted 2-h highway commute. PMID:24906070

  8. Current-bounded commutation of a long-stroke magnetically levitated stage with moving coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Shengguo; Yang, Kaiming; Mu, Haihua; Yin, Wensheng

    2012-11-01

    Magnetically levitated stages(MLS) have potentials to obtain good motion performances in high vacuum environment. Yet the electromagnetic forces/torques corresponding to six degrees of freedom(DOF) motions have coupling relationship with each current of coil array, and this coupling is still associated with the relative positions between the mover and the stator of the stage. So it is quite difficult to control the 6-DOF motions of the stage. By reasonable commutation of coil array, this complicated coupling relationship can be decoupled. The analytical force/torque-decomposing model of the stage is established first. Then the initial currents of coil array are commutated based on the pseudo inverse of the analytical force/torque-decomposing model matrix. And then the coil array currents are commutated again with different current bounds given to the initial currents as well as in the sense of minimum 2-norm of currents vector. Using the long stroke magnetically levitated stage with moving coils under investigation as examples, the currents of coil array are commutated with different current bounds adopting the proposed commutation method, the determination of current bound and the current bounds' influences on the heat-losses in coil array are analyzed, and the effectiveness of implementation algorithm of proposed commutation method is discussed. Simulation, analysis and discussion results indicate that the currents of coil array within the given current bound can be solved analytically by proposed commutation method, and the implementation algorithm does not need any searching or iteration. By the current-bounded commutation method proposed, the amplitude of coil array currents can be limited within an appropriate current bound(This is very beneficial to the improvement of the reliability and motion performance of the stage), as well as these currents can also generate the desired forces and torques.

  9. Student's exposure to volatile organic compounds while commuting by motorcycle and bus in Taipei City

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.C.; Lin, S.H.; Her, G.R. )

    1993-09-01

    This study examined student's exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while commuting by bus and motorcycle in Taipei, Taiwan in the winter of 1992. A total of 19 target C5-C10 VOCs on three most frequently used commuting routes were collected on Tenax-GC adsorbent tubes. The VOCs were desorbed by thermal desorption method and analyzed by GC-MS. The most abundant VOC exposure experienced by commuters was to toluene. Several alkylated benzenes, such as propyl benzenes, ethyl-methyl-benzenes and trimethyl-benzenes, were relatively abundant on the roads in Taipei. The mean benzene concentration measured in buses was 173 micrograms/m3 and motorcycles. On the average, the commuters in Taipei experienced about three to eight times higher VOC concentrations than the commuters in Los Angeles, California. Higher VOC concentrations were measured on motorcycles than in buses. The VOC concentrations were not significantly different between morning and afternoon commutes, nor among the three commuting routes. VOC concentrations measured in classroom at three schools in downtown Taipei did not vary significantly on each sampling day. However, at each school the in-classroom VOC concentrations varied significantly over the six consecutive sampling days. The VOC concentrations measured on the roads were about five times higher than those measured in the school classrooms in the city. Moderate to high correlations were found among most of the measurements of the 19 VOCs. The survey questionnaire indicated that daily commuting time ranged from 45 minutes for elementary school students to 95 minutes for vocational school students.

  10. Regularization of two-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory via non-commutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valavane, K.

    2000-11-01

    The non-commutative geometry is a possible framework to regularize quantum field theory in a non-perturbative way. This idea is an extension of the lattice approximation by non-commutativity that allows us to preserve symmetries. The supersymmetric version is also studied and more precisely in the case of the Schwinger model on a supersphere. This paper is a generalization of this latter work to more general gauge groups.

  11. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport.

  12. Quantization maps, algebra representation, and non-commutative Fourier transform for Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, Carlos; Oriti, Daniele; Raasakka, Matti

    2013-08-15

    The phase space given by the cotangent bundle of a Lie group appears in the context of several models for physical systems. A representation for the quantum system in terms of non-commutative functions on the (dual) Lie algebra, and a generalized notion of (non-commutative) Fourier transform, different from standard harmonic analysis, has been recently developed, and found several applications, especially in the quantum gravity literature. We show that this algebra representation can be defined on the sole basis of a quantization map of the classical Poisson algebra, and identify the conditions for its existence. In particular, the corresponding non-commutative star-product carried by this representation is obtained directly from the quantization map via deformation quantization. We then clarify under which conditions a unitary intertwiner between such algebra representation and the usual group representation can be constructed giving rise to the non-commutative plane waves and consequently, the non-commutative Fourier transform. The compact groups U(1) and SU(2) are considered for different choices of quantization maps, such as the symmetric and the Duflo map, and we exhibit the corresponding star-products, algebra representations, and non-commutative plane waves.

  13. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. PMID:25129446

  14. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  15. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  16. Factors associated with active commuting to work among women.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Child, Stephanie; Campbell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting (AC), the act of walking or biking to work, has notable health benefits though rates of AC remain low among women. This study used a social-ecological framework to examine the factors associated with AC among women. A convenience sample of employed, working women (n = 709) completed an online survey about their mode of travel to work. Individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental influences were assessed. Basic descriptive statistics and frequencies described the sample. Simple logistic regression models examined associations with the independent variables with AC participation and multiple logistic regression analysis determined the relative influence of social ecological factors on AC participation. The sample was primarily middle-aged (44.09±11.38 years) and non-Hispanic White (92%). Univariate analyses revealed several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community and environmental factors significantly associated with AC. The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that significant factors associated with AC included number of children, income, perceived behavioral control, coworker AC, coworker AC normative beliefs, employer and community supports for AC, and traffic. The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge on AC participation for women and may help to inform gender-tailored interventions to enhance AC behavior and improve health.

  17. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  18. Representations of Canonical Commutation Relations Describing Infinite Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the infinite volume limit of quantized photon fields in multimode coherent states. We show that for states containing a continuum of coherent modes, it is mathematically and physically natural to consider their phases to be random and identically distributed. The infinite volume states give rise to Hilbert space representations of the canonical commutation relations which we construct concretely. In the case of random phases, the representations are random as well and can be expressed with the help of Itô stochastic integrals. We analyze the dynamics of the infinite state alone and the open system dynamics of small systems coupled to it. We show that under the free field dynamics, initial phase distributions are driven to the uniform distribution. We demonstrate that coherences in small quantum systems, interacting with the infinite coherent state, exhibit Gaussian time decay. The decoherence is qualitatively faster than the one caused by infinite thermal states, which is known to be exponentially rapid only. This emphasizes the classical character of coherent states.

  19. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039

  20. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-05-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.

  1. Factors associated with active commuting to work among women.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Child, Stephanie; Campbell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting (AC), the act of walking or biking to work, has notable health benefits though rates of AC remain low among women. This study used a social-ecological framework to examine the factors associated with AC among women. A convenience sample of employed, working women (n = 709) completed an online survey about their mode of travel to work. Individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental influences were assessed. Basic descriptive statistics and frequencies described the sample. Simple logistic regression models examined associations with the independent variables with AC participation and multiple logistic regression analysis determined the relative influence of social ecological factors on AC participation. The sample was primarily middle-aged (44.09±11.38 years) and non-Hispanic White (92%). Univariate analyses revealed several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community and environmental factors significantly associated with AC. The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that significant factors associated with AC included number of children, income, perceived behavioral control, coworker AC, coworker AC normative beliefs, employer and community supports for AC, and traffic. The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge on AC participation for women and may help to inform gender-tailored interventions to enhance AC behavior and improve health. PMID:24512572

  2. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039

  3. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after…

  4. Increasing round trip efficiency of hybrid Li-air battery with bifunctional catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K; Li, YF; Xing, YC

    2013-07-30

    Previously it was shown that Pt as cathode catalyst ha's a large overpotential during charge in rechargeable hybrid Li-air battery with sulfuric acid catholyte. This article demonstrates that a bifunctional catalyst composed of Pt and IrO2 supported on carbon nanotubes can address this problem. The specially designed and synthesized bifunctional catalyst showed significant overpotential reduction and achieved a round trip energy efficiency of 81% after 10 cycles, higher than many achieved in aprotic Li-O-2 batteries. The hybrid Li-air battery was discharged and recharged for 20 cycles at 0.2 mA/cm(2), showing a fairly stable cell performance. A specific capacity of 306 mAh/g and a specific energy of 1110 Wh/kg were obtained for the hybrid Li-air battery in terms of acid weight. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Visiting the USSR: a trip of a lifetime.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    To Russia, who me? That is actually how it all began. A decade or more ago, I had the opportunity to visit what was then known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Russia. Although, this place held high priority on my list of places to go, I never thought such a trip was within my reach. This idea was quite fascinating to me because of the events that did happen there, including the Russian space ship Sputnik and the dog, the high stepping military officers, Red Square and the St. Basil's Cathedral. After reading a lot about Russia, I thought it would be great to see a clean place, where it was unlawful to throw paper on the streets, and ride in public transportation such as the buses, taxis and the subway system, which were immaculately clean. It was an exciting trip, one, I will always remember, but would be a difficult adjustment to make, to live.

  7. Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

  8. Introducing soil forming factors with mini campus field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, John; Haygarth, Phil

    2013-04-01

    Students like field work, yet the proportion of time spent in the field during many soil science courses is small. Here we describe an introductory lecture on the soil forming factors based around a mini field trip in which we spend 45 minutes exploring these factors on the Lancaster University campus. In the 'trip' we visit some woodland to consider the effects of organic matter , vegetation and time on soil development and then take in a football pitch to examine the effects of landscape position, parent material and climate. Student responses are overwhelmingly positive and we suggest that more use can be made of our often mundane surroundings to explore soil formation. Soil functions and soil processes.

  9. 10 years after implementation of TRIPS obligations in India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mahesh D

    2015-01-01

    The Patent (Amendment) Act of 2005 enforced after TRIPS raises many issues which hinder growth of Indian pharma companies. To tackle this, Indian pharma companies doubled their R&D expenditure and became significant players in global generic drug market. Indian pharmaceutical companies, which predominantly focused on import-oriented market, shifted to research-based approach by signing various agreements with MNCs that led to M&A and technology transfer. At the same time growth in R&D activities increased ANDA and DMF filing in the USA and Europe. Companies also kept their social responsibility by selling medicines at affordable price to patients. This paper highlights the changing business scenario of Indian pharmaceutical companies to counteract various issues evolved from new patent regime after TRIPS.

  10. Visiting the USSR: a trip of a lifetime.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    To Russia, who me? That is actually how it all began. A decade or more ago, I had the opportunity to visit what was then known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Russia. Although, this place held high priority on my list of places to go, I never thought such a trip was within my reach. This idea was quite fascinating to me because of the events that did happen there, including the Russian space ship Sputnik and the dog, the high stepping military officers, Red Square and the St. Basil's Cathedral. After reading a lot about Russia, I thought it would be great to see a clean place, where it was unlawful to throw paper on the streets, and ride in public transportation such as the buses, taxis and the subway system, which were immaculately clean. It was an exciting trip, one, I will always remember, but would be a difficult adjustment to make, to live. PMID:22774358

  11. 10 years after implementation of TRIPS obligations in India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mahesh D

    2015-01-01

    The Patent (Amendment) Act of 2005 enforced after TRIPS raises many issues which hinder growth of Indian pharma companies. To tackle this, Indian pharma companies doubled their R&D expenditure and became significant players in global generic drug market. Indian pharmaceutical companies, which predominantly focused on import-oriented market, shifted to research-based approach by signing various agreements with MNCs that led to M&A and technology transfer. At the same time growth in R&D activities increased ANDA and DMF filing in the USA and Europe. Companies also kept their social responsibility by selling medicines at affordable price to patients. This paper highlights the changing business scenario of Indian pharmaceutical companies to counteract various issues evolved from new patent regime after TRIPS. PMID:26030078

  12. Effect of diamond trip geometries on boundary layer transition for hypersonic inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Ni, H. L.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yi, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    In order to grasp the effect of diamond trip geometries on boundary layer transition of hypersonic inlet, an experiment at Mach number 6 in a hypersonic wind tunnel was performed for a hypersonic inlet. The heat transfers at the inlet wall were measured through the infrared thermography. The transition region was judged by the comparison of heat transfer between experiment and computation. Ten diamond forced transition trips were designed according to Modern Design of Experiments. The experimental results shown that the effect order of trip geometries on transition region were the trip height, distance between diamond elements and diagonal length of diamond element from the largest to the smallest. Transition region moved forward to the model tip with increasing trip height or trip length, or with decreasing distance between diamond elements, or with increasing diagonal length of element. The optimized configuration was obtained for diamond forced-transition trip when the optimization object was transition region.

  13. Probing the characteristic deformation behavior of TRIP steels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Sheng; Wang, Xun-Li; Feng, Zhili; Clausen, Bjorn; Choo, Hahn; Liaw, Peter K

    2008-01-01

    Tensile behavior of two TRIP steels was investigated by in situ neutron diffraction. In the sample with a higher fraction of retained-austenite, the first load transfer was observed from the soft ferrite matrix to the hard retained austenite prior to martensitic transformation, while a second load transfer occurred from the austenite to the harder martensite as martensitic transformation was induced. In the sample with less retained-austenite, the martensitic transformation was limited, leading to significantly less tensile ductility.

  14. Press formability YAG laser welded TRIP/DP tailored blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaka, A.; Sugimoto, K. I.; Kobayashi, M.; Makii, K.; Ikeda, S.

    2004-06-01

    In the present work, to improve the press formability of the combination of the TRIP steel and ferrite-martensite dual-phase (DP) steel, the mechanical properties and press formability (stretch-formability) of YAG laser welded TRIP/DP tailored blanks were investigated. An as-cold-rolled sheet steel with the chemical composition of (0.1 0.3)C 1.5Si 1.5Mn (mass%) was used in this study. For comparison, 0.14C 0.22Si 1.78Mn (mass%) DP steel was also prepared. The quenched DP steel is called MDP0, and the tempered MDP0 steel is called MDP4. For butt welding, the blank obtained after the heat treatment was cut using a fine cutter, and YAG laser processing equipment was used. The press formability was evaluated from the maximum stretch-height (Hmax). Tensile tests and stretch forming tests have been conducted for laser butt welded joints obtained from the combination of the different steel. The Hmax value of the MDP0 steel was not controlled at the strength level of the DP steel, and was not different from the Hmax value of the MDP4 steel. It is thought that this was assisted to TRIP of the TDP steel because the tensile strength of the TDP steel is consequentially lower than that of the MDP0 steel. High ductility and the high stretch-formability were able to be secured by the high strength TRIP/DP tailored blanks.

  15. Self-guided field trips for students of environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G.; Kerr, Roger; Hadgraft, Roger

    2011-05-01

    In many learning institutions around the world, there is a trend towards larger classes, more flexible learning pathways and reduced teaching resources. Experiential learning is often used in the form of site visits or field trips for students studying engineering, natural resource management, geography and similar disciplines. Providing opportunities for students to undertake field trips without the traditional support mechanism is one of the more challenging issues for subject designers. How can large cohorts of students gain practical exposure to various aspects of the natural or built environment? Although this is typically done using traditional site visits and fieldwork with a high staff/student ratio, the goal has been to use action research to design and develop resources to enable small groups (three or four) to make self-guided visits to sites close to campus. Multimedia resources to examine and interpret aspects of the site that relate to their on-campus learning guide the students. One critical issue in the success of these activities has been proper risk assessment and control procedures. The outcome of this research is a framework to provide a safe, active learning experience by way of self-guided field trips that is suitable for implementation with large classes.

  16. Groenewold-Moyal product, α*-cohomology, and classification of translation-invariant non-commutative structures

    SciTech Connect

    Varshovi, Amir Abbass

    2013-07-15

    The theory of α*-cohomology is studied thoroughly and it is shown that in each cohomology class there exists a unique 2-cocycle, the harmonic form, which generates a particular Groenewold-Moyal star product. This leads to an algebraic classification of translation-invariant non-commutative structures and shows that any general translation-invariant non-commutative quantum field theory is physically equivalent to a Groenewold-Moyal non-commutative quantum field theory.

  17. Non-commutative U(1) gauge theory on \\mth{\\mathbb{R}^4_{\\Theta}} with oscillator term and BRST symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D. N.; Grosse, H.; Schweda, M.

    2007-09-01

    Inspired by the renormalizability of the non-commutative Φ4 model with added oscillator term, we formulate a non-commutative gauge theory, where the oscillator enters as a gauge fixing term in a BRST invariant manner. All propagators turn out to be essentially given by the Mehler kernel and the bilinear part of the action is invariant under the Langmann-Szabo duality. The model is a promising candidate for a renormalizable non-commutative U(1) gauge theory.

  18. Making the Case for Field Trips: What Research Tells Us and What Site Coordinators Have to Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda Carol; Murray, R. Kent

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a national survey of field trip sites. It also addresses the positive instructional impact of field trips and focuses on 5 major components of the field trip experience. In addition, the article presents recommendations and suggestions for positive field trip experiences.

  19. Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The

  20. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon.