Science.gov

Sample records for comparacao das medicoes

  1. Evaluating medico-legal decisional competency criteria.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Demian

    2015-06-01

    In this paper I get clearer on the considerations that ought to inform the evaluation and development of medico-legal competency criteria-where this is taken to be a question regarding the abilities that ought to be needed for a patient to be found competent in medico-legal contexts. In the "Decisional Competency in Medico-Legal Contexts" section I explore how the question regarding the abilities that ought to be needed for decisional competence is to be interpreted. I begin by considering an interpretation that takes the question to be asking about the abilities needed to satisfy an idealized view of competent decision-making, according to which decisional competency is a matter of possessing those abilities or attributes that are needed to engage in good or effective or, perhaps, substantially autonomous or rational decision-making. The view has some plausibility-it accords with the way decisional competency is understood in a number of everyday contexts-but fails as an interpretation of the question regarding the abilities that should be needed for decisional competence in medico-legal contexts. Nevertheless, consideration of why it is mistaken suggests a more accurate interpretation and points the way in which the question regarding the evaluation of medico-legal competency criteria is to be answered. Building on other scholarly work in the area, I outline in the "Primary and Secondary Requirements" section several requirements that decisional competence criteria ought to satisfy. Then, in the "Applying the Framework" section, I say something about the extent to which medico-legal competency criteria, as well as some models of decisional competency proposed in the academic literature, fulfil those requirements.

  2. [Medico-legal assessment of systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Graninger, M

    2007-10-01

    Diagnosis and management of the rare disease systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is a challenge for the physician, not least due to the possible multitude of organ systems involved. The medico-legal assessment is important for the patient claiming insurance benefits or applying for early retirement due to scleroderma. Both the specialist for sclerosis and the impartial medico-legal assessor have to cooperate and understand the respective partner's requirements and terminology. Evaluations of individual organ impairments, handicaps and disabilities have to be taken into account when assessing the degree of impairment of occupational activity.

  3. Pharmacogenetics in medico-legal context.

    PubMed

    Sajantila, A; Palo, J U; Ojanperä, I; Davis, C; Budowle, B

    2010-12-15

    Medico-legal autopsy is the primary method in determining the cause and manner of death when the death is suspected to be unnatural. In some of these autopsies, the death remains ambiguous, even after a complete autopsy including histological investigation and toxicological screenings. In cases where there are no morphological abnormalities, medico-legal genetics may offer additional means to provide knowledge of possible genetic mutations, which may have initiated the process or predisposed the individual to stress risk conditions leading to death. One class of ambiguous deaths consists of drug-related deaths where the interpretation of the toxicological results are not clear. In such situations post mortem genotyping and the analysis of metabolite rations may provide an insight to the findings. A few cases demonstrating the potential strength of pharmacogenetics in medico-legal context has been published. However, there is a paramount need for serious scientific studies before the field of post mortem pharmacogenetics can be utilized in routine medico-legal analyses casework and brought routinely into courtroom.

  4. [Cancer screening: medico-legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Buzzi, F

    2003-01-01

    The cancer screening programmes need a particular considerations for their medico-legal implications: above all in order to the information toward the persons recruited, those must be aware about their diagnostic limits and about the ineluctable recurrence of false positive and false negative results.

  5. Medico-historical review of drug Kustha.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P V V; Subhaktha, P K J P

    2002-01-01

    Kustha is well known for its cures since ancient times. Atharvaveda considers this as a potent plant next to Soma (a divine plant) in curing several diseases. It is also called Takmanashana (which cures fevers) in Atharvaveda. It grows in Himalayas and Kasmir. In Ayurveda, root of Kustha is used for fevers, skin diseases, headache etc. Almost all Nighantus carry the description of Kustha with several synonyms. Some scholars consider two varieties of Kustha i.e. sweetish and bitter, but one with bitter taste is the real Kustha. Pushkarmool (Inula recemosa Hook.f.) is available in the market as sweet variety of Kustha. Thus its medico-historical importance and other details have been presented in this article.

  6. [Medico-economic evaluation of abciximab].

    PubMed

    Le Pen, C; Bonastre, J; Pinton, P

    1999-01-01

    Abciximab (RéoPro) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. It reduces the frequency of major cardiac ischaemic events after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). This treatment is more expensive than the commonly used treatment (aspirin and heparin). However, a treatment can only be validly assessed in term of its cost-benefit ratio. The authors present the results of a medico-economic evaluation of abciximab in the French institutional context, based on the three-year clinical results of the EPIC study (Evaluation of abciximab for the Prevention of Ischemic Complications). The efficacy of treatment was expressed by means of two quantitative indicators: the number of patients with no major ischaemic event (MIE) and the number of years of life without myocardial infarction or revascularization. According to French good practice recommendations for economic evaluation of therapeutic strategies, major ischaemic events were assessed by using the complete cost of the corresponding homogeneous groups of diseases (GHM). Medico-economic evaluation of abciximab showed that the net excess cost per patient for national health insurance was 395 Francs, while the cost of the product is 5,300 Francs. The incremental cost per additional patient with no major ischaemic event is 6,585 Francs and the incremental cost per additional year of life without myocardial infarction or revascularization is 2,469 F. From a public health point of view, abciximab administered by bolus injection plus a 12-hour infusion, presents a good cost-effectiveness ratio in the prevention of cardiac ischaemic complications in high-risk patients after PTCA.

  7. Phytol in a pharma-medico-stance.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Torequl; de Alencar, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros; da Conceição Machado, Katia; da Conceição Machado, Keylla; de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia; de Sousa, Damiao Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-10-05

    This study aims to review phytol (PYT), through published articles, periodicals, magazines and patents, which were retrieved from the PM, SD, WS, SP; DII, WIPO, CIPO, USPTO and INPI databases. Among the 149 articles and 62 patents, 27.52% articles and 87.09% patients were found on the searched topic, PYT and its sources and synthesis and metabolism; then followed by 15.44% and 14.77% articles on PYT in cytotoxicity/cancer/mutagenicity/teratogenicity and PYT in neurological diseases, respectively. In the pharma-medico viewpoint, PYT and its derivatives have been evident to have antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antitumorous, antimutagenic, anti-teratogenic, antibiotic-chemotherapeutic, antidiabetic, lipid lowering, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, antinociceptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant, immunoadjuvancy, hair growth facilitator, hair fall defense and antidandruff activities. Otherwise, the important biometebolite of PYT is phytanic acid (PA). Evidence shows PA to have cytotoxic, anticancer, antidiabetic, lipid lowering and aniteratogenic activities. In addition, it may be considered as an important biomarker for some diseases such as Refsum's Disease (RD), Sjögren Larsson syndrome (SLS), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RZCP), chronic polyneuropathy (CP), Zellweger's disease hyperpipecolic academia (ZDHA) and related diseases. Thus, phytol may be considered as a new drug candidate.

  8. Contemporary medico-legal dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Brad

    2012-03-01

    The advent of extraoral radiology in general dental practice has become more widespread since 2000, particularly with digital systems. With this comes a range of medico-legal risks for dentists not adverted to previously. These risks include a higher than expected radiation dose for some surveys, and the risk of a 'loss of a chance' for a patient whereby the images may disclose pathology not diagnosed by general dental practitioners using OPG and CBVT radiology. Practitioners need to apply relevant legal principles in deciding which surveys to order and record, and also need to explain to patients the dosages of the radiation that they will likely receive. Practitioners also need to assess whether the resultant survey ought to be interpreted by a radiologist to diagnose any wider pathology with which a general practitioner may not be familiar. Extra caution needs to be used in ordering high dose radiology in paediatric patients. Dentists should not assume patients fully understand the nature of CBVT and MCT, and its risks and benefits. Consideration ought to be given to the volume of CBVT ordered dependent on factors such as patient age, symptoms, history and procedural intent. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Current medico-legal death investigation system in China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Zhang, Baosheng; Yan, Ping; Fowler, David; Li, Ling

    2011-07-01

    Medico-legal death investigation in China has a long history that can be traced back to the Chhin era in the third century BC. We conducted a national study on the current medico-legal death investigation system in China. Our study showed that, at present, medico-legal death investigations in China are conducted by c. 12,000 forensic medical experts mainly within five relatively independent agencies: the police organizations, the prosecutors' offices, the departments/divisions of forensic medicine/science in medical colleges and universities, the Institute of Forensic Science in the Ministry of Justice, and the government or private forensic societies. Owing to China's large population and area, the medico-legal death investigation is largely based on the administrative divisions. There is a wide variation in the scope, extent, and quality of investigations among the agencies and at the different levels of county/district, municipal, and provincial governments. This article gives a general overview of medicolegal death investigation in modern China.

  10. [Relevant factors in medico-legal prognosis of whiplash injury].

    PubMed

    Pujol, Amadeo; Puig, Luisa; Mansilla, Joaquina; Idiaquez, Itziar

    2003-07-12

    Whiplash injury (WI) is commonly evaluated in medico-legal practice. With the aim of knowing the determining factors of WI's medico-legal prognosis, a prospective and observational study was carried out. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients who were clinically observed and evaluated in the Medico-Legal Clinic of Barcelona were studied. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiographic and evolutive factors were analyzed. We included 120 patients with a mean age of 35.6 (14) years (range, 4-74), with a homogeneous male/female distribution. An earlier cervical pathology was detected in 10% of patients; none of them had previous psychiatric pathology. 95% corresponded to road-traffic accident cases and there were 5 aggression cases. Over 50% of cases involved a rear-end collision. All patients had neck pain, almost 25% had headache and 13% had paresthesia. According to the Whiplash Association Disorders clinical classification, distribution in grades (G) was: G I 51%, G II 32% and G III 17%. Patients reported recovery within a mean time of 71.6 (46) days (range, 4-244), with 51,2 (45) no working days (range, 0-180 days). The 52% of the patients rest with complains. According to the recovery time, the following medico-legal prognostic factors were identified: age (p < 0.001), being female (p = 0.001), clinical grade (p < 0.001) and abnormal cervical MRI exploration (p < 0.001). Patients with previous cervical pathology reported more complaints (p = 0.001). In our study, WI affected young people of both sex mainly during rear-end collision. Worst medico-legal prognostic factors were age, being females, severity of initial clinical symptoms, previous cervical pathology and abnormal cervical MRI/CT.

  11. [The victim as object of the medico-legal intervention].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    We present a reflection about the victim as the object of the medico-legal intervention, that opens perspectives not only to the evidence research (as a techno-scientific contribute to support Justice in what concerns bio-psycho-social questions), but also to the support of victims which, in a last analysis, is no more than another aspect of this the social contribution of this science to ensure the best interest of the victim. This reflection aims to contribute to a better knowledge of the victim in his/her various perspectives. Accordingly, during the exposition, we refer some contributes of Victimology towards the understanding of the victims' behaviour's. Afterwards, we focus on the problems related to the aetiologies (with a particular reference to trauma), levels and consequences (physical, psychological and socio-economical) of victimization, as well as the methodologies of victims approach, medico-legal evaluation and reparation. Considering victims as being not only those who suffer directly the consequences of the victimizing phenomena, but also those that suffer from it indirectly and even secondarily, we shall approach the topic regarding both perspectives. We highlight the importance of understanding the victim as a person, not just understanding him/her confined to the organic aspect (as it used to be until recently in certain fields of medico-legal intervention, and as it still happens due to some legal obligations, for instance in the Labour Law), but considering the person in a global way (body, capacities, life situations and subjectivity). In conclusion, we highlight the importance of this topic to the medico-legal mission, while taking part in various multidisciplinary interventions and being involved in strategies and measures which purpose is to prevent violence, promote safety, avoid secondary victimization and revictimization as well as guarantee the victims' protection and reintegration, in a work attitude that should happen, even more and

  12. [Mandatory or voluntary vaccinations? Juridical and medico-legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Molendini, L O; Zanetti, A; Buzzi, F

    2003-01-01

    The Italian juridical and legislative aspects of vaccination based on a compulsory system are presented considering the medico-legal questions. The prospective of a voluntary system, as anticipated by many normatives and other official documents, is examined. The experience of some local health authorities on cases of in observance of the vaccinal obligation are detailed Finally professional risks for vaccinal operators are examined and the need of specific guidelines for parents' consent to compulsory vaccination during infancy is prospected.

  13. Khadira (Acasia Catechu Linn.) - A medico-historical review.

    PubMed

    Narayana, A

    1996-01-01

    Indigenous Medical wisdom in India known as Ayurveda goes back to a hoary past. We find references in Vedas not only to medical science but to various drugs also. The medico-historical review of Khadira (Acasia Catechu linn.) including the historical perspectives, identity, varieties, formulae and therapeutic usage etc. is presented here, based on the classical treatises, medical lexicons, commentaries and other compilations, covering the from Vedic period to present times.

  14. [[Medico-historical findings of (neuro-) prosthetics: an online survey].

    PubMed

    Ohnemus, Dirk; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an online survey on medico-historical (neuro-)prostheses. Important findings of the past 3000 years are outlined: toe prostheses from ancient Egypt, the Capua leg prosthesis, Götz von Berlichingen's artificial hands and Sauerbruch's prosthetic arm. These historical examples are compared with modern neuroprosthetics. It is also shown that historical prostheses were in no way primitive and, even more, that ancient people already used first intelligent medical engineering approaches.

  15. [Organization of medico-genetic counseling for hereditary hearing impairment].

    PubMed

    Markova, T G

    2009-01-01

    High frequency of hereditary pathologies resulting in congenital and prelingual auditory inefficiency necessitates organization of readily available medico-genetic counseling services based at specialized centres and an integrated dispensary system for the observation of families at risk of hereditary hearing impairment and identification of high-risk groups among the general population. Correct clinical diagnosis provides a basis for the strategy of molecular-genetic examination of a given patient and members of his (her) family. Results of the examination can be used for family planning and the choice of measures for the prevention of recurrent cases. The objective of the present work was to draw up the main lines of cooperative activities of deafness specialists and geneticists, propose indications for medico-genetic counseling, and distinguish groups at high risk of development of hereditary hearing impairment among the affected subjects and in the general population. It is shown that the efficiency of measures for the prevention of hereditary hearing loss is directly related to the availability of medico-genetic aid and the degree of involvement of risk groups in the examination.

  16. Imaging of body packing: errors and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Urraro, Fabrizio; Maresca, Duilia; Martiniello, Ciro; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Body packing is the ingestion or insertion in the human body of packed illicit substances. Over the last 20 years, drug smuggling has increased global and new means of transport of narcotics have emerged. Among these, the most frequent one is the gastrointestinal tract: from mouth to anus, vagina, and ears. Cocaine is one of the most traded drugs, followed by heroin. Condoms, latex gloves, and balloons are typically used as drug packets for retention in the body. There are different radiologic modalities to detect illicit drugs in body packing: Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Current protocols recommend the use of radiography to confirm packet retention and, in case of doubt, the use of abdominal CT scan with reduced mAs. In case of packet rupture, catastrophic effects can occur. Management of patients carrying packets of drugs is a recurrent medico-legal problem. To improve diagnostic accuracy and prevent hazardous complications, radiologists and emergency physicians should be familiar with radiologic features of body packing. The radiologist plays both a social and a medico-legal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location. In this review, we focus on diagnostic errors and medico-legal issues related to the radiological assessment of body packers.

  17. The importance of medico-legal evaluation in a case with intraabdominal gossypiboma.

    PubMed

    Uluçay, Tarik; Dizdar, Mustafa Gökhan; SunayYavuz, Mehmet; Aşirdizer, Mahmut

    2010-05-20

    Data concerning the incidence of gossypiboma tend to fluctuate and is difficult to estimate because of a low reporting rate lest medico-legal implication. Gossypiboma is frequently located in the abdominal and pelvic cavities after gynecologic and upper abdominal surgical operations but can also follow thoracic, orthopedic, and urological and neurosurgical procedures. In medical literature, there are few articles about the medico-legal evaluation of gossypiboma although it is typically subjected to a medico-legal process. In this article, we reported a 22-year-old female case with intraabdominal gossypiboma following a cesarean procedure and discussed the importance of medico-legal evaluation of gossypiboma.

  18. The medico-legal aspects of prescribing vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Davies, John S; Poole, Chris D; Feldschreiber, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is a particularly important sterol hormone and its effects beyond bone are increasingly recognized. Over the last decade clinical interest has grown in vitamin D, with increased recognition of deficiency and hence increased prescribing of vitamin D products. However, the increased prescription of vitamin D has generally been met with unlicensed vitamin D products which potentially expose the patient to clinical risk. This review discusses the issues relating to the clinical use of unlicensed vitamin D products, safety concerns that may arise from this, as well as discussing the medico-legal responsibilities of the prescriber and dispenser. PMID:25047693

  19. Doctor Zander's Medico-Mechanical Institute in Opatija.

    PubMed

    Fischinger, Janez; Fischinger, Ales; Fischinger, Dusa

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, there were different kinds of medical institutions in the health and seaside spa resort Abbazia (nowadays Opatija). The Opatija Guidebooks (1904-1914) praised the three sanatoriums and Zander's Medico-Mechanical Institute, which was owned by Dr. Isor Stein. Dr. Zander, who is not well-known today, has been the main topic of the authors' research. The authors have found out that Dr. Gustav Zander (1835-1920) worked as a teacher of gymnastics, a physician, and a university lecturer about the remedial gymnastics at the University of Stockholm. He constructed several devices which enabled constant and regular movement of individual parts of the human body, as well as certain devices that replaced the manual massage. Zander started his first institute in Stockholm in 1865. People could do exercise using his apparatus. He gained international fame by exhibiting his devices at the International Exhibitions in Brussels and Philadelphia in 1876 and in Paris in 1878. Several Zander's medico-mechanical institutes were established around the world and they were all named after him. There were two hundred and two Zander's Institutes in 1911 when his success and fame reached its peak. Zander's Institute in Opatija was constructed already in 1904 and it was located on the ground floor of Stein's mansion, known as Vila Stein, nowadays Vila Dora. The First World War changed the fundamental role of Zander's Institutes and the Great Depression in 1929 destroyed them. It seems the Institute in Opatija closed down at that time too, even thought we have not found out the precise date. The modern fitness studios started to emerge in Europe in the 1950s, a few decades after Zander's medico-mechanical institutes ceased to exist. Many modern professional fitness devices are basically derived from the apparatus that was recommended, constructed and launched into the society already by Dr. Gustav Zander. The authors of this article presume that it was Dr

  20. [Past, present and future development of the project of manned space medico-engineering in China].

    PubMed

    Su, Shuang-ning

    2003-01-01

    Based on the research work of manned space medico-engineering at different stages of its development in China, the formation and development of the subject was summarized. The relations among the main fields of space medico-engineering, that is, depend on each other for existence, influence, co-operation and infiltration in the system, were discussed. Considering the ongoing tasks of manned space flight in China, directions and contents of research work of manned space medico-engineering were pointed out. And to make the ongoing tasks more successful, methods of development of the subject were put forward, namely, teaching, research and project should promote each other and develop together.

  1. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths linked with trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Da Broi, Ugo; Colatutto, Antonio; Sala, Pierguido; Desinan, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Sudden deaths attributed to sniffing trichloroethylene are caused by the abuse of this solvent which produces pleasant inebriating effects with rapid dissipation. In the event of repeated cycles of inhalation, a dangerous and uncontrolled systemic accumulation of trichloroethylene may occur, followed by central nervous system depression, coma and lethal cardiorespiratory arrest. Sometimes death occurs outside the hospital environment, without medical intervention or witnesses and without specific necroscopic signs. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths associated with trichloroethylene demand careful analysis of the death scene and related circumstances, a detailed understanding of the deceased's medical history and background of substance abuse and an accurate evaluation of all autopsy and laboratory data, with close cooperation between the judiciary, coroners and toxicologists.

  2. Ethno – Medico – Botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar District, Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Dharmachandra; Pullaiah, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper deals with the ethno-medico-botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. About fourty four plants are enumerated with knowledge of the tribals for their medicinal uses in curing different diseases and ailments. PMID:22556915

  3. Necessity of including medico-legal autopsy data in epidemiological surveys of individuals with major trauma.

    PubMed

    Bagher, A; Wingren, C J; Ottosson, A; Andersson, L; Wangefjord, S; Acosta, S

    2015-08-01

    It is rare that epidemiological surveys of patients with major trauma include both those admitted to the emergency department and those sent for medico-legal autopsy. The main aim of the present population-based study of major trauma was to examine the importance of medico-legal autopsy data. A new injury severity score (NISS)>15 or lethal outcome was used as criteria for major trauma and to identify patients at the emergency, anaesthesiology and forensic departments and/or being within the jurisdiction of the Malmö police authority and subjected to a medico-legal autopsy between 2011 and 2013. According to Swedish legislation all trauma related deaths should be reported to the police who refer these cases for medico-legal autopsy. Among the 174 individuals included, 92 (53%) died and 81 (47%) underwent medico-legal autopsy. One hundred twenty-six patients were primarily admitted to hospital and 48 died before admission to hospital and were sent directly for medico-legal autopsy. Forty-four in-hospital deaths occurred, of whom 33 (75%) were sent to medico-legal autopsy. In those sent directly to the department of forensic medicine the proportion of accidents was lower (p<0.001), self-inflicted injuries higher (p<0.001) and gunshot wounds higher (p=0.002) in comparison with those sent to hospital. The most prevalent drugs detected by forensic toxicology screening in the 81 fatalities were ethanol (20%), sedatives (16%), anti-depressives (15%) and illicit narcotics (9%). Forty-four cases (54%) were positive for at least one drug, and twenty-eight cases (35%) were positive for two or more drugs. Factors associated with a lower rate of medico-legal autopsies among trauma-related deaths at hospital were high age (p<0.001), lower NISS (p<0.001), a longer duration between trauma and death (p<0.001), falls (p=0.030) and trauma-related infections (p<0.001). This population based study covering clinical and forensic data shows that more than half of the individuals

  4. Medico - historical study of "Visŭcikă" (Cholera).

    PubMed

    Prasad, P V V

    2005-01-01

    The Sanskrit word Visŭcikă refers to a condition in which vitiated văta dŏşa causes pain like pricking with a needle over the body. It occurs in a person suffering with ajĭrna (indigestion) and its detailed description is available in Ayurvedic literature. This disease has its existence in India since ancient times; it has also been referred in Mahăhărata and Tripitikas. Its etiology, signs, symptoms, complications, prognosis and treatment etc. as described in Ayurveda may be correlated with the disease Cholera, which is commonly known as "Haiza" in Hindi. In Greek language, the word Cholera means a flow of bile or the bilious disease. Cholera is an acute infectious diarrheal disease, caused by comma bacillus or vibrio cholerae sero groups 01 or 0139. Aretaetus, Benjamin Rush, Chadwick, John Snow, Robert Koch, etc. were some of the pioneers in Cholera research. Medico- historical importance of Cholera, its transmission, description and references from Ayurvedic texts etc., are being presented in this article.

  5. Preventing medico-legal issues in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Raveesh, Bevinahalli N; Nayak, Ragavendra B; Kumbar, Shivakumar F

    2016-10-01

    The medical profession is considered to be one of the noblest professions in the world. The practice of medicine is capable of rendering noble service to humanity provided due care, sincerity, efficiency, and professional skill is observed by the doctors. However, today, the patient-doctor relationship has almost diminished its fiduciary character and has become more formal and structured. Doctors are no longer regarded as infallible and beyond questioning. Corporatization of health care has made it like any other business, and the medical profession is increasingly being guided by the profit motive rather than that of service. On the other hand, a well-publicized malpractice case can ruin the doctor's career and practice. The law, like medicine, is an inexact science. One cannot predict with certainty an outcome of cases many a time. It depends on the particular facts and circumstances of the case, and also the personal notions of the judge concerned who is hearing the case. The axiom "you learn from your mistakes" is too little honored in healthcare. The best way to handle medico-legal issues is by preventing them, and this article tries to enumerate the preventive measures in safeguarding the doctor against negligence suit.

  6. Eruption Pattern of Dentition and Its Medico-legal Significance.

    PubMed

    Karki, R K

    2016-01-01

    Background The eruption pattern of temporary and permanent teeth are fairly constant with the growing age. So the age determination of an individual by examination of teeth is one of the accepted methods in legal system. A review of the literature shows there are differences in eruption pattern between different populations mainly due to variations in the constitutions and environment, so highlighting the importance of this study to the Nepalese population. Objective To assess the eruption age of temporary and permanent teeth in Nepalese population and compared the eruption age with other groups. Method This cross-sectional study, included 450 subjects, aged between six months to 25 years selected by simple random sampling method. The determinant variable such as age and number of teeth was recorded. Result Eruption of temporary and permanent teeth is slightly delayed in Nepalese population compared with others. First temporary tooth to erupt is lower central Incisor at around eight months and last to erupt is second molar at around 28 months. For permanent tooth, first molar erupts at around seven years and second molar erupts by 14 years. Eruption of third molar (wisdom tooth) varies from 18 to 25 years. Conclusion This study provides a model data on eruption age of teeth which is first study of its kind in Nepal. The findings of this study will help as a reference data for optimal use in clinical, academic and research activities especially in Nepalese population. Medico legally it helps in estimation of age along with other parameters.

  7. Preventing medico-legal issues in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Raveesh, Bevinahalli N.; Nayak, Ragavendra B.; Kumbar, Shivakumar F.

    2016-01-01

    The medical profession is considered to be one of the noblest professions in the world. The practice of medicine is capable of rendering noble service to humanity provided due care, sincerity, efficiency, and professional skill is observed by the doctors. However, today, the patient–doctor relationship has almost diminished its fiduciary character and has become more formal and structured. Doctors are no longer regarded as infallible and beyond questioning. Corporatization of health care has made it like any other business, and the medical profession is increasingly being guided by the profit motive rather than that of service. On the other hand, a well-publicized malpractice case can ruin the doctor's career and practice. The law, like medicine, is an inexact science. One cannot predict with certainty an outcome of cases many a time. It depends on the particular facts and circumstances of the case, and also the personal notions of the judge concerned who is hearing the case. The axiom “you learn from your mistakes” is too little honored in healthcare. The best way to handle medico-legal issues is by preventing them, and this article tries to enumerate the preventive measures in safeguarding the doctor against negligence suit. PMID:27891020

  8. The medico-legal scene in Dubai: 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Benomran, Fawzi A

    2009-08-01

    Various characteristics of the medico-legal scene in Dubai are described, along with an overview of all cases examined over a period of 6 years. During the period of study, a total of 17,683 cases were examined in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Dubai Police General Headquarters. This constituted a yearly average of (2947.16). The average annual increment was 11.13%, the percentage of increase between 2002 and 2007 being 68.96%. Of these 10,165 (57.48%) were clinical cases of injuries, 5404 (30.56%) postmortem examinations, 1525 (8.62%) clinical cases of sexual crimes, 409 (2.3%) age estimations, 58 (0.32%) medical responsibility, 20 (0.11%) criminal abortion, 61 (0.34%) civil actions and 38 (0.21%) miscellaneous cases. Of postmortem examinations, 4846 (89.7%) of them were males and 558 (10.3%) females. The age ranged from (0-90) years, with a mean age of 40.5 years. The peak incidence was in the age group (20-50) years, where the extremes of age were least represented (Fig. 1). Only in 361 cases (6.68% of the grand total) the deceased was a local citizen. Autopsies amounted to 394 cases, which constituted 7.29% of the total deaths examined. The four manners of death in descending order of frequency were natural 3003 (55.57%), accidental 1727 (32%), suicidal 498 (9.2%), homicidal 164 (3%). The manner was undetermined in 12 (0.22%) of the cases over the 6 year period.

  9. [Prevention of medico-legal conflicts in medical practice].

    PubMed

    Minossi, José Guilherme

    2009-02-01

    Generally, medico-legal conflicts which occur in surgical and medical practice are a source of worry for both the medical profession and the society as a whole, because on one hand, they could cause high emotional stress for doctors, and on the other hand, patients could be rejected. Once consolidated, defensive medicine increases treatment costs and the doctor-patient relationship could transform into a tragedy. There are many causes for this, including non-treatment factors, such as an unsupported and disorganized health system, lack of participation from society and the doctor in improving this system, the training machine which launches a large number of young unprepared doctors to practice in this noble profession, along with a lack of continuing training, as there are few public or private institutions providing preparation, or further medical training. The related treatment factors are generally, a deficient doctor-patient relationship, poor work condition, power abuse by the doctor, a lack of clear agreement, and poor medical record keeping. These conflicts cannot be solved by simple creating legislation, or by denying the existence of medical error, which occurs at higher frequency than the actual conflicts. It is very important to improve the doctor-patient relationship because an effective fraternal relationship reduces the chance of a judicial demand. The doctor still needs to fully understand his/her conduct obligations and mainly to avoid power abuse. Doctors must also professionally link themselves with politicians who fight for the individual's rights against the system. Society must also understand that health is not just an issue exclusive for doctors, and people must fight to improve living conditions. Society must seriously show its frustration with the increasing disparity between scientific possibilities and actual wellbeing. The training machine needs immediate profound changes to produce professionals with the highest qualifications equipped

  10. Medico-ecological zoning of the territory of the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubovtseva, Yu. S.; Kagan, A. I.; Pyatigina, O. O.; Voronova, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The medico-ecological state of Russian regions has been analyzed on the basis of statistical data. It is found that the incidence of different groups of diseases varies significantly in different regions. The regions of Russia are classified according to their medico-ecological parameters; the zones of maximal health risk caused by environmental pollutions, including air, water and soil pollution, are determined. The proposed methods for zoning by health level and the estimate of medico-ecological conditions in different administrative units provide the basis for the development of measures for the adaptation of population. These data can be used for the control of sanitary measures planned by regional organizations for the social-ecological protection of the population.

  11. Relatives' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy: a study from South Delhi.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Rautji, R; Dogra, T D

    2008-04-01

    Relatives of deceased persons on whose bodies a medico-legal autopsy had been performed at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India were personally asked to complete a questionnaire. The aim of study was to determine surviving family members' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy. The majority of the relatives showed a positive attitude towards forensic autopsy but were not aware of the detailed procedure of the autopsy. They wanted sufficient information to be provided before the autopsy. They showed a great interest in autopsy results i.e. the cause of death. It was concluded that sufficient relevant explanations given before the autopsy improves the relatives' acceptance and helps alleviate the suffering of the bereaved. The experience and opinions of relatives may help an autopsy surgeon in more effective management of medico-legal cases.

  12. Forensic medicine experts' opinion on medico-legal autopsies in hospital deaths: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepak Herald; Pant, Sadip; Menezes, Ritesh George

    2013-10-01

    Medico-legal autopsy is conducted routinely in some countries and selectively in others in hospital deaths. This study was conducted to evaluate the views of the forensic medicine experts regarding this matter. A questionnaire pro forma was sent to sixty-five forensic medicine experts practicing in different medical institutions all around India. Designations and experiences of the participants were noted by requests in the same questionnaire. Their specific experience in conducting medico-legal autopsy in hospital deaths was also requested for. Responses were charted in frequency distribution tables and analyzed using SPSS, version 17.0. One-third of the participants felt that a medico-legal autopsy was necessary in all the hospital death cases as defined in the present study. Ten percent of the participants opined that a medico-legal autopsy was unnecessary in hospital deaths. The majority of the experts mentioned finding the cause of death, followed by finding the manner of death and collecting the evidentiary materials, as the reasons for medico-legal autopsy in hospital deaths. Twenty percent of the participants felt that internal findings at autopsy poorly matched with the case records. All the experts agreed that external autopsy findings matched with the hospital case records. Nearly two-third of the participants felt that it was difficult in some cases to interpret the autopsy findings without case records from the hospital where the deceased was treated. Our findings suggest that the exercise of carrying out medico-legal autopsy routinely in every hospital death as evident in the Indian framework is often unnecessary as per the experts' opinion. Autopsy findings in hospital deaths often correlate with hospital case records.

  13. The shifting sands of medico-legal intra-partum Ctg (I-P Ctg) monitoring.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, George G

    2016-03-01

    Intra-partum (IP) surveillance of the unborn child by cardiotacography (CTG) monitoring is the commonest obstetric procedure in the developed world.(1) It is also the most medico-legally contested obstetric procedure in labour. In 2011, 'birth asphyxia' comprised 50% of the UK National Health Service (NHS) litigation costs,(2) and in the 2000-2010 decade, the same NHS paid out £3.1 billion for maternity medico-legal claims (the highest of any speciality), mostly involving cerebral palsy and CTG misinterpretation.(3) This article looks at a number of characteristics of IP CTG monitoring which argue for its questionable solidity of base in court proceedings.

  14. The medico-legal investigation of abandoned fetuses and newborns--a review of cases admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit-Prinsloo, L; Pickles, C; Smith, Z; Jordaan, J; Saayman, G

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of literature on the extent of fetal or newborn abandonment or "dumping" and the medico-legal investigation procedures these cases require. This is despite the fact that these occurrences are a worldwide phenomenon and by definition involve criminal law concerns such as illegal abortion, concealment of birth, murder, or neonaticide, depending on the country concerned. This article contributes to current literature in both respects and provides a retrospective case audit for the period 2004-2008 pertaining to all abandoned newborns and fetuses admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL) in South Africa. Demographic details, scope, and nature of the medico-legal investigation as well as formulation of cause of death were recorded. A total of 289 cases were identified for inclusion in this study, 57% of which were considered to have been non-viable fetuses, while 45 of the viable fetuses were deemed to have been stillborn. These instances involve the crimes of concealment of birth and at times illegal abortion, yet prosecution of these cases are relatively unheard of. Signs of live birth were identified in 38 of the cases in the study. Of these infants, 9 were deemed to have died from injuries they have sustained, and in a further 9 cases, no anatomical cause of death could be identified. Homicidal cases should be brought in cases where death ensued as a result of abandonment; however, it is not known how many cases were prosecuted. A comparatively large number of cases were found to have been admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. This is alarming because South African abortion laws are liberal and services are free at point of access in the public health care sector. A substantial percentage of cases of abandoned infants were found to have shown signs of life after birth implying a homicidal manner of death or death by abandonment, but it seems these cases are merely shelved.

  15. The Effectiveness of Weights and Links in Automatic Indexing. Project MEDICO Second Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan; Wolf, Edward H.

    This report describes work concerned with the statistical evaluation of the output of MEDICO automatic indexing procedure. The statistical tests were designed to examine the validity of the assumptions which formed the bases of the indexing algorithms with primary emphasis on the algorithm development for the computation of weights and links. Some…

  16. Death and AIDS: A Review of the Medico-Legal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jeffrey T.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) continues to denote death sentence. Contends that AIDS is unique terminal illness in that no other single disease in history of American legal system has generated more litigation than AIDS. Examines medico-legal issues associated with AIDS-related death: estate planning,…

  17. [The use of the spectral analysis techniques for the medico-criminalistic identification of the speaker].

    PubMed

    Kir'yanov, P A; Kaganov, A Sh

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss the theoretical foundations and the methodological basis for the use of the apparatus of spectral analysis for the purpose of medico-criminalistic personality identification from the characteristics of the subject's voice and sounding speech. The article is based on the review of the literature sources and the methodological approaches developed by the author.

  18. Death and AIDS: A Review of the Medico-Legal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jeffrey T.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) continues to denote death sentence. Contends that AIDS is unique terminal illness in that no other single disease in history of American legal system has generated more litigation than AIDS. Examines medico-legal issues associated with AIDS-related death: estate planning,…

  19. Documentation of torture victims, assessment of the start procedure for medico-legal documentation.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Lene; Worm, Lise

    2007-01-01

    A Pilot Study was performed at the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) in Copenhagen in order to explore the possibilities for adding a medico-legal documentation component to the rehabilitation of torture victims already taking place. It describes the process and results on implementing medico-legal documentation in a rehabilitative setting. A modified version of the Guidelines in the Istanbul Protocol was developed on the basis of the review of literature and current practices described in "Documentation of torture victims, implementation of medico-legal protocols". The modified guidelines were tested on five clients. The aim was twofold: 1) To assess the client's attitude towards the idea of adding a documentation component to the rehabilitation process and: 2) To assess the practical circumstances of implementing the Istanbul Protocol in the everyday life of a rehabilitation centre. Results show that all five clients were positive towards the project and found comfort in being able to contribute to the fight against impunity. Also, the Pilot Study demonstrated that a large part of the medico-legal documentation was already obtained in the rehabilitation process. It was however not accessible due to lack of systematization and a data registering system. There are thus important synergies in collecting data for rehabilitation and documentation but a joint database system is necessary to realize these synergies.

  20. DAS performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, G.; Bodine, S.; Carroll, T.; Keller, M.

    1984-02-01

    This report begins with an overview of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), which supports several of PPPL's experimental devices. Performance measurements which were taken on DAS and the tools used to make them are then described.

  1. Barriers to the effective use of medico-legal findings in sexual assault cases worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mont, Janice Du; White, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of standardized rape kits across jurisdictions, the medico-legal findings generated by these tools are often not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. Given that there has been no global investigation of the factors that might impede their successful use in cases of sexual assault, we conducted a review of relevant scholarly and "grey" literature from industrialized and less-developed regions. One key theme to emerge from the analysis concerned certain problematic practices and behaviors of professional groups involved in the various stages of the post-sexual assault process. We found that a lack of competence in handling sexual assault cases, contempt for women who have been victimized, and corruption among some forensic examiners, police, scientists, and legal personnel often have shaped the collection, processing, analysis, and use of medico-legal evidence. We discuss recent initiatives and future directions for research that might serve to address these issues.

  2. Medico-legal investigations of the Airbus, A320 crash upon Mount Ste-Odile, France.

    PubMed

    Ludes, B; Tracqui, A; Pfitzinger, H; Kintz, P; Levy, F; Disteldorf, M; Hutt, J M; Kaess, B; Haag, R; Memheld, B

    1994-09-01

    The authors present the medico-legal investigations and identification after the aircrash of the Airbus A320 upon the Mount Sainte-Odile (France). The identification team comprising investigators from the gendarmerie, forensic pathologists, odontologists, and scientists of the Institute from Legal Medecine rapidly retrieved and identified 85 of the 87 victims, with 17 being identified through DNA typing, three through fingerprints and the remaining through dental records and specific physical or X-ray findings. Full autopsies were performed on all fatalities to determine patterns of injury and cause of death. Results lead us to point out the importance of a multidisciplinary team of forensic practitioners especially trained for managing medico-legal investigation in mass disaster and the ability of DNA technology to solve complex identification problems.

  3. [Continuous target of China's manned space project and research direction of space medico-engineering].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-ping

    2003-01-01

    The subject of space medico-engineering which takes manned space flight as its own task, played an important role in China's manned space project, and developed rapidly. According to China's next three manned space objectives: 1) to develop the technology of extra-vehicle activity (EVA) and test the astronauts' performance ability of EVA; 2) to develop the technology of docking with other object spacecraft in space; 3) to found a relatively large space lab, the research directions and key technology of space medico-engineering have been given, including astronaut's selection and training; requirements and evaluation of medicine and ergonomics of the space lab design; the researches of fields in astronauts' medical monitoring and space medicine; technology of environmental control and life support system in space module; technology of EVA or docking; and technology of simulation of astronaut's training.

  4. [MEDICO-SOCIAL CHARACTERISTIC OF HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS RECEIVING ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY].

    PubMed

    Rostova, N B; Ivanova, E S; Ivanova, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was medico-social characteristic of HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in 2006-2012 based on the logical and comparative analysis of medical cards with the use of systemic informational approach. The study yielded the medico-social characteristic of HIV-infected patients suggesting the presence of concomitant disorders requiring prescription of several medications to be used either simultaneously or alternatively (in case of poor efficiency or side effects of primary treatment). The data obtained indicate the necessity of optimization of the choice and prescription of pharmacotherapy taking account of its effects and safety based on the analysis of the potential and cost-effectiveness of different therapeutic modalities. The results of the study can be used to develop organizational measures for the improvement of public drug supply.

  5. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: some approaches for its prevention and medico-legal consideration.

    PubMed

    Verma, Archana; Kumar, Alok

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide, mortality associated with epilepsy is a matter of grave concern. The mortality rate in epileptic population is two to three times more than that of the general population. Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy, better known as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), is a mysterious and rare condition, in which typically young or middle-aged people with epilepsy die without a clearly defined cause. At times, this may raise a strong suspicion of foul play and raise several medico-legal issues. There may be several different underlying mechanisms but most research has focused on seizure-related cerebral and respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmia and autonomic dysfunction. In recent years, some significant risk factors have been recognized and strategies have been suggested that could be useful in prevention of SUDEP. Present communication provides some of the updates on new advances in prevention of SUDEP as well as highlights related medico-legal issues.

  6. The clinical management of diabetic foot in the elderly and medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Bruttocao, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot is a complex and challenging pathological state, characterized by high complexity of management, morbidity and mortality. The elderly present peculiar problems which interfere on one hand with the patient's compliance and on the other with their diagnostic-therapeutic management. Difficult clinical management may result in medico-legal problems, with criminal and civil consequences. In this context, the authors present a review of the literature, analysing aspects concerning the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot in the elderly which may turn out to be a source of professional responsibility. Analysis of these aspects provides an opportunity to discuss elements important not only for clinicians and medical workers but also experts (judges, lawyers, medico-legal experts) who must evaluate hypotheses of professional responsibility concerning diabetic foot in the elderly.

  7. Functional and symptomatic assessment of medico-legal claims after upper limb injuries.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Hjcr

    2016-10-04

    A consecutive group of 250 patients underwent medico-legal assessment at a mean of 24 (±13) months following upper limb injuries. Each had completed questionnaires to assess function (Quick-DASH) and cold intolerance (CIQ36) before clinical assessment following which their whole limb impairment percentage was calculated. The mean(±SD) whole limb impairment, QDASH and CIQ36 scores were 9(±14)%, 43(±24) and 17(±10), respectively. There was a significant correlation between whole limb impairment and QDASH, although some patients reported surprisingly high disability levels despite minimal or no objective functional impairment. Whilst useful qualitative information can be obtained from questionnaires, the correlation between subjective and objective scores is weak albeit statistically significant. Individual patients can show marked discrepancies between objective and subjective functional scores. The results of questionnaires in individual medico-legal patients should be treated with caution.

  8. [Anxiety and anxiety disorders--differential diagnosis, etiology and medico-legal assessment].

    PubMed

    Licha, Christina; Stevens, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders, are becoming more and more important in medico-legal assessment. Anxiety disorders are frequent in the general population. However, they may not be reliably diagnosed even by psychiatric experts because the disorders' symptoms may fail to manifest themselves during the examination. Functional impairments related to anxiety disorders are similarly problematic to assess. Finally, given the existence of effective therapies, it is hard to explain why patients with anxiety disorders have to be assessed at all. This report discusses the various and quite heterogeneous concepts associated with the word "anxiety". Anxiety disorder as a disease is differentiated from anxiety as a physiological emotion. Evidence concerning the etiology of anxiety disorders is compiled and strategies for medico-legal assessment, including the efficacy of therapies, are presented.

  9. Standard of care and guidelines in prevention and diagnosis of venous thromboembolism: medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Vassalini, Marzia; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2016-06-22

    Concerning recent Italian laws and jurisprudential statements, guidelines application involves several difficulties in clinical practice, regarding prevention, diagnosis and therapy of venous thromboembolism. International scientific community systematically developed statements about this disease in order to optimize the available resources in prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy. Incongruous prevention, missed or delayed diagnosis and/or inadequate treatment of this disease can frequently give rise to medico-legal litigation.

  10. [School for patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis as a method of medico-social rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Gnezdilova, E V

    2001-01-01

    The results of investigation of 282 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB) gave the basis for design of a cycle of lectures in the school for COB patients. The curricula of the school include positive information about the disease, psychological correction (different for men and women), recommendations on the methods of enhancing social activity. Medico-social rehabilitation of COB patients must be continuous. This becomes possible only if the patient takes an active part in the process of rehabilitation.

  11. Medico-legal perspectives on sudden cardiac death in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Antonio; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Campuzano, Oscar; Brion, Maria; Arena, Vincenzo; Partemi, Sara; Coll, Monica; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Brugada, Josep; Carracedo, Angel; Brugada, Ramon

    2017-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young athlete represents a dramatic event, and an increasing number of medico-legal cases have addressed this topic. In addition to representing an ethical and medico-legal responsibility, prevention of SCD is directly correlated with accurate eligibility/disqualification decisions, with an inappropriate pronouncement in either direction potentially leading to legal controversy. This review summarizes the common causes of SCD in young athletes, divided into structural (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary artery anomalies, etc.), electrical (Brugada, congenital LQT, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, etc.), and acquired cardiac abnormalities (myocarditis, etc.). In addition, the roles of hereditary cardiac anomalies in SCD in athletes and the effects of a positive result on them and their families are discussed. The medico-legal relevance of pre-participation screening is analyzed, and recommendations from the American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology are compared. Finally, the main issues concerning the differentiation between physiologic cardiac adaptation in athletes and pathologic findings and, thereby, definition of the so-called gray zone, which is based on exact knowledge of the mechanism of cardiac remodeling including structural or functional adaptions, will be addressed.

  12. Iatrogenic splenic injury: review of the literature and medico-legal issues

    PubMed Central

    Feola, Alessandro; Niola, Massimo; Conti, Adelaide; Delbon, Paola; Graziano, Vincenzo; Pietra, Bruno Della

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Iatrogenic splenic injury is a recognized complication in abdominal surgery. The aim of this paper is to understand the medico-legal issues of iatrogenic splenic injuries. We performed a literature review on PubMed and Scopus using iatrogenic splenic or spleen injury and iatrogenic splenic rupture as keywords. Iatrogenic splenic injury cases were identified. Most cases were related to colonoscopy, but we also identified cases related to upper gastrointestinal procedures, colonic surgery, ERCP, left nephrectomy and/or adrenalectomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, vascular operations involving the abdominal aorta, gynecological operation, left lung biopsy, chest drain, very rarely spinal surgery and even cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There are several surgical procedures that can lead to a splenic injury. However, from a medico-legal point of view, it is important to assess whether the cause can be attributed to a technical error of the operator rather than being an unpredictable and unpreventable complication. It is important for the medico-legal expert to have great knowledge on iatrogenic splenic injuries because it is important to evaluate every step of the first procedure performed, how a splenic injury is produced, and whether the correct treatment for the splenic injury was administered in a judgment. PMID:28352813

  13. Medico-legal education: a pilot curriculum to fill the identified knowledge gap.

    PubMed

    Evans, Adele; Refrow-Rutala, Donna

    2010-12-01

    We sought to determine if a medico-legal educational curriculum designed to increase physicians' familiarity with the legal system in a nonthreatening environment-a didactic and interactive educational seminar-would positively influence learners' knowledge base and self-awareness. Because neither the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education nor its Residency Review Committees specifically addresses medico-legal liability education, we designed a 2-day intensive medico-legal educational curriculum and piloted it in 2007 and 2008 at a large academic tertiary-referral medical center. Postcurriculum evaluations and precurriculum and postcurriculum testing were used to identify areas of common and/or persisting knowledge deficit. A total of 50 graduating residents, fellows, and community practitioners participated in the course. Common areas of knowledge deficit were "privilege," "discovery," statutes of limitations, and basic legal procedure. Discordance in physician interpretation of patient perspective and misunderstanding among physicians of the impact of the legal suit were evident. Concentrated legal education at selected times during medical training may support physicians' motivations to improve the assurance of quality and continuity of care. We continue to revise the curriculum to address issues of lecturer style, lecture content, and overall attitudinal values related to clinical practice, legal education, long-term impact on practice patterns, job satisfaction and its effect on attention to quality and continuity-of-care issues, and health care provider attitudes about the provider's role within the legal system and the community. We plan to conduct follow-up of participants to assess retention and subsequent use of this knowledge.

  14. Medico-Legal Education: A Pilot Curriculum to Fill the Identified Knowledge Gap

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Adele; Refrow-Rutala, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine if a medico-legal educational curriculum designed to increase physicians' familiarity with the legal system in a nonthreatening environment—a didactic and interactive educational seminar—would positively influence learners' knowledge base and self-awareness. Methods Because neither the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education nor its Residency Review Committees specifically addresses medico-legal liability education, we designed a 2-day intensive medico-legal educational curriculum and piloted it in 2007 and 2008 at a large academic tertiary-referral medical center. Postcurriculum evaluations and precurriculum and postcurriculum testing were used to identify areas of common and/or persisting knowledge deficit. Results A total of 50 graduating residents, fellows, and community practitioners participated in the course. Common areas of knowledge deficit were “privilege,” “discovery,” statutes of limitations, and basic legal procedure. Discordance in physician interpretation of patient perspective and misunderstanding among physicians of the impact of the legal suit were evident. Conclusions Concentrated legal education at selected times during medical training may support physicians' motivations to improve the assurance of quality and continuity of care. We continue to revise the curriculum to address issues of lecturer style, lecture content, and overall attitudinal values related to clinical practice, legal education, long-term impact on practice patterns, job satisfaction and its effect on attention to quality and continuity-of-care issues, and health care provider attitudes about the provider's role within the legal system and the community. We plan to conduct follow-up of participants to assess retention and subsequent use of this knowledge. PMID:22132284

  15. Using existing information from medico-legal death investigations to improve care of older people in residential aged care services.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David

    2013-12-01

    The care of older people in residential aged care services could be improved by optimising the use of existing information gathered for medico-legal death investigations. The authors address three myths contributing to underuse of this information: deaths are not preventable; public health gains are too small; and it is someone else's charter or responsibility A significant proportion of deaths are preventable, specifically those occurring prematurely from natural causes or due to injury and trauma. By addressing these preventable deaths, significant public health cost savings and better health outcomes for our growing ageing population can be achieved. Despite substantive monitoring of the provision of aged care, no single entity is explicitly responsible for systematically analysing medico-legal death information. The data and skills for using information from medico-legal death investigations currently exist. Dispelling the myths removes one impediment to investing in this area of public health.

  16. Ethics and Medico Legal Aspects of “Not for Resuscitation”

    PubMed Central

    Salins, Naveen Sulakshan; Pai, Sachin Gopalakrishna; Vidyasagar, MS; Sobhana, Manikkath

    2010-01-01

    Not for resuscitation in India still remains an abstract concept with no clear guidelines or legal frame work. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a complex medical intervention which is often used inappropriately in hospitalized patients and usually guided by medical decision making rather than patient-directed choices. Patient autonomy still remains a weak concept and relatives are expected to make this big decision in a short time and at a time of great emotional distress. This article outlines concepts around ethics and medico legal aspects of not for resuscitation, especially in Indian setting. PMID:21811350

  17. E-suicide note: A newer trend and its medico-legal implications in India.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Karthik, Krishna; Dogra, Td; Lalwani, S; Millo, T; Singh, Sr

    2014-06-01

    Rapid advancements of information and communication technology in the form of electronic mails, mobile phones, social networking sites, etc have an increasing impact on people's day to day life. It has been observed that these readily available applications are used frequently to express suicidal intentions. There are many studies on conventional handwritten suicide notes but suicide note in electronic format is an emerging issue and an under-researched phenomena. The authors have termed it as "E-suicide note" and discuss its medico-legal implications in India with examples from their observations.

  18. Suicide pact by drowning with bound wrists: a case of medico-legal importance.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Karthik, Krishna; Singh, Hansraj; Deepak, Prakash; Jhamad, Akhilesh R; Bhardwaj, D N

    2014-03-01

    Suicide pacts are uncommon and mainly committed by male-female pairs in a consortial relationship. The victims frequently choose methods such as hanging, poisoning, using a firearm, etc; however, a case of a suicide pact by drowning is rare in forensic literature. We report a case where a male and a female, both young adults, in a relationship of adopted "brother of convenience" were found drowned in a river. The victims were bound together at their wrists which helped with our conclusion this was a suicide pact. The medico-legal importance of wrist binding in drowning cases is also discussed in this article.

  19. Tuberculous abdominal aortic aneurysm with alimentary tract hemorrhage: a case report with medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan; Xie, Kai; Li, Pei; Peng, Yu-Long; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Li-Ying; Cai, Ji-Feng

    2014-04-01

    An autopsy case of sudden death induced by alimentary tract hemorrhage was presented, which was caused by the unexpected rupture of clinically unrecognized tuberculous abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). The initial diagnosis was made of the syndrome of coronary heart disease and hypertensive disease. The detailed autopsy showed that the alimentary tract hemorrhage was caused by a sudden rupture of the mass after posture changing was ascertained as the cause of death. The diagnosis of TAAA was determined by the autopsy findings. Analysis for the medical dispute of TAAA was described, and the difficulty of the diagnosis and medico-legal implications were also discussed.

  20. [Clinical practice guidelines: juridical and medico legal issues in health care malpractice liability].

    PubMed

    Moreschi, Carlo; Broi, Ugo Da

    2014-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines are clinical tools addressed to medical and health professionals and are normally employed to improve quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutical procedures but may sometimes limit the autonomy of medical and other health care professionals. The adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines should not be an exclusive step to evaluate the liability and respect of standards of care in case of medico-legal investigations being each clinical case very specific. Medical liability and respect of standards of care should be evaluated with the support of Clinical Practice Guidelines and the extensive examination of all specific features, professional background and experience requested to treat each single patient.

  1. Trivial trauma, heart disease and medico-legal interpretation of death.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anil; Mishra, Kiran

    2008-01-01

    Forensic experts are often required to give an opinion on the cause of death and its medico-legal interpretation in cases where an individual dies after receiving non-fatal injuries and at autopsy is discovered to have had a natural disease that alone could have caused death. The significance of this varies in different countries depending on the local laws relating to death in cases of trivial trauma associated with natural disease. This paper discusses this issue from an Indian perspective with the help of an illustrative case report and highlights the importance of the forensic pathologist in such cases.

  2. [Behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease. Genetic, pharmacological and medico-legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Sobrido, M J; Dias-Silva, J J; Quintáns, B

    2009-01-23

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may present neuropsychiatric and conduct disorders at different stages of the development of the disease that make treatment even more difficult. The neurologist must be on the lookout for the possible appearance of alterations affecting impulse control, even from the early stages of the disease, so as to be able to prevent them or to plan a suitable adjustment of treatment. Some of the most common impulsivity disorders include hypersexuality, compulsive gambling and other addictive behaviours which, if left undetected and untreated, can end up having a destructive effect on the patient's socio-familial surroundings. Psychotic disorders (hallucinations, delusions) are often associated to advanced phases of PD and to the effect of dopamine therapy, and they are associated to a higher morbidity and mortality rate. Factors of a genetic or pharmacogenetic nature or a gene-environment interaction may account for the different individual susceptibility to disorders in the neuropsychiatric realm among patients with PD. It is wise to bear in mind the possible medico-legal implications that may stem from behavioral disorders, both for the patient and his or her family and for the physician, because situations could arise that trigger conflicts between confidentiality and preventing third parties from being harmed, as well as harm that can be attributed to the side effects of medicines. The specialist must be familiar with, foresee and propose suitable treatment for behavioral and neuropsychiatric disorders in PD with potential medico-legal implications.

  3. Medico-legal litigation in Obstetrics: a characterization analysis of a decade in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana Patrícia Rodrigues; Belo, Adriana; Moura, Paulo; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-05-01

    It was to analyse the most critical areas in Obstetrics and to suggest measures to reduce or avoid the situations most often involved in these disputes. Obstetrics cases submitted to the Medico-legal Council since the creation of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences in 2001 until 2011 were evaluated. A comprehensive characterization, determination of absolute/relative frequencies, hypothesis of a linear trend over the years and the association between each parameter was done. The analysis has shown no significantly linear trend. The most common reasons for disputes were perinatal asphyxia (50%), traumatic injuries of the newborn (24%), maternal sequelae (19%) and issues related to prenatal diagnosis and/or obstetric ultrasound (5.4%). Perinatal asphyxia showed no significantly linear trend (p=0.58) and was usually related to perinatal deaths or permanent neurologic sequelae in newborn children. Traumatic injuries of the newborn, mostly related to instrumented deliveries, shoulder dystocia or vaginal delivery in breech presentation, has shown a significantly increased linear trend (p<0.001), especially related to instrumented deliveries. The delay/absence of cesarean section was the clinical procedure questioned in a significantly higher number of cases of perinatal asphyxia (68.7%) and of traumatic lesions of the newborn due to instrumented deliveries (20.5%). It is important to improve and correct theoretical/practical daily clinical performance in these highlighted areas, in order to reduce or even avoid situations that could end up in medico-legal litigations.

  4. [Medico-legal features of early discharge in acute myocardial infarction and chest pain].

    PubMed

    Montisci, M; Ruscazio, M; Snenghi, R; Nalin, S; Montisci, R; Iliceto, S; Ferrara, S D

    2001-06-01

    The authors' aim is to outline some of the main medico-legal problems in cardiology, especially those regarding the premature hospital discharge of patients with undefined chest pain and/or with acute myocardial infarction. After a brief overview on the etiology and clinical definition of chest pain and myocardial infarction, premature hospital discharge is defined and the incidental medico-legal risks that physicians operating in such situations are exposed to are pointed out. Next, the profiles regarding both the positive and negative views of professional medical responsibility are described. In the negative frame, the authors outline the most frequent civil and penal aspects of the unpremeditated responsibility. Then the physician's error, in both qualitative (generic or specific guilt) and quantitative (degree) terms, is considered; particularly, negligence, imprudence and inexperience, as qualitatively accepted meanings of generic guilt, are dealt with by adopting illustrative cases settled in the light of the right legal interpretation. The phases of the diagnostic or prognostic error are evaluated, and clinical protocols, as a reference parameter for the identification of error, are considered. Lastly, the problem of causality, essential condition for the judgment about the professional responsibility, and the problem of the patient's consent, including an evaluation of the legal capability or incapability about the declaration of consent, are examined closely.

  5. Witnesses of the body: medico-legal cases in seventeenth-century Rome.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Studying early modern medico-legal testimonies can enrich our understanding of witnessing, the focus of much research in the history of science. Expert testimonies were well established in the Roman Cannon law, but the sphere of competence of expert witnesses - one of the grounds on which seventeenth-century physicians claimed social and intellectual authority- troubled contemporary jurists. By reconstructing these debates in Counter Reformation Rome, and by placing in them the testimonies given by Poalo Zacchia, one of the founding fathers of legal medicine, this article discusses the epistemological and social issues surrounding the definition of expertise about the body in court. It shows how a high-ranking expert witness would define his competence versus the legal authority on the one hand, lower-status expert witnesses on the other. But it also explores the interactions between specific legal constraints, for example about eye witnessing, and the ways in which different kinds of witnesses would use the body as a source of evidence for testimony. While engaging with medico-legal issues including the ambiguous signs of childbirth and the (in)visibility of pain, the article examines their meanings within Counter Reformation social controversies, including control over sexuality, imposition of discipline and the social status of physicians. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maxillofacial Surgeon as Fact Witness for Medico-Legal Cases: Indian Scenario.

    PubMed

    Kedarnath, N S; Shruthi, R

    2015-12-01

    An Oral and Maxillofacial surgeon at any time during the practice will encounter medicolegal cases (MLC). There are lacunae in the knowledge and understanding of the correct method of dealing with such cases. Many of the practitioners are apprehensive and anxious as they have to interact with individuals and systems outside the normal realm of practice. In today's arena, it is of utmost importance to be aware of legal system and law of the land. An OMF surgeon needs to have thorough understanding in recording and maintenance of the details of all MLCs and presenting the same in the court. Professional guidelines for expert witness are often not well recognised as those relating to the clinical practice. Surgeon has an obligation to conduct him/herself to highest ethical standards. This article provides insight into the details of registration of MLC, examination and recording of injuries, collecting medico-legal evidences and writing a medico legal report. Also discusses the court proceedings and possible questions that may be faced by the surgeon in the court.

  7. Alcohol in a series of medico-legally autopsied deaths in northern Norway 1973-1992.

    PubMed

    Nordrum, I; Eide, T J; JŁrgensen, L

    2000-05-15

    It is well established that use of alcohol increases the risk of fatal injuries. The presence of blood alcohol in autopsied deaths is regularly encountered in medico-legal practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of alcohol in 1539 medico-legal autopsies in two counties in northern Norway in the period 1973-1992, and the reporting of acute alcohol influence among these deaths to the official cause-of-death statistics. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) >/=0.5 per thousand (50 mg/100 ml) was found in 47.6% (n=456) of violent deaths tested, and in 93% (n=426) of these the BAC was >/=1.0 per thousand. In 17.4% (n=55) of tested natural deaths the BAC was >/=0.5 per thousand. Acute alcohol-influenced violent deaths were under-reported to the cause-of-death statistics. Deaths by motor vehicle traffic accidents did not differ from other violent deaths in this respect. The under-reporting among violent deaths was 41% in cases with BAC >/=0. 5 per thousand and 37% where the BAC was >/=1.0 per thousand during the whole period. It is concluded that post-mortem BAC >/=0.5 per thousand, should be regarded as a possible contributory cause in all violent deaths, and reported accordingly.

  8. [Medico-legal opinionating in cases of insobriety in medical personnel].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Drozd, Radosław

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyzed the medico-legal opinions in cases of insobriety in medical personnel. The studies were based on the results of 157 medico-legal evaluations in criminal cases performed in the years 2005-2007. Expert appraisals included: correctness of medical management, degree of exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health associated with alcohol intoxication of a physician, regardless of his activities being correct in their merits, as well as influence of insobriety on personnel behavior. Penal responsibility is implemented in case of exposing the patient to direct danger to life or severe detriment to health. The necessary analysis should include activities that have been or should have been performed by a physician with respect to his patients, their health status (degree of danged to life or health) and the effect of the physician's alcohol intoxication on his abilities to perceive and assess the reality, make decisions and perform his duties. The Polish law in force lacking the equivalent of Article 147 found in the Polish penal code of 1969 causes problems in penalization of insobriety in medical personnel.

  9. Clinical photography in dermatology: ethical and medico-legal considerations in the age of digital and smartphone technology.

    PubMed

    Kunde, Lauren; McMeniman, Erin; Parker, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    Clinical photography has long been an important aspect in the management of dermatological pathology and has many applications in contemporary dermatology practice. With the continuous evolution of digital and smartphone technology, clinicians must maintain ethical and medico-legal standards. This article reviews how dermatology trainees are utilising this technology in their clinical practice and what procedures they follow when taking photos of patients. We review the ethical and legal considerations of clinical photography in dermatology and present a hypothetical medico-legal scenario. Dermatology registrars were surveyed on their use of personal smartphones and digital equipment for photographing patients in their clinical practice. Numerous medico-legal providers were approached to provide medico-legal advice about a hypothetical scenario. We found that the use of these technologies is prevalent among dermatology registrars and all respondents reported regular use. Clinicians should routinely obtain and document adequate patient consent in relation to clinical photography, utilise strict privacy settings on smartphones and other digital devices and ensure that the images are stored on these devices for minimal periods. Express consent documentation in the clinical file puts the clinician in a more defensible position if a complaint is made to the medical board or privacy commissioner. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. [Brazil-Medico and the contributions of medical-hygienist thought to the scientific bases of Brazilian physical education].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Maria Isabel Brandão de Souza; da Nóbrega, Terezinha Petrucia

    2008-01-01

    The end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth were emblematic in the 'scientifization' of physical education in Brazil. This examination of the journal Brazil-Medico during 1887-1923 seeks to identify views of the body and health as well as contributions to the scientific bases of physical education in Brazil.

  11. [The auditory analysis in the context of the problem of medico-criminalistic identification of the speaker].

    PubMed

    Kaganov, A Sh

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to discuss the theoretical foundations and methodological basis of the auditory component of the comprehensive medico-criminalistic study aimed at the identification of the speaker from his (her) voice and speech. The article is based on the literature data and the materials of forensic and criminalistic examination carried out by the author.

  12. When range of motion is not enough: towards an evidence-based approach to medico-legal reporting in whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Whiplash injury medico-legal reporting has traditionally been focused upon identifying restrictions in range of motion and identifying the presence of tender areas in the cervical spine in an effort both to diagnose the condition and to offer a prognosis. There have been considerable advances in this field over the last decade however that calls into question such a diminutive approach. This paper reviews the contemporary evidence base for the medico-legal assessment of whiplash injury and identifies a body of literature that strongly implicates a Claimant's physiological and psychological stress response as a key medico-legal marker in predicting prognosis following whiplash injury.

  13. DAS User Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østensen, Roy

    2008-10-01

    The HELAS Database for AsteroSeismology (DAS) is one of the deliverables of the Work Package NA5: Asteroseismology of the European Coordination Action in Helio- and Asteroseismology (HELAS). The DAS aims to provide easy access to publicly available asteroseismological timeseries data, both photometric and spectroscopic. In particular, the DAS and the HELAS software package FAMIAS are ideally suited to train Master and PhD students in asteroseismic data analysis and to build longterm datasets. The number of stars in the system is still limited and reflects the willingness of data owners to provide their data after publication. Work continues to populate the database with contributions from the community, and at present the number of stars in the database is 82

  14. Educational level and pseudohypacusis in medico-legal compensation claims: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Mohammad-Ebrahim; Mokari, Nooshin; Amiri, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    Pseudohypacusis or the intentional feigning of hearing loss is a challenging situation in the medicolegal evaluation of hearing levels. Few studies have been performed on predisposing factors that make compensation claims susceptible to malingering. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and frequency of pseudohypacusis in a group of medico-legal clients. Retrospectively, we studied the files of subjects (n=421) referred to the audiology clinic of a government hospital during a 12 month period. Educational levels of the individuals with and without pseudohypacusis were compared by the Chi-square test. The results show that individuals with pseudohypacusis have lower educational levels than cooperative clients. The relative frequency of individuals with pseudohypacusis among illiterates (43.5%) was clearly higher than individuals with higher educational levels (17.5%). The education level of a person filing a compensation claim may alert an examiner in detecting pseudohypacusis.

  15. Theories About Blood Coagulation in the Writings of Ancient Greek Medico-philosophers.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Anaxagoras and Empedocles both established during the Presocratic era a pioneering theory for the creation of everything in the universe. Macrocosmos' impact through the "Four Elements Theory" explained the conglomeration of the blood inside the vessels. Hippocrates, who instituted the "Four Humours theory", clearly understood blood's coagulation and introduced the term "thrombus". Plato, Aristotle and Galen, all engaged with the clotting phenomenon trying to interpret it. After eons of inquiry, it was the innovative thinking of the ancient Greek medico philosophers that set the scientific bases towards the understanding of a process that had been analyzing until our era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Chemical Construction of Polyfunctional Nanocomposites and Nanorobots for Medico-biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbyk, P. P.; Dubrovin, I. V.; Petranovska, A. L.; Abramov, M. V.; Usov, D. G.; Storozhuk, L. P.; Turanska, S. P.; Turelyk, M. P.; Chekhun, V. F.; Lukyanova, N. Yu.; Shpak, A. P.; Korduban, O. M.

    A method for preparation of magnetosensitive nanocomposites on the basis of surface-modified magnetite carrying immobilized cisplatin and monoclonal antibody CD 95 (a medico-biological nanorobot model) was developed. Adsorption and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibody CD 95 and human normal immunoglobulin on nanocomposites comprising magnetite coated with poly(acryl amide) and γ-aminopropylsiloxane was studied. Isotherms of covalent attachment of oxidized immunoglobulin via formation of Schiff bases and non-specific (physical) adsorption of the normal immunoglobulin were compared. Kinetics of release of the immunoglobulin to a model environment was studied. Interaction of the prepared models of nanorobots with the cell line MCF-7 was studied. It was shown that use of magnetically driven nanocomposites carrying the anti-tumour drug and the monoclonal antibody CD 95 causes a synergic cytotoxic effect which exceeds the influence of the control doses up to 50%.

  17. From medico-administrative databases analysis to care trajectories analytics: an example with the French SNDS.

    PubMed

    Drezen, Erwan; Guyet, Thomas; Happe, André

    2017-09-16

    Medico-administrative data like SNDS (Système National de Données de Santé) are not collected initially for epidemiological purposes. Moreover, the data model and the tools proposed to SNDS users make their in-depth exploitation difficult. We propose a data model, called the ePEPS model, based on health care trajectories to provide a medical view of raw data. A data abstraction process enables the clinician to have an intuitive medical view of raw data and to design a study-specific view. This view is based on a generic model of care trajectory, i.e. a sequence of timestamped medical events for a given patient. This model is combined with tools to manipulate care trajectories efficiently. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational fatalities in the construction sector: A medico-legal viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha

    2015-06-01

    Occupational fatalities are those that occur during the course of a person's occupation. They can occur in any industry or sector. Studies have shown that the construction sector is more dangerous for workers than the industrial sector, and there are more deaths both in the developed and developing countries. The construction sector has seen a boom in countries like India over the past few years and with it an increase in the number of occupational fatalities. Three different types of occupational fatalities pertaining to construction sector are presented here to increase awareness of the different types of occupational fatalities that may occur. The circumstances leading to them are discussed from a medico-legal viewpoint. Specific acts of negligence have been highlighted and suggestions offered with a view to decreasing fatalities.

  19. The assessment of grip strength after upper limb injuries in medico-legal practice.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Hjcr

    2017-03-01

    Four hundred adult claimants underwent medico-legal assessment following upper limb injuries. Dynamometry was performed on each using the Jamar five handle-position test. Injury causes loss of power and there is a significant relationship between the percentage loss of power and the measured whole limb impairment. This paper presents a new approach for the analysis of the tests. The normal physiological length-tension pattern of muscle is maintained in the majority of claimants albeit with modifications due to the specific effects of injury on hand function. This paper provides normative data for the analysis of dynamometry in this population and makes recommendations for parameters that suggest that a test is a true reflection of capacity and thus useable in court.

  20. Danger points, complications and medico-legal aspects in endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Hosemann, W; Draf, C

    2013-12-13

    Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery represents the overall accepted type of surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Notwithstanding raised and still evolving quality standards, surgeons performing routine endoscopic interventions are faced with minor complications in 5% and major complications in 0.5-1%. A comprehensive review on all minor and major complications of endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses and also on the anterior skull base is presented listing the actual scientific literature. The pathogenesis, signs and symptoms of each complication are reviewed and therapeutic regimens are discussed in detail relating to actual publication references. Potential medico-legal aspects are explicated and recent algorithms of avoidance are mentioned taking into account options in surgical training and education.

  1. Medico-legal autopsy of abandoned foetuses and newborns in India.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Sikary, Asit Kumar; Krishna, Karthik; Garg, Aayushi; Chopra, Saurav; Gupta, S K

    2016-06-01

    Foeticide and the abandonment of newborns are important, albeit frequently neglected, issues. Concealment of childbirth is often seen in the setting of unwanted pregnancy which has been recognised as one of the most important factors in both cases. This study highlights the medico-legal autopsy findings of 238 abandoned foetuses and newborns over a period of 17 years (1996-2012) from the region of South Delhi, India. There was no sex predilection. The majority of the cases were full term. Nearly 35% of the foetuses were still born, about 29% were live born and the remainder were non-viable. Among the live born, death by homicide was more common than a natural death and most were left by the roadside. The abandoning and killing of newborns needs urgent attention, and strict measures are needed to save thousands of innocent lives.

  2. Quantitative elementary analysis of medico-biological specimens using a laser mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aref'ev, I.M.; Benyaev, N.E.; Komleva, A.A.; Ramendik, G.I.; Tyurin, D.A.

    1986-06-01

    The present work is devoted to an investigation of the dependence of the value of the relative sensitivity coefficient (RSC) on the influence oflaser radiation on medico-biological specimens in order to develop a standardless quantitative analysis. The objects of the investigation were dried tissues of organs of the animals, whole blood and its components. It was shown that the values of the RSC are close to one in the range of 20% error at laser radiation flux densities of 5.10/sup 8/-1.10/sup 9/ W/cm/sup 2/. A decrease or increase in the flux density in comparison with the optimum leads to the appearance of discrimination, in the first case during atomization where the RSC depends on the thermophysical parameters of the investigated elements, and, in the second case, during ionization where the RSC depends on the ionization potentials of the elements.

  3. Chemical Construction of Polyfunctional Nanocomposites and Nanorobots for Medico-biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbyk, P. P.; Dubrovin, I. V.; Petranovska, A. L.; Abramov, M. V.; Usov, D. G.; Storozhuk, L. P.; Turanska, S. P.; Turelyk, M. P.; Chekhun, V. F.; Lukyanova, N. Yu.; Shpak, A. P.; Korduban, O. M.

    A method for preparation of magnetosensitive nanocomposites on the basis of surface-modified magnetite carrying immobilized cisplatin and monoclonal antibody CD 95 (a medico-biological nanorobot model) was developed. Adsorption and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibody CD 95 and human normal immunoglobulin on nanocomposites comprising magnetite coated with poly(acryl amide) and γ-aminopropylsiloxane was studied. Isotherms of covalent attachment of oxidized immunoglobulin via formation of Schiff bases and non-specific (physical) adsorption of the normal immunoglobulin were compared. Kinetics of release of the immunoglobulin to a model environment was studied. Interaction of the prepared models of nanorobots with the cell line MCF-7 was studied. It was shown that use of magnetically driven nanocomposites carrying the anti-tumour drug and the monoclonal antibody CD 95 causes a synergic cytotoxic effect which exceeds the influence of the control doses up to 50%.

  4. Responsible use of cone beam computed tomography: minimising medico-legal risks.

    PubMed

    Noffke, C E E; Farman, A G; Van der Linde, A; Nel, S

    2013-07-01

    This communication highlights some of the ethical and possible legal responsibilities which pertain to the taking, reading, reporting, and communication of findings from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. The importance of knowledge of head and neck anatomy and pathology to reduce the likelihood of incorrect interpretation is emphasised. Failure to detect critical findings in any diagnostic image can potentially result in medico-legal consequences. CBCT is no exception to this rule. Dental schools are advised to include CBCT imaging as a diagnostic tool in their under- and postgraduate curricula thereby equipping graduates to use 3D imaging in general and CBCT in particular. Existing dental practitioners are advised to seek continuing education on 3D imaging as part of their required lifelong learning.

  5. A medico-legal evaluation of the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Pelin, S S

    1997-01-01

    In Turkey, as possibly in the case of several or even many other countries, infertility is generally regarded as a negative phenomenon in women. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs), which provide certain childless couples with the possibility of having a baby, are being applied more and more frequently in this country, apparently as has been the case in the world at large. From a medicolegal point of view, the related applications in Turkey can only be realized in the case of married couples. Other forms of application in this area, on the other hand, such as sperm banks or surrogate motherhood, are not allowed legally. A text which was called "Guidelines Regarding the Centers of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer" was prepared in 1987 by the Ministry of Health. The aim of these Guidelines is to find solutions to the medico-legal problems created by the application of ARTs in this country.

  6. Danger points, complications and medico-legal aspects in endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hosemann, W.; Draf, C.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery represents the overall accepted type of surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Notwithstanding raised and still evolving quality standards, surgeons performing routine endoscopic interventions are faced with minor complications in 5% and major complications in 0.5–1%. A comprehensive review on all minor and major complications of endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses and also on the anterior skull base is presented listing the actual scientific literature. The pathogenesis, signs and symptoms of each complication are reviewed and therapeutic regimens are discussed in detail relating to actual publication references. Potential medico-legal aspects are explicated and recent algorithms of avoidance are mentioned taking into account options in surgical training and education. PMID:24403974

  7. Osler and the "medico-chirurgical neurologists": Horsley, Cushing, and Penfield.

    PubMed

    Feindel, William

    2003-07-01

    Sir Victor Horsley's lecture "On the Technique of Operations on the Central Nervous System," delivered in Toronto in 1906, set the stage for an appraisal of Sir William Osler as a protagonist for the emerging specialty of neurosurgery. During his time at McGill University from 1871 to 1884, Osler performed more than 1000 autopsies. Hispathological reports covered the topics of cerebral aneurysm, apoplectic hemorrhage, vascular infarction, subdural hematoma, meningitis, multiple sclerosis, cerebral abscess, and brain tumor. He wrote about cerebral localization and anatomy and the relationships between the morphological characteristics of the brain and intelligence and criminality. During his continuing career at Philadelphia and Baltimore, Osler published widely on problems in clinical neurology, including monographs on cerebral palsies and chorea as well as chapters on disorders of the nervous system in the first five editions of his popular textbook, The Principles and Practice of Medicine. He became familiar with many of the outstanding figures in medical neurology of his time. Regarding neurosurgery, Osler commended the pioneer operation for a brain tumor in 1884 by Rickman Godlee and the surgery for epilepsy in 1886 by Horsley. In 1907, in discussing the state of brain surgery as reviewed by Horsley, William Macewen, and others, Osler made a plea for "medico-chirurgical neurologists, properly trained in the anatomical, physiological, clinical and surgical aspects of the subject." He played a significant role as a referring physician, mentor, and friend to his young colleague Harvey Cushing (later to become Osler's Boswell), who was breaking new ground in neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Beyond that Osler became an inspiring hero figure for his Oxford student Wilder Penfield, who a few decades later would establish a neurological institute at McGill University where medico-chirurgical neurology would flourish.

  8. The effectiveness of clinical problem-based learning model of medico-jurisprudence education on general law knowledge for Obstetrics/Gynecological interns.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Chin; Wang, Ning-Yen; Ko, Wen-Ru; Yu, You-Tsz; Lin, Long-Yau; Tsai, Hui-Fang

    2017-06-01

    The effective education method of medico-jurisprudence for medical students is unclear. The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) model teaching medico-jurisprudence in clinical setting on General Law Knowledge (GLK) for medical students. Senior medical students attending either campus-based law curriculum or Obstetrics/Gynecology (Ob/Gyn) clinical setting morning meeting from February to July in 2015 were enrolled. A validated questionnaire comprising 45 questions were completed before and after the law education. The interns attending clinical setting small group improvisation medico-jurisprudence problem-based learning education had significantly better GLK scores than the GLK of students attending campus-based medical law education course after the period studied. PBL teaching model of medico-jurisprudence is an ideal alternative pedagogy model in medical law education curriculum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. "Against all hushing up and stamping down": the Medico-Psychological Clinic of London and the novelist May Sinclair.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    May Sinclair (1863-1946) was one of the first modern novelists to appropriate psychoanalytic theories in her works. She was an early reader of the new psychoanalytic techniques but, rather than embracing its theories wholeheartedly and unquestioningly, she synthesized those that appealed to her own psychology of womanhood. Moreover, Sinclair's position was a unique one. As well as a highly acclaimed novelist with a respected public voice, she was closely associated with the setting up of one of the first psychotherapeutic centres in Britain, the Medico-Psychological Clinic of London. In this paper, I argue that the eclectic psychoanalytic situations in which Sinclair places her literary heroines mirror the eclectic and potentially feminist endeavours of the medico-Psychological Clinic. I draw upon archival material, hitherto unexamined by literary critics and medical historians, to reflect upon the turbulent lifespan of the Clinic and the attempts to curtail its controversial practices.

  10. Das DNA-Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  11. [Medico-legal opinions in penal cases provided by clinicians and forensic medicine specialists--comparative analysis].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    From the practice of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice it appears that in criminal cases the level of medico-legal opinions provided by experts appointed by the district court or 'ad hoc' is very low. The analysis of the chosen files shoved a divergence of opinions given to the adopted motions as well as numerous offences to regulations in the nature of a consultative error. In the paper the authors have made an attempt to appraise causes of the above mentioned problems such as: 1. the lack of medico-legal knowledge and experience in court experts. 2. excessive ease of registration to the panel of court experts and the lack of processes which verify the qualifications of experts. 3. the lack of judicial control over expert's opinions and common acceptance of their work. 4. ignorance of the obligatory penal law. 5. ignorance of the basic rules for giving medico-legal opinions (legal consequences, casual nexus). 6. excessive but groundless self-confidence in experts. 7. the lack of a correct way of thinking and conclusion making. The aim of the paper was to pay close attention to the absolute need of verification of court experts' qualifications and work.

  12. To err is human: Quality management practices in surgical oral pathology, a safety net for medico-legal complications.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Narayan T; Bhadranna, Abhishek; Shenoy, Sadhana; Mohanty, Leeky

    2013-05-01

    Reading a slide and rendering a diagnosis is not only a science but also requires us to appreciate the constant artifact that is introduced in a controlled manner by tissue processing and obtaining a stained tissue section. There are a number of steps involved in getting the final stained tissue section and all these procedures if not performed properly have the potential to give rise to erroneous picture on the slide. Simple errors in judgments can lead to wrong diagnosis and unwarranted treatment. Such mistakes can put us at risk for Medico-Legal problems. The subject of Medico-Legal issues and practice of pathology has been neglected and amount of information available to the practicing professional in India is scarce. This paper focuses on standardized procedures for the various histopathology laboratory exercises. The paper highlights the importance of proper record maintenance with reporting protocols. A list of do's and don'ts for an Oral Pathologist is provided to help him/her in reducing the probable Medico-Legal issues. It does not in any way address the issue of individual competence and diagnostic abilities: That is an aspect for each individual to introspect upon and take remedial action.

  13. Humans in Space: Summarizing the Medico-Biological Results of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Stepaniak, P. C.; Grounds, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Gagarin's flight that opened the era of Humans in Space we also commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) which was triumphantly completed by the flight of STS-135 on July 21, 2011. These were great milestones in the history of Human Space Exploration. Many important questions regarding the ability of humans to adapt and function in space were answered for the past 50 years and many lessons have been learned. Significant contribution to answering these questions was made by the SSP. To ensure the availability of the Shuttle Program experiences to the international space community NASA has made a decision to summarize the medico-biological results of the SSP in a fundamental edition that is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2011 beginning 2012. The goal of this edition is to define the normal responses of the major physiological systems to short-duration space flights and provide a comprehensive source of information for planning, ensuring successful operational activities and for management of potential medical problems that might arise during future long-term space missions. The book includes the following sections: 1. History of Shuttle Biomedical Research and Operations; 2. Medical Operations Overview Systems, Monitoring, and Care; 3. Biomedical Research Overview; 4. System-specific Adaptations/Responses, Issues, and Countermeasures; 5. Multisystem Issues and Countermeasures. In addition, selected operational documents will be presented in the appendices. The chapters are written by well-recognized experts in appropriate fields, peer reviewed, and edited by physicians and scientists with extensive expertise in space medical operations and space-related biomedical research. As Space Exploration continues the major question whether humans are capable of adapting to long term presence and adequate functioning in space habitats remains to be answered We expect that the comprehensive review of

  14. Urologia: aspetti medico-legali. Cosa l'urologo non può non sapere.

    PubMed

    Rizzotto, Antonio

    2014-12-03

    Medico-legal notes in urologyIn recent years, claims for damages for medical liability have significantly increased. This implies that urologists need to know at least some basic concepts and updates regarding Forensic Medicine. Hence it is mandatory that, beyond the requirements of the law, every physician is covered by insurance liability for medical professionals. With the aim to protect and help the urologist in response to a claim for damages, the Italian Society of Urology has established and activated a "urological first aid", which any member can turn to in a moment of need. In the case of an accident, urologists can contact the "urological first aid" otherwise they can send a letter within 3 days to his/her insurance company, which will analyze the complaint and prepare a brief statement of defence and choose a civil lawyer specializing in medical professional liability. In this paper we will deal with some concepts of forensic medicine, distinguishing between public-liability and penal setting.

  15. Ejection in hostile environments: medico-psychological aspects for the fighter pilot.

    PubMed

    Daudin, Marianne; Renard, Magali-Diane; Louzon, Virginie; Chollet, Sabine; Colas, Marie-Dominique

    2013-08-01

    In the French Air Force, commitment of fighter squadrons in Afghanistan revives the fear among pilots of being ejected in a hostile environment, along with the prospect of being captured. Although ejection in a hostile environment is an exceptional event, it is what flight crews fear most strongly over enemy territory. Since the widespread use of ejection seats in fighter aircraft in the 1950s, ejection has become a means of protecting the crews' lives. Ejection is a breaking point when the pilot suddenly passes from an intense activity to a passive position in which he (or she) is often helpless and sometimes exposed to the hostility of the environment where he lands. It is always important to analyze the circumstances surrounding an ejection. Some clinical observations allow us to understand the psycho-traumatic potential of this brutal experience. In a hostile environment, ejection quite rapidly becomes a question of survival. The pilot is technically and physically prepared during training. He (or she) regularly trains for the use of the ejection seat and the equipment to protect himself, to report, and ensure his survival until his recovery. Because it is always a singular event, on a case-by-case basis, no psychological reaction to such a situation can be modeled with a view to predicting psycho-traumatic disorders. Since 2007, there has been a medico-psychological supporting device, organized by the French Air Force, to be used after this type of event.

  16. The medico-artistic phenomenon and its implications for medical education.

    PubMed

    Weisz, G M; Albury, W R

    2010-01-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between medicine and art could have significant implications for the role of the creative arts in medical education. This study seeks to contribute to that understanding by providing an overview of the involvement of medical practitioners in artistic creation from the Renaissance to the present--based on historical material, statements published by medico-artists in professional journals, and an informal survey of members of a Medical Art Society. Our findings support the hypothesis that there are close links between medical practice and artistic creativity, and that individuals who engage in both forms of activity find the interaction beneficial. The implications of this hypothesis are that the inclusion of practical art training in the medical curriculum would not only enrich the experience of medical students during their education, but would also enhance their later wellbeing, both while they are engaged in medical practice and after they have retired. Although this study is preliminary, we believe that we have identified a consistent relationship which, if established, would have significant implications for medical education, and which therefore merits further investigation by psychological, sociological and educational researchers. The article concludes with some suggestions for further research.

  17. Student perceptions of medico-legal autopsy demonstrations in a student-centred curriculum.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Lakshini S; O'Brien, Frances Y; Botha, Julia H

    2009-01-01

    Teaching autopsies in undergraduate medicine, although traditionally considered valuable by both educators and students, have been marginalised in modern curricula. This study explored medical students' experiences of the medico-legal autopsy demonstrations which formed part of their training in forensic medicine. In this phenomenological study, qualitative data obtained by interviewing 10 Year 4 medical students from various socio-cultural backgrounds were interpretively examined. One-to-one, semi-structured interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. The data were thematically organised and then analysed using a theoretical framework of three dimensions of learning, namely, cognitive, emotional and societal. Students still perceive autopsies as essential even in the context of self-directed learning. They identified a better understanding of anatomy and traumatology as the main cognitive benefits. At an emotional level students felt they had developed a degree of clinical detachment and would be better equipped to deal with issues surrounding death. Although socialisation influenced students' feelings about the autopsy, it did not detract from their appreciation of the educational value of the experience. The results support previous findings from both students, prior to curriculum reform, and medical educators who were canvassed for their opinions in relation to a modern curriculum. Besides the obvious cognitive advantages, educators should be mindful of the hidden curriculum that emanates from autopsies because it impacts on the development of professionalism and ethical behaviours of future medical practitioners.

  18. Forensic Odontology: A Boon to Community in Medico-legal Affairs.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, R

    2016-01-01

    Forensic odontology is a sub-discipline of dental science which involves the relationship between dentistry and the law. The specialty of forensic odontology is applied in radiographic investigation, human bite marks analysis, anthropologic examination and during mass disasters. Besides the fact that radiographs require pretentious laboratory, it is still claimed to be a facile, rapid, non-invasive method of age identification in the deceased. The budding DNA technology has conquered the traditional procedures and currently being contemplated as chief investigating tool in revealing the hidden mysteries of victims and suspects, especially in hopeless circumstances. Forensic odontology has played a chief role in solving cold cases and proved to be strong evidence in the court of law. Systematic collection of dental records and preservation of the same would marshal the legal officials in identification of the deceased. To serve the forensic operation and legal authorities, dental professionals need to be familiar with the basics of forensic odontology, which would create a consciousness to preserve the dental data. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the vital applications of forensic odontology in medico-legal issues. Conjointly the recent advancements applied in forensic human identification have been updated.

  19. [Medico-economic analysis of a neurosurgery department at a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Lemaire, J-J; Delom, C; Coste, A; Khalil, T; Jourdy, J-C; Pontier, B; Gabrillargues, J; Sinardet, D; Chabanne, A; Achim, V; Sakka, L; Coste, J; Chazal, J; Salagnac, A; Coll, G; Irthum, B

    2015-02-01

    Economic and societal constraints require to take into account the economic dimension and medical performance of hospital departments. We carried out a self-assessment study, which we thought could be useful to share with the neurosurgical community. Care and research activities were assessed from 2009 to 2013. We used institutional and assessment-body parameters in order to describe activities and perform a financial evaluation. It was a retrospective descriptive study based on the guidelines of the DHOS/O4 circular No. 2007/390 of October 29, 2007. The average annual, analytic income statement was +1.39 millions euros, for 63 beds with a 92% occupancy rate, including 6.7 full-time equivalent neurosurgeons (and assistants), for 2553 patients and 1975 surgeries. The average mortality rate was 2.74%. The annual mean length of stay was 6.82 days. Per year, on average 15.6% of patients were admitted in emergency and 76.9% returned home. The annual, act-related-pricing and publication-related incomes represented 77% and 0.6%, respectively of the total funding. Difficulties to find downstream beds for the most severe patients induced 1401 "waiting days" in 2012. Medico-economic analysis of a neurosurgery department at a university hospital was useful in order to take into account the care, teaching and research activities, as well as its related financial value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatal Clostridium perfringens septicemia suggested by postmortem computed tomography: A medico-legal autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Makino, Yohsuke; Chiba, Fumiko; Motomura, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Go; Yajima, Daisuke; Iwase, Hirotatro

    2015-08-01

    We report a fatal case of suspected Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens septicemia in a previously healthy woman in her eighties. At first, she presented at the hospital complaining of upper abdominal discomfort and vomiting, and was discharged the next day after ruling out any fatal conditions. However, her condition deteriorated approximately 10h after discharge and she died shortly after. The postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) performed 29h postmortem revealed an excessive systemic gas accumulation compared with the postmortem external appearance and time elapsed since her death, which suggested the presence of a gas-forming infection. Histopathological examination showed diffuse proliferation of Gram-positive bacilli in almost all the organ tissues, especially in blood vessels. Along with these findings, hyperthermia 3h postmortem, and severe anemia and thrombocytopenia without an obvious site of hemorrhage suggested hemolysis due to Cl. perfringens septicemia. These findings suggested the diagnosis before performing the conventional autopsy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe PMCT findings of gas-forming infection and septicemia in contrast with the external appearance and histopathological findings in a medico-legal autopsy setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Medico-economic evaluation of treatment of inguinal hernia: Shouldice vs. laparoscopy].

    PubMed

    Damamme, A; Samama, G; D'Alche-Gautier, M J; Chanavel, N; Bréfort, J L; Le Roux, Y

    1998-01-01

    Between May 1994 and September 1995, 64 men were included in a randomized prospective study comparing conventional Shouldice repair (S group) and transperitoneal laparoscopic repair with polypropylene mesh (L group). Cost evaluation was divided into distinct parts: drugs, non usable surgical materials, medico-technical procedures food and employees costs. In group S, mean operating time was 56', total cost was 3,922 FF in the case of unilateral hernia and 4,808 FF and respectively 77' in the case of bilateral hernia. In group L, mean operative time was 89', total cost 8,949 FF (disposable trocars) and 7,136 FF (non-disposable trocars) in the case of unilateral hernia and 116', 9,570 FF and 7,763 FF in case of bilateral hernia. Postoperative stay was 4.2 days in group S and 4 days in group L. Return to work was 28.6 days in group L and 35.5 days in group S (ns). In conclusion laparoscopic hernia repair does not decrease post operative pain, hospital stay and return to work, but is twice as expensive.

  2. Quality of Life and Medico-Legal Implications Following Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Deepak; Psaltis, Emmanouil; Scholefield, John H; Lobo, Dileep N

    2017-01-01

    In this review we aimed to evaluate quality of life after bile duct injury and the consequent medico-legal implications. A comprehensive English language literature search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index and Google™ Scholar databases for articles published between January 2000 and April 2016. The last date of search was 11 April 2016. Key search words included bile duct injury, iatrogenic, cholecystectomy, prevention, risks, outcomes, quality of life, litigation and were used in combination with the Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT. Long-term survival after bile duct injury is significantly impaired (all-cause long-term mortality approximately 21 %) along with the quality of life (especially psychological/mental state remains affected). Bile duct injury is associated with high rates of litigation. Monetary compensation varied from £2500 to £216,000 in the UK, €9826-€55,301 in the Netherlands and $628,138-$2,891,421 in the USA. Bile duct injuries have profound implications for patients, medical personnel and healthcare providers as they cause significant morbidity and mortality, high rates of litigation and raised healthcare expenditure.

  3. The role of fillers in aesthetic medicine: medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, E; Montanari Vergallo, G; Reale, G; di Luca, A; Catarinozzi, I; Napoletano, S; Zaami, S

    2016-11-01

    In recent years there has been an exponential increase of fillers use in aesthetic medicine. The popularity of this anti-wrinkle product is based on their capacity to offer significant improvement in the aesthetic field, particularly to skin rejuvenating processes with non-invasive and less expensive techniques, if compared to the surgical methods (i.e. surgical lifting). The great number of fillers on the market is composed of a large heterogenic number of biomaterials. The aim of this review was to provide an overview and a classification of the filling materials that are most commonly used. A synthesis of the literature concerning fillers and related side effects was also reported. The law decree no. 23 of 1998, converted in the law no. 94 of 1998 and the principal judgments of the Italian Court of Cassation have been examined with the medico-legal issues related to fillers use in medicine. With respect to their degradation, filler materials may be classified as temporary (degradable), semi-permanent and permanent (not degradable). The temporary fillers such as hyaluronic acid and collagen are completely degraded by the surrounding tissue in a few months. The permanent fillers, such as the ones derived from silicon oil and minerals are not biodegradable and may cause serious and irreversible side effects. Their use requires a physician with a high level of specialization to perform the treatment, a deep knowledge of face anatomy and a great degree of experience.

  4. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions.

  5. The use of a medico economic database as a part of French apheresis registry.

    PubMed

    Kanouni, T; Aubas, P; Heshmati, F

    2017-02-01

    An apheresis registry is a part of each learned apheresis society. The interest in this is obvious, in terms of knowledge of the practice of apheresis, adverse events, and technical issues. However, because of the weight of data entry it could never be exhaustive and some data will be missing. While continuing our registry efforts and our efforts to match with other existing registries, we decided to extend the data collection to a medico-economic database that is available in France, the Programme de Médicalisation du Système d'Information (PMSI) that has covered reimbursement information for each public or private hospital since 2007. It contains almost all apheresis procedures in all apheresis fields, demographic patient data, and primary and related diagnoses, among other data. Although this data does not include technical apheresis issues or other complications of the procedures, its interest is great and it is complementary to the registry. From 2003-2014, we have recorded 250,585 apheresis procedures, for 48,428 patients. We showed that the data are reliable and exhaustive. The information shows a perfect real life practice in apheresis, regarding indications, the rhythm and the duration of apheresis treatment. This prospective data collection is sustainable and allows us to assess the impact of healthcare guidelines. Our objective is to extend the data collection and match it to other existing databases; this will allow us to conduct, for example, a cohort study specifically for ECP.

  6. Deaths on board ships assisted by the Centro Internazionale Radio Medico in the last 25 years.

    PubMed

    Grappasonni, Iolanda; Petrelli, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Data on occupational diseases of seafarers and of causes of death during their career are sparse. The causes of deaths on board ships assisted by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM), the Italian Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) were reviewed by examining 29,146 files of patients treated from 1986 to 2010. In the 25 years, 383 deaths occurred (1.31%). Diseases of the circulation were the most frequent, followed by external causes such as accidents and violence, infectious and parasitic diseases, alcohol and drug addiction, respiratory system diseases. Cardiovascular and external causes were the principal causes of deaths among seafarers. This investigation is the first study on the causes of death on board ships obtained from data of a maritime telemedical centre, that has assisted seafarers when they were alive or immediately after their death. The fact that diseases of the circulatory system are the first cause of death of sailing seafarers deserves specific initiatives. They should include campaigns for adequate lifestyles and the availability on ships of medical devices useful for diagnostic purposes, resuscitation as well as for verification of death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of victims of violence admitted to a specialized medico-legal unit in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hofner, Marie-Claude; Burquier, Raphaelle; Huissoud, Thérèse; Romain, Nathalie; Graz, Bertrand; Mangin, Patrice

    2009-07-01

    To improve care and services to victims of interpersonal violence, a medico-legal consultation unit was set up at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland in 2006. Adult victims of violence are referred to the consultation by the emergency department. Patients are received by forensic nurses for support, forensic examination and community orientation. A descriptive study of medical reports filled for the 2006 population was conducted in 2007 with the aim to explore characteristics of this specific population and to better orient prevention. Among the 422 patients in 2006, 57% were men and 43% women, with a median age of 31 years old. Violent episodes took place in a public place for 90% of male victims and at home for 70% of female victims. The perpetrators were mostly unknown to male victims (62% of all men victims) and mostly known (usually the partner or a former partner) to female victims (90% of all women victims). For 80% of the women and 47% of the men, the violent event which brought them to the consultation, was not the first one. Because 90% of all patients under study were victimized by men., not only is it necessary to target prevention program to match the potential victims, prevention messages must also focus on potential offenders, especially on young men.

  8. [The possibility of medico-legal opinionating on medical error in cases of waived postmortem examination].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    For several years now, with the introduction of the health care sector reform we have been observing a considerable drop in the number of postmortem examinations performed in patients who died in hospitals. The decrease amounts to as much as 50 to 70%. This is undoubtedly a consequence of financial restrictions imposed on the management of these inpatient facilities. On the other hand, Departments of Forensic Medicine established to evaluate the so-called medical errors are swamped with an increasing avalanche of complaints concerning the appropriateness of therapeutic management. This leads to a growing number of orders from penal prosecution and jurisdiction agencies with requests for assessment whether a medical error has been committed in a particular case. The result of a postmortem examination is practically the only basis for a factual evaluation of a given case. When no autopsy has been performed, the experts are virtually helpless, and in the majority of such instances, they are forced to refuse passing an expert opinion. The report presents basic principles of medico-legal opinionating in criminal cases (including proceedings pertaining to medical errors), the rules governing the medical error assessment, as well as problems encountered in evaluating the appropriate course of treatment when a post mortem examination has been waived.

  9. [Medico-legal opinionating in cases of medical errors in declaration of death].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Drozd, Radosław

    2007-01-01

    Declaration of death is a diagnosis and it has legal consequences. While declaring death, there is a possibility of committing a medical error. The majority of irregularities in declaring an individual dead occur in emergency situations. When a physician declares death, he is released from the professional obligation of saving the individual's life. The studies were based on the results of medico-legal evaluations in criminal cases in medical errors. In case death is erroneously declared, we may face a situation of squandering the chance of saving the life of a human being. Exposure to loss of life or to severe detriment to health are possible charges here, along with failure to offer medical assistance, although a deliberate character of the offence according to article 162 of the Polish penal code renders such a legal qualification dubious in case of medical errors. In both cases verification is needed whether an interest protected by law was still in existence, i.e. whether the individual was still alive when the physician incorrectly declared him dead.

  10. Accidents on board merchant ships. Suggestions based on Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) experience.

    PubMed

    Napoleone, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This statistical study was performed to find out the occurrence of accidents on board ships assisted by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) during the years 2010-2015, with the aim of providing suggestions in accident prevention, based on such a wide experience. The case histories of CIRM in the years 2010-2015 were examined. The total number of accidents per year was calculated and compared as a percentage with the total number of cases assisted by CIRM per year. The incidence of accidents on board in these years ranged between 14.4% and 18.4% of total cases assisted per year, which is constantly increasing. The most common injuries on board among cases treated by CIRM were contusions and wounds. Also burns and eye injuries were significantly represented. Multiple injuries and head injuries were found to be the most frequent cause of death on board due to an accident. More information on the occurrence and type of accidents and on the body injured areas should represent the basis for developing strategies and campaigns for their prevention.

  11. [Selected medico-legal problems in cases of poisoning with substances of abuse].

    PubMed

    Kłys, M; Klementowicz, W; Trela, F

    1997-01-01

    In toxicological examinations of substances of abuse with respect to medico-legal purposes many problems have been discussed. A selection of biological material and proper analytical methods in confrontation with interpretation of results in reference to the subject in question seems to be a central toxicological issue. Blood and urine samples are usually used in cases of human. The problem is more complicated if it concerns dead subjects on the account of postmortem processes in a body. From this point of view, in fatal cases of poisonings experience proves, besides blood and urine also other body fluids such as: cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous humor, perilymph and bile turned out to be usefull for examinations of various xenobiotics. The analytical methods (FPIA, HPLC, GC-MS) have been used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation in wide range of xenobiotic concentration in biological matrix. Interpretation of the results including such problems as toxic interaction, metabolism, data base has been discussed in the study on the basis of intoxication cases with substances of abuse.

  12. Das Zwillingsparadoxon: Gedankenexperimente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genz, Henning

    2002-09-01

    Das vermeintliche Zwillingsparadoxon ist ein Gedankenexperiment mit einem Zwillingspaar: Ein Zwilling reist mit hoher Geschwindigkeit von der Erde weg und kehrt nach einiger Zeit zurück, sein Partner bleibt auf der Erde. Dabei altert der Reisende langsamer als der Ruhende - warum nicht umgekehrt? Ein Vergleich von Uhren, die sich mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit bewegen, zeigt: Der Effekt hängt nur von Geschwindigkeiten und nicht von Beschleunigungen ab. Er beruht also allein auf der Speziellen Relativitätstheorie. Tauschen die Zwillinge in regelmäßigen Abständen Lichtsignale aus, können sie ihr asymmetrisches Altern sogar in Zeitschritten mitprotokollieren.

  13. Das Allgemeine Statistische Archiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Horst

    Das Allgemeine Statistische Archiv1, nachfolgend kurz Archiv genannt, ist die älteste, ausschließlich der Statistik gewidmete deutschsprachige wissenschaftliche Fachzeitschrift. Sie ist gut zwanzig Jahre älter als die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft, zu deren Publikationsorgan sie mit der Gründung der Gesellschaft im Jahre 1911 wurde. Zeitschrift und Gesellschaft blicken auf eine sehr wechselvolle, aber erfolgreiche gemeinsame Geschichte zurück. Die wissenschaftliche Arbeit der Gesellschaft ist im Archiv und seinen Sonderheften für nachfolgende Generationen dokumentiert.

  14. Medico-Legal Findings, Legal Case Progression, and Outcomes in South African Rape Cases: Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Christofides, Nicola; Vetten, Lisa; Jina, Ruxana; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2009-01-01

    Background Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. Methods and Findings We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771), 14% (209) of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31) of adults and 7% (44) of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22) of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's) going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87–18.13, p = 0.003). In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14–34.3, p = 0

  15. An algorithm to identify patients with treated type 2 diabetes using medico-administrative data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background National authorities have to follow the evolution of diabetes to implement public health policies. An algorithm was developed to identify patients with treated type 2 diabetes and estimate its annual prevalence in Luxembourg using health insurance claims when no diagnosis code is available. Methods The DIABECOLUX algorithm was based on patients' age as well as type and number of hypoglycemic agents reimbursed between 1995 and 2006. Algorithm validation was performed using the results of a national study based on medical data. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were estimated. Results The sensitivity of the DIABECOLUX algorithm was found superior to 98.2%. Between 2000 and 2006, 22,178 patients were treated for diabetes in Luxembourg, among whom 21,068 for type 2 diabetes (95%). The prevalence was estimated at 3.79% in 2006 and followed an increasing linear trend during the period. In 2005, the prevalence was low for young age classes and increased rapidly from 40 to 70 for male and 80 for female, reaching a peak of, respectively 17.0% and 14.3% before decreasing. Conclusions The DIABECOLUX algorithm is relevant to identify treated type 2 diabetes patients. It is reproducible and should be transferable to every country using medico-administrative databases not including diagnosis codes. Although undiagnosed patients and others with lifestyle recommendations only were not considered in this study, this algorithm is a cheap and easy-to-use tool to inform health authorities. Further studies will use this tool with the aim of improving the quality of health care dedicated to diabetic patients in Luxembourg. PMID:21492480

  16. [Sudden death secondary to acute aortic syndromes in the North of Portugal: medico-legal study].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro Costa; Santos, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    An evaluation is presented on the clinical, pathological and sociodemographic characteristics of a sample of sudden death victims secondary to an Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS) in the north of Portugal, submitted to medico-legal autopsy, during the period between January 2008 and December 2012. Autopsy reports were analyzed in which, through necropsy and histological examination, the confirmed cause of death was an Acute Aortic Syndrome. From the studied cases, 70.3% of the victims were male. The median age was 65,19 ± 14,35 years (minimum of 27 years and maximum of 88 years). Death occurred mainly at home (40,5%) and during the normal activities of daily living (43,1%). There was an history of prodromes in 64,9% of the cases, mainly syncope and pain or respiratory symptoms. In 62,2% of the cases no pain history was reported. In the internal examination three presentation forms were identified: cardiac tamponade (51,4%); hemotorax (16,2%) and intra-abdominal bleeding (32,4%). The occurence of an Acute Aortic Syndrome was related to an aneurysmatic formation in 81% of the cases. Atherosclerotic plaques were identified in 51,4% of the cases and left ventricular hypertrophy was identified in 54,1%. None of the victims had a family history of aortic pathology and 54,1% of them presented a history of arterial hypertension. Necropsy data analysis of sudden death victims allows a better understanding of the AAS presentation, thus complementing the existent clinical studies. This work reveals how forensic medicine can be a privileged medium for articulation with clinical practice.

  17. Resins and Gums in Historical Iatrosophia Texts from Cyprus - A Botanical and Medico-pharmacological Approach.

    PubMed

    Lardos, Andreas; Prieto-Garcia, José; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explores historical iatrosophia texts from Cyprus from a botanical and medico-pharmacological point of view focusing on remedies containing resins and gums. The iatrosophia are a genre of Greek medical literature of Byzantine origin and can be described as medicine handbooks which serve as therapeutic repositories containing recipes or advice. To extract and analyze information on plant usage in such sources - which are largely unedited texts and so far have not been translated - we investigate (i) the relationship of the iatrosophia to Dioscorides' De Materia Medica as well as historic pharmaceutical books or standard texts on modern phytotherapy and (ii) the validity of the remedies by comparing them to modern scientific data on reported biological activities. In the six texts investigated 27 substances incorporating plant exudates are mentioned. They are obtained from over 43 taxa of higher plants and in particular are used to treat dermatological, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tract conditions. The comparison to historic pharmaceutical books and phytotherapy texts reflects the gradual decline of the use of plant exudates in Western medicine. While remarkable parallels to Dioscorides' text exist, the non-Dioscoridean influence suggests a complex pattern of knowledge exchange. Overall, this resulted in an integration of knowledge from so far poorly understood sources. The comparison with bioscientific data reveals a fragmentary picture and highlights the potential of these unexplored substances and their uses. Where relevant bioscientific data are available, we generally found a confirmation. This points to a largely rational use of the associated remedies. Taken together, the iatrosophia are a valuable resource for ethnopharmacological and natural product research. Most importantly they contribute to the understanding of the development of herbal medicines in the (Eastern) Mediterranean and Europe.

  18. Medico-economic study of the management of hepatocellular carcinoma by chemo-embolization.

    PubMed

    Clouet, J; Audureau, D; Lefranc, B; Maillard, N; Guilé, R; Frampas, E; Perret, C; Grimandi, G

    2014-04-01

    This study has two aims. The first is to compare conventional lipiodol chemo-embolization (Trans Arterial Chemo-Embolization - TACE) to one using pre-loaded particles (Trans Arterial Chemo-Embolisation-Drug Eluted Bead - TACE-DEB) using a cost minimization study. The second is to define the fundable nature of TACE-DEB and the conditions under which it is cost-effective. Retrospective study of patients treated by chemo-embolization (n=31: TACE; n=32: TACE-DEB) during the year 2010. The cost minimization study was conducted from the hospital perspective. Direct medical costs were calculated and compared using the readjusted ENCC (National Studies of Costs by Common Methodology) method. The affordability of the two techniques and definition of a cost-effective hypothesis (break-even point) were also established. All DRGs combined, lengths of stay (TACE: 4.90 ± 3.36; TACE-DEB: 5.03 ± 3.36) does not change significantly. An average upper mean cost for TACE-DEB is described (TACE: 2869.05 €; TACE-DEB: 3960.10 €). The affordability calculations in the study show that, overall, TACE-DEB can be funded regardless of DRG. A ratio of 1.3 procedures using the conventional (TACE) method would enable TACE-DEB procedures to be funded. This medico-economic analysis demonstrates that the TACE-DEB procedure is fundable. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of medico-legal findings on charge filing in cases of rape in adult women.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Stene, Lise E; Myhre, Arne K; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2011-11-01

    To assess the impact of the medical documentation and biological trace evidence in rape cases on the legal process. Retrospective descriptive study. Police-reported cases of rape of women ≥16 years old in the Norwegian county of Sør-Trøndelag from January 1997 to June 2003. Police data were merged with data from the Sexual Assault Center at St Olav's Hospital. Charged and non-charged cases were compared. Medico-legal findings and legal outcome. A total of 185 police-reported cases were identified. Of the 101 cases examined at Sexual Assault Center, charges were filed in 18 cases. Extragenital injuries were documented in 49 women; five were life threatening. Anogenital injuries were documented in 14 women; eight had multiple anogenital injuries. Documentation of injuries was not associated with charge filing. In only 33% of the cases were swabs collected from women's genitals used as trace evidence by the police. When used, this increased the likelihood for charge filing. A DNA profile matching the suspect was identified in four of the 18 charged cases and in only one among the 54 non-charged cases. Half of the women had one or more documented injury. Only one-third of the trace evidence kits collected from the women's anogenital area were analyzed. The analysis of swabs was associated with charge filing, regardless of test results. Increased use of such medical evidence, especially in cases of stranger rape, may ensure women's rights and increase available information to the legal system. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Identification of Muscidae (Diptera) of medico-legal importance by means of wing measurements.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Ogiela, Jakub; Tofilski, Adam

    2017-03-16

    Cadavers attract numerous species and genera of Muscidae, both regular elements of carrion insect assemblages, and accidental visitors. Identification of adult Muscidae may be considered difficult, particularly by non-experts. Since species identification is a vital first step in the analysis of entomological material in any forensic entomology orientated experiment and real cases, various alternative methods of species identification have been proposed. We investigated possibility of semiautomated identification by means of wing measurements as an alternative for classic morphology and DNA-based approaches. We examined genus-level identification success for 790 specimens representing 13 genera of the most common European cadavers visiting Muscidae. We found 99.8% of examined specimens correctly identified to the genus-level. Without error, the following were identified: Azelia, Eudasyphora, Graphomya, Hydrotaea, Musca, Muscina, Mydaea, Neomyia, Polietes, Stomoxys and Thricops. Genus-level misidentifications were found only in Helina and Phaonia. Discrimination of examined material on the species level within Hydrotaea (318 specimens representing eight species) and Muscina (163 specimens representing four species) showed lower, yet still high average identification success, 97.2 and 98.8%, respectively. Our results revealed relatively high success in both genus and species identification of Muscidae of medico-legal importance. Semiautomated identification by means of wing measurements can be used by non-experts and does not require sophisticated equipment. This method will facilitate the identification of forensically relevant muscids in comparison to more difficult and more time-consuming identification approaches based on taxonomic keys or DNA-based methods. However, for unambiguous identification of some taxa, we recommend complementary use of identification keys.

  1. [Medico-legal opinions in cases for annulment of testament. Part I. Characteristics of investigative material. Characteristics of testators].

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Klimberg, Aneta

    2007-01-01

    A very important issue in preparing medico-legal opinions is the establishment whether the devisor had the ability to bequeath at the date of preparing a testament. The subsequent loss of the ability of bequeathing does not have any impact on execution of the previously prepared testament. Experts who pass opinions in testament cases evaluate: 1) the testament itself and the circumstances of its preparation, excluding, however, the reliability of records, 2) statements obtained while interrogating witnesses (descriptions of daily life, motivation to bequeath), 3) medical records (files, case histories, discharge records). The investigative material consisted of judicial files in 73 testament cases referred to the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine (CDFM), University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, by courts from all over Poland in the period 1990-2005 for formulation of medico-legal opinions based on these documents. In 63.0% of cases, CDFM in Poznań was the first opinionating institution; in the remaining instances, previous medico-legal opinions had been given elsewhere; in six cases they were antagonistic. The investigative material included a predominant percentage (75.2%) of ordinary testaments (made before a notary and oligraphic) as opposed to 22% of informal testaments (oral only). Although in the majority of cases (67.2%) only one testament was drawn up, there were also instances (2.7%) where the devisor prepared as many as five testaments. The length of devisors survival following the drawing up of the final testament was generally short. In total, testaments not only in the oral form, but also made before a notary, were prepared by chronically ill individuals presenting with marked clinical symptoms, what was perceived by their family and caregivers as a sign of the imminent death. Hence, the testaments were often drawn up in a hospital room or in a notary office where the patient was taken between consecutive hospitalizations.

  2. [Medico-geographical analysis of the territory: the experience of research in the European North of Russia].

    PubMed

    Dushkova, D O

    2013-01-01

    Detailed analysis of medical-geographical peculiarities in the regions of the European North of Russia is presented Medico-geographical characteristics were revealed to impose certain restrictions on the economic development of the region and serve as prerequisites for the occurrence regional pathologies. The importance of such research to identify spatial patterns in changes in health indices in connection with the regional features and landscape-epidemiological situation has been shown. The main factors contributing to the occurrence and development of natural focal diseases caused by feral herd infections in the investigated area have been described

  3. Drug-related deaths with evidences of body packing: Two case reports and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Simone; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Straccamore, Marco; Umani Ronchi, Federica; De Mari, Guido Maria; Ciallella, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. For both cases, forensic examination and toxicological analysis of drug packages and biological samples were carried out. Authors also wants to highlight the main medico-legal issues that commonly arise in cases of suspected or ascertained body packers.

  4. Connecting the Dots in DAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Many institutions implement a distributed antenna system (DAS) as part of a holistic approach to providing better wireless coverage and capacity on campus. A DAS provides wireless service within a particular area or structure via a network of separate antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Because DAS…

  5. Connecting the Dots in DAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Many institutions implement a distributed antenna system (DAS) as part of a holistic approach to providing better wireless coverage and capacity on campus. A DAS provides wireless service within a particular area or structure via a network of separate antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Because DAS…

  6. [Total permanent or major permanent inability to work in profession. Remarks about the possibility of criteria verification in medico-legal opinionating in criminal cases].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Rygol, Krystian

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal proceedings have been established, there are still some areas that--parallel to changes occurring in contemporary society--have started to be controversial. This phenomenon has prompted the authors to attempt establishing new criteria for certification in total/major permanent inability to work in profession. This work is a continuation of a cycle devoted to interpretation of article 156 of the Penal Code to meet the needs of medico-legal opinionating.

  7. The medico-legal observation of an aggressive urogenital fibromatosis with isolated development not related to any traumatic event.

    PubMed

    Muccino, Enrico; Gentile, Guendalina; Mantero, Stefano; Marchesi, Matteo; Rancati, Alessandra; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Desmoid tumor is a fibroproliferative neoplasm with an intermediate malignancy and it can be localized in every bodily district: some locations are considered exceptional, like the urogenital localization. The Author point out a rare case of giant idiopathic scrotal fibromatosis that was found during an autopsy. A widower, that lived alone in poor hygienic conditions, was found dead in his house. The Judicial Authority ordered the autopsy, that was performed two days later at the Medico-Legal Section of Milan University. External examinations revealed only the considerable dimension of the scrotum (cm 24 × 41). The cause of death was fixed in a cardiac tamponade due to a natural heart laceration localized in correspondence of a transmural infarction. The toxicological exam resulted negative, while the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis qualify the scrotal mass as a desmoids tumor. Due to the absence of predisposing conditions and of fibroproliferative infiltration in bladder and retroperitoneal space, the neoplasm was configured as an idiopathic desmoid tumor. The presented case gives the reason for the discussion concerning medico-legal aspects that are typical of rare neoplasms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Remarks about the position of the medico-legal expert in imperative regulations in the Penal and Civil Codes].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    In the monograph 'Medico-legal opinions--essays on theory', prof. K. Jaegermann wrote that 'the use of an expert requires theoretical or fairly clear knowledge about the mutual relationship between judge and expert'. In his opinion knowledge of this kind plays a significant role in estimating the usefulness of so-called expert evidence. Practical knowledge about the relationship between the judge and expert is necessary but not a decisive condition not only for a lawyer to be a judge but also for a physician to be a medico-legal expert. An expert can be not only a person appointed by the court but must also possess proper knowledge in a particular field, namely, the required professional and specialist qualifications and must also considered to be impartial. On the basis of the analysis of law in force and imperative regulations in Penal and Civil Codes, the authors have presented remarks relating to the expert's status as well as the lack of judicial control over the activity of experts appointed by court. Verification of professional qualifications in court experts and a reduction of those appointed 'ad hoc' are suggested. In the authors opinion co-operation between lawyers and experts should be improved. It is also essential to introduce statutory legal protection of court experts as well as to undertake activities leading to equaling the status of Polish court experts to that of other European countries.

  9. A retrospective analysis of alcohol in medico-legal autopsied deaths in Pretoria over a 1 year period.

    PubMed

    Ehmke, Ursula; Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine du; Saayman, Gert

    2014-12-01

    The misuse of alcohol has a particularly detrimental effect and is one of the most significant public health problems in South Africa and it also has an impact on the criminal justice system with evidence of association between high levels of alcohol and risk-taking behaviour, committing crimes, or being a victim of crime. A global trend has been set worldwide with alcohol being one of the most common drugs found in post mortem specimens and especially with regard to cases admitted for medico-legal autopsies. The influence of alcohol on the cause of death is either a contributory or an underlying factor in a substantial number of violent deaths. We retrospectively reviewed 1455 cases, in which alcohol was taken, of 2344 medico-legal autopsies done in 2009. We found that 47% of the cases tested positive for alcohol, with the reported blood alcohol concentrations varying from 0.01 to 0.95g per 100ml (mean=0.16±0.11g per 100ml) with the highest proportion being in the 0.10-0.19g per 100ml range. A breakdown of the results showed that road traffic accidents, assaults and firearm-related deaths predominated the alcohol-positive cases. The results showed that there was a definite correlation between alcohol consumption and the incidence of other that natural deaths.

  10. General practitioners' preferences with regard to colorectal cancer screening organisation Colon cancer screening medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Papin-Lefebvre, Frédérique; Guillaume, Elodie; Moutel, Grégoire; Launoy, Guy; Berchi, Célia

    2017-09-06

    French health authorities put general practitioners at the heart of the colorectal cancer screening. This position raises organisational issues and poses medico-legal problems for the professionals and institutions involved in these campaigns, related to the key concepts of medical decisions and suitability of standards. The objective of our study is to reveal the preferences of general practitioners related to colorectal cancer screening organisation with regard to the medico-legal risk METHODS: A discrete choice questionnaire presenting hypothetical screening scenarios was mailed to 2114 physicians from 20 French different areas. The preferences of 358 general practitioners were analysed using logistic regression models. The factors that have significant impact on the preferences of general practitioners are the capacity of the primary care professional in the procedure, the manner in which pre-screening information is given to patients, the manner in which screening results are given to patients, the number of reminders sent to patients who test positive and who do not undergo a colonoscopy and the remuneration of the attending physician. Our results reveals that current colorectal cancer screening organisation is not adapted to general practitioners preferences. This work offers the public authorities avenues for reflection on possible developments in order to optimize the involvement of general practitioners in the promotion of cancer screening programme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2017-07-31

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  12. [Specific medico-social supports for drug-resistant partial epilepsies].

    PubMed

    Gonnaud, P-M

    2004-06-01

    While employment appears to be among major concerns for epileptic patients, these are confronted with a very high rate of unemployment, especially when epilepsy is pharmacoresistant. However, the persistence of seizures is not the only factor bearing on vocational training or employment; other factors may intervene as well: cognitive dysfunctions, psychological/behavioral disturbances, impact of AEDs, education, vocational training, family members and relatives' attitude, school teams' attitude, employers' attitude, occupational physicians' attitude. Educational level is lower when epilepsy started at school-age; persisting seizures together with other problems may lead the epileptic child or teenager to attend specialized schools. In France, there are few institutions dedicated to children or teenagers with severe epilepsy, and these are very unevenly distributed over the French territory. The main social measures regarding children with epilepsy in France are mentioned. Besides being seizure-free and able to drive, work is one major expectation of patients from epilepsy surgery. The results of epilepsy surgery regarding employment are somewhat controversial; in some studies, temporal lobe surgery may not raise the employment rate; other studies point out that operated-on patients need a long time (up to 6 years) to find a job after surgery. The vocational level or the previous work experiences appear to be as important factors for further employment as being seizure-free, a condition which may not be met in all favourable work outcomes. The medico-social support to patients with pharmacoresistant partial epilepsies has to deal with all the factors mentioned previously; the opportunity for epilepsy surgery may have to be considered early in order to try and prevent the detrimental impact of pharmacoresistant epilepsy on school achievement and vocational training; adult patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy often cumulate a low qualification level, an absence of

  13. Medico-economic evaluation of health products in the context of the Social Security Financing Act for 2012.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Ameye, Véronique; Angot, Pierre; Audry, Antoine; Becquemont, Laurent; Borel, Thomas; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Courtois, Jocelyn; Detournay, Bruno; Favre, Pascal; Granger, Muriel; Josseran, Anne; Lassale, Catherine; Louvet, Olivier; Pinson, Jean; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Rochaix, Lise; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine; de Saab, Rima; Schwarzinger, Mickaël; Sun, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    The participants in round table 6 of the Giens Workshops 2012 drafted recommendations based on the collective interpretation of important elements of the decree concerning the medico-economic evaluation of health products published a few days earlier (02 October 2012). The medico-economic evaluation (MEE), becomes an additional determinant for fixing the prices of health products by the Health products economic committee (Comité économique des produits de santé, CEPS) via the hierarchisation of treatment strategies, and thus modifies the market access conditions. Limiting the analysis to medicinal products and medical devices for which a major, important or moderate improvement in the medical service rendered (ASMR) or of the expected service (ASA) has been requested and presenting a significant budget impact on the Social Security expenses, excludes health products with ASMR or ASA with a lower level requested which often create complex price fixing problems and often have a major budget impact. This latter concept remains to be defined in detail. The MEE envisaged for the first registration must include the need to confirm or refute the initial hypotheses especially concerning the actual position in the therapeutic strategy at the time of renewal of the registration. For the first registration, the conventional reference to European prices guaranteeing a minimum price to innovative medicinal products, the medico-economic models submitted by the industry to the French Drug Authority (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) must be used to guide the compilation of new data to be requested at the time of the registration renewal and to negotiate the level of the discounts in the framework of a price-volume agreement, if applicable. The MEE will allow comparing the result of the analysis to the model hypothesis at the time of the renewal of the registration, which may contribute to the renegotiation (either up or down) of the price of health goods. The costs related to

  14. Risk management in clinical practice. Part 6b. Identifying and avoiding medico-legal risks in removable dentures.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, C

    2010-10-09

    The most likely cause of complaint with prosthodontics is a denture that in some way fails to be accepted. A denture that does not perform as the patient expects can give rise to great disappointment and anger. The problem is that acceptance of a denture is not just a technical issue. Success depends on the individual's ability to tolerate and adapt to the denture. It is therefore essential to make the right assessment for the patient from the outset. This includes discovering the patient's priorities and establishing realistic expectations. With the aim of assisting the dental profession in identifying and avoiding medico-legal risks in removable dentures, this article sets out a systematic, diagnostic and collaborative approach to complete and partial denture assessment and treatment.

  15. [Disturbance of the health--an attempt at interpreting the term. Part II--problems in medico-legal opinionating].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Interpretative problems are caused by the semantic definition of the term "disturbance of the health" and its usage in the law system context. Judicial decisions show that this term is employed to denote a functional, as well as mental detriment to the health that exceeds the individual's adaptative abilities. A review of medico-legal literature demonstrates various interpretations of the term, starting from general systemic disturbances to definitions allowing for objectivization of the injured person's complaints. The deliberations constitute an attempt at quantification of "disturbance of the health" and defining the upper and lower limits of the medium and slight detriment to the health. The results of the analysis allow for adopting a definition that permits to judge objectively the injured person's complaints and to determine the limits of the compensatory ability of his body.

  16. Analysis of 756 cases of sexual assault in Tours (France): medico-legal findings and judicial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Saint-Martin, Pauline; Bouyssy, Marie; O'Byrne, Patrick

    2007-10-01

    We describe the medico-legal findings in a population of sexual assault cases assessed in an urban French referral centre, analyse the subsequent legal dispositions in each case and determine whether the characteristics of the assault and the medico-legal findings were associated with conviction of the assailant. We performed a retrospective study of medicolegal reports in all the sexual assault cases reported in Tours (France) during a seven-year period. We defined two groups of victims: children under 15 years old and victims aged 15 years or more. Legal outcomes were obtained from courtroom proceedings. The relationship between the outcomes and the circumstances of the case was analyzed by logistic regression. We enrolled a total of 756 cases during the study period. The mean age of the study population was 16.5 years and 68.3% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. In 57% of these cases, the assailant was a family member. 31.7% of all the victims were aged 15 years or more. The assailant was an acquaintance of the victim in 62.2% of the cases. Drug-facilitated assault was suspected in 2.9% of the cases. In 46.2% of the cases, formal criminal charges were not filed due to insufficient evidence; 36.3% of the assailants were convicted. Examination at the request of the police authorities and previous acquaintance of the assailant by the victim were significantly associated with conviction. Allegations of penetration, the presence of general body trauma and the presence of genital trauma were not necessarily associated with conviction. Medical examiners need to be circumspect when they record non-medical variables. Physical evidence of trauma was neither predictive nor essential for conviction. Successful prosecution depends on the quality of the testimony provided by the victim.

  17. Visualizing sexual assault: an exploration of the use of optical technologies in the medico-legal context.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the visualization of sexual assault in the context of adult women. In investigating the production of visual evidence, we outline the evolution of the specialized knowledge of medico-legal experts and describe the optical technologies involved in medical forensic examinations. We theorize that the principles and practices characterizing medicine, science and the law are mirrored in the medico-legal response to sexual assault. More specifically, we suggest that the demand for visual proof underpins the positivist approach taken in the pursuit of legal truth and that the generation of such evidence is based on producing discrete and decontextualized empirical facts through what are perceived to be objective technologies. Drawing on interview and focus group data with 14 sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) in Ontario, Canada, we examine perceptions and experiences of the role of the visual in sexual assault. Certain of their comments appear to lend support to our theoretical assumptions, indicating a sense of the institutional overemphasis placed on physical damage to sexually assaulted women's bodies and the drive towards the increased technologization of visual evidence documentation. They also noted that physical injuries are frequently absent and that those observed through more refined tools of microvisualization such as colposcopes may be explained away as having resulted from either vigorous consensual sex or a "trivial" sexual assault. Concerns were expressed regarding the possibly problematic ways in which either the lack or particular nature of visual evidence may play out in the legal context. The process of documenting external and internal injuries created for some an uncomfortable sense of fragmenting and objectifying the bodies of those women they must simultaneously care for. We point to the need for further research to enhance our understanding of this issue.

  18. Medico-legal assessment of methamphetamine and amphetamine serum concentrations-what can we learn from survived intoxications?

    PubMed

    Weber, Marco; Lessig, Rüdiger; Richter, Carolin; Ritter, Axel P; Weiß, Ilona

    2017-05-16

    Medico-legal experts are increasingly enlisted to assess the methamphetamine and amphetamine serum concentrations after a criminal offense. However, since criminal users rarely provide useful information to medico-legal experts regarding the substances abused, when the substance(s) was/were used, dose of ingestion tools are needed to interpret the analytical data, which can be used as objective evidence in such cases. A comparative series of methamphetamine and amphetamine serum concentrations were used to analyze the frequency of concentrations, to determine methamphetamine/amphetamine concentration ratios, and prove them as a tool to distinguish pure methamphetamine from mixed amphetamine/methamphetamine ingestion. Additionally, two cases of survived accidental methamphetamine intoxication, resulting from ingestion smuggling which was longitudinally monitored, and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. In a series of 628 samples where the most frequent concentration of methamphetamine exceeded the therapeutic level, there was a strong correlation suggesting pure methamphetamine consumption, when the ratios of methamphetamine/amphetamine concentrations were within the range between 3 and 10. In the two cases of methamphetamine bodypacking, the relevant serum concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine, which could be measured up to 9 days after ingestion, indicated a decrease of the methamphetamine/amphetamine ratios in an exponential manner. However, the ratios were not always within the range between 3 and 10. Lastly, the course of the serum concentrations suggested an increase of the apparent elimination half-life of methamphetamine. In terms of the objective evidence required in criminal law, calculating methamphetamine/amphetamine concentration ratio is not a suitable to means to distinguish pure methamphetamine intake and that of mixed amphetamine/methamphetamine abuse in an individual case. Instead, methamphetamine high serum concentrations and

  19. MyDas, an extensible Java DAS server.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Gustavo A; García, Leyla J; Jones, Philip; Jimenez, Rafael C; Quinn, Antony F; Jenkinson, Andrew M; Mulder, Nicola; Martin, Maria; Hunter, Sarah; Hermjakob, Henning

    2012-01-01

    A large number of diverse, complex, and distributed data resources are currently available in the Bioinformatics domain. The pace of discovery and the diversity of information means that centralised reference databases like UniProt and Ensembl cannot integrate all potentially relevant information sources. From a user perspective however, centralised access to all relevant information concerning a specific query is essential. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) defines a communication protocol to exchange annotations on genomic and protein sequences; this standardisation enables clients to retrieve data from a myriad of sources, thus offering centralised access to end-users.We introduce MyDas, a web server that facilitates the publishing of biological annotations according to the DAS specification. It deals with the common functionality requirements of making data available, while also providing an extension mechanism in order to implement the specifics of data store interaction. MyDas allows the user to define where the required information is located along with its structure, and is then responsible for the communication protocol details.

  20. Padova Charter on personal injury and damage under civil-tort law : Medico-legal guidelines on methods of ascertainment and criteria of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Comandè, Giovanni; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernandez-Cueto, Claudio; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Mendelson, George; Montisci, Massimo; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Pinchi, Vilma; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Shokry, Dina A; Sterzik, Vera; Vermylen, Yvo; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Compensation for personal damage, defined as any pecuniary or non-pecuniary loss causally related to a personal injury under civil-tort law, is strictly based on the local jurisdiction and therefore varies significantly across the world. This manuscript presents the first "International Guidelines on Medico-Legal Methods of Ascertainment and Criteria of Evaluation of Personal Injury and Damage under Civil-Tort Law". This consensus document, which includes a step-by-step illustrated explanation of flow charts articulated in eight sequential steps and a comprehensive description of the ascertainment methodology and the criteria of evaluation, has been developed by an International Working Group composed of juridical and medico-legal experts and adopted as Guidelines by the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM).

  1. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a tool for the analysis of nonhuman skeletal remains in a medico-legal setting.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Joaquin; Mora, Esther; Rodriguez, Lucia; Muñoz, Mariela; Cantin, Mario G; Fonseca, Gabriel M

    2016-09-01

    To confirm the nature and forensic significance of questioned skeletal material submitted a medico-legal setting is a relatively common procedure, although not without difficulties when the remains are fragmented or burned. Different methodologies have been described for this purpose, many of them invasive, time and money consuming or dependent on the availability of the analytical instrument. We present a case in which skeletal material with unusual conditions of preservation and curious discovery was sent to a medico-legal setting to determine its human/nonhuman origin. A combined strategy of imagenological procedures (macroscopic, radiographic and cone beam computed tomography - CBCT-technology) was performed as non-invasive and rapid methods to assess the nonhuman nature of the material, specifically of pig (Sus scrofa) origin. This hypothesis was later confirmed by DNA analysis. CBCT data sets provide accurate three-dimensional reconstructions, which demonstrate its reliable use as a forensic tool.

  2. A clinical analysis of 500 medico-legal claims evaluating the causes and assessing the potential benefit of alternative dispute resolution.

    PubMed

    B-Lynch, C; Coker, A; Dua, J A

    1996-12-01

    1. To evaluate the common causes of medico-legal dispute in obstetrics and gynaecology. 2. To assess the potential benefit of early alternative dispute resolution. A prospective analysis of over 500 cases submitted from over 100 solicitors between 1984 and 1994 for medical expert opinion on potential medico-legal claims. Five hundred consecutive cases that met the inclusion criteria: 488 from the United Kingdom and 12 from abroad (Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland). The main principles underlining medico-legal disputes and causes of such claims. Analysis of 500 claims show 46% were misguided allegations, 19% incompetent care, 12% error of judgement, 9% lack of expertise, 7% failure of communication, 6% poor supervision and 1% inadequate staffing. Of the misguided allegations 119/225 cases (59%) were obstetric and 111/275 (40%) cases were gynaecological. The most common cause of obstetric dispute was "cerebral palsy' (22%), while the commonest cause of gynaecological dispute was failed sterilisation (19%). Settled claims were under-reported by solicitors. Because of the high percentage (46%) of misguided allegations, an alternative course of dispute resolution must be a realistic way forward. This course of action, combined with improved communication, could result in a major reduction in the costs of potential medical litigation. Early alternative dispute resolution should be considered in an attempt to reduce the escalating quantum of damages and costs. We recommend recruiting independent, experienced and unbiased consultants in active practice within the appropriate specialty to review such cases at the level of hospital complaints management as an in house review procedure, particularly for small and moderate-sized claims, as a means whereby doctors can retain control of medico-legal disputes, in contrast to control by the legal profession.

  3. [Clinical justification of medico-psychological care to the victims of technogenic accidents and catastrophes with prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms of non-psychotic register].

    PubMed

    Volobuev, V V

    2014-01-01

    In the article the clinical justification of medico-psychological care to the victims of technogenic accidents and catastrophes with prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms of non-psychotic register is described. The necessity of differentiated approach is analyzed in accomplishing of psychotherapy of this contingent of patients taking into account the high level of anxiety, emotional stress, decreased mood, low levels of the quality of life in the remote period of strong stressful factor's action.

  4. Severe acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis secondary to cholelithiasis as a rare cause of sudden unexpected death in medico-legal case: A case report.

    PubMed

    Srettabunjong, Supawon; Limgitisupasin, Wiratchaya

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an uncommon disease with a wide clinical course varying from mild and self-limiting to severe with eventual death. However, death caused by AP is rare. Most cases of AP reported in the English-language literature are based on clinical data; few are medico-legal studies. The author recently experienced a case of sudden unexpected death in a young man caused by extensive severe hemorrhagic AP secondary to cholelithiasis, not chronic alcoholism, which is a much more prominent etiology of AP in medico-legal perspectives. The deceased had complained of dizziness, nausea, and fatigue without significant abdominal pain for about 1 week and received some home medications for symptomatic treatment including an antibiotic drug from a clinic just 2 days prior to his death. He had complained of lower extremity weakness, intense thirst, and subsequently collapsed and was brought to a nearby hospital where he was pronounced dead shortly after his admission following unsuccessful advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts. This case is herein reported with an extensive review of the pertinent literature to highlight the findings of the case and raise awareness within the medico-legal profession and also the medical profession.

  5. [The role, objectives and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry].

    PubMed

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2009-01-01

    The underground hard coal-mining sector demonstrates one of the highest rates of fatal accidents, in spite of a decline in coal-mining over the last few years. Post-accidental investigations, including forensic medical expertise, continue to present a significant problem. The objective of the research was to evaluate the role, tasks and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry. The study was carried out retrospectively by investigating files and autopsy reports, with attention focusing on the scope of necessary activities and medico-legal examinations in order to determine the cause and manner of death, and on identification of fatalities, especially in the cases of collective occupational accidents. Complex medico-legal determinations (identification, autopsy), supplemented by additional investigations (toxicology, histopathology and hemogenetics) provide a valuable source of evidence for legal authorities and post-accidental commissions. Mutual cooperation of the experts representing various branches of science is the basis of executing appropriate procedures after a traumatic death in the coal mine.

  6. [Algorithms based on medico-administrative data in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, especially diabetes].

    PubMed

    Fosse-Edorh, S; Rigou, A; Morin, S; Fezeu, L; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Fagot-Campagna, A

    2017-10-01

    Medico-administrative databases represent a very interesting source of information in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The objective of this article is to describe the early works of the Redsiam working group in this field. Algorithms developed in France in the field of diabetes, the treatment of dyslipidemia, precocious puberty, and bariatric surgery based on the National Inter-schema Information System on Health Insurance (SNIIRAM) data were identified and described. Three algorithms for identifying people with diabetes are available in France. These algorithms are based either on full insurance coverage for diabetes or on claims of diabetes treatments, or on the combination of these two methods associated with hospitalizations related to diabetes. Each of these algorithms has a different purpose, and the choice should depend on the goal of the study. Algorithms for identifying people treated for dyslipidemia or precocious puberty or who underwent bariatric surgery are also available. Early work from the Redsiam working group in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases produced an inventory of existing algorithms in France, linked with their goals, together with a presentation of their limitations and advantages, providing useful information for the scientific community. This work will continue with discussions about algorithms on the incidence of diabetes in children, thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and amyloidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Remaking the medico-legal scene: a social history of the late-Victorian coroner in Oxford.

    PubMed

    Hurren, Elizabeth T

    2010-04-01

    There have been wide-ranging debates about medicine and the law encapsulated in the figure of the coroner in Victorian England. Recently the historical literature on coroners has been enriched by macro-studies. Despite this important research, the social lives of coroners and their daily interactions remain relatively neglected in standard historical accounts. This article redresses that issue by examining the working life of the coroner for Oxford during the late-Victorian era. Edward Law Hussey kept very detailed records of his time in office as coroner. New research material makes it feasible to trace his professional background, from doctor of the sick poor, to hospital house surgeon and then busy coroner. His career trajectory, personal interactions, and professional disputes, provide an important historical prism illuminating contemporary debates that occupied coroners in their working lives. Hussey tried to improve his medico-legal reach and the public image of his coroner's office by reducing infanticide rates, converting a public mortuary, and acquiring a proper coroner's court. His campaigns had limited success because the social scene in which he worked was complicated by the dominance of health and welfare agencies that resented his role as an expanding arm of the Victorian information state.

  8. Sudden perinatal death due to rupture of congenital cardiac diverticulum. Pathological findings and medico-legal investigations in malpractice charge.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Matteo; Boracchi, Michele; Gentile, Guendalina; Maghin, Francesca; Zoja, Riccardo

    2017-09-01

    Congenital diverticula of the left ventricle, very rare malformations, are determined by an abnormal embryonic development of the ventricular wall and can be isolated or associated to other cardiac anomalies. In most of the cases, these pathologies are not symptomatic and in some patients can be associated to ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac rupture with tamponade and sudden death. Authors are presenting the case of a sudden death in an 8-weeks-old newborn due to rupture of a cardiac congenital diverticulum of the left ventricle, discovered only at the moment of the autopsic examination. The parents of the victim pressed charges against the medical staff that was appointed to the cares, blaming them with malpractice. The missed diagnosis of a cardiac congenital diverticulum of the left ventricle, a rare pathology, reflects the trickiness of the medical management that can lead to medico-legal controversies and, even though such rare conditions must be always taken into consideration when investigating possible dysfunction causing the death, diagnostic difficulties, in the case in exam, justify the missed diagnosis intra-vitam of cardiac ventricular diverticulum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Alcohol and work: ethical-deontological and medico-legal remark upon the recent set of rules].

    PubMed

    Chiaravalli, M; Guzzetti, Laura; Tavani, M

    2007-01-01

    The Disposition of the Permanent Conference for the relation among the State, the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano, published in Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 75 on the 30th March 2006 the list of high-risk occupations under the influence of alcohol, activating de facto a previous law (Legge n. 125, 3017 march 2001, "Legge quadro in materia di alcol e di problemi alcolcorrelati"). We here present some ethical-deontological and medical-juridical profiles on the contents of this law and some consideration about its application. Particular attention is dedicated to deontological aspects about industrial safety rules and to medico-legal aspects about occupation under the influence of alcohol, with references to complex relations among worker's discretion right, employer's right to the protection of his own interests and qualified doctor's (or someone to him comparable) right to the respect for the deontological code, with regard to benefit recipient information before the medical treatment. Authors'purpose is to evidence critical points and interpretative ambiguities of a regulation lacking in its practical applications, to provide further proposals of consideration, available to revalue a thematic rich in questions and with a significant social impact.

  10. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) principles for on-site forensic and medico-legal scene and corpse investigation.

    PubMed

    Cusack, D; Ferrara, S D; Keller, E; Ludes, B; Mangin, P; Väli, M; Vieira, N

    2017-07-01

    Forensic medical practitioners need to define the general principles governing procedures to be used for the on-site examination of a body where the death has occurred in unnatural, violent or suspicious circumstances. These principles should be followed whenever a medical expert is required to perform an on-site corpse inspection and should be utilised as a set of general guidelines to be adapted to the specific situation in hand and interpreted using common sense and scientific knowledge of the relevant procedures and facts of the case. The aim of these principles is to ensure that forensic evidence at the scene of a death is properly observed and assessed and all necessary relevant evidence gathered in order to ensure that a comprehensive report is available to the judicial authority (investigating judge or coroner) in the justice system. The on-site corpse inspection by a forensic practitioner is a mandatory and essential stage of the forensic and medico-legal autopsy, as it may provide important information for subsequent investigation stages.

  11. Multidisciplinary cancer care in Australia: a national audit highlights gaps in care and medico-legal risk for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wilcoxon, Heidi; Luxford, Karen; Saunders, Christobel; Peterson, Janice; Zorbas, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Multidisciplinary care (MDC) is accepted as best practice in cancer treatment planning and care. Despite recognition of the importance of a team approach, limited data are available about the extent to which MDC has been implemented in Australia. The aim of the audit was to investigate the implementation of MDC for five main cancer types across Australia in line with best practice. A sample of 155 hospitals was surveyed to investigate the status of MDC for cancer treatment planning in Australia across five cancer types (breast, gynecological, lung, prostate and colorectal). The survey investigated team structure, meetings, patient consent, documentation of team recommendations and communication with the patient. Two-thirds of hospitals surveyed did not have a multidisciplinary team. Of those with such a team; in one-third patients were not informed their case would be discussed by the team, in half patient consent was not sought for all cases discussed by the team, in one-quarter the team's recommended treatment plan was not noted in the patient record. Less than 1% of teams reported routine attendance by the tumour-specific minimum core team. MDC is not being implemented in line with best practice or applied consistently across Australia. This audit has highlighted gaps in care delivery, despite national recommendations about MDC. Areas being neglected can affect the quality of care provided and may put clinicians at medico-legal risk. Recommendations to improve uptake and effectiveness of MDC are provided. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. An Appraisal of Decomposition Cases Received at the Johannesburg Forensic Pathology Service Medico-legal Mortuary During 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Craig A; Hill, Lawrence; Gordon, Guinevere M

    2016-03-01

    Decomposed bodies pose many questions for researchers regarding environmental effects, cause of death, and patterns. This study aimed to observe the factors associated with decomposed bodies autopsied at the Johannesburg Forensic Pathology Service Medico-legal Mortuary. A total of 4876 autopsies were conducted from 2010 to 2011, of which 109 were decomposed. Black individuals made up the largest proportion (67%) followed by White (26%). Males comprised 86.2%, while 12.8% were female. The mean age was 42.78 years. Most cases were in the early stages of decomposition (49.5%), with 32.1% bloated, 11.9% in active decay, 2.8% in advanced decay, and 3.7% were skeletal. Insect activity was identified in 25.7% of decomposition cases. Cause of death was determined in 48.6% of cases. Of all the cases, 64% were found indoors and 23% outdoors, while 23% had insufficient information regarding the location. Of considerable interest was the number of cases from hospitals and clinics.

  13. Trends in domestic animal medico-legal pathology cases submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Beverly J

    2012-09-01

    Pathologists at veterinary diagnostic laboratories receive medico-legal cases from a variety of animal species for postmortem examination. A search of computerized records of the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada from 1998 to 2010 identified 1706 medicolegal cases. These were categorized according to the history as criminal investigations, anesthetic-related deaths, insurance, litigation, malpractice cases, and regulatory cases. Statistically significant linear trends in the proportion of medicolegal cases for all animals and criminal cases for companion animals were identified over the 12 year period. Companion animals had significantly greater odds of being a medicolegal case in all categories except for insurance and regulatory cases, compared to noncompanion animals. Based on pathology reports for the 271 criminal cases, 43.1% were consistent with neglect, 29.2% were compatible with non-accidental injury, 4.80% were poisonings, 10.7% were deemed to be due to natural disease, and 11.43% were inconclusive. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. [Pharmacological, toxicological, deontologic, and medico-legal aspects of the use of appetite suppressant agents in "weight-loss cures"].

    PubMed

    Carolei, L; Ermio, G; Accorinti, N; Meo, G; Lamberti, V; De Sarro, G

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacological, deontologic and medico-legal aspects in the use of appetite suppressant drugs have been evaluated. Appetite suppressant drugs used in the treatment of obesity are divided into 2 broad pharmacological categories: those acting via brain catecholamine pathways and those acting via serotonin pathways. Of the former group, amphetamines and phenimetrazines are no longer used because of their stimulant properties and addictive potential. The remaining drugs of this group have some sympathomimetic and stimulant properties. Anorectic drugs which promote serotonin neurotransmission have no such stimulant or sympathomimetic properties. They reduce appetite and food intake and are effective in the treatment of obesity. If they are not used appropriately, appetite suppressants can be of no therapeutic benefit and cause marked health risks. As regards to anorectic drugs, the 13/4/1995 act "Rules and limits in preparing drugs containing anorectic substances", precisely defines rules about selling and use of those substances. Behavior of health care personnel neglecting observance of the rule, could be interpreted as "imprudence", "negligence" and "inexpertness" in designing and managing a fat-reducing diet, that may imply, in case of damage to the patient, a professional fault.

  15. Validity of medico-administrative data related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in France: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Rosario; Boumédiene, Farid; Couratier, Philippe; Nicol, Marie; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Marin, Benoit

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of French medico-administrative data concerning amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is to date unknown. We aimed to assess the validity of hospital discharge data (HDD) and health insurance data (HID) related to ALS. A retrospective population-based study was performed. The French register of ALS in Limousin (FRALim) was used as gold standard (2000-2013 period). All patients discharged from the regional hospitals with a 'G12.2' code in their HDD (according to the International Classification of Disease-10th version) or having a G12 HID code were considered. In the study period, the register included a total of 322 incident ALS patients. Among 451 subjects identified through HDD, 290 were true incident ALS cases, corresponding to 90.1% (95% CI 86.3-93.1) sensitivity and 64.3% (95% CI 59.7-68.7) positive predictive value (PPV). A total of 184 subjects were identified through HID, 142 of which were true ALS cases. This corresponded to 44.1% (95% CI 38.6-49.7) sensitivity and 75.5% (95% CI 68.7-81.5) PPV. The combination of both HDD and HID led to 93.8% (95% CI 90.6-96.2) sensitivity and 60.8% (95% CI 56.3-65.1) PPV. This study shows that French HDD and HID, even if combined, are not per se suitable for accurate and exhaustive direct identification of ALS cases.

  16. Comparison of the DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Ilker; Akcay-Yalbuzdag, Seniz; Ince, Bugra; Goksel-Karatepe, Altinay; Kaya, Taciser

    2015-07-01

    To compare the Disease Activity Score with 28 joint (DAS28) using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (DAS28-ESR) and DAS28 using C-reactive protein (CRP) (DAS28-CRP) with thresholds validated for DAS28-ESR in Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The DAS28 data of 112 patients with rheumatoid arthritis followed in a local outpatient clinic were used. First, the correlation between DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR and the correlation between their unique components ([0.36 × In (CRP + 1) + 0.96] and [0.70 × In (ESR)]) were analyzed. Second, a Bland-Altman plot was constructed for the evaluation of the level of agreement between DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR. Lastly, the agreement between these two methods was analyzed by κ coefficient. Although there was a strong correlation between DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR, the correlation between their unique components was fair. Although more than 95% of the point data fall between the upper and lower bounds of the limit of agreement, the percentage error (46%) was higher than the acceptable proportion of 30%. The κ coefficient of agreement between DAS28- ESR and DAS28-CRP with validated thresholds for DAS28-ESR was 0.42, which was close to the lower boundary for moderate agreement. The results of this study demonstrated that there is discordance between DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP with the validated thresholds for DAS28-ESR. Using the DAS28-CRP with threshold values validated for DAS28-ESR may lead to errors in the determination of disease activity and therefore may lead to errors in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Interpersonal violence in road rage. Cases from the Medico-Legal Center for Victims of Violence in Hamburg.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Joost-Levin; Pueschel, Klaus; Seifert, Dragana

    2016-04-01

    Aggressive behavior in traffic is a widespread phenomenon. Up to 90% of the population are involved in mild forms such as shouting or gesturing. More dramatic cases with injury to individuals affect at least 1100 people in the US annually. Certain factors such as a male sex, a young age and an urban residency have been identified to contribute to the likelihood of road rage. Central to this analysis is the determination of specific features regarding the conflicting parties, the crime scene and the injury pattern in violent offenses related to traffic. In a retrospective study spanning 10 years, cases of road rage-linked injuries were identified amongst patients at the Medico-Legal Center of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg, Germany. The data were digitized and then analyzed using descriptive statistics via SPSS. There are disproportionately large numbers of males (85.7%) and motorists (61.2%) amongst road rage perpetrators. Usually the conflicting parties have no prior relationship (89.7%). In 68.1% of the cases, the violence applied was exclusively physical. Objects were utilized in 31.0% of all cases, and in more than half (55.6%) of these cases the vehicle was used as a weapon. The resulting trauma in road rage is mostly blunt and applied to the face and the extremities. There are characteristic features regarding the demographics, time and place of incident, as well as severity and pattern of injury in road rage associated offenses. Identifying these factors may lead to appropriate measures in the reduction of road rage.

  18. Resins and Gums in Historical Iatrosophia Texts from Cyprus – A Botanical and Medico-pharmacological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lardos, Andreas; Prieto-Garcia, José; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explores historical iatrosophia texts from Cyprus from a botanical and medico-pharmacological point of view focusing on remedies containing resins and gums. The iatrosophia are a genre of Greek medical literature of Byzantine origin and can be described as medicine handbooks which serve as therapeutic repositories containing recipes or advice. To extract and analyze information on plant usage in such sources – which are largely unedited texts and so far have not been translated – we investigate (i) the relationship of the iatrosophia to Dioscorides’ De Materia Medica as well as historic pharmaceutical books or standard texts on modern phytotherapy and (ii) the validity of the remedies by comparing them to modern scientific data on reported biological activities. In the six texts investigated 27 substances incorporating plant exudates are mentioned. They are obtained from over 43 taxa of higher plants and in particular are used to treat dermatological, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tract conditions. The comparison to historic pharmaceutical books and phytotherapy texts reflects the gradual decline of the use of plant exudates in Western medicine. While remarkable parallels to Dioscorides’ text exist, the non-Dioscoridean influence suggests a complex pattern of knowledge exchange. Overall, this resulted in an integration of knowledge from so far poorly understood sources. The comparison with bioscientific data reveals a fragmentary picture and highlights the potential of these unexplored substances and their uses. Where relevant bioscientific data are available, we generally found a confirmation. This points to a largely rational use of the associated remedies. Taken together, the iatrosophia are a valuable resource for ethnopharmacological and natural product research. Most importantly they contribute to the understanding of the development of herbal medicines in the (Eastern) Mediterranean and Europe. PMID:21772820

  19. Opium alcaloids in toxicological medico-legal practice of Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata; Rojek, Sebastian; Maciów-Głab, Martyna; Kula, Karol

    2013-01-01

    Most likely, opium was the first narcotic substance discovered at the dawn of mankind. Contemporary drug abuse predominantly poses a social and clinical problem and encompasses among other aspects emergency procedures in cases of intoxication and treatment of addictions. On the other hand, this is also a problem of the judicial system, which implements the rule of apt punishment in criminal cases (rapes, robberies, drivers, production and trade in narcotic substances) and of the necessity of monitoring drug-associates deaths. In all drug-associated cases, investigative capabilities have increased with the introduction of extremely sensitive and specific analytical methods (GC-MS, LC/MS, HPLC/DAD) allowing for detection and identification of multi-component mixtures of xenobiotics found at low concentration levels in complex biological matrices. The history of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine dates back to the year 1877, since archival materials have been kept since that time. Isolated deaths resulting from morphine poisoning, mostly involving individuals employed in the health care sector, constituted the subject of medico-legal expert opinions starting at the beginning of the 20th century, but only the eighties did bring the need for multidirectional toxicological examinations of opiates and their metabolites in diversified biological and non-biological materials. The present report, in addition to the historical background of opiate addiction, discusses selected problems derived from published by Department reports on opiates, including cases of fatal intoxication, hair analysis of drug addicts in its various aspects, interactions in cases of poisoning and others.

  20. Comparison of injuries due to lethal weapons during and after civil strife in Sri Lanka: A medico-legal study

    PubMed Central

    Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha RRG; Ratnaweera, Ajith RHI

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: “Injuries due to lethal weapons” has emerged as a subject of public discussion in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to describe the nature and characteristics of injuries due to lethal weapons during civil strife and to compare those with injuries after civil strife. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients reported with injuries caused by lethal weapons from 2004 to 2014. Periods before and after May 19, 2009 were considered as during and after civil strife periods, respectively. A total of 21,210 medico-legal examination forms were studied. Results: There were 358 (1.7%) injuries caused by lethal weapons. Of them, 41% (n = 148) were during and 59% (n = 210) were after the civil strife. During civil strife, 63% occurred during daytime (P < 0.05). Types of lethal weapons that caused injuries were sharp weapons (n = 282), explosives (n = 49), and firearms (n = 27). Of them, 32% of during and 01% of after civil strife were explosive injuries (P < 0.01). Regarding severity, 73% of during and 57% of after civil strife injuries were severe (P < 0.05). During civil strife, 34% injuries were in lower limbs (P < 0.01) and after civil strife, 37% were in upper limbs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of many similarities indicated that both groups learnt their basis in a society that breeds violence. During civil strife, more injuries occurred during daytime, to lower limbs by explosive weapons and after the civil strife during nighttime, to upper limbs by nonexplosive weapons. Nonexplosive lethal weapon use after civil strife needs further investigation to develop evidence-based interventions. PMID:27127743

  1. Comparison of injuries due to lethal weapons during and after civil strife in Sri Lanka: A medico-legal study.

    PubMed

    Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha Rrg; Ratnaweera, Ajith Rhi

    2016-01-01

    "Injuries due to lethal weapons" has emerged as a subject of public discussion in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to describe the nature and characteristics of injuries due to lethal weapons during civil strife and to compare those with injuries after civil strife. A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients reported with injuries caused by lethal weapons from 2004 to 2014. Periods before and after May 19, 2009 were considered as during and after civil strife periods, respectively. A total of 21,210 medico-legal examination forms were studied. There were 358 (1.7%) injuries caused by lethal weapons. Of them, 41% (n = 148) were during and 59% (n = 210) were after the civil strife. During civil strife, 63% occurred during daytime (P < 0.05). Types of lethal weapons that caused injuries were sharp weapons (n = 282), explosives (n = 49), and firearms (n = 27). Of them, 32% of during and 01% of after civil strife were explosive injuries (P < 0.01). Regarding severity, 73% of during and 57% of after civil strife injuries were severe (P < 0.05). During civil strife, 34% injuries were in lower limbs (P < 0.01) and after civil strife, 37% were in upper limbs (P < 0.05). The presence of many similarities indicated that both groups learnt their basis in a society that breeds violence. During civil strife, more injuries occurred during daytime, to lower limbs by explosive weapons and after the civil strife during nighttime, to upper limbs by nonexplosive weapons. Nonexplosive lethal weapon use after civil strife needs further investigation to develop evidence-based interventions.

  2. Do medico-legal truths have more power than war lies? About the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    de la Grandmaison, G L; Durigon, M

    2001-10-01

    War crimes perpetrated during the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and in Kosovo prompted medicolegal investigations of mass graves as required by the International Criminal Tribunal (ICT). In spite of natural and methodological boundaries, these investigations were able to help to identify the victims and to discover the clues and evidence that are likely to support objectively the indictments brought by the ICT. However, the medico-legal data cannot explain everything. They should be exploited very carefully in order to avoid any error of interpretation.

  3. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  4. Data Acquisition System(DAS) Sustaining Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents general information describing the Data Acquisition System contract, a summary of objectives, tasks performed and completed. The hardware deliverables which are comprised of: 1) Two ground DAS units; 2) Two flight DAS units; 3) Logistic spares; and 4) Shipping containers are described. Also included are the data requirements and scope of the contract.

  5. [Medico-legal assessment of the injuries of fatal victims of building collapse at Katowice International Fair in Katowice/Chorzów on January 28, 2006].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Kobek, Mariusz; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Rygol, Krystian; Kabiesz-Neniczka, Stanisława; Skowronek, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    On January 28, 2006, during an exhibition of carrier pigeons, the roof of one of the buildings at Katowice International Fair collapsed. At the time of accident, there were 700 people in the building--65 died and 171 were injured. It was the biggest building disaster in the history of modern Poland. The aim of this study was to present the type (character) of the observed injuries, the cause of death of 48 fatal victims and the range of activities and medico-legal examinations performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. In the period of January 29-February 1, 2006, on February 14, 2006, and February 17, 2006, post-mortem examinations of the 48 deceased were carried out, and in some cases additional dissecting techniques were employed. During autopsies, numerous specimens for various additional examinations (histopathological, toxicological) were collected. For identification purposes, photographic material and specimens, necessary for genetic identification, were secured. Additionally, the bodies were identified by families. The post-mortem procedures eventually allowed for establishing the cause of death of all the victims. The authors emphasize the range of necessary medico-legal procedures and examinations that should be carried out in a Department of Forensic Medicine in case of a building collapse with a large number of fatalities in order to determine the type of injuries, cause and mechanism of death and to identify the deceased.

  6. A contextual analysis of nervous force in medico-scientific and literary writings in English of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the context of use of the term "nervous force," as it appears in scientific and literary publications in English over the course of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth century. The context of use, loss, or waste of nervous force and the context of nervous force as an expression of an attribute are analyzed in 189 scientific and 105 literary writings. Both contexts appeared in literary writings, where nervous force expresses the attributes of strength, forcefulness, vigor, or energy and use, loss or waste of nervous force explains such nonmorbid conditions as why someone is tired or needs rest. Only the context of use-loss-waste appeared in the medico-scientific literature, but here it explained both nonmorbid conditions (for example, effects of old age) and morbid conditions (like epilepsy). Changes in the number of these references give insights into the medico-scientific and the literary disciplines. Discussions include why nervous force is associated with explanation of disease, the persistence of its use in this capacity, and its influence on a similar use in literary writings.

  7. Organ retention and communication of research use following medico-legal autopsy: a pilot survey of university forensic medicine departments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 (63.2%). Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Child soldiers as zones of violence in The Democratic Republic of Congo: three cases of medico-legal evidence of torture.

    PubMed

    Guy, Kitwe Mulunda

    2009-01-01

    This article sets medico legal light on torture of three former child soldiers by comparing torture methods, consequences of torture and medical observations. It is focused on these child soldiers as representatives of the many abuses of children as soldiers in armed groups. The three persons were child soldiers during 12 years in The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as members of three different armed groups. They were exposed to armed conflict events, experienced torture, and participated in atrocities, sexual abuse and traditional rituals during their role in armed conflict. They were psychologically distressed with unhealthy physical and mental states. The principles for working with child soldiers are described. The model addresses basic items: The confluence of the dimensions of the items will determine the specifics of medico legal evidence of torture in child soldiers, taking into consideration inputs that are required at the macro, community and individual levels. A primary goal is to prevent violence from occurring in child soldiers. Thus, much more deliberate effort is made to address the underlying causes of recruitment of children in armed groups in DRC and to invest more resources in conflict resolution before there is an outbreak of violence. Peace education tends to be introduced too late and does little to alleviate the use of children in armed conflict in DRC.

  9. [Epidemiologic and medico-clinical aspects of the cholera outbreak in the Littoral department of Benin in 2008].

    PubMed

    Gbary, A R; Dossou, J P; Sossou, R A; Mongbo, V; Massougbodji, A

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine epidemiological and medico-clinical features of the cholera outbreak that occurred in the Littoral department of Benin in 2008. This cross-sectional descriptive analytic study was based on review of a total of 404 patient files. Study data included patient identity, clinical and therapeutic features and treatment outcome. Ten randomly selected patients participated in a focus group discussion. Decision-makers in charge of managing the outbreak and medical personnel that provided care were thoroughly debriefed and 10 affected areas were visited. Data were analyzed using EPI INFO 3.3.2 and EXCEL 2007. The outbreak started in Cotonou on 26 July 2008 and lasted for 21 weeks. Mean patient age was 23.72 +/- 14.80 years. Attack rates per district ranged from 15.86 to 172.98 per 100.000. Attack rates in Agbodjèdo, Hlacomey and Enagnon districts were significantly higher (p<10(-4)) than in other districts. The case fatality rate was 0.24 per 100. Crowded living conditions along the banks of the Cotonou lagoon along with poor sanitation and inadequate drinking water supply explain the endemicity of cholera in Cotonou. Vibrio cholerae O:1 was detected in 19 out of 36 stool samples. All strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacine but resistant to cotrimoxazole. Diarrhea was a consistent feature in all patients, along with vomiting in 88.11% and severe dehydration in 39.35%. Treatment involved oral rehydration, parenteral rehydration and antibiotherapy in 99.50%, 85% and 97.77% patients respectively. Antibiotherapy consisted of doxycycline for adult cases and amoxicilline for pregnant women and children. The duration of stay at the treatment center was significantly longer for patients with severe dehydration (p<10(-4)). Enhancing basic sanitation and access to drinking water and intensifying information campaigns on the need for healthy living behavior especially in districts located near the banks of Cotonou lagoon are needed to

  10. From stack-firing to pyromania: medico-legal concepts of insane arson in British, US and European contexts, c.1800–1913. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The second part of this paper1 explores deepening doubts about pyromania as a special insanity, British debates post-1890, and pyromania’s supplanting with the broader diagnostic category of insane incendiarism. It assesses the conceptual importance of revenge and morbid-motivations for arson, and the relationship of Victorian and Edwardian concepts of arson to more modern psychiatric research. The main objective is to ascertain the extent to which Victorian and Edwardian medico-psychologists and medical legists arrived at meaningful and workable definitions of criminal insanity linked to arson. It concludes by emphasizing the limitations, contentiousness and inconsistencies in the use of technical terms such as ‘pyromania’, contrasted with the qualified success of authorities in arriving at more viable and broadly acceptable explanations of insane firesetting. PMID:21877418

  11. Medico-economic evaluation of healthcare products. Methodology for defining a significant impact on French health insurance costs and selection of benchmarks for interpreting results.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Biot, Claire; Blachier, Corinne; Braun, Eric; Debroucker, Frédérique; Detournay, Bruno; Ferretti, Carine; Granger, Muriel; Jouan-Flahault, Chrystel; Lussier, Marie-Dominique; Meyer, Arlette; Muller, Sophie; Pigeon, Martine; De Sahb, Rima; Sannié, Thomas; Sapède, Claudine; Vray, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Decree No. 2012-1116 of 2 October 2012 on medico-economic assignments of the French National Authority for Health (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) significantly alters the conditions for accessing the health products market in France. This paper presents a theoretical framework for interpreting the results of the economic evaluation of health technologies and summarises the facts available in France for developing benchmarks that will be used to interpret incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. This literature review shows that it is difficult to determine a threshold value but it is also difficult to interpret then incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) results without a threshold value. In this context, round table participants favour a pragmatic approach based on "benchmarks" as opposed to a threshold value, based on an interpretative and normative perspective, i.e. benchmarks that can change over time based on feedback.

  12. Medico-Artistic Complicities on Swedish Stages: The Boys in the Band and the Regulation of Gay Male Representation in the Welfare State.

    PubMed

    Gindt, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to understand the highly unfavorable conditions for the development of gay male theater in Sweden, this essay engages in a historical study of the national opening of Mart Crowley's The Boys in the Band at Malmö City Theatre in 1970. Propelled by a Foucauldian-inspired theoretical approach, it identifies the subtle, yet highly effective, measures of control that the, at the time, social democratic welfare state exercised over representations of homosexuality on stage. State representatives, who complied with the official political and medical doctrine that homosexuality was a mental illness and posed a potential threat to social stability, interfered at various levels of the production, including the rehearsal process and post-performance talks between cast members and audiences. This alliance between Swedish theaters and members of the medical, psychological, and sexological professions constituted a medico-artistic complicity that supervised and regulated early attempts of gay representation on stage.

  13. Unusual suicide in Italy: criminological and medico-legal observations-a proposed definition of "atypical suicide" suitable for international application.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Luca

    2015-05-01

    This work is the result of a kind of categorization of suicidal conduct based on an empirical-phenomenological approach, with integrated assessment of certain criteria, such as the dynamics, correlation of types of injury and how they were produced, evidence gathered during official inspections in loco, and case history findings about "suicide." This categorization is an attempt to provide a nosographic definition of atypical suicide, that is, cases in which the parameters of "typical" suicide are missing. Case studies are described, taken from a systematic exploration mainly of the Italian specialized literature of the 20th century, supplemented by earlier references when deemed significant. In-depth analysis of atypical suicide can supply additional interpretations of the problem of differential diagnosis of suicide, homicide, and accidental death, that is, the real punctum dolens in overall medico-legal determination of the cause of death in scenarios in which death cannot be definitely traced to a deliberate act.

  14. A medico-legal review of cases involving quadriplegia following cervical spine surgery: Is there an argument for a no-fault compensation system?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Nancy E

    2010-04-07

    To determine whether patients who become quadriplegic following cervical spine surgery are adequately compensated by our present medico-legal system. The outcomes of malpractice suits obtained from Verdict Search (East Islip, NY, USA), a medico-legal journal, were evaluated over a 20-year period. Although the present malpractice system generously rewards many quadriplegic patients with substantial settlements/ Plaintiffs' verdicts, a subset receive lesser reimbursements (verdicts/settlements], while others with defense verdicts receive no compensatory damages. Utilizing Verdict Search, 54 cases involving quadriplegia following cervical spine surgery were reviewed for a 20-year interval (1988-2008). The reason(s) for the suit, the defendants, the legal outcome, and the time to outcome were identified. Operations included 25 anterior cervical procedures, 22 posterior cervical operations, 1 circumferential cervical procedure, and 6 cases in which the cervical operations were not defined. The four most prominent legal allegations for suits included negligent surgery (47 cases), lack of informed consent (23 cases), failure to diagnose/treat (33 cases), and failure to brace (15 cases). Forty-four of the 54 suits included spine surgeons. There were 19 Plaintiffs' verdicts (average US $5.9 million, range US $540,000-US $18.4 million), and 20 settlements (average US $2.8 million, range US $66,500-US $12.0 million). Fifteen quadriplegic patients with defense verdicts received no compensatory damages. The average time to verdicts/settlements was 4.3 years. For 54 patients who were quadriplegic following cervical spine surgery, 15 (28%) with defense verdicts received no compensatory damages. Under a No-Fault system, quadriplegic patients would qualify for a "reasonable" level of compensation over a "shorter" time frame.

  15. DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR cut-offs for high disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis are not interchangeable

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, Roy M; van der Heijde, Désirée; Gardiner, Philip V; Szumski, Annette; Marshall, Lisa; Bananis, Eustratios

    2017-01-01

    Background In most patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Disease Activity Score 28-joint count C reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) is lower than DAS28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), suggesting that use of the DAS28-ESR cut-off to assess high disease activity (HDA) with DAS28-CRP may underestimate the number of patients with HDA. We determined the DAS28-CRP value corresponding to the validated DAS28-ESR cut-off for HDA. Methods Baseline data were pooled from 2 clinical studies evaluating etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) or MTX in early RA; DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR were obtained, allowing the determination of the DAS28-CRP HDA value best corresponding to the DAS28-ESR cut-off of >5.1. Results At baseline, as expected, fewer patients had HDA by DAS28-CRP than DAS28-ESR; DAS28-CRP>5.1 and DAS28-ESR>5.1 had only modest agreement (κ coefficients 0.45–0.54). Mean DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR were 5.7 and 6.2, respectively, in the ETN+MTX group (n=571), and 6.0 and 6.5 in the MTX group (n=262). A DAS28-CRP cut-off of 4.6 corresponded to a DAS28-ESR cut-off of 5.1. Conclusions We have shown that a DAS28-CRP of 4.6 corresponds to 5.1 for DAS28-ESR. Since this is substantially lower than the DAS28-ESR cut-off of 5.1, using 5.1 as the cut-off for DAS28-CRP underestimates disease activity in RA. Trial registration number NCT00195494; NCT00913458. PMID:28255449

  16. Dasty3, a WEB framework for DAS

    PubMed Central

    Villaveces, Jose M.; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Garcia, Leyla J.; Salazar, Gustavo A.; Gel, Bernat; Mulder, Nicola; Martin, Maria; Garcia, Alexander; Hermjakob, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Dasty3 is a highly interactive and extensible Web-based framework. It provides a rich Application Programming Interface upon which it is possible to develop specialized clients capable of retrieving information from DAS sources as well as from data providers not using the DAS protocol. Dasty3 provides significant improvements on previous Web-based frameworks and is implemented using the 1.6 DAS specification. Availability: Dasty3 is an open-source tool freely available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/dasty/ under the terms of the GNU General public license. Source and documentation can be found at http://code.google.com/p/dasty/. Contact: hhe@ebi.ac.uk PMID:21798964

  17. GHRSST-14 DAS-TAG Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Piolle, Jean Francois

    2013-01-01

    The DAS-TAG provides the informatics and data management expertise in emerging information technologies for the GHRSST community. It provides expertise in data and metadata formats and standards, fosters improvements for GHRSST data curation, experiments with new data processing paradigms, and evaluates services and tools for data usage. It provides a forum for producer and distributor data management issues and coordination.

  18. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  19. GHRSST-14 DAS-TAG Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Piolle, Jean Francois

    2013-01-01

    The DAS-TAG provides the informatics and data management expertise in emerging information technologies for the GHRSST community. It provides expertise in data and metadata formats and standards, fosters improvements for GHRSST data curation, experiments with new data processing paradigms, and evaluates services and tools for data usage. It provides a forum for producer and distributor data management issues and coordination.

  20. Moisture Forecast Bias Correction in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods rely on numerous assumptions about the errors involved in measuring and forecasting atmospheric fields. One of the more disturbing of these is that short-term model forecasts are assumed to be unbiased. In case of atmospheric moisture, for example, observational evidence shows that the systematic component of errors in forecasts and analyses is often of the same order of magnitude as the random component. we have implemented a sequential algorithm for estimating forecast moisture bias from rawinsonde data in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The algorithm is designed to remove the systematic component of analysis errors and can be easily incorporated in an existing statistical data assimilation system. We will present results of initial experiments that show a significant reduction of bias in the GEOS DAS moisture analyses.

  1. [Medico-legal assessment in neurological malpractice based on casework material collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok].

    PubMed

    Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Janica, Jerzy; Dopierała, Tomasz; Załuski, Janusz; Wardaszka, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    Medical malpractice results from inadequate professional knowledge, incompliance to the present state of medical knowledge or negligence and inattention. The aim of the paper was the analysis of medical malpractice cases based on material in the field of neurology. The cases were assessed according to the number and type in 32 medico-legal opinions issued by specialist teams of forensic medicine and neurology in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok in the years 2001-2006. In 11 cases (34%) medical malpractice was concluded with reference to improper treatment after head injury or brain pathology, inadequate care at neurology unit, lacked or delayed diagnostics of head pathology and injury, non-referral to hospital by neurologists. In the material analysed diagnostic errors predominated. Majority of them originated from the open health care system. Incompetence of neurologists with regard to differential diagnostics resulting in misdiagnosis and improper therapy was noted. In one third of the overall cases medical malpractice was concluded. The most common causes included misinterpretation of disease signs and symptoms, misapplication of available diagnostic potential and unjustified delay before commencing diagnostics.

  2. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part I. Segmental hair analysis in cases of fatal opioids and amphetamines poisoning].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Konopka, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The present experimental investigations were inspired by the necessity of standardizing the procedures and analytical methods employed in hair analysis aiming at a retrospective evaluation of ingestion of various xenobiotics. Thus, in keeping with the principal premises, the main objective of the study was development of unique, novel chemico-toxicological procedures for analyzing hair content of psychoactive substances in two basic groups of substances of abuse: opioids (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA) by HPLC-APCI-MS-MS, followed by verification of the thus worked out procedures in medico-legal practice through opinionating in selected group of patients deceased due to fatal psychoactive substance poisoning (cause of death determination). Determinations of opioids and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). In the group of fatal poisonings by ,,Polish heroine", hair segmental analysis confirmed the abuse profile of the opiate or mixed (opiate-amphetamine) type, which to some measure is characteristic of Polish drug addiction, indicating the presence of these xenobiotics in the investigating hair samples in the premortem period.

  3. Medico-legal considerations of canine leishmaniosis in Italy: an overview of an emerging disease with reference to the buying and selling of dogs.

    PubMed

    Passantino, A

    2006-12-01

    Leishmaniosis is a common infection in the canine population. Domestic dogs are the main reservoir hosts for zoonotic human visceral leishmaniosis in both the Old and New Worlds. In fact, canine leishmaniosis is not just a veterinary problem. In the light of some recent advances in the field of diagnosis, the author evaluated the medico-legal aspects of buying and selling dogs that are potentially affected by leishmaniosis. This paper clarifies why it is impossible to attribute redhibitory vice (an essential defect in a product which renders it useless or so diminishes its usefulness or value that it must be presumed that, if he had been aware of it, the buyer would not have bought it, or would have paid a lesser price) to this disease and highlights the necessity to improve Sicilian regional law no. 15 of 3 July 2000 concerning the creation of a dog register by giving every animal a health book. With this aim in mind, the author suggests that leishmaniosis be included in the list of notifiable diseases that appears in article 1 of the Italian Veterinary Police Regulations so as to reduce the possibilities of fraudulent trade in dogs known to be infected before purchase.

  4. [Permanent essential defacement--remarks on the possibilities of verification of the accepted criteria in medico-legal certification in criminal and civil law proceedings].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Jabłoński, Christian; Neniczka, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal and civil proceedings have been established, there are still some topics which are controversial and thus require modification. This is also true of the notion of "permanent essential defacement". In the opinion of the authors, changes in social conventions that are occurring nowadays, as well as a highly diversified, subjective perception of esthetic values indicate the need for discussing a possible modification of the presently obligatory criteria. Apart from the assessment of posttraumatic changes, an important problem is posed by defining the notion of "a part of the body customarily open to the view ". Additionally, the authors bring up for discussion the issue of experts taking into consideration the age and sex of the victims while assessing damages. A separate problem lies in difficulties in assessing the degree of detriment to health because of defacement due to the fact that official tables for evaluating permanent or long-term detriment to health do not include relevant information.

  5. Social isolation and delayed discovery of bodies in houses: the value of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology in the medico-legal investigation.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Bassed, R B; Briggs, C A; Lynch, M J

    2005-07-16

    The bodies of socially isolated people may remain undiscovered in their own houses for prolonged periods. Occasionally the body is in situ for sufficient time to become skeletonised, or partially so. Medico-legal investigation of these cases is complicated by degradation and contamination of evidence. Thus, a multidisciplinary forensic investigation is recommended. The potential contributions of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology are outlined here with reference to two cases that occurred in Victoria, Australia, in 2003. Forensic pathologists are often unable to determine the cause of death in skeletonised bodies, however, they may find evidence to support either a natural or unnatural mode of death, and they may describe skeletal pathology or trauma, and identify skeletal features to support radiological identification of the deceased. Anthropologists can provide supplementary evidence of skeletal trauma. Additionally, they can assess age, sex, stature and racial affiliation from skeletal remains. Odontologists can identify individuals through comparison with ante-mortem dental records; however, potential difficulties exist in identifying the treating dentist of a socially isolated person. Odontologists may also examine the teeth and oro-facial skeleton for trauma. Entomologists may estimate minimum death time and/or season of death. Entomological examination of insect remains may also confirm that a body has lain in situ for a considerable period.

  6. The utility of medico-legal databases for public health research: a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications using the National Coronial Information System.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ferrah, Noha; Murphy, Briony; Willoughby, Melissa; Ranson, David

    2016-04-12

    Medico-legal death investigations are a recognised data source for public health endeavours and its accessibility has increased following the development of electronic data systems. Despite time and cost savings, the strengths and limitations of this method and impact on research findings remain untested. This study examines this issue using the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). PubMed, ProQuest and Informit were searched to identify publications where the NCIS was used as a data source for research published during the period 2000-2014. A descriptive analysis was performed to describe the frequency and characteristics of the publications identified. A content analysis was performed to identify the nature and impact of strengths and limitations of the NCIS as reported by researchers. Of the 106 publications included, 30 reported strengths and limitations, 37 reported limitations only, seven reported strengths only and 32 reported neither. The impact of the reported strengths of the NCIS was described in 14 publications, whilst 46 publications discussed the impacts of limitations. The NCIS was reported to be a reliable source of quality, detailed information with comprehensive coverage of deaths of interest, making it a powerful injury surveillance tool. Despite these strengths, researchers reported that open cases and missing information created the potential for selection and reporting biases and may preclude the identification and control of confounders. To ensure research results are valid and inform health policy, it is essential to consider and seek to overcome the limitations of data sources that may have an impact on results.

  7. David Murray Morton: father figure of surgery at St Vincent's Hospital, bush lawyer and thwarted reformer of the medico-legal system.

    PubMed

    Vellar, Ivo D

    2002-08-01

    When the first Golden Age of surgery at St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne (a period covering the first 25 years of the twentieth century) is discussed, the names that spring to mind are usually those of Sir Thomas Dunhill, Sir Hugh Devine, Sir Douglas Shields and Julian Smith. A name which is often overlooked, and by now almost forgotten, is that of David Murray Morton. Murray -Morton's career both as a medical student, general practitioner, anaesthetist and surgeon coincided with a revolution in the practice of medicine. He witnessed the progression from Listerian antisepsis to asepsis in surgical practice, the improvements in anaesthesia, the introduction of antibiotics and, before he died in 1959, the beginnings of organ transplants and open heart surgery. Morton was fond of saying that he grew up with the hospital. From the time of his first appointment as an anaesthetist in l896 to the time of his retirement from St Vincent's as senior surgeon in 1931, Morton, admired by all as a highly competent surgeon and a man of incorruptible probity, can rightly be described as the father figure of surgery during the formative years of St Vincent's Hospital. His innate sense of justice and fair play formed the basis of his distinguished tenure of the Presidency of the Medical Defence Association of Victoria, where his constructive attempts at reform of the medico-legal system were only thwarted by the predictable opposition of the legal profession and politicians.

  8. PoroTomo: DAS Vibroseis Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kurt Feigl

    2016-03-25

    The submitted data correspond to the monitored vibrations caused by a vibroseis seismically exciting the ground in the vertical direction and captured by the DAS horizontal and vertical arrays during the PoroTomo Experiment. The data also include a file with the acceleration record at the Vibroseis. Vibroseis Sweep Details: Sweep on location T84 Stage 4 (Mode P 60 s long record ) Time: 2016-03-25 14:01:15 (UTC) Location: 39.80476089N, -119.0027625W Elevation: 1272.0M (on ground surface at the site) Sweep length: 20 seconds Frequencies: 5 Hz to 20 Hz

  9. Das CARNOTsche Paradigma und seine erkenntnistheoretischen Implikationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Der vorliegende historisch-kritische Essay führt die Eigentümlichkeiten der klassischen phänomenologischen Thermodynamik auf das von CARNOT geschaffene Paradigma zurück und greift einige damit zusammenhängende Fragen auf.Translated AbstractCARNOT's Paradigm and its Epistemological ImplicationsThe present historic-critical essay traces the pecularities of classical phenomenological thermodynamics back to the paradigm, created by CARNOT, and takes up some questions to which this paradigm gives rise.

  10. Histochemistry of Centroorhynchus falconis (Das, 1950).

    PubMed

    Rengaraju, V; Das, E N

    1976-01-01

    With a view to augment the understanding of the animal mucosubstances in general and Acanthocephalan mucosubstances in particular, Acanthocephalan worms of (Centrorhynchus falconis, Das, 1950) were investigated histochemically by employing recent techniques. Variations in the intensity of histochemical reactions in different tissues revealed a heterogenous distribution of mucosubstances. The cuticle contained a mixture of periodate reactive neutral mucosubstances and sulfomucins, whereas the subcuticle contained only glycogen. Retractor muscles contained glycogen together with some acidic mucosubstances which exhibited alcianophilia only at high pH. Cement glands elaborated a mixture of glycogen and galactogen. Histochemical methods revealed two types of acanthors: Some contained only glycogen, whereas others contained glycogen and galactogen.

  11. PoroTomo Project - Subatask 6.2: Deploy and Operate DAS and DTS arrays - DAS Earthquake Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kurt Feigl

    2016-03-21

    The submitted data correspond to the vibration caused by a 3.4 M earthquake and captured by the DAS horizontal and vertical arrays during the PoroTomo Experiment. Earthquake information : M 4.3 - 23km ESE of Hawthorne, Nevada Time: 2016-03-21 07:37:10 (UTC) Location: 38.479°N 118.366°W Depth: 9.9 km Files for horizontal DAS array (each file is 30 s long and contain 8700 channels): PoroTomo_iDAS16043_160321073721.sgy PoroTomo_iDAS16043_160321073751.sgy Files for vertical DAS Array (each file is 30 s long and contain 380 channels): PoroTomo_iDAS025_160321073717.sgy PoroTomo_iDAS025_160321073747.sgy

  12. Medico-economic impact of MSKCC non-sentinel node prediction nomogram for ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Eugénie; Feron, Jean-Guillaume; Fourchotte, Virginie; Alran, Séverine; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Lerebours, Florence; Stevens, Denise; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Campana, François; Rouzier, Roman; Reyal, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Background Avoiding axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for invasive breast cancers with isolated tumor cells or micrometastatic sentinel node biopsy (SNB) could decrease morbidity with minimal clinical significance. Purpose The aim of this study is to simulate the medico-economic impact of the routine use of the MSKCC non-sentinel node (NSN) prediction nomogram for ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients. Methods We studied 1036 ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a metastatic SNB. All had a complementary ALND. For each patient, we calculated the probability of the NSN positivity using the MSKCC nomogram. After validation of this nomogram in the population, we described how the patients’ characteristics spread as the threshold value changed. Then, we performed an economic simulation study to estimate the total cost of caring for patients treated according to the MSKCC predictive nomogram results. Results A 0.3 threshold discriminate the type of sentinel node (SN) metastases: 98.8% of patients with pN0(i+) and 91.6% of patients with pN1(mic) had a MSKCC score under 0.3 (false negative rate = 6.4%). If we use the 0.3 threshold for economic simulation, 43% of ALND could be avoided, reducing the costs of caring by 1 051 980 EUROS among the 1036 patients. Conclusion We demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of using the MSKCC NSN prediction nomogram by avoiding ALND for the pN0(i+) or pN1(mic) ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a MSKCC score of less than or equal to 0.3. PMID:28241044

  13. [Werner Leibbrand, Annemarie Wettley and controversies on "euthanasia" the background of medico-historical and ethical debates in the Post World War II era].

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time.

  14. Selective culturing and genus-specific PCR detection for identification of Aeromonas in tissue samples to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Coopman, Vera; Van Varenbergh, Dirk; Cordonnier, Jan

    2012-09-10

    The detection of autochthonous aquatic bacteria in tissue samples from drowning cases is increasingly considered as an alternative approach to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning. Bacteria belonging to the genus Aeromonas may be suitable candidates for this application as they are ubiquitous in natural aquatic environments but are generally not part of the human microbiota. The research aims of this study were (i) to develop a sensitive, specific and rapid screening and confirmation method for Aeromonas species in tissue samples and (ii) to evaluate aseptic sternal puncture as a post-mortem sample technique and bone marrow as an alternative matrix to provide evidence of death by drowning. The presence of Aeromonas in tissue samples was verified by cultivation using the selective media Ampicillin Dextrin Agar (ADA) and Ryan's Aeromonas Medium. The use of ADA medium was found most optimal for the sensitive, inexpensive and quick detection of aeromonads in human tissue samples. Positive culture plates were confirmed by harvesting all colonies for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification using Aeromonas genus-specific primers. Aeromonads were detected in lung swab, blood and bone marrow of drowned bodies (n=3), but were negative in these three matrices for all negative controls (n=90) tested. Bone marrow proved to be a suitable alternative matrix and can be sampled post-mortem by an aseptic sternal puncture. In conclusion, this study confirms previous indications that aeromonads in cultures from blood of water bodies can be considered a potential marker for drowning. Given the fact that the number of immersed bodies (drowned and non-drowned) included in this study is statistically not significant, however, more tissue samples need to be investigated to confirm the validity of these methods to aid the diagnosis of death by wet drowning.

  15. Patterns of abuse amongst Sri Lankan women returning home after working as domestic maids in the Middle East: An exploratory study of medico-legal referrals.

    PubMed

    Wickramage, Kolitha; De Silva, Malintha; Peiris, Sharika

    2017-01-01

    Migrant worker abuse is well recognised, but poorly characterised within the scientific literature. This study aimed to explore patterns of abuse amongst Sri Lankan women returning home after working as domestic maids. Sri Lanka has over 2 million of its citizens employed overseas as international labor migrants. A cross-sectional study was conducted on Sri Lankan female domestic maids returning from the Middle East region who were referred for medico-legal opinion. A total of 20 women were included in the study. Average length of their employment overseas was 14 months. Complaints of physical violence directed mainly through their employers were made by 60% of women. Upon physical examination, two-thirds had evidence of injuries, with a third being subjected to repetitive/systematic violence. Eighty percent suffered some form of psychological trauma. Personal identity papers and travel documents had been confiscated by the employer in 85% of cases, with two thirds indicating they were prevented and/or restricted from leaving their place of work/residence. Our study demonstrates that female domestic maid abuse manifests through multiple pathways. Violence against such workers span the full spectrum of physical, financial, verbal, emotional abuse and neglect, as defined by the World Health Organization. Findings from this exploratory study cannot be generalized to the large volume of migrant worker outflows. Further research is needed to determine incidence and define patterns in other migrant worker categories such as low-skilled male workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. [Medico-legal opinions in cases for annulment of testament. Part II. Final conclusions of opinions. Quality of medical documentation. Evaluation of witnesses' testimonies].

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Klimberg, Aneta

    2007-01-01

    The percentage of cases, in which devisors were unable to devise properly was high, what was mostly associated with the frequent drawing up of testaments by chronically ill individuals immediately before death. Grounds for pronouncing the devisor lacking in testamentary capacity were observed in 46.6% of cases, while 39.7% of devisors were found to lack free expression of will. Medical records were available in all the cases, including psychiatric records in 20.5% of cases and neurological records in 20.5%. In the majority of instances, the low quality of medical records hindered formulating expert opinions. The fact that in the majority of cases, the testimonies of witnesses were highly divergent indicated that they were either unable to assess the mental state of the devisor or else were themselves interested in the settlement of the case. Frequently, attending physicians from non-psychiatric wards were unable to answer questions on the mental state of the devisor, what resulted from their focusing on the somatic cause of hospitalization and the fact that their contact with the patient was very limited in time. Problems with certification on the basis of medical records were mainly associated with lacking psychiatric or neurological consults performed at the time the testament was drawn up; in some instances, the entire medical records from that period were missing. For this reason, individuals desiring to prepare a last will should be advised to undergo voluntary psychiatric assessment in this period. Medico-legal opinions in testament cases are difficult and time-consuming, but pleading one's case before the court is even more tedious and difficult.

  17. [Cognitive research about the use of virtual worlds among the students enrolled to the faculty of medicine and surgery "Campus Bio-Medico University" in Rome].

    PubMed

    Tambone, V; Alessi, A; Macchi, I; Milighetti, S; Muzii, L

    2009-01-01

    The main difference between a virtual reality and a generic representation is to be directly involved into the action you are performing. As a matter of fact, within the shift from real to virtual world, our biological physique does not mutate but is amplified and connected to the virtual world by technological interfaces. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement (or replace) standard training. One of the two main goals of our study is to test, at first, how much students enrolled to the Faculty of Medicine at "University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome" are familiar with synthetic worlds, how long they have been using them and how they would like their Avatar to look like. Moreover, the second aim is to collect students' opinion about the use of virtual, interactive environments to enable learning and participation in dynamic, problem based, clinical, virtual simulations. Simulations might be used to allow learners to make mistakes safely in lieu of real life situations, learn from those mistakes and ultimately to improve performances by subsequent avoidance of those mistakes. The selected approach to the study is based on a semi-structured questionnaire made of 14 questions administered to all the medical students. Most of the students appear not to be very confident with virtual worlds mostly because of a lack of interest. However, a large majority of them are likely to use a virtual world for fun or escaping from reality. Students would select and customize their Avatar by giving her/him the same sexual identity, same figure, same social class but different employment. It is important to notice that a wide majority of the students is interested in practicing on a virtual world in order to manage new experiences and being able to face them; their willing is to get benefits from the ability to make mistakes in a safe environment as well as to record a positive impact on their understanding.

  18. For mothers and sisters: care of the reproductive female body in the medico-ritual world of early and medieval Japan.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Katja

    2014-01-01

    While married female members of the Japanese aristocracy followed the ideal of bearing children, female Buddhist novices and ordained women, often belonging to the aristocracy themselves, had to abstain from sexual activity and reproduction in accordance with the ordination rules. Infertility was considered with disdain by the first group, whereas not bearing children was the utmost expression of leading a virtuous life for the second group. However, both groups were concerned with keeping their physical bodies healthy: some to become mothers, the others to live as nuns or religious sisters. Focusing on the early medieval period, this paper examines various sources to illuminate the ways in which women were cared for and the kind of views and ideas that informed this care. Instead of looking at the ancient methods of treatment through a modern "scientific" lens and sorting them into "proto-scientific" and "superstitious" categories, medico-ritual and religious views on the female body are explored as facets of the worldview prevalent in the period under consideration. Special attention is paid to relevant chapters of the first medical work produced in Japan, the Ishinpō, compiled by a court physician, Tanba no Yasuyori, in the late 10th century CE. The investigation of other sources, such as Buddhist legends and doctrinal texts, suggests that women were recommended to seek to overcome their femaleness altogether by transforming their female bodies into male bodies in order to reach ultimate "healing" in terms of salvation. In lay circles, however, the Buddhist divinities and other powerful deities were worshipped to ensure this-worldly "healing" in terms of successful procreation and continuation of the family line.

  19. Do drug users use less alcohol than non-drug users? A comparison of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair between the two groups in medico-legal cases.

    PubMed

    Paul, Richard; Kingston, Robert; Tsanaclis, Lolita; Berry, Anthony; Guwy, Alan

    2008-03-21

    Two groups were selected from the remainder of hair samples that had been tested for drugs at TrichoTech for medico-legal cases: samples that tested negative (drug-negative group; N=42, age 33.4+/-7.2 years) and samples that tested positive for drugs (drug-positive group; N=57, age 32.5+/-8.8 years). A rapid, simple method to detect the ethanol metabolite, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair has been developed. The hair samples were sectioned, and then submitted to overnight sonication in water. Samples then underwent SPE using anion exchange cartridges, followed by derivatisation with N,O-bis[trimethylsilyl]trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), before confirmation by GC-MS/MS. The assay produced excellent linearity and sensitivity over the calibration range 0.02-1.0 ng/mg, assuming a 10 mg hair sample. The mean age of the two groups was not statistically different (p=0.575, Student t-test), indicating a homogeneous group. Twelve of the 57 (21.0%) hair samples of the drug-positive group tested positive for EtG, and 17 of the 42 (40.5%) hair samples of the drug-negative group tested positive for EtG. The mean concentration of EtG in the drug-positive group was 0.011 ng/mg compared to 0.107 ng/mg in the drug-negative group. When the full results of this study were subjected to statistical analysis it was shown that EtG levels in the drug-negative group were statistically higher than those found in the drug-positive group (p<0.05). This preliminary finding may be of use in the study of addiction and adds valuable data to previous studies regarding the use of EtG as a valuable marker for alcohol levels in hair.

  20. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  1. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  2. Evidence of Motor Programming Deficits in Children Diagnosed with DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Maassen, Ben; van der Meulen, Sjoeke

    2003-01-01

    Five children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), 5 controls (ages 5-6), and 6 adults produced utterances in a normal condition and in a bite-block condition in which the mandible was in a fixed position. In children with DAS, the bite-block had large effects on coarticulatory patterns and vowel quality. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  3. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  4. Project MEDICO Third Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan; Baxendale, Stanley

    This report describes the searching methods and the search program for the automatic indexing method which was developed and implemented in an earlie r phase of the project. The indexing method generates index tags automatically from English language text and creates a machine searchable file of index records for the document being processed.…

  5. Tuberculosis: Medico-Legal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vetrugno, G.; De-Giorgio, F.; D’Alessandro, F.; Scafetta, I.; Berloco, F.; Buonsenso, D.; Abbate, F.; Scalise, G.; Pascali, V.L.; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90–95%) of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—and in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  6. [Problem of exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health of a child breast-fed by an alcohol-abusing mother in medico-legal opinions].

    PubMed

    Swiderski, Paweł; Zaba, Czesław; Tezyk, Artur; Wachowiak, Roman

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, the authors have noted an increasing amount of cases submitted for analysis in the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, and addressing alcohol abuse by breast-feeding mothers. A question about the exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health of a child by a breast-feeding mother under the influence of alcohol is posed by prosecution or the court, and the expectation is obtaining answers from forensic experts as to whether the situation fulfills the meaning of article 160 of the penal code, which would result in the mother bearing criminal liability. Difficulties that have arisen during the analysis of such cases have prompted the authors to analyze the problem of alcohol abuse by breast-feeding mothers in terms of medico-legal opinions.

  7. Twenty‐eight‐joint counts invalidate the DAS28 remission definition owing to the omission of the lower extremity joints: a comparison with the original DAS remission

    PubMed Central

    Landewé, R; van der Heijde, D; van der Linden, S; Boers, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare 28 joint disease activity score (DAS28) remission with comprehensive joint count DAS remission in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 620 actually measured paired observations of DAS28 and DAS were analysed in 155 patients. Discordant observations (either DAS or DAS28 below remission cut off level: 1.6 for DAS and 2.6 for DAS28) and concordant observations (both DAS and DAS28 below their remission cut off level) were analysed separately. Results 91 of 620 paired DAS observations (15%) were discordant; 87 (in 53 patients) comprised observations in which the DAS28 remission criterion, but not the DAS remission criterion, was met. The reverse was found in only four observations, which were therefore omitted. With the original DAS as standard, DAS28 sensitivity was 95% and specificity 84%. Probability plots showed a swollen joint count >0 in 75% of discordant pairs v 48% of concordant pairs. The same was found for total joint count (TJC >0 in 90% v 40%; median TJC, 0 v 6) and patient global assessment, but not for ESR. Individual joint analysis showed that 51% of discordant v 18% of concordant observations (p<0.0005) had involvement of lower extremity joints that are not included in the DAS28. Conclusions DAS remission is more conservative than DAS28 remission. Activity (tenderness and swelling) in joints not included in the reduced joint counts (ankles, feet) mainly account for the discrepancy between the two assessments. DAS28 remission at a cut off level of 2.6 has insufficient construct validity and should be used with caution in clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:16219709

  8. DAS: A Data Management System for Instrument Tests and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frailis, M.; Sartor, S.; Zacchei, A.; Lodi, M.; Cirami, R.; Pasian, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Franceschi, E.; Nicastro, L.; Conforti, V.; Zoli, A.; Smart, R.; Morbidelli, R.; Dadina, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Data Access System (DAS) is a and data management software system, providing a reusable solution for the storage of data acquired both from telescopes and auxiliary data sources during the instrument development phases and operations. It is part of the Customizable Instrument WorkStation system (CIWS-FW), a framework for the storage, processing and quick-look at the data acquired from scientific instruments. The DAS provides a data access layer mainly targeted to software applications: quick-look displays, pre-processing pipelines and scientific workflows. It is logically organized in three main components: an intuitive and compact Data Definition Language (DAS DDL) in XML format, aimed for user-defined data types; an Application Programming Interface (DAS API), automatically adding classes and methods supporting the DDL data types, and providing an object-oriented query language; a data management component, which maps the metadata of the DDL data types in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS), and stores the data in a shared (network) file system. With the DAS DDL, developers define the data model for a particular project, specifying for each data type the metadata attributes, the data format and layout (if applicable), and named references to related or aggregated data types. Together with the DDL user-defined data types, the DAS API acts as the only interface to store, query and retrieve the metadata and data in the DAS system, providing both an abstract interface and a data model specific one in C, C++ and Python. The mapping of metadata in the back-end database is automatic and supports several relational DBMSs, including MySQL, Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  9. Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.

  10. Vallabhaneni Sita Rama Das, 1933-2010: teacher and mentor.

    PubMed

    Elchuri, Sailaja V; Govindjee

    2016-05-01

    We present here the life and research of V. S. Rama Das, a distinguished Indian botanist who specialized in photosynthesis. He was the first to purify chloroplasts that were free of mitochondrial contamination. He then studied C4, C3-C4 intermediate and CAM pathways, as well as their taxonomic distribution in tropical climates. His most valuable legacy is that he, as a philosopher, inspired and guided many students to pursue their research career in India. Also see Narayana and Pullaiah (Eminent Indian Botanists: Past and present: Biographies and contributions, pp 394-401, 2010) and Raghavendra and Reddy (Curr Sci 101:798-799, 2011) for further information on Rama Das.

  11. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  12. ProServer: a simple, extensible Perl DAS server.

    PubMed

    Finn, Robert D; Stalker, James W; Jackson, David K; Kulesha, Eugene; Clements, Jody; Pettett, Roger

    2007-06-15

    The increasing size and complexity of biological databases has led to a growing trend to federate rather than duplicate them. In order to share data between federated databases, protocols for the exchange mechanism must be developed. One such data exchange protocol that is widely used is the Distributed Annotation System (DAS). For example, DAS has enabled small experimental groups to integrate their data into the Ensembl genome browser. We have developed ProServer, a simple, lightweight, Perl-based DAS server that does not depend on a separate HTTP server. The ProServer package is easily extensible, allowing data to be served from almost any underlying data model. Recent additions to the DAS protocol have enabled both structure and alignment (sequence and structural) data to be exchanged. ProServer allows both of these data types to be served. ProServer can be downloaded from http://www.sanger.ac.uk/proserver/ or CPAN http://search.cpan.org/~rpettett/. Details on the system requirements and installation of ProServer can be found at http://www.sanger.ac.uk/proserver/.

  13. On the Law of Inertia. Translation of: Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Ludwig

    2014-04-01

    This article is a translation of Ludwig Lange: "Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz" in: Berichte ueber Verhandlungen der Koenigl. Saechsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, math.-physik. Klasse (Leipzig, 1885), SS. 333-351. Translated by Herbert Pfister, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; herbert.pfister@uni-tuebingen.de. Kind assistance by Julian Barbour is acknowledged.

  14. Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) using C-reactive protein underestimates disease activity and overestimates EULAR response criteria compared with DAS28 using erythrocyte sedimentation rate in a large observational cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshihiro; Kuga, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Atsushi; Nishino, Jinju; Eto, Yoshito; Chiba, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Masayuki; Saisho, Koichiro; Shimada, Kota; Tohma, Shigeto

    2007-09-01

    To compare disease activity and the improvement of disease activity evaluated between by Disease Activity Score 28 using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and by DAS28 using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data from 3073 RA patients registered in the large cohort database (NinJa: National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan) of 2003 was used to calculate DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP and disease activities were evaluated. Improvements in disease activities were also evaluated according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria in 1482 RA patients whose DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP could be calculated from data for both 2002 and 2003. The mean value of DAS28-CRP (3.59, SD 1.25) was significantly smaller than that of mean DAS28-ESR (4.31, SD 1.32) (p < 0.0001). The number of patients who satisfied the criteria of remission was 297 (9.7%) in DAS28-ESR versus 705 (22.9%) in DAS28-CRP and the number of patients with high disease activity was 842 (27.4%) versus 357 (11.6%) for DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP, respectively; there was a significant difference between the two (p < 0.0001). Change of respective DAS28 was significantly correlated (DeltaDAS28-ESR -0.05, SD 1.14 versus DeltaDAS28-CRP -0.10, SD 1.10) (p < 0.0001); however, the number of "good response" patients was significantly different (p < 0.03) between DAS28-ESR (97 patients, 6.5%) and DAS28-CRP (136 patients, 9.2%). DAS28-CRP significantly underestimated disease activity and overestimated the improvement in disease activity compared with DAS28-ESR. DAS28-CRP should be evaluated using different criteria from that for DAS28-ESR.

  15. Statistical Quality Control of Moisture Data in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D. P.; Rukhovets, L.; Todling, R.

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical quality control algorithm was recently implemented in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The final step in the algorithm consists of an adaptive buddy check that either accepts or rejects outlier observations based on a local statistical analysis of nearby data. A basic assumption in any such test is that the observed field is spatially coherent, in the sense that nearby data can be expected to confirm each other. However, the buddy check resulted in excessive rejection of moisture data, especially during the Northern Hemisphere summer. The analysis moisture variable in GEOS DAS is water vapor mixing ratio. Observational evidence shows that the distribution of mixing ratio errors is far from normal. Furthermore, spatial correlations among mixing ratio errors are highly anisotropic and difficult to identify. Both factors contribute to the poor performance of the statistical quality control algorithm. To alleviate the problem, we applied the buddy check to relative humidity data instead. This variable explicitly depends on temperature and therefore exhibits a much greater spatial coherence. As a result, reject rates of moisture data are much more reasonable and homogeneous in time and space.

  16. Statistical Quality Control of Moisture Data in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D. P.; Rukhovets, L.; Todling, R.

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical quality control algorithm was recently implemented in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The final step in the algorithm consists of an adaptive buddy check that either accepts or rejects outlier observations based on a local statistical analysis of nearby data. A basic assumption in any such test is that the observed field is spatially coherent, in the sense that nearby data can be expected to confirm each other. However, the buddy check resulted in excessive rejection of moisture data, especially during the Northern Hemisphere summer. The analysis moisture variable in GEOS DAS is water vapor mixing ratio. Observational evidence shows that the distribution of mixing ratio errors is far from normal. Furthermore, spatial correlations among mixing ratio errors are highly anisotropic and difficult to identify. Both factors contribute to the poor performance of the statistical quality control algorithm. To alleviate the problem, we applied the buddy check to relative humidity data instead. This variable explicitly depends on temperature and therefore exhibits a much greater spatial coherence. As a result, reject rates of moisture data are much more reasonable and homogeneous in time and space.

  17. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  18. M-DAS: System for multispectral data analysis. [in Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    M-DAS is a ground data processing system designed for analysis of multispectral data. M-DAS operates on multispectral data from LANDSAT, S-192, M2S and other sources in CCT form. Interactive training by operator-investigators using a variable cursor on a color display was used to derive optimum processing coefficients and data on cluster separability. An advanced multivariate normal-maximum likelihood processing algorithm was used to produce output in various formats: color-coded film images, geometrically corrected map overlays, moving displays of scene sections, coverage tabulations and categorized CCTs. The analysis procedure for M-DAS involves three phases: (1) screening and training, (2) analysis of training data to compute performance predictions and processing coefficients, and (3) processing of multichannel input data into categorized results. Typical M-DAS applications involve iteration between each of these phases. A series of photographs of the M-DAS display are used to illustrate M-DAS operation.

  19. M-DAS: System for multispectral data analysis. [in Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    M-DAS is a ground data processing system designed for analysis of multispectral data. M-DAS operates on multispectral data from LANDSAT, S-192, M2S and other sources in CCT form. Interactive training by operator-investigators using a variable cursor on a color display was used to derive optimum processing coefficients and data on cluster separability. An advanced multivariate normal-maximum likelihood processing algorithm was used to produce output in various formats: color-coded film images, geometrically corrected map overlays, moving displays of scene sections, coverage tabulations and categorized CCTs. The analysis procedure for M-DAS involves three phases: (1) screening and training, (2) analysis of training data to compute performance predictions and processing coefficients, and (3) processing of multichannel input data into categorized results. Typical M-DAS applications involve iteration between each of these phases. A series of photographs of the M-DAS display are used to illustrate M-DAS operation.

  20. Das Assessment von Vulnerabilitäten, Risiken und Unsicherheiten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkmann, Jörn; Greiving, Stefan; Serdeczny, Olivia Maria

    Die Risiken und möglichen Folgen des Klimawandels für Menschen, Produktions- und Ökosysteme sind eng mit sozioökonomischen Entwicklungen und Rahmenbedingungen verflochten. Die Schlüsselbegriffe "Vulnerabilität", "Risiko" und "Unsicherheit" werden näher beleuchtet, um u. a. deutlich zu machen, wie sie im neueren Risikoansatz des Fünften Sachstandsberichts (AR5) des Weltklimarats (IPCC) genutzt werden. Das Risikokonzept wird vom Vulnerabilitätskonzept unterschieden. In den Fokus rückt die Betrachtung von Gefahr und Exposition. Auch die Frage, was unter Unsicherheit und Bandbreiten möglicher Entwicklungen des Klimas und sogenannter sozioökonomischer Entwicklungspfade zu verstehen ist, spielt dabei eine wichtige Rolle. Bisherige Untersuchungsmethoden zu Risiken im Kontext des Klimawandels und darauf aufbauende Entscheidungsprozesse werden im Hinblick auf künftige Anpassungsmaßnahmen diskutiert.

  1. Das Semantic Web als Werkzeug in der biomedizinischen Forschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzhorn, Holger; Samwald, Matthias

    In der biomedizinischen Forschung werden besonders in den letzten Jahren vermehrt enorme Mengen an neuen Daten produziert und diese in Folge verstärkt per Internet veröffentlicht. Viele Experten sehen in dieser Vorgehensweise die Chance zur Entdeckung bisher unbekannter biomedizinischer Erkenntnisse. Um dies jedoch zu ermöglichen, müssen neue Wege gefunden werden, die gewonnenen Daten effizient zu verarbeiten und zu verwalten. In dem vorliegenden Artikel werden die Möglichkeiten betrachtet, die das Semantic Web hierzu anbieten kann. Hierfür werden die relevanten Technologien des Semantic Web im speziellen Kontext der biomedizinischen Forschung betrachtet. Ein Fokus liegt auf der Anwendung von Ontologien in der Biomedizin: Es wird auf deren Vorteile eingegangen, aber auch auf möglichen Probleme, die deren Einsatz in einem erweiterten wissenschaftlichen Umfeld mit sich bringen können.

  2. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Piet L C M; Renskers, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease activity cannot be measured in all individual patients according to a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the DAS28 have been developed to measure disease activity in RA both in daily clinical practice as well as in clinical trials on a group as well as individual level. The DAS/DAS28 is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and general health. The DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials. The EULAR response criteria classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, dependent on the magnitude of change and level of disease activity reached. In addition, already in the early nineties, cut points were developed to categorise patients in remission. The DAS28 is incorporated in several electronic patient records and web-based systems for monitoring purposes in daily clinical practice. In addition to this, it is being used in combination with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to facilitate self-monitoring.

  3. Detecting Changes Following the Provision of Assistive Devices: Utility of the WHO-DAS II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  5. Detecting Changes Following the Provision of Assistive Devices: Utility of the WHO-DAS II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  7. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  8. Vandhyatva--a medico historical study.

    PubMed

    Babu, G; Babu, Anitha; Bhuyan, G C; Prasad, G P; Swamy, G K

    2006-01-01

    As per Ayurvĕda, important factors for conception are considered as rtu (fertile period), Kşĕtra (uterus and reproductive organs), Ambu (Proper nutrient fluid) and Bĭja (sukra-sŏnita) and also normalcy of Hŗdaya (Psychology). Abnormality of properly functioning Văyu and Satbhavăs (mătŗja, pitŗja, atma, satva, sătmaya and Rasa), any one of these causes infertility (Vandhyatva). From the time immemorial the phenomenon of infertility was prevalent through out the world and this may persist till the human race exists. Every human being has inherent, intense desire to continue his (one's) own race; to become a mother is one of the most cherished desires of every woman. Failure to achieve conception by a couple of mature age, having normal coitus during appropriate period of menstrual cycle regularly, at least for one year of their conjugal is termed as infertility. The historical importance of strĭ vandhyatva and a comparative study regarding its Nidăna, Samprăpti, Lakşaņa, Chikitsă etc compiled from various Granthăs are being presented in this paper.

  9. Plastination: ethical and medico-legal considerations

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Adelaide; Buccelli, Claudio; Addeo, Giuseppe; Capasso, Emanuele; Piras, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The international plastination phenomenon has proved to be immensely popular with audiences world-wide. Never before has the human body been exposed to public gaze in such an accessible manner. The exhibitions have perplexed many, included anatomists, some of whom find the display of human bodies unethical. The objective of this study is to review the attention on the use of plastination and exhibition of entire human bodies for non-educational or commercial purposes. The nature of these exhibitions and the uneasy balance between entertainment and education has caused heated debate. The possible legitimacy of the expression of one’s will as far as exhibition purposes isn’t considered sufficient for the indiscriminate use of a corpse despite the ethical necessity of respecting the wishes of individuals based on respect for the deceased. The informed consent of an individual represents only the most basic and minimal prerequisite for the use of the deceased’s body for exhibition purposes, and is absolutely not enough on its own to justify its use in entertainment exhibitions or for the commercialization of the death PMID:28352850

  10. A medico-historical review of Arjuna

    PubMed

    Narayana, A; Kumaraswamy, R

    1996-01-01

    Ancient Indian Medical knowledge known as Ayurveda goes back to a immemorial past. The Vedas and Puranas refer various materials of medical importance including herbs, plants and trees etc. The ancient medical scientists have mentioned the properties of the Arjuna, and recommended mainly for the management of Hirta/Rudhira vikaras, Vrana, Prameha, Visa Vikaras, Asrugdhara, Kshetriya/Shukra dosha etc. The modern medical/Botanical scientists have also carried out so many researches on Arjuna and do not find any difference with the ancestery knowledge.

  11. Consent--its medico legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Yadwad, B S; Gouda, H

    2005-10-01

    One of the duties of a doctor towards his patients is to obtain consent before any medical examination. Any such examination without prior consent amounts to an assault on the patient. Consent is defined under Indian Contract Act (because Doctor Patient relationship isa contract) as "two or more persons are said to consent when they agree to the same thing in the same sense." Consent may be implied, expressed or informed depending upon the circumstances. But the consent of the patient is not required in situations like medical emergency, for vaccination etc. If the patient is not medically or legally competent to give consent, the consent of the parents or guardians or any person present at the time with the patient can be taken. Any research on a potential subject, removal of organs for transplantation, publication of information obtained during medical examination also require consent of the concerned person.

  12. Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) using C‐reactive protein underestimates disease activity and overestimates EULAR response criteria compared with DAS28 using erythrocyte sedimentation rate in a large observational cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Toshihiro; Kuga, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Atsushi; Nishino, Jinju; Eto, Yoshito; Chiba, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Masayuki; Saisho, Koichiro; Shimada, Kota; Tohma, Shigeto

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To compare disease activity and the improvement of disease activity evaluated between by Disease Activity Score 28 using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28‐ESR) and by DAS28 using C‐reactive protein (DAS28‐CRP) in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Data from 3073 RA patients registered in the large cohort database (NinJa: National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR‐net in Japan) of 2003 was used to calculate DAS28‐ESR and DAS28‐CRP and disease activities were evaluated. Improvements in disease activities were also evaluated according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria in 1482 RA patients whose DAS28‐ESR and DAS28‐CRP could be calculated from data for both 2002 and 2003. Results The mean value of DAS28‐CRP (3.59, SD 1.25) was significantly smaller than that of mean DAS28‐ESR (4.31, SD 1.32) (p < 0.0001). The number of patients who satisfied the criteria of remission was 297 (9.7%) in DAS28‐ESR versus 705 (22.9%) in DAS28‐CRP and the number of patients with high disease activity was 842 (27.4%) versus 357 (11.6%) for DAS28‐ESR and DAS28‐CRP, respectively; there was a significant difference between the two (p < 0.0001). Change of respective DAS28 was significantly correlated (ΔDAS28‐ESR −0.05, SD 1.14 versus ΔDAS28‐CRP −0.10, SD 1.10) (p < 0.0001); however, the number of “good response” patients was significantly different (p < 0.03) between DAS28‐ESR (97 patients, 6.5%) and DAS28‐CRP (136 patients, 9.2%). Conclusions DAS28‐CRP significantly underestimated disease activity and overestimated the improvement in disease activity compared with DAS28‐ESR. DAS28‐CRP should be evaluated using different criteria from that for DAS28‐ESR. PMID:17369281

  13. How to specify and measure sensitivity in Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabai, Haniel; Eyal, Avishay

    2017-04-01

    In Rayleigh-scattering-based Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) an optical fiber is transformed into an array of thousands of 'virtual microphones'. This approach has gained tremendous popularity in recent years and is one of the most successful examples of a fiber-optic sensing method which made its way from the academia to the market. Despite the great amount of work done in this field, sensitivity, which is ones of the most critical parameters of any sensing technique, was rarely investigated in this context. In particular, little attention was given to its random characteristics. Without careful consideration of the random aspects of DAS, any attempt to specify its sensitivity or to compare between different DAS modalities is of limited value. Recently we introduced a new statistical parameter which defines DAS sensitivity and enables comparison between the performances of different DAS systems. In this paper we generalize the previous parameter and give a broader, simple and intuitive definition to DAS sensitivity. An important attribute of these parameters is that they can be easily extracted from the static backscatter profile of the sensing fiber. In the paper we derive the relation between DAS sensitivity and the static backscatter profile and present an experimental verification of this relation.

  14. DasR positively controls monensin production at two-level regulation in Streptomyces cinnamonensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Lin, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Tang, Zheng-Kun; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhao, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The polyether ionophore antibiotic monensin is produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis and is used as a coccidiostat for chickens and growth-promoting agent for cattle. Monensin biosynthetic gene cluster has been cloned and partially characterized. The GntR-family transcription factor DasR regulates antibiotic production and morphological development in Streptomyces coelicolor and Saccharopolyspora erythraea. In this study, we identified and characterized the two-level regulatory cascade of DasR to monensin production in S. cinnamonensis. Forward and reverse genetics by overexpression and antisense RNA silence of dasR revealed that DasR positively controls monensin production under nutrient-rich condition. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that DasR protein specifically binds to the promoter regions of both pathway-specific regulatory gene monRII and biosynthetic genes monAIX, monE and monT. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR further confirmed that DasR upregulates the transcriptional levels of these genes during monensin fermentation. Subsequently, co-overexpressed dasR with pathway-specific regulatory genes monRI, monRII or monH greatly improved monensin production.

  15. Crosslinking effect of dialdehyde starch (DAS) on decellularized porcine aortas for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Qin, Huanhuan; Li, Li; Yang, Xu; Yu, Xixun

    2015-08-01

    Biological tissue-derived biomaterials must be chemically modified to avoid immediate degradation and immune response before being implanted in human body to replace malfunctioning organs. DAS with active aldehyde groups was employed to replace glutaraldehyde (GA), a most common synthetic crosslinking reagent in clinical practice, to fix bioprostheses for lower cytotoxicity. The aim of this research was to evaluate fixation effect of DAS. The tensile strength, crosslinking stability, cytotoxicity especially the anti-calcification capability of DAS-fixed tissues were investigated. The tensile strength and resistance to enzymatic degradation of samples were increased after DAS fixation, the values maintained stably in D-Hanks solution for several days. Meanwhile, ultrastructure of samples preserved well and the anti-calcification capability of samples were improved, the amount of positive staining points in the whole visual field of 15% DAS-fixed samples was only 0.576 times to GA-fixed ones. Moreover, both unreacted DAS and its hydrolytic products were nontoxic in cytotoxicity study. The results demonstrated DAS might be an effective crosslinking reagent to fix biological tissue-derived biomaterials in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Compositional safety of herbicide-tolerant DAS-81910-7 cotton.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Fast, Brandon J; Johnson, Tempest Y; Sabbatini, Jane; Rudgers, Gary W

    2013-11-27

    DAS-81910-7 cotton is a transgenic event that was transformed to contain the aad-12 and pat genes. These genes code for the AAD-12 and PAT proteins, which confer tolerance to the herbicides 2,4-D and glufosinate, respectively. Crop composition studies were conducted with DAS-81910-7 cotton (both nonsprayed and sprayed with 2,4-D and glufosinate) to comply with requirements of regulatory authorities responsible for evaluating crop safety. Results indicate compositional equivalence between DAS-81910-7 cottonseed and nontransgenic cottonseed and between sprayed and nonsprayed DAS-81910-7 cottonseed. This study builds on the results from many prior studies which support the conclusion that transgenesis is less likely to unexpectedly alter the composition of crops as compared with traditional breeding.

  17. Phase 1 Clinical Trials of DAS181, an Inhaled Sialidase, in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Fuchs, Edward J.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Radebaugh, Christine; Jurao, Robert; Nayak, Seema U.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Griffiss, J. McLeod

    2015-01-01

    DAS181, (study drug, Fludase®) was developed for treatment of influenza and parainfluenza infections. Delivered by inhalation, DAS181 cleaves sialic acid receptors from respiratory epithelial cells. Treatment of influenza for three days with DAS181 reduced viral shedding. To increase deposition in the upper airways and decrease systemic absorption, the particle size was increased to 10 microns. We conducted two Phase I trials with three cohorts, randomized 2:1, active drug to placebo. The initial cohort got a single 20 mg dose of DAS181, or placebo; the second, 20 mg DAS181 or placebo for 10 days, and the third got 20 mg of DAS181or placebo for 3 days. Formulations differed slightly in their excipients. Subjects in the 1- and 3-day cohorts completed dosing without serious adverse events. Two subjects in the 10-day cohort stopped at Day 9 after developing respiratory and systemic symptoms, and a third experienced a decrease in FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second) after the 9th dose and a further decline after the 10th dose. Plasma DAS181, in the 10-day cohort, peaked and began falling before the last dose. Antibodies, predominately IgG with neutralizing activity, were detected in 15/18 subjects by Day 30. The highest IgG concentrations were in the 10-day cohort. The respiratory adverse events occurring after seven days and rapid drug clearance during continued dosing are consistent with the induction of DAS181 antibodies. This could preclude use of this medication for longer than seven days or for repeated courses. (These studies have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration nos. NCT 00527865 and NCT 01651494.) PMID:26391974

  18. Phase 1 clinical trials of DAS181, an inhaled sialidase, in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Zenilman, Jonathan M; Fuchs, Edward J; Hendrix, Craig W; Radebaugh, Christine; Jurao, Robert; Nayak, Seema U; Hamilton, Robert G; McLeod Griffiss, J

    2015-11-01

    DAS181, (study drug, Fludase®) was developed for treatment of influenza and parainfluenza infections. Delivered by inhalation, DAS181 cleaves sialic acid receptors from respiratory epithelial cells. Treatment of influenza for three days with DAS181 reduced viral shedding. To increase deposition in the upper airways and decrease systemic absorption, the particle size was increased to 10μm. We conducted two Phase I trials with three cohorts, randomized 2:1, active drug to placebo. The initial cohort got a single 20mg dose of DAS181, or placebo; the second, 20mg DAS181 or placebo for 10days, and the third got 20mg of DAS181 or placebo for 3days. Formulations differed slightly in their excipients. Subjects in the 1- and 3-day cohorts completed dosing without serious adverse events. Two subjects in the 10-day cohort stopped at Day 9 after developing respiratory and systemic symptoms, and a third experienced a decrease in FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1s) after the 9th dose and a further decline after the 10th dose. Plasma DAS181, in the 10-day cohort, peaked and began falling before the last dose. Antibodies, predominately IgG with neutralizing activity, were detected in 15/18 subjects by Day 30. The highest IgG concentrations were in the 10-day cohort. The respiratory adverse events occurring after seven days and rapid drug clearance during continued dosing are consistent with the induction of DAS181 antibodies. This could preclude use of this medication for longer than seven days or for repeated courses. (These studies have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration Nos. NCT 00527865 and NCT 01651494.).

  19. Development of a Driver Alert System (DAS) for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    FIGHTING VEHICLE The survivability of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) depends, in large part, on rapid response and movement in changing battle conditions...ARI Research Note 88-73 I6 0 Development of aDriver AertSystem CO (DAS) for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle * David F. Champion, Paul R. Roberson, and...System (DAS) Final Report for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle September 85 - September 87 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT

  20. VIIRS ocean color data visualization and processing with IDL-based NOAA-SeaDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua; Sun, Junqiang

    2014-11-01

    The NOAA Sea-viewing Data Analysis System (NOAA-SeaDAS) is an Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based satellite data visualization, analysis, and processing system based on the version 6.4 of the NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-ofview (SeaWiFS) Data Analysis System (SeaDAS) released in 2012. NOAA-SeaDAS inherited all the original functionalities of SeaDAS 6.4 and was upgraded with many new functions and new sensor supports, particularly the support of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP). The main goal of the NOAA-SeaDAS development is primarily in support of NOAA ocean color team's calibration and validation activities. The current version of NOAA-SeaDAS can visualize, analyze, and process VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDR or Level-1B data) produced by the NOAA Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), ocean color Environmental Data Records (EDR or Level-2 data) produced by the NOAA Multi-Sensor Level-1 to Level- 2 (MSL12) ocean color data processing system, and Level-3 data binned or mapped from Level-2 data produced by NOAA-MSL12. NOAA-SeaDAS is currently serving an active IDL user group at NOAA and will serve other institutions and universities in the future. The goal is to allow various scientific users to visualize, analyze, and process VIIRS data from Level-1B through Level-2 and Level-3. In addition, NOAA-SeaDAS can also visualize satellite images from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), as well as many other satellite ocean color sensors, e.g., SeaWiFS, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), etc. NOAA-SeaDAS is under constant development to create new system functionalities and enhance user experience. With constantly increasing volume in the global ocean color data archive, NOAA-SeaDAS will play an important role in support of global marine environment data analysis and various scientific applications.

  1. Inhibition of neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant influenza virus by DAS181, a novel sialidase fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Triana-Baltzer, Gallen B; Gubareva, Larisa V; Klimov, Alexander I; Wurtman, David F; Moss, Ronald B; Hedlund, Maria; Larson, Jeffrey L; Belshe, Robert B; Fang, Fang

    2009-11-06

    Antiviral drug resistance for influenza therapies remains a concern due to the high prevalence of H1N1 2009 seasonal influenza isolates which display H274Y associated oseltamivir-resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of novel H1N1 raises the potential that additional reassortments can occur, resulting in drug resistant virus. Thus, additional antiviral approaches are urgently needed. DAS181 (Fludase), a sialidase fusion protein, has been shown to have inhibitory activity against a large number of seasonal influenza strains and a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain (H5N1). Here, we examine the in vitro activity of DAS181 against a panel of 2009 oseltamivir-resistant seasonal H1N1 clinical isolates. The activity of DAS181 against nine 2009, two 2007, and two 2004 clinical isolates of seasonal IFV H1N1 was examined using plaque number reduction assay on MDCK cells. DAS181 strongly inhibited all tested isolates. EC50 values remained constant against isolates from 2004, 2007, and 2009, suggesting that there was no change in DAS181 sensitivity over time. As expected, all 2007 and 2009 isolates were resistant to oseltamivir, consistent with the identification of the H274Y mutation in the NA gene of all these isolates. Interestingly, several of the 2007 and 2009 isolates also exhibited reduced sensitivity to zanamivir, and accompanying HA mutations near the sialic acid binding site were observed. DAS181 inhibits IFV that is resistant to NAIs. Thus, DAS181 may offer an alternative therapeutic option for seasonal or pandemic IFVs that become resistant to currently available antiviral drugs.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Geheimnisvolles Universum - Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lorenzen, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    The 25th birthday of ESO, in 1987, was celebrated by the publication of an illustrated popular book, "Exploring the Southern Sky" (Springer-Verlag 1987), which also saw editions in Danish, English, French, German, and Spanish. Written and illustrated by the ESO staff members Svend Laustsen, Claus Madsen and Richard M. West, its many pictures were mainly taken with the ESO 3.6m and Schmidt telescopes. The structure of the book - perhaps at that time somewhat unusual - started with things far away (Universe and galaxies), zoomed in to the Milky Way, and finally reached the Solar System (with a concluding chapter dealing with the La Silla observatory). Now, with the 4 units of the Very Large Telescope in full operation, and on the occasion of ESO's 40th birthday, another jubilee book has appeared: "Geheimnisvolles Universum: Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall", written by the science journalist Dirk H. Lorenzen, of Hamburg, Germany, and prefaced by Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO. Presumably, this book will also soon become available in more languages spoken in ESO member countries. Thus it may be worthwhile to review the first edition, although some readers may like to wait for more easily accessible editions. Before going into details, let me first mention that I find this a very impressing book, great to look at and refreshing to read. With ESO seen through the eyes of a visitor, things gain a perspective that is quite different from that of the previous book, and at least as attractive. It comes as no surprise that the book starts with a visit of ESO's showcase, the Paranal Observatory, and the writer not only notes down his own impressions, but also cites statements of some of the many people that keep Paranal going - technicians and staff astronomers. This mixture of texts provides a good impression of the operations at a large observatory for the general reader. The two more 'astronomical' parts that follow deal with star and planet

  3. Psychopathology and neoplastic disease: medico-social and medico-legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Ricci, P; Crusco, M; Onofri, E; Petrone, L; Sacco, C; Ricci, L; Ricciardi, M; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive disability associated with stress in patients presenting cancer disease may exert a significant impact on the psychological health of the individual and even deteriorate the clinical diagnosis. The present study consists of a review of the available literature and an analysis of the association between psychopathologic disease and cancer by selecting useful contributions to the medicosocial discussion of the topic. Interesting considerations have emerged on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the association between psychopathology and cancer that initiated possibilities towards a greater accuracy in the assessment of the patient that is not only limited to oncologic problems and outcomes.

  4. Global Gridded Data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS) timeseries is a globally gridded atmospheric data set for use in climate research. This near real-time data set is produced by the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the operational EOS instrument product generation from the Terra (12/1999 launch), Aqua (05/2002 launch) and Aura (01/2004 launch) spacecrafts. The data is archived in the EOS Core System (ECS) at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center/Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC). The data is only a selection of the products available from the GEOS-DAS. The data is organized chronologically in timeseries format to facilitate the computation of statistics. GEOS-DAS data will be available for the time period January 1, 2000, through present.

  5. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  6. DasR is a pleiotropic regulator required for antibiotic production, pigment biosynthesis, and morphological development in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng-Heng; Xu, Ya; Rigali, Sébastien; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-12-01

    The GntR-family transcription regulator, DasR, was previously identified as pleiotropic, controlling the primary amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and chitin metabolism in Saccharopolyspora erythraea and Streptomyces coelicolor. Due to the remarkable regulatory impact of DasR on antibiotic production and development in the model strain of S. coelicolor, we here identified and characterized the role of DasR to secondary metabolite production and morphological development in industrial erythromycin-producing S. erythraea. The physiological studies have shown that a constructed deletion of dasR in S. erythraea resulted in antibiotic, pigment, and aerial hyphae production deficit in a nutrient-rich condition. DNA microarray assay, combined with quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), confirmed these results by showing the downregulation of the genes relating to secondary metabolite production in the dasR null mutant. Notably, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed DasR as being the first identified regulator that directly regulates the pigment biosynthesis rpp gene cluster. In addition, further studies indicated that GlcNAc, the major nutrient signal of DasR-responsed regulation, blocked secondary metabolite production and morphological development. The effects of GlcNAc were shown to be caused by DasR mediation. These findings demonstrated that DasR is an important pleiotropic regulator for both secondary metabolism and morphological development in S. erythraea, providing new insights for the genetic engineering of S. erythraea with increased erythromycin production.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) among terminally ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Royal, Kenneth D; Elahi, Fereshte

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted with the terminally ill population in relation to death anxiety is rare and mostly outdated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the widely used Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) on a sample of terminal cancer patients.Additionally, validation studies of the DAS have exclusively used traditional statistical methods for analysis. The current study utilized an item response theory technique (IRT), namely the Rasch Rating Scale model for data analysis. The methodology employed may be useful for other researchers conducting validation studies from an IRT perspective.

  8. PoroTomo: Map of DAS, Nodal, Vibroseis and Reftek Station Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Feigl

    2016-10-15

    Map of DAS, nodal, vibroseis and Reftek stations during March 2016 deployment. The plot on the left has nodal stations labeled; the plot on the right has vibroseis observations labeled. Stations are shown in map-view using Brady's rotated X-Y coordinates with side plots denoting elevation with respect to the WGS84 ellipsoid. Blue circles denote vibroseis data, x symbols denote DAS (cyan for horizontal and magenta for vertical), black asterisks denote Reftek data, and red plus signs denote nodal data. This map can be found on UW-Madison's askja server at /PoroTomo/DATA/MAPS/Deployment_Stations.pdf

  9. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales, and construct validity was established by demonstrating that the DAS could discriminate groups based on parental hearing status, school background, and use of self-labels. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses, and findings resulted in a final 58-item measure. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21263041

  10. Das Lob der Sternkunst. Astronomie in der deutschen Aufklärung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasner, R.

    Contents: 1. Einleitung. 2. Die Astronomie im Rahmen der Aufklärungs-Physik. 3. Das Lob der Sternkunst. 4. Ein Blick auf die Sternwarten. 5. Allgemeine Darstellungen der Sternkunde. 6. Schleppende Rezeption: Das kopernikanische Weltbild. 7. Himmelsphysik: Die Debatte um die causa gravitatis. 8. Theorie der Himmelskörper. 9. Die Erde als Gegenstand der Astronomie. 10. Die Sonne. 11. Der Mond. 12. Die Planeten. 13. Die Kometen. 14. Die Fixsterne. 15. Die Entstehung der Welt. 16. Beiträge der Astrotheologie. 17. Der Kampf gegen die Astrologen.

  11. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Das Prinzip Bewegung - Herz und Gehirn als Metaphern des menschlichen Lebens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Laura

    In diesem Jahr, in dem wir Charles Darwins gedenken, möchte ich etwas riskieren und eine Frage erörtern, die für die Literatur ebenso wie für die Biologie zentral ist: Was ist das Leben? Die Antwort auf diese Frage finden wir nicht in der Bibliothek und nicht im Labor, zumindest nicht an diesen erkenntnisproduzierenden Stellen allein. Als Literaturwissenschaftlerin und ehemalige Naturwissenschaftlerin glaube ich, dass wir das Leben nur verstehen werden, wenn wir seinen Wirkungen überall nachforschen, inklusive in der Literatur.

  13. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): development and validation of a 58-item measure.

    PubMed

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales, and construct validity was established by demonstrating that the DAS could discriminate groups based on parental hearing status, school background, and use of self-labels. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses, and findings resulted in a final 58-item measure. Directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Anbindung des SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystems an das zentrale Identitätsmanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ralf; Pretz, Edwin

    Wir berichten über Konzepte und Implementierungen zur Datenprovisionierung aus den Personenverwaltungssystemen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) über das zentrale Metadirectory am Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) in das SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystem der Universitätsbibliothek der TUM (TUB). Es werden drei Implementierungsvarianten diskutiert, angefangen von der Generierung und Übertragung einfacher CSV-Dateien über ein OpenLDAP-basiertes Konzept als Backend für die SISIS-Datenbank bis zur endgültigen Implementierung mit dem OCLC IDM Connector.

  15. Landsat 8's atmospheric correction in SeaDAS: comparison with AERONET-OC (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, Javier A.

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest in high spatial resolution imagery for the retrieval of biogeochemical components over water to study the processes involved in inland and coastal waters as well as in the open ocean. High spatial resolution satellite presents a kind of different problems to the ones for coarse spatial resolution satellites (i.e. MODIS) for deriving ocean color products (i.e. chlorophyll-a or colored dissolved organic matter at a specific wavelength). The SeaDAS package has recently added the capability to handle Landsat 8 data and to produce ocean color standard products, but validation of the atmospheric correction with in situ data is needed. In this work, different schemes for atmospheric correction within SeaDAS are applied. These schemes include the use of the NIR-SWIR 2, SWIR 1-SWIR 2 combinations, with and without spatial averaging to account for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the SWIR bands. The products from the atmospheric correction in SeaDAS, i.e. remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) at four different wavelengths, are compared with in situ data. This is the first attempt to compare in situ Rrs with the output from SeaDAS/l2gen.

  16. PoroTomo Project - Subatask 6.2: Deploy and Operate DAS and DTS arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Dante Fratta

    2016-03-31

    This metadata submission includes the coordinates of the DAS and DTS surface and borehole arrays, the list of file names, and the list of recorded files during testing at the PoroTomo Natural Laboratory at Brady Hot Spring in Nevada. Testing was completed during March 2016.

  17. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales,…

  18. I/O Parallelization for the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, Rob; Sawyer, W.; Takacs, L. L.; Lyster, P.; Zero, J.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed the GEOS DAS, a data assimilation system that provides production support for NASA missions and will support NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) in the coming years. The GEOS DAS will be used to provide background fields of meteorological quantities to EOS satellite instrument teams for use in their data algorithms as well as providing assimilated data sets for climate studies on decadal time scales. The DAO has been involved in prototyping parallel implementations of the GEOS DAS for a number of years and is now embarking on an effort to convert the production version from shared-memory parallelism to distributed-memory parallelism using the portable Message-Passing Interface (MPI). The GEOS DAS consists of two main components, an atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) and a Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). The GCM operates on data that are stored on a regular grid while PSAS works with observational data that are scattered irregularly throughout the atmosphere. As a result, the two components have different data decompositions. The GCM is decomposed horizontally as a checkerboard with all vertical levels of each box existing on the same processing element(PE). The dynamical core of the GCM can also operate on a rotated grid, which requires communication-intensive grid transformations during GCM integration. PSAS groups observations on PEs in a more irregular and dynamic fashion.

  19. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  20. Psychometric properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for behavior problems: an independent investigation.

    PubMed

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N=568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.87), item analysis revealed one weak item ('Objectional habits') with item-total biserial correlation of only .20. An exploratory factor analysis revealed two main factors. The first factor consisted of items relating to disruptive/distractive problems. The second factor consisted of items relating to antisocial/delinquent problems. Disruptive/distractive problems were specifically associated with low ID level. Antisocial/delinquent behaviors were specifically associated with male gender, schizophrenia, hospital admission and troubles with police. For patients who had both disruptive/distractive problems and antisocial/delinquent behaviors, personality disorders and autism were more frequent, where as anxiety and depression were less frequent. On the basis of the obtained results, two new DAS subscales for assessing challenging behavior were proposed. Both subscales had good levels of internal consistency, as well as face and criterion validity. Overall, the new DAS subscales were shown to have acceptable psychometric properties and have therefore potential for use in both research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  2. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales,…

  3. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. Database URL: http://www.midasfieldguide.org PMID:26120139

  4. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  5. A Brief History of the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    2008-01-01

    The J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre celebrated its 40th anniversary on September 1, 2007, followed by The University of Alberta's 100th anniversary in 2008. The year 2008 also brought the appointment of a new Director for the Centre. As the immediate past Director of the Centre, the author recounts some of the history of the J.P. Das…

  6. Abpfiff für das Fußball-Universum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2005-03-01

    Aus Beobachtungen der kosmischen Hintergrundstrahlung lassen sich zwar Rückschlüsse auf die Größe und die Topologie des Universums ziehen. Die Behauptung, aus den Daten des Satelliten WMap würde folgen, dass das Universum endlich groß sei und die Topologie eines Dodekaeders aufweise, wurde jedoch widerlegt.

  7. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Reisen im freien Fall - Teil 2: Das Zwillingsparadoxon aus dem Blickwinkel der ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Nachdem wir uns mit den Prinzipien der ART und einigen Beispielen vertraut gemacht haben, kommen wir nun zur Berechnung des Zwillingsparadoxons aus Sicht des reisenden Zwillings. Dabei spielt das Äquivalenzprinzip eine große Rolle. Deshalb wird die Bewegungssituation noch einmal erläutert, diesmal aus Sicht von Katrin. Sie befindet sich in ihrem System S'in Ruhe. In ihrem System läuft die Zeit t'ab. Nach dem Start fühlt Katrin jedoch eine Kraft, die sie als Gravitationskraft interpretieren kann. Sie merkt es daran, dass sie in den Sitz gedrückt wird. Nach einiger Zeit werden die Triebwerke abgeschaltet, und das Raumschiff fliegt mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit weiter, Phase 2. Anschließend wird der Schub der Triebwerke solange umgekehrt, bis das Raumschiff irgendwo mit der Geschwindigkeit null am Umkehrpunkt U landet, Phase 3 (Abb. 15.1). Die Erde, auf der sich Michael befindet, bewegt sich mit x'(t') aus Sicht von Katrin im freien Fall von ihr weg, s. das Experiment mit dem steigenden Fahrstuhl in Abschn. 13.2.1.

  9. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  10. Detecting changes following the provision of assistive devices: utility of the WHO-DAS II.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Albanesi, Francesca; Gatti, Valeria; Andrich, Renzo; Leonardi, Matilde

    2010-12-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II responsiveness in detecting short-time changes following the provision of an Assistive Technology,which is important to define its utility in performing daily activities. Adult inpatients with a diagnosis of Disease of the Nervous System (included in Chapter VI of the ICD-10),who were prescribed an Assistive Technology to be used in the household settings, were enrolled. The WHO-DAS II was administered in individual interview at baseline and at a 2 months follow-up: in this period patients were transitioning from the hospital to home. Changes in disability profiles were detected by calculating the effect size (ES) for each WHO-DAS II domain. Ten patients with different neurological diseases were enrolled. Few longitudinal changes in disability level are reported: mild improvement is observed in the household activities (ES0.28), whereas mild worsening is reported in self-care and participation in society domains (ES – 0.27 and – 0.26,respectively). Our study shows that the WHO-DAS II is responsive in detecting domain-specific changes over a short-term period and provides preliminary encouraging evidence for the utility of its utilization in clinical settings.However, changes in setting between baseline and follow up could have an impact on the findings and interpretation of this study.

  11. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  12. DAS steered therapy in clinical practice; cross-sectional results from the METEOR database.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom; Allaart, Cornelia; Landewé, Robert

    2016-01-16

    Little is known on how well targeted treatment, for instance targeting towards low DAS, is implemented in clinical practice. Our aim was to evaluate treatment adjustments in response to DAS in RA patients in clinical practice. We used data from one referral centre, multiple rheumatologists, from the METEOR database. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess whether in case of non-low disease activity (DAS > 2.4) treatment intensifications in DMARD therapy occurred ((change or increase in dose or number of DMARDs, including synthetic (s)DMARDs, biologic (b)DMARDs and corticosteroids compared to the visit before)). Determinants of not intensifying the treatment when DAS > 2.4 were investigated using GEE. Five thousand one hundred fifty-seven registered visits of 1202 patients were available for the analyses. A DAS > 2.4 was weakly (OR: 1.19; 95% CI 1.07-1.33) associated with a treatment intensification. In 69% (n = 3577) of the visits patients were in low disease activity. In 66% (n = 1028) of the visits with DAS > 2.4 treatment was not intensified. These patients had a higher tender joint count and received more often methotrexate plus a bDMARD, or csDMARD monotherapy, as compared to patients that received treatment intensification. In the majority of visits in the METEOR database patients were already in a state of low disease activity, reflecting appropriate treatment intensity. When DAS was greater than 2.4, treatment was often not intensified due to high tender joint count or specific treatment combinations. This data suggest that while aiming for low DAS, physicians per patient weigh whether all DAS elements indicate disease activity or will respond to DMARD adjustment or not, and make treatment decisions accordingly.

  13. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS allocations, and individual fishing quotas (IFQ... limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS allocations, and individual fishing quotas (IFQ). (a... limited access scallop fishery shall be allocated 94.5 percent of the ACL specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  14. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part IV: Treatment of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses the treatment of DAS including linguistic approaches, motor-programming approaches, a combination of linguistic and motor-programming approaches, and treatment approaches that include specific sensory and gestural cueing techniques.…

  15. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part IV: Treatment of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses the treatment of DAS including linguistic approaches, motor-programming approaches, a combination of linguistic and motor-programming approaches, and treatment approaches that include specific sensory and gestural cueing techniques.…

  16. dnaA suppressor (dasF) mutants of Escherichia coli are stable DNA replication (sdrA/rnh) mutants.

    PubMed

    Torrey, T A; Atlung, T; Kogoma, T

    1984-01-01

    The possible allelic relationship between dasF (dnaA suppressor) and sdrA/rnh (stable DNA replication/RNase H) mutations was examined. dasF mutations could not only suppress various dnaA(ts) mutations, but also the insertional inactivation of the dnaA gene or deletion of the oriC sequence, as could sdrA mutations. dasF mutants were found to exhibit the stable DNA replication phenotype, and the sensitivity to rich media, of sdrA mutants. The dasF and sdrA mutations were mapped very closely between metD and proA on the E. coli genetic map. The mutations were recessive to the wild-type allele for all the above phenotypes. It was concluded that dasF is allelic to sdrA/mh.

  17. Annotation and visualization of endogenous retroviral sequences using the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) and eBioX

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Barrio, Álvaro; Lagercrantz, Erik; Sperber, Göran O; Blomberg, Jonas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is a widely used network protocol for sharing biological information. The distributed aspects of the protocol enable the use of various reference and annotation servers for connecting biological sequence data to pertinent annotations in order to depict an integrated view of the data for the final user. Results An annotation server has been devised to provide information about the endogenous retroviruses detected and annotated by a specialized in silico tool called RetroTector. We describe the procedure to implement the DAS 1.5 protocol commands necessary for constructing the DAS annotation server. We use our server to exemplify those steps. Data distribution is kept separated from visualization which is carried out by eBioX, an easy to use open source program incorporating multiple bioinformatics utilities. Some well characterized endogenous retroviruses are shown in two different DAS clients. A rapid analysis of areas free from retroviral insertions could be facilitated by our annotations. Conclusion The DAS protocol has shown to be advantageous in the distribution of endogenous retrovirus data. The distributed nature of the protocol is also found to aid in combining annotation and visualization along a genome in order to enhance the understanding of ERV contribution to its evolution. Reference and annotation servers are conjointly used by eBioX to provide visualization of ERV annotations as well as other data sources. Our DAS data source can be found in the central public DAS service repository, , or at . PMID:19534743

  18. Clinical potential of DAS181 for treatment of parainfluenza-3 infections in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Suarez, B B; Buckley, M W; Gilmore, E T; Vocca, E; Moss, R; Marty, F M; Sanders, R; Baden, L R; Wurtman, D; Issa, N C; Fang, F; Koo, S

    2012-08-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections can cause serious respiratory infections and death in immunocompromised patients. No antiviral agents have proven efficacy against PIV, and therapy generally consists of supportive care. DAS181, a novel sialidase fusion protein that temporarily disables airway epithelial PIV receptors by enzymatic removal of sialic acid moieties, has been shown to inhibit infection with PIV strains in vitro and in an animal model. We describe here the clinical course of 2 immunocompromised patients with PIV-3 infection, one with a history of lung transplantation and the other neutropenic after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Both patients had substantial clinical improvement in respiratory and systemic symptoms after a 5-day DAS181 treatment course, although the clinical improvement in the autologous stem cell transplantation patient also paralleled neutrophil engraftment.

  19. Smart Home, Smart Grid, Smart Meter - digitale Konzepte und das Recht an Daten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiecker genannt Döhmann, Indra

    Modernes Energiemanagement setzt auf ein intelligent gesteuertes Energieinformationsnetz, das Smart Grid. In diesem ist der Smart Meter, die intelligente Messstelle beim Nutzer, ein zentrales Instrument für den wechselseitigen Austausch von Informationen. Allerdings werfen die über diverse Gesetze forcierten Informationsströme erhebliche datenschutzrechtliche Fragen auf. Der Beitrag stellt zentrale datenschutzrechtliche Leitlinien und Probleme vor und behandelt auch offene Fragestellungen.

  20. DAS Boot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chretien, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The residential services group is lobbying to dump its aging hard-wired phone system because students don't use it. The town and campus public safety officials are demanding that their portable two-way radios operate well not only outdoors, but within campus buildings. Students are now expecting text messaging and WiFi service to work everywhere…

  1. DAS Boot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chretien, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The residential services group is lobbying to dump its aging hard-wired phone system because students don't use it. The town and campus public safety officials are demanding that their portable two-way radios operate well not only outdoors, but within campus buildings. Students are now expecting text messaging and WiFi service to work everywhere…

  2. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by diallyl sulfides (DAS) in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Elango, Erode M; Asita, Hag; Nidhi, Gunapalan; Seema, Parvathy; Banerji, Asoke; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2004-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is involved in modulating inflammatory response through the synthesis of prostaglandins. The inducible isoform of the enzyme, COX-2, is overexpressed in some malignant and premalignant lesions. Several preclinical and clinical studies have reported COX-2 inhibition as an effective strategy for chemoprevention. Nonsteroidal anitinflammatory drugs (NASIDs) such as celecoxib, are the most widely investigated COX-2 inhibitors. The oil-soluble diallyl sulfides (DAS) include monosulfides (DAMS), disulfides (DADS) and trisulfides (DATS). They were found to be effective against canine and human tumors, the mechanism of which remains unresolved. We attempted a comparative evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of DAS in HEK 293T cells. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of DAMS, DADS and DATS. There were significant differences between the IC50 values of DAMS, DADS and DATS. RT-PCR was performed and the expression of COX-2 was compared with that of b actin. DATS inhibited COX-2 gene expression significantly stronger than DAMS and DADS. The data are suggestive of antineoplastic effect of DAS, mediated by controlling COX-2 expression.

  3. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    PubMed

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity.

  4. Assimilation of SBUV Version 8 Radiances into the GEOS Ozone DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Martin D.; Stajner, Ivanka; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2004-01-01

    In operational weather forecasting, the assimilation of brightness temperatures from satellite sounders, instead of assimilation of 1D-retrievals has become increasingly common practice over the last two decades. Compared to these systems, assimilation of trace gases is still at a relatively early stage of development, and efforts to directly assimilate radiances instead of retrieved products have just begun a few years ago, partially because it requires much more computation power due to the employment of a radiative transport forward model (FM). This paper will focus on a method to assimilate SBUV/2 radiances (albedos) into the Global Earth Observation System Ozone Data Assimilation Scheme (GEOS-03DAS). While SBUV-type instruments cannot compete with newer sensors in terms of spectral and horizontal resolution, they feature a continuous data record back to 1978, which makes them very valuable for trend studies. Assimilation can help spreading their ground coverage over the whole globe, as has been previously demonstrated with the GEOS-03DAS using SBUV Version 6 ozone profiles. Now, the DAS has been updated to use the newly released SBUV Version 8 data. We will compare pre]lmlnarv results of SBUV radiance assimilation with the assimilation of retrieved ozone profiles, discuss methods to deal with the increased computational load, and try to assess the error characteristics and future potential of the new approach.

  5. Performance of broiler chickens fed event DAS-40278-9 maize containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-08-01

    Event DAS-40278-9 maize grain (containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein), a non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain, or one of three commercial maize grains were included in the diets of broiler chickens for six weeks. Growth, feed conversion, and carcass measurements indicated no significant difference between the groups fed the diets containing the DAS-40278-9 maize grain and those fed diets containing the matched control grain. The absence of adverse effects in this study supports the dietary safety of the AAD-1 protein expressed in event DAS-40278-9 maize. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. I/O Parallelization for the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.; Sawyer, W.; Takacs, L. L.; Lyster, P.; Zero, J.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed the GEOS DAS, a data assimilation system that provides production support for NASA missions and will support NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) in the coming years. The DAO's support of the EOS project along with the requirement of producing long-term reanalysis datasets with an unvarying system levy a large I/O burden on the future system. The DAO has been involved in prototyping parallel implementations of the GEOS DAS for a number of years and is now converting the production version from shared-memory parallelism to distributed-memory parallelism using the portable Message-Passing Interface (MPI). If the MPI-based GEOS DAS is to meet these production requirements, we must make I/O from the parallel system efficient. We have designed a scheme that allows efficient I/O processing while retaining portability, reducing the need for post-processing, and producing data formats that are required by our users, both internal and external. The first phase of the GEOS DAS Parallel I/O System (GPIOS) will expand upon the common method of gathering global data to a Single PE for output. Instead of using a PE also tasked with primary computation, a number of PEs will be dedicated to I/O and its related tasks. This allows the data transformations and formatting required prior to output to take place asynchronously with respect to the GEOS DAS assimilation cycle, improving performance and generating output data sets in a format convenient for our users. I/O PEs can be added as needed to handle larger data volumes or to meet user file specifications. We will show I/O performance results from a prototype MPI GCM integrated with GPIOS. Phase two of GPIOS development will examine ways of integrating new software technologies to further improve performance and build scalability into the system. The maturing of MPI-IO implementations and

  7. I/O Parallelization for the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.; Sawyer, W.; Takacs, L. L.; Lyster, P.; Zero, J.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed the GEOS DAS, a data assimilation system that provides production support for NASA missions and will support NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) in the coming years. The DAO's support of the EOS project along with the requirement of producing long-term reanalysis datasets with an unvarying system levy a large I/O burden on the future system. The DAO has been involved in prototyping parallel implementations of the GEOS DAS for a number of years and is now converting the production version from shared-memory parallelism to distributed-memory parallelism using the portable Message-Passing Interface (MPI). If the MPI-based GEOS DAS is to meet these production requirements, we must make I/O from the parallel system efficient. We have designed a scheme that allows efficient I/O processing while retaining portability, reducing the need for post-processing, and producing data formats that are required by our users, both internal and external. The first phase of the GEOS DAS Parallel I/O System (GPIOS) will expand upon the common method of gathering global data to a Single PE for output. Instead of using a PE also tasked with primary computation, a number of PEs will be dedicated to I/O and its related tasks. This allows the data transformations and formatting required prior to output to take place asynchronously with respect to the GEOS DAS assimilation cycle, improving performance and generating output data sets in a format convenient for our users. I/O PEs can be added as needed to handle larger data volumes or to meet user file specifications. We will show I/O performance results from a prototype MPI GCM integrated with GPIOS. Phase two of GPIOS development will examine ways of integrating new software technologies to further improve performance and build scalability into the system. The maturing of MPI-IO implementations and

  8. How to assess appearance distress and motivation in plastic surgery candidates: Italian validation of Derriford Appearance Scale 59 (DAS 59).

    PubMed

    Cogliandro, A; Persichetti, P; Ghilardi, G; Moss, T P; Barone, M; Piccinocchi, G; Ricci, G; Vitali, M; Giuliani, A; Tambone, V

    2016-09-01

    The Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS) 59 was specifically designed to measure psychosocial adjustment in patients with appearance problems. Previous studies using the DAS59 have proven it to be a reliable method of assessing the appearance-related quality of life after plastic surgery procedures. The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable Italian version of the DAS59. The first Italian translation of this questionnaire was conducted according to the DAS59 protocol that was designed by the original authors of the questionnaire. Eight hundred patients participated in this study and filled out three questionnaires (DAS59, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)12 and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI)-II). There were 400 adult patients with a history of previous plastic surgeries and 400 adult patients without any personal history of previous plastic surgery procedures. A total of 50 patients were selected randomly for test-retest analysis. The overall internal consistency was excellent (α = 0.95) and equal to that of the original article that first described the scale. There was a good correlation between all the items. Domains demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and correlation within themselves. The construct validity of the Italian DAS59 was assessed under convergent validity that confirmed the correlation with scales related to other psychological conditions. GHQ12 showed relevant correlation with DAS59, while BDI-II did not. A valid and reliable Italian DAS59 version was developed that can be used for research and clinical assessment of patients with appearance problems and concerns, especially before and after plastic surgery procedures.

  9. Annotation and visualization of endogenous retroviral sequences using the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) and eBioX.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Alvaro Martínez; Lagercrantz, Erik; Sperber, Göran O; Blomberg, Jonas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-06-16

    The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is a widely used network protocol for sharing biological information. The distributed aspects of the protocol enable the use of various reference and annotation servers for connecting biological sequence data to pertinent annotations in order to depict an integrated view of the data for the final user. An annotation server has been devised to provide information about the endogenous retroviruses detected and annotated by a specialized in silico tool called RetroTector. We describe the procedure to implement the DAS 1.5 protocol commands necessary for constructing the DAS annotation server. We use our server to exemplify those steps. Data distribution is kept separated from visualization which is carried out by eBioX, an easy to use open source program incorporating multiple bioinformatics utilities. Some well characterized endogenous retroviruses are shown in two different DAS clients. A rapid analysis of areas free from retroviral insertions could be facilitated by our annotations. The DAS protocol has shown to be advantageous in the distribution of endogenous retrovirus data. The distributed nature of the protocol is also found to aid in combining annotation and visualization along a genome in order to enhance the understanding of ERV contribution to its evolution. Reference and annotation servers are conjointly used by eBioX to provide visualization of ERV annotations as well as other data sources. Our DAS data source can be found in the central public DAS service repository, http://www.dasregistry.org, or at http://loka.bmc.uu.se/das/sources.

  10. Validation of Land-Surface Mosaic Heterogeneity in the GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Molod, Andrea; Houser, Paul R.; Schubert, Siegfried

    1999-01-01

    The Mosaic Land-surface Model (LSM) has been included into the current GEOS Data Assimilation System (DAS). The LSM uses a more advanced representation of physical processes than previous versions of the GEOS DAS, including the representation of sub-grid heterogeneity of the land-surface through the Mosaic approach. As a first approximation, Mosaic assumes that all similar surface types within a grid-cell can be lumped together as a single'tile'. Within one GCM grid-cell, there might be 1 - 5 different tiles or surface types. All tiles are subjected to the grid-scale forcing (radiation, air temperature and specific humidity, and precipitation), and the sub-grid variability is a function of the tile characteristics. In this paper, we validate the LSM sub-grid scale variability (tiles) using a variety of surface observing stations from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. One of the primary goals of SGP ARM is to study the variability of atmospheric radiation within a G,CM grid-cell. Enough surface data has been collected by ARM to extend this goal to sub-grid variability of the land-surface energy and water budgets. The time period of this study is the Summer of 1998 (June I - September 1). The ARM site data consists of surface meteorology, energy flux (eddy correlation and bowen ratio), soil water observations spread over an area similar to the size of a G-CM grid-cell. Various ARM stations are described as wheat and alfalfa crops, pasture and range land. The LSM tiles considered at the grid-space (2 x 2.5) nearest the ARM site include, grassland, deciduous forests, bare soil and dwarf trees. Surface energy and water balances for each tile type are compared with observations. Furthermore, we will discuss the land-surface sub-grid variability of both the ARM observations and the DAS.

  11. Validation of Land-Surface Mosaic Heterogeneity in the GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Molod, Andrea; Houser, Paul R.; Schubert, Siegfried

    1999-01-01

    The Mosaic Land-surface Model (LSM) has been included into the current GEOS Data Assimilation System (DAS). The LSM uses a more advanced representation of physical processes than previous versions of the GEOS DAS, including the representation of sub-grid heterogeneity of the land-surface through the Mosaic approach. As a first approximation, Mosaic assumes that all similar surface types within a grid-cell can be lumped together as a single'tile'. Within one GCM grid-cell, there might be 1 - 5 different tiles or surface types. All tiles are subjected to the grid-scale forcing (radiation, air temperature and specific humidity, and precipitation), and the sub-grid variability is a function of the tile characteristics. In this paper, we validate the LSM sub-grid scale variability (tiles) using a variety of surface observing stations from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. One of the primary goals of SGP ARM is to study the variability of atmospheric radiation within a G,CM grid-cell. Enough surface data has been collected by ARM to extend this goal to sub-grid variability of the land-surface energy and water budgets. The time period of this study is the Summer of 1998 (June I - September 1). The ARM site data consists of surface meteorology, energy flux (eddy correlation and bowen ratio), soil water observations spread over an area similar to the size of a G-CM grid-cell. Various ARM stations are described as wheat and alfalfa crops, pasture and range land. The LSM tiles considered at the grid-space (2 x 2.5) nearest the ARM site include, grassland, deciduous forests, bare soil and dwarf trees. Surface energy and water balances for each tile type are compared with observations. Furthermore, we will discuss the land-surface sub-grid variability of both the ARM observations and the DAS.

  12. High resolution DAS via sinusoidal frequency scan OFDR (SFS-OFDR).

    PubMed

    Leviatan, Eyal; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-12-28

    There are many advantages to using direct frequency modulation for OFDR based DAS. However, achieving sufficiently linear scan via direct frequency modulation is challenging and poses limits on the scan parameters. A novel method for analyzing sinusoidal frequency modulated light is presented and demonstrated for both static and dynamic sensing. SFS-OFDR projects the measured signal onto appropriate sinusoidal phase terms to obtain spatial information. Thus, by using SFS-OFDR on sinusoidal modulated light it is possible to make use of the many advantages offered by direct frequency modulation without the limitations posed by the linearity requirement.

  13. [An example of partnership cooperation. Cantonal League against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases/Association "Das Band"].

    PubMed

    Michaelis, E

    1984-01-01

    Together with the Cantonal League against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases of Zurich, the Association "Das Band" has organized a first course for parents of children with asthma. The course is a component of the associations new "Prophylaxis Program for Children with Asthma and Their Parents". By exchanging ideas, the parents should become able to reflect their situation, characterized by excessive protectionism, aggressiveness, and guiltiness, and they also should learn to accept the disease as a part of their daily life. The first course, which meanwhile is followed by a second one, provided a first base for the solution of the many problems.

  14. GenExp: An Interactive Web-Based Genomic DAS Client with Client-Side Data Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Gel Moreno, Bernat; Messeguer Peypoch, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) offers a standard protocol for sharing and integrating annotations on biological sequences. There are more than 1000 DAS sources available and the number is steadily increasing. Clients are an essential part of the DAS system and integrate data from several independent sources in order to create a useful representation to the user. While web-based DAS clients exist, most of them do not have direct interaction capabilities such as dragging and zooming with the mouse. Results Here we present GenExp, a web based and fully interactive visual DAS client. GenExp is a genome oriented DAS client capable of creating informative representations of genomic data zooming out from base level to complete chromosomes. It proposes a novel approach to genomic data rendering and uses the latest HTML5 web technologies to create the data representation inside the client browser. Thanks to client-side rendering most position changes do not need a network request to the server and so responses to zooming and panning are almost immediate. In GenExp it is possible to explore the genome intuitively moving it with the mouse just like geographical map applications. Additionally, in GenExp it is possible to have more than one data viewer at the same time and to save the current state of the application to revisit it later on. Conclusions GenExp is a new interactive web-based client for DAS and addresses some of the short-comings of the existing clients. It uses client-side data rendering techniques resulting in easier genome browsing and exploration. GenExp is open source under the GPL license and it is freely available at http://gralggen.lsi.upc.edu/recerca/genexp. PMID:21750706

  15. Long Noncoding RNA JHDM1D-AS1 Promotes Tumor Growth by Regulating Angiogenesis in Response to Nutrient Starvation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Ayano; Nonaka, Aya; Shimamura, Teppei; Yamamoto, Shogo; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Osawa, Tsuyoshi

    2017-09-15

    Long noncoding RNAs play a pivotal role in tumor progression, but their role in cancer cells in the nutrient-starved tumor microenvironment remains unknown. Here, we show that a nutrient starvation-responsive long noncoding RNA, JHDM1D antisense 1 (JHDM1D-AS1), promotes tumorigenesis by regulating angiogenesis in response to nutrient starvation. Expression of JHDM1D-AS1 was increased in cancer cells. In addition, expression of JHDM1D-AS1 was increased in clinical tumor samples compared to that in normal tissue. Stable expression of JHDM1D-AS1 in human pancreatic cancer (PANC-1 and AsPC-1) cells promoted cell growth in vitro Remarkably, these JHDM1D-AS1-expressing cells showed a significant increase in tumor growth in vivo that was associated with increased formation of CD31(+) blood vessels and elevated infiltration of CD11b(+) macrophage lineage cells into tumor tissues. Genome-wide analysis of tumor xenografts revealed that expression of genes for tumor-derived angiogenic factors such as hHGF and hFGF1 concomitant with host-derived inflammation-responsive genes such as mMmp3, mMmp9, mS100a8, and mS100a9 was increased in tumor xenografts of JHDM1D-AS1-expressing pancreatic cancer cells, leading to a poor prognosis. Our results provide evidence that increased JHDM1D-AS1 expression under nutrient starvation accelerates tumor growth by upregulating angiogenesis, thus laying the foundation for improved therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Kondo et al.

  16. Long Noncoding RNA JHDM1D-AS1 Promotes Tumor Growth by Regulating Angiogenesis in Response to Nutrient Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Ayano; Nonaka, Aya; Shimamura, Teppei; Yamamoto, Shogo; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Long noncoding RNAs play a pivotal role in tumor progression, but their role in cancer cells in the nutrient-starved tumor microenvironment remains unknown. Here, we show that a nutrient starvation-responsive long noncoding RNA, JHDM1D antisense 1 (JHDM1D-AS1), promotes tumorigenesis by regulating angiogenesis in response to nutrient starvation. Expression of JHDM1D-AS1 was increased in cancer cells. In addition, expression of JHDM1D-AS1 was increased in clinical tumor samples compared to that in normal tissue. Stable expression of JHDM1D-AS1 in human pancreatic cancer (PANC-1 and AsPC-1) cells promoted cell growth in vitro. Remarkably, these JHDM1D-AS1-expressing cells showed a significant increase in tumor growth in vivo that was associated with increased formation of CD31+ blood vessels and elevated infiltration of CD11b+ macrophage lineage cells into tumor tissues. Genome-wide analysis of tumor xenografts revealed that expression of genes for tumor-derived angiogenic factors such as hHGF and hFGF1 concomitant with host-derived inflammation-responsive genes such as mMmp3, mMmp9, mS100a8, and mS100a9 was increased in tumor xenografts of JHDM1D-AS1-expressing pancreatic cancer cells, leading to a poor prognosis. Our results provide evidence that increased JHDM1D-AS1 expression under nutrient starvation accelerates tumor growth by upregulating angiogenesis, thus laying the foundation for improved therapeutic strategies. PMID:28652266

  17. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  18. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    PubMed

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-07-03

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure "Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)". Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists.

  19. Trends and variability of climate and river flow in the region of Costa das Baleias, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Genz, F; Tanajura, C A S

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing effort by the scientific community to regionalize climate studies to support local development plans. The area of interest is the Costa das Baleias on the east coast of northeast Brazil. It is located in a transition region of precipitation trends, and so assessing the local signal and magnitude is necessary. A series of annual anomalies of surface air temperature, precipitation and river discharge were analyzed from 1946 to 2010. The modified Mann-Kendall test was applied to detect trends. Temperature anomalies showed a consistent positive trend since 1950. Precipitation anomalies tended to decrease, though not significantly. River discharge rates showed a consistent positive trend. However, from the 1980s onwards, both the precipitation and the river discharge anomalies had the same decreasing tendency. The precipitation and discharge behavior are likely due to the combined effect of human interventions in the river basins including local, synoptic and global climate effects. The inter-annual variability was characterized by spectral analysis. Cycles were identified for the precipitation and the river discharge with periods of 2-3 years, 3-4 years, 7-8 years and 11-12 years. The decadal frequency is consistent with the South Atlantic and El Niño indices. This work strongly indicates that climate is changing in Costa das Baleias and further work is needed to investigate the mechanisms that link local to large-scale variability.

  20. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists. PMID:26246670

  1. Genome-wide analysis of in vivo binding of the master regulator DasR in Streptomyces coelicolor identifies novel non-canonical targets.

    PubMed

    Świątek-Połatyńska, Magdalena A; Bucca, Giselda; Laing, Emma; Gubbens, Jacob; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Smith, Colin P; Rigali, Sébastien; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2015-01-01

    Streptomycetes produce a wealth of natural products, including over half of all known antibiotics. It was previously demonstrated that N-acetylglucosamine and secondary metabolism are closely entwined in streptomycetes. Here we show that DNA recognition by the N-acetylglucosamine-responsive regulator DasR is growth-phase dependent, and that DasR can bind to sites in the S. coelicolor genome that have no obvious resemblance to previously identified DasR-responsive elements. Thus, the regulon of DasR extends well beyond what was previously predicted and includes a large number of genes with functions far removed from N-acetylglucosamine metabolism, such as genes for small RNAs and DNA transposases. Conversely, the DasR regulon during vegetative growth largely correlates to the presence of canonical DasR-responsive elements. The changes in DasR binding in vivo following N-acetylglucosamine induction were studied in detail and a possible molecular mechanism by which the influence of DasR is extended is discussed. Discussion of DasR binding was further informed by a parallel transcriptome analysis of the respective cultures. Evidence is provided that DasR binds directly to the promoters of all genes encoding pathway-specific regulators of antibiotic production in S. coelicolor, thereby providing an exquisitely simple link between nutritional control and secondary metabolism.

  2. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  3. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  4. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC.

  5. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the professionalization of these teachers in the field of primary science education. With the development of this instrument, we sought to fulfill the need for a statistically and theoretically valid and reliable instrument to measure pre-service and in-service teachers' attitudes. The DAS Instrument is based on a comprehensive theoretical framework for attitude toward (teaching) science. After pilot testing, the DAS was revised and subsequently validated using a large group of respondents (pre-service and in-service primary teachers) (N = 556). The theoretical underpinning of the DAS combined with the statistical data indicate that the DAS possesses good construct validity and that it proves to be a promising instrument that can be utilized for research purposes, and also as a teacher training and coaching tool. This instrument can therefore make a valuable contribution to progress within the field of science education.

  6. Subchronic feeding study with genetically modified stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran resistant (DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7) maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Laura M; Malley, Linda; Mackenzie, Susan A; Hoban, Denise; Delaney, Bryan

    2009-07-01

    DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7 (1507x59122) is a genetically modified (GM) maize hybrid that was produced by crossing of two GM maize inbreds; DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 and DAS-59122-7. This hybrid cross expresses four transgenic proteins: Cry1F and PAT (from DAS-Ø15Ø7-1) and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and PAT (from DAS-59122-7) that confer resistance to lepidopteran and coleopteran pests and tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The current subchronic feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the potential health effects of long-term consumption of a rodent diet containing 1507x59122 maize grain compared with a diet containing maize grain from its near-isogenic control (091). Diets formulated with three unrelated non-GM commercial hybrids (3573, 35P12, 36G12) were also included for within study reference data. All diets contained 34% (w/wt) maize grain and were prepared according to the specifications of PMI((R)) Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet((R)) 5002 (PMI((R)) 5002). Diets were fed ad libitum to rats for at least 92days. OECD 408 response variables from rats fed the 1507x59122 diet were compared with those from rats fed the 091 control diet. No toxicologically significant differences were observed in nutritional performance variables, clinical and neurobehavioral signs, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology between rats in the 091 and 1507x59122 treatment groups. The results from this study demonstrate that 1507x59122 maize grain is as safe and nutritious as non-GM maize grain and support the concept that crossing of two safe GM maize events results in production of a safe stacked GM event.

  7. Análise da cinemática interna das regiões HII gigantes e das galáxias HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plana, H.; Telles, E.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho nós mostramos os primeiros resultados de um estudo sobre a cinemática das Regiões HII Gigantes (GHIIRs) em galáxias próximas. Essas regiões HII têm um diâmetro médio entre 100 pc e 1000 pc e uma taxa de formação estelar de 106 M¤ / ano sendo equivalente à observada em galáxias de tipo tardio correspondendo a uma taxa de formação estelar por unidade de volume uma ordem de magnitude maior que a observada em regiões HII normais. Usando espectros de fenda longas em várias posições, nós construímos mapas de velocidades, de dispersão e de intensidade para várias linhas de emissão como Ha, Hb, [NII]6584 Å, [OIII]5007 Å e o doublet de [SII], para cinco regiões gigantes: NGC 2403 II e IV, NGC 595, NGC 5461, NGC 5471, NGC 5455. O estudo da cinemática (mapas de velocidades e da dispersão) mostrou, por exemplo, a presença de cascas em expansão em NGC 595 ou perfis de emissão com várias componentes em NGC 5461. Os perfis de emissão também mostram velocidades supersônicas. Os resultados são discutidos em comparação com os de estudos anteriores realizados.

  8. DasPy – Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework with High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Montzka, Carsten; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data for multiple model state variables into a simulation model. Our main motivation was to develop an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with C++ and Fortran language. This system has been evaluated in several soil moisture, L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature assimilation studies. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be represented by perturbed atmospheric forcings, perturbed soil and vegetation properties and model initial conditions. The CLM4.5 (Community Land Model) was integrated as the model operator. The CMEM (Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform), COSMIC (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code) and the two source formulation were integrated as observation operators for assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid MPI (Message Passing Interface) and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) techniques. All the input and output data flow is organized efficiently using the commonly used NetCDF file

  9. Integriertes Informationsmanagement an der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster - Das Projekt MIRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Raimund; Gildhorn, Antje; Labitzke, Jörg; Wibberg, Michael

    An der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster (WWU) wurde bereits 1996 ein tragfähiges, kooperativ ausgerichtetes System der IT-Governance im Zusammenspiel zentraler und dezentraler IT-Leistungserbringer etabliert. Um den Anforderungen an ein integriertes Informationsmanagement im Überlappungsfeld von Information, Kommunikation und Medien (IKM) durch das Zusammenspiel der zentralen Einrichtungen Universitätsverwaltung (UniV), Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek (ULB) und Zentrum für Informationsverarbeitung (ZIV) gerecht zu werden, wurde 2003 der IKM-Service institutionalisiert. In diesem Rahmen wurde das Projekt Münster Information System for Research and Organization (MIRO) entwickelt, das als Leistungszentrum für Forschungsinformation von der DFG gefördert wird. Die bisherigen Projekterfahrungen, erreichten Ziele und verbleibenden Aufgaben werden dargestellt. Im Projektverlauf haben sich insbesondere die etablierten IT-Governance und Versorgungs-Strukturen sowie die Unterstützung der Hochschulleitung als essentielle Erfolgskriterien erwiesen.

  10. Viscous dissipation effects on unsteady mixed convective stagnation point flow using Tiwari-Das nanofluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabood, F.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Kumar, P. V.; Khan, W. A.

    A mathematical model has been developed using Tiwari-Das model to study the MHD stagnation-point flow and heat transfer characteristics of an electrically conducting nanofluid over a vertical permeable shrinking/stretching sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation. Formulated partial differential equations are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation. Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique is applied to solve the resulting coupled ordinary differential equations. The profiles for velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for various parameters are displayed through graphs and tabular forms. In this problem, we considered two types of nanoparticles, namely, copper (Cu) and Alumina (Al2O3) with water as base fluid.

  11. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Galan, Maria P; Schafer, Ariane C

    2016-04-02

    Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods.

  12. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Brandon J.; Galan, Maria P.; Schafer, Ariane C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods. PMID:27248569

  13. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  14. Postoperative Analgesia in Abdominal Surgery: a Medico-economic Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-13

    Extended Ileal Resection Under Laparotomy; Total Proctocolectomy Under Laparotomy; Colectomy Left/Right/Total Under Laparotomy; Rectosigmoidal Resection Under Laparotomy; Anterior Resection of Rectum Under Laparotomy; Abdomino-perineal Amputation Under Laparotomy

  15. Medico-legal claims against English radiologists: 1995–2006

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, S F S

    2009-01-01

    A list of claims against radiologists from 1995–2006 was obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority. It shows a total of 440 claims. The largest number of claims (199) related to delayed or missed diagnoses of cancer, and 73 claims related to breast radiology. There is a trend for a mild increase in the number of claims each year. 30 claims were made after a false-positive diagnosis of cancer. Just under £8.5 million has so far been paid in damages, with a further £5 million in legal fees. A claim for multiple missed diagnoses of breast cancer led to a pay-out of £464 000 (£673 000 after legal fees); the largest sum awarded following a delay in the diagnosis of an individual cancer was £300 000. The subtle legal distinction between error and negligence is reviewed here. The reason why breast radiologists are more likely to be sued than any other type of British radiologist is also discussed, along with the implications for UK radiological practice, particularly in light of the recent Chief Medical Officer's report on revalidation. A method is proposed that may protect radiologists from allegations of clinical negligence in the future. PMID:19470570

  16. [Regenerative medicine: orthopaedical applications and medico legal questions].

    PubMed

    Ricci, S; Ricci, O; Tucci, C E; Massoni, F; Sarra, M V; Ricci, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the increase in the global population's mean age has implied a corresponding increase in degenerative disease affecting various anatomical areas and tissues, including bones and cartilages, thus provoking a rising number of disabilities and a wider usage of drugs, mostly anti-inflammatory and cortisone. New developments in technologic and biomedical fields gave birth to new subjects, such as tissue engineering, cell therapy, gene therapy that, by and large, create a knowledge network falling under the concept of Regenerative Medicine. This science is essentially based on the usage of stem cells that can replicate and renovate themselves originating, if adequately stimulated, a number of cell types. Inter alia, in orthopaedic field a particular type of adult stem cells is used, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). If combined with synthetic material produced in laboratories, the usage of these cells has provided inspiration for new study interests; today, it can be applied in various degenerative and post-traumatic pathologies, with great therapeutic benefits for the patient. Actually, many studies write about an improvement in patients' life quality. In this sense appear significant reflections on legal medicine, both in accidents and insurance, of this innovative therapeutic alternative and is hopefully an equally valid process of improvement of regulatory and case law.

  17. [Medico-legal risks of human voluntary sterilization].

    PubMed

    Le Quinquis, P; Chevrant-Breton, O

    1986-01-01

    There has been no legislation in France explicitly authorizing voluntary sterilization, so that a practitioner carrying out a voluntary surgical sterilization runs a theoretical risk of lawsuit. Concern about the legal status of voluntary sterilization stems from 2 articles in the French penal code, article 16 which forbids the crime of castration, defined as the intentional complete and definitive amputation or removal of an organ necessary for procreation; and article 309 which forbids voluntary assault and battery resulting in death or inability to work for 8 days, or a lesser incapacity if the violence was premeditated. Vasectomy and tubal ligation differ from castration in that they do not involve removal or mutilation of the genital organs. Article 309 has been applied to a sterilization case only once. The criminal chamber of the Court of Cassation, France's highest appeals court, ruled in 1937 that the consent of the victim had no effect on penal responsibility, since individuals have no right to violate on their own persons the rules of public order by undergoing corporal injuries unjustified by medical need. There has been no penal judgment since 1937 in a voluntary sterilization case. In a 1983 judgment, the Court of Cassation upheld the responsibility of a surgeon for not informing a 28-year-old mother of 5 of the possibility of failure of the sterilization operation he performed on her. The patient found herself pregnant once again less than 1 month after the operation. Had she been informed of the possibility of pregnancy, she might have taken further precautions to avoid it. The court established a causal link between the problems created by the pregnancy and the fault of the physician in not providing adequate information. The court's decision was of interest because it included tubal ligation among surgical interventions condoned by the common law of medical responsibility, thereby implying acceptance of voluntary sterilization. The plaintiff brought the action in civil rather than criminal court, and the question of the legal status of the operation was not raised even though the operation was not performed to remedy any pathological condition. The Court of Cassation was careful to specify that the surgeon had an obligation to use appropriate techniques according to state of the art procedures to obtain sterilization. The surgeon's error was not failure of the operation but failure to warn the patient of the possibility of pregnancy.

  18. [Valorisation of brachytherapy and medico-economic considerations].

    PubMed

    Pommier, P; Morelle, M; Millet-Lagarde, F; Peiffert, D; Gomez, F; Perrier, L

    2013-04-01

    Economic data in the literature for brachytherapy are still sparse and heterogeneous, with few controlled prospective studies and a perspective most often limited to those of the provider (health insurances). Moreover, these observation and conclusions are difficult to generalize in France. The prospective health economic studies performed in France in the framework of a national program to sustain innovative and costly therapies (STIC program) launched by the French cancer national institute are therefore of most importance. With the exception of prostate brachytherapy with permanent seeds, the valorisation of the brachytherapy activity by the French national health insurance does not take into account the degree of complexity and the real costs supported by health institutions (i.e. no specific valorisation for 3D image-based treatment planning and dose optimization and for the use of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy).

  19. India's Medico-Pharmaceutical Inheritance from the Colonial Period.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkishan

    2014-01-01

    The development of pharmacy in India did not make sufficient headway during the British colonial period. The status of the pharmaceutical inheritance from the colonial era may be summarized as follows: There were around one hundred qualified pharmacists. The Health Survey and Development Committee (1943-45) put the number at 75. The number of compounders was nearly 27,000. They were inadequately qualified and were not counted as pharmacists. A large number of them worked in governmental hospitals. But for some missionary hospitals there was hardly any institutionalized pharmacy else-where. The drug distribution was in the hands of chemists and druggists who were not professionally qualified. The provision of drugs largely remained a trade. The drug industry was in its infancy. The yearly turnover was just 100 million rupees for a country as vast as India. The Drugs Rules 1945 under the Drug Act 1940 had been formulated but their implementation was yet to be effected. Some groundwork had been done on legislation for the control of pharmacy but the bill had yet to be enacted. There were three pharmacy degree-awarding institutions. The Banaras Hindu University and the Panjab University had instituted B. Pharm. courses in 1937 and 1944, with yearly intake of 20 and 5 students, respectively. The L. M. College of Pharmacy at Ahmedabad, then with the Bombay University, had their first admissions in 1947. Two diploma-level pharmacy courses existed at the Madras Medical College and the Medical College, Vishakapatnam, in the Madras Presidency; the yearly intake was very small. The country's entire pharmaceutical legacy from the colonial rule portrays the poor state of pharmacy practice that came with independence. The higher status of pharmacy as seen today is the result of sustained efforts made over the last fifty years. The chemists and druggists of the earlier period were not a qualified group--they were more concerned with protecting their trade interests and lacked the professional component. Thus the development of the profession constituted a formidable task. Once it became evident that inadequate attention had been paid to the pharmaceutical component of the new health care system during the colonial period--within pharmaceutical circles during the early part of the twentieth century--change began to take place, with the establishment of the Drugs Enquiry Committee recognized as the most significant event of the time. The Report was submitted by the Committee in 1931, laying the foundation of the drugs and pharmacy statutes and development of the pharmacy profession in general. It was a coincidence that the year 1931 also witnessed an occurrence of potential significance; that was, the entry of Mahadeva Lal Schroff, a man with an indomitable spirit, into the pharmaceutical arena to lead and direct the making of modern pharmacy in India.

  20. Medico-Legal Employability Assessment: Myths, Mistakes and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Hawkins, Trevor K.

    2009-01-01

    The onset of injury and disability can have a significant negative effect on individuals' social, interpersonal and vocational participation. This in turn impacts on individuals' current and future earning capacity. An objective assessment of post-injury work capacity is often sought through legal processes to determine the extent of this…

  1. Otolaryngology and Irish literature: an important medico-literary alliance.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Emma C

    2010-12-01

    For a comparatively small island, Ireland has made a disproportionately large contribution to world literature in all its aspects. The literary lineage of those who pursue medicine and also write is long and well established. The Irish contribution to world literature in all its aspects is well documented. Less explored, however, is the prominent influence of Dublin-based otolaryngologists in the Irish literary movement at the turn of the last century. Here, we examine two such figures, Sir William Wilde and Oliver St. John Gogarty, and their pivotal roles both professionally and in establishing Ireland on the world's literary stage. During the early part of the 1800s, otology was perceived as a defunct subspecialty that could be adequately managed, without much expertise, in the primary care setting. It was through the efforts of William Wilde and others that otology gained clinical and scientific credence during the latter half of the 19th century. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Medici syndrome: a medico-historical puzzle.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Albury, William R; Lippi, Donatella

    2010-05-01

    The historical significance of the Medici family of Florence is widely recognised, but the diseases which afflicted leading members of this family have only been scientifically studied in recent decades. Paleopathological findings on exhumed skeletons, supplemented by medical descriptions in historical documents, have permitted a retrospective diagnosis of a triple pathological syndrome in the senior branch of the Medici family. Peripheral joint and spinal conditions, with the presence of skin disease, are identified in several generations of the family in the 15th century and are presented as the 'Medici syndrome'. Radiological findings are compared with macro- and microscopical descriptions in the diagnosis of the peripheral joint disease and spinal ankylosis/stenosis within the syndrome.

  3. Medico-Legal Employability Assessment: Myths, Mistakes and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Hawkins, Trevor K.

    2009-01-01

    The onset of injury and disability can have a significant negative effect on individuals' social, interpersonal and vocational participation. This in turn impacts on individuals' current and future earning capacity. An objective assessment of post-injury work capacity is often sought through legal processes to determine the extent of this…

  4. Ensino Medico e Desenvolvimento (Secondary Education and Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouveia, Aparecida Joly; Havinghurst, Robert J.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a study about secondary education with particular reference to students; it essentially treats the relationship between economics and education in the context of Brazilian society. From the sociological point of view; the study is characterized by concentration on certain…

  5. Examination of the placenta: medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kenneth Tou-En

    2014-10-01

    Formal examination of the placenta may provide valuable information to the clinicians, family, and court of law in cases of adverse pregnancy outcome when litigation is initiated. Placental examination contributes towards the identification of specific intrinsic or secondary placental lesions, and understanding the nature of the intrauterine environment. This article provides an update of important placental pathologies that may contribute towards neurologic injury of the newborn child, and describes the role of placental findings in the adjudication of cases of adverse neonatal outcome.

  6. Automatic Indexing of Drug Information. Project MEDICO Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan

    The broad objective of this investigation was to explore the potential and applicability of automatic methods for the indexing of drug-related information appearing in English natural language text and to find out what can be learned about automatic indexing in general from the experience. More specific objectives were the development,…

  7. The irresponsible criminal in Norwegian medico-legal discourse.

    PubMed

    Skålevåg, Svein Atle

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses discourses on criminal responsibility in Norway in the 19th and 20th centuries, in light of Michel Foucault's regimes of power and knowledge: the apparatuses of law, discipline and security. The passing of two criminal codes, in 1842 and 1902 marks a development from neo-classical law to a law influenced by positivist criminology. In these consecutive ways of thinking law, the figure of the irresponsible criminal constituted a contentious issue. From being a figure marking the limits of the law, the irresponsible criminal became an object to be disciplined and a security threat. This redefinition of criminal responsibility created or was created by new groups of experts speaking from positions increasingly close to the criminals. The most important professional group was of course the psychiatrists, that emerged in Norway as a distinct professional group in the second half of the 19th century, and whose influence in the legislative process culminated in the 1920s.

  8. Medico-legal implications of acute subdural haematoma in boxing.

    PubMed

    Ng'walali, P M; Muraoka, N; Honjyo, K; Hamada, K; Kibayashi, K; Tsunenari, S

    2000-09-01

    A 16-year-old male high school student with a history of fever (38-39 degrees C) for 4 days lost consciousness following the end of a three round boxing match. He was transferred to a neurosurgical unit located 48 km away 1 h 36 min after injury. Clinical assessment at the unit revealed a comatose patient with a left acute subdural haematoma, but because of advanced brain oedema surgical management was deemed futile. At autopsy an acute subdural haematoma and a severe brain oedema were confirmed. Evaluation of physical conditions before the fight should have been more rigorous in our patient. The observations in our case support the published literature that boxing matches should be held only where neurosurgical expertise is readily available.

  9. [The relativity and geodiversity of medico-economic realities].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E

    1998-05-01

    The economic gestion of health care is difficult to handle. It covers several aspects which cannot pride to be accurate sciences. It strikes difficulties such as the geodiversity of problems to be solved and the nuances in the application of principles of social equity and medical ethics. The health-care analysis is also exposed to some politician interpretations biased by doctrinal a priori. Most often, a confrontation ensues between the political cenacle and the professionals directly involved in health-care.

  10. [Depression --the most pragmatic diagnosis in medico-legal opinionating].

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Piotr; Skupień, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    As it follows from the expertise practice of the authors, broadly understood "depression syndrome" is the most common diagnosis occurring in sick-leave certificates provided for legal procedures to the court. This problem is encountered in penal, civil and insurance cases. At the same time, in a significant percentage of cases, the patient's self-presentation does not correspond with the provided diagnosis. A particular legal situation of a person stigmatized with such a diagnosis clearly indicates its pragmatic character. Hence, several questions emerge: (1) Why does such a particular diagnosis prevail? (2) Is there another disease entity in psychiatry, which has such a broadly reactive background? On the basis of a particular case the authors formulate the problem of the appropriately understood interest of the patient. Does the current protection against broadly understood legal consequences cause the patient to fixate on the defense mechanisms and -- in consequence -- degradation of his functioning?

  11. Medico-legal analysis of a case of mass shooting.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, R; Šidlo, J; Zummerová, A; Šikuta, J; Baloghová, A

    Despite the existence of organised crime in Slovakia, no case has ever been monitored in which one individual used a firearm against several people, as happens in the U.S. or in Western Europe. The aim of this work is to demonstrate a "unique" case in the history of Slovak criminality, when six members of one family were killed and some other accidental victims were wounded or even killed by one perpetrator using a firearm.

  12. [Medico-biological effect of natural electromagnetic variations].

    PubMed

    Oraevskiĭ, V N; Kuleshova, V P; Gurfinkel', Iu F; Guseva, A V; Rapoport, S I

    1998-01-01

    Emergency ambulance statistical data accumulated in Moscow during March 1983-October 1984 have been analyzed. Diurnal numbers of urgent hospitalization of patients in connection with suicides, mental disorders, myocardial infarction, defects of cerebrum vessels and arterial and venous diseases have been examined. Intensity and duration of planetary geomagnetic storms were used as magnetic activity indices. Comparison of geomagnetic and medical data rows has shown that at least 75% of magnetic storms caused increase in hospitalization of patients with the above-mentioned diseases on 30-80% at average. The dependence of the value of biotropic effect on the duration of effect and intensity of magnetic storm is observed.

  13. Medico-legal aspect of amphetamine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Kula, K; Rojek, S; Maciów-Głąb, M; Kopacz, P; Kłys, M

    The subject of the work included 41 cases of death in which amphetamine was involved as the direct or indirect cause. Identification and determination of xenobiotics in blood samples collected from post-mortem cases were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Only for two cases was the cause of death amphetamine poisoning. In most of the investigated cases the death was caused by poisoning due to complex amphetamine and other psychoactive substances (e.g. opiates, benzodiazepines, cocaine). In other cases, multi-organ damage (fall from a height, traffic accident), a puncture wound and wound incised, drowning, or asphyxiation by hanging were reported. It can be explained as risky, murderous, or suicidal actions of people who were under the influence of amphetamines. The presented paper focuses on the interpretation of amphetamine concentration in blood samples from the perspective of direct or indirect cause of death.

  14. Medico-legal claims against English radiologists: 1995-2006.

    PubMed

    Halpin, S F S

    2009-12-01

    A list of claims against radiologists from 1995-2006 was obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority. It shows a total of 440 claims. The largest number of claims (199) related to delayed or missed diagnoses of cancer, and 73 claims related to breast radiology. There is a trend for a mild increase in the number of claims each year. 30 claims were made after a false-positive diagnosis of cancer. Just under pound8.5 million has so far been paid in damages, with a further pound5 million in legal fees. A claim for multiple missed diagnoses of breast cancer led to a pay-out of pound464 000 ( pound673 000 after legal fees); the largest sum awarded following a delay in the diagnosis of an individual cancer was pound300 000. The subtle legal distinction between error and negligence is reviewed here. The reason why breast radiologists are more likely to be sued than any other type of British radiologist is also discussed, along with the implications for UK radiological practice, particularly in light of the recent Chief Medical Officer's report on revalidation. A method is proposed that may protect radiologists from allegations of clinical negligence in the future.

  15. Importation of mycobacteriosis with ornamental fish: Medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Passantino, A; Macrì, D; Coluccio, P; Foti, F; Marino, F

    2008-07-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, as well as Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium chelonae, are the etiological agents of fish Mycobacterioses. Mycobacteriosis has been reported to affect a wide range of freshwater and marine fish species, suggesting an ubiquitous distribution, and can cause zoonotic infections (known as "fish tank granuloma" or "swimming pool granuloma") in humans exposed to fish and contaminated water. Infection in human consists of nodular cutaneous lesions that can progress to tenosynovitis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis, depending on the immunological status. Authors describe some cases observed during routinary diagnostic activity in aquarium fish. Fish were sampled and histopathological, microbiological, and biomolecular exams were carried out. Histopathology showed systemic granulomatosis. Microbiological and biomolecular exams allowed us to identify the M. fortuitum as a main species. Finally, some considerations on the legal aspects of such disease are discussed.

  16. Test Review: Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., & Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (2nd Ed.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (CAS2) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability designed for children and adolescents ages 5 through 18 years. The measure, authored by Jack A. Naglieri, J. P. Das, and Sam Goldstein, was published by Pro-Ed in 2014 and is the first revision of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS;…

  17. Latent Factor Structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Das, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children.…

  18. Processing data for a spatial watershed model to evaluate hydrological responses of the Ribeirão das Posses, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southeastern Brazil has experienced drought conditions that have impacted the conservation of watersheds and the management of water quality and quantity for agricultural and urban demands. The Ribeirão das Posses watershed is being monitored as a headwater of the Jaguarí River, which is one of the ...

  19. Concurrent Validity of the WISC-IV and DAS-II in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriakose, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive assessments are used for a variety of research and clinical purposes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study establishes concurrent validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-fourth edition (WISC-IV) and Differential Ability Scales-second edition (DAS-II) in a sample of children with ASD with a broad…

  20. OntoDas – a tool for facilitating the construction of complex queries to the Gene Ontology

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Kieran; Garcia, Alexander; Schwegmann, Anita; Jimenez, Rafael C; Jacobson, Dan; Hermjakob, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Background Ontologies such as the Gene Ontology can enable the construction of complex queries over biological information in a conceptual way, however existing systems to do this are too technical. Within the biological domain there is an increasing need for software that facilitates the flexible retrieval of information. OntoDas aims to fulfil this need by allowing the definition of queries by selecting valid ontology terms. Results OntoDas is a web-based tool that uses information visualisation techniques to provide an intuitive, interactive environment for constructing ontology-based queries against the Gene Ontology Database. Both a comprehensive use case and the interface itself were designed in a participatory manner by working with biologists to ensure that the interface matches the way biologists work. OntoDas was further tested with a separate group of biologists and refined based on their suggestions. Conclusion OntoDas provides a visual and intuitive means for constructing complex queries against the Gene Ontology. It was designed with the participation of biologists and compares favourably with similar tools. It is available at PMID:18925933

  1. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  2. Test Review: Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., & Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (2nd Ed.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (CAS2) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability designed for children and adolescents ages 5 through 18 years. The measure, authored by Jack A. Naglieri, J. P. Das, and Sam Goldstein, was published by Pro-Ed in 2014 and is the first revision of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS;…

  3. Concurrent Validity of the WISC-IV and DAS-II in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriakose, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive assessments are used for a variety of research and clinical purposes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study establishes concurrent validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-fourth edition (WISC-IV) and Differential Ability Scales-second edition (DAS-II) in a sample of children with ASD with a broad…

  4. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  5. Expression of Das-1, Ki67 and sulfuric proteins in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and intestinal metaplasia lesions

    PubMed Central

    FENG, XIAO-SHAN; WANG, YU-FENG; HAO, SHU-GUANG; RU, YI; GAO, SHE-GAN; WANG, LI-DONG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize histo-chemical patterns and Das-1 and Ki67 protein expression in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) lesions adjacent to GCA. Histochemical techniques, including Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS), high iron diamine/Alcian blue (HID/AB) and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) immunohistochemistry were applied to GCA and IM samples from patients (n=200) in Linzhou, Henan, China, a high incidence area for GCA and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The detection rate of IM lesions in resected tissues adjacent to GCA was 32.5% (65/200). GCA and IM lesions presented a high frequency of Das-1 and Ki67-positive staining with statistical significance (P<0.01). The expression of sulfuric proteins did not show co-expression with Das-1 and Ki67 in GCA and surrounding IM lesions (P>0.05) from the same GCA patient. The high frequency of co-expression of Das-1 and Ki67 in GCA and adjacent IM lesions indicates that IM adjacent to GCA may undergo similar molecular changes to GCA, which may be one of the mechanisms for malignant transformation of IM in the population studied. PMID:23837030

  6. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  7. Latent Factor Structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Das, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children.…

  8. Impaired Left Ventricular Diastolic Functions and Thickened Epicardial Adipose Tissue in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients is Correlated with DAS-28 Score

    PubMed Central

    Alpaydın, Sertac; Buyukterzi, Zafer; Akkurt, Halil Ekrem; Yılmaz, Halim

    2017-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is known to be associated with high cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate whether RA disease activity reflected with disease activity score-28 (DAS-28) had an impact on left ventricular diastolic functions and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in RA patients with no traditional CV risk factors. Methods In this retrospective study, 41 patients newly diagnosed with RA were included. In addition to medical history, detailed physical examination findings and laboratory tests, left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, chamber dimensions, and EAT thickness were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography in the study population. Results This study included 41 subjects with a median age of 45 years (38.00-55.50), of which 29.27% were male. In the binomial logistic regression analysis, DAS-28 score was found to be an independent associate of diastolic dysfunction, Additionally, DAS-28 was found to be independently associated with EAT thickness. Conclusions Patients with high DAS-28 score should be evaluated thoroughly for CV disease, and patients should undergo advanced diagnostic studies as required and receive appropriate treatment. PMID:28344422

  9. Pain persists in DAS28 rheumatoid arthritis remission but not in ACR/EULAR remission: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yvonne C; Cui, Jing; Lu, Bing; Frits, Michelle L; Iannaccone, Christine K; Shadick, Nancy A; Weinblatt, Michael E; Solomon, Daniel H

    2011-06-08

    Disease remission has become a feasible goal for most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients; however, patient-reported symptoms, such as pain, may persist despite remission. We assessed the prevalence of pain in RA patients in remission according to the Disease Activity Score (DAS28-CRP4) and the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) remission criteria. Data were analyzed from RA patients in the Brigham Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study with data at baseline and 1 year. DAS28 remission was defined as DAS28-CRP4 <2.6. The ACR/EULAR remission criteria included (a) one or more swollen joints, (b) one or more tender joints, (c) C-reactive protein ≤1 mg/dl, and (d) patient global assessment score ≤1. Pain severity was measured by using the pain score from the Multi-Dimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ). The associations between baseline clinical predictors and MDHAQ pain at baseline and 1 year were assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Among the 865 patients with data at baseline and 1 year, 157 (18.2%) met DAS28-CRP4 remission criteria at both time points. Thirty-seven (4.3%) met the ACR/EULAR remission criteria at baseline and 1 year. The prevalence of clinically significant pain (MDHAQ pain ≥4) at baseline ranged from 11.9% among patients meeting DAS28-CRP4 remission criteria to none among patients meeting ACR/EULAR remission criteria. Patient global assessment, MDHAQ function, MDHAQ fatigue, MDHAQ sleep, and arthritis self-efficacy were significantly associated with MDHAQ pain in cross-sectional (P ≤ 0.0005) and longitudinal analyses (P ≤ 0.03). Low swollen-joint counts were associated with high MDHAQ pain in longitudinal analyses (P = 0.02) but not cross-sectional analyses. Other measures of inflammatory disease activity and joint damage were not significantly associated with MDHAQ pain at baseline or at 1 year. Clinically significant pain continues among a substantial proportion of

  10. Phase Velocity and Full-Waveform Analysis of Co-located Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Channels and Geophone Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Mellors, R. J.; Thurber, C. H.; Wang, H. F.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A 762-meter Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) array with a channel spacing of one meter was deployed at the Garner Valley Downhole Array in Southern California. The array was approximately rectangular with dimensions of 180 meters by 80 meters. The array also included two subdiagonals within the rectangle along which three-component geophones were co-located. Several active sources were deployed, including a 45-kN, swept-frequency, shear-mass shaker, which produced strong Rayleigh waves across the array. Both DAS and geophone traces were filtered in 2-Hz steps between 4 and 20 Hz to obtain phase velocities as a function of frequency from fitting the moveout of travel times over distances of 35 meters or longer. As an alternative to this traditional means of finding phase velocity, it is theoretically possible to find the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity at each point of co-location as the ratio of DAS and geophone responses, because DAS is sensitive to ground strain and geophones are sensitive to ground velocity, after suitable corrections for instrument response (Mikumo & Aki, 1964). The concept was tested in WPP, a seismic wave propagation program, by first validating and then using a 3D synthetic, full-waveform seismic model to simulate the effect of increased levels of noise and uncertainty as data go from ideal to more realistic. The results obtained from this study provide a better understanding of the DAS response and its potential for being combined with traditional seismometers for obtaining phase velocity at a single location. This analysis is part of the PoroTomo project (Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology, http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo).

  11. DAS181 for Treatment of Parainfluenza Virus Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients at a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Mirella; Satlin, Michael J; Jacobs, Samantha E; Jenkins, Stephen G; Schuetz, Audrey N; Moss, Ronald B; Van Besien, Koen; Shore, Tsiporah; Soave, Rosemary

    2016-05-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) causes severe respiratory infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Currently, no effective therapies are available. DAS181 is a novel antiviral agent that inhibits attachment of PIV to respiratory cells, but clinical data on the use of DAS181 for PIV infection are limited to case reports. We report the clinical manifestations and outcomes of 16 HSCT recipients who received DAS181 daily for the treatment of PIV infection through a compassionate-use protocol or a single-arm clinical trial. Of the 16 patients (clinical trial: 9; compassionate use: 7), 13 were allogeneic HSCT recipients and 8 had graft-versus-host disease. PIV types were 3 (n = 7), 4 (n = 5), 1 (n = 3), and type 3 and 4 coinfection (n = 1). Fourteen patients had pneumonia. All patients presented with cough, 14 had dyspnea, 11 had hypoxia, and 8 had a fever. Patients received 5 to 10 days of treatment. Nine patients (56%) had a complete clinical response after DAS181 therapy and 4 (25%) had a partial response. The 3 patients without a clinical response had coinfections with other pathogens. Of the 7 patients with virologic and spirometric data, 5 had >1-log reduction in nasopharyngeal swab PIV viral load and 4 had improved forced expiratory volumes by the end of treatment. Three patients (19%) died within 30 days and 2 of these deaths were related to PIV infection. Our data suggest that DAS181 may be an effective therapy for PIV pneumonia in HSCT recipients. Randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to better evaluate its efficacy.

  12. (Re)locating (I)dentity With(in) Politicized (Re)presentation of Fe/Male Body in Kamala Das' Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Sharmin; Sarwar, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is going to argue that the selected poems of renowned Indian poet Kamala Das are inclined to relocate both feminine and masculine identity through the politicized representation of body. Kamala Das' representation of body in her poems has always been viewed as a medium of re-historicizing the pain, sufferings, and psychological trauma…

  13. Crystal Structures of the Global Regulator DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor: Implications for the Allosteric Regulation of GntR/HutC Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Fillenberg, Simon B.; Friess, Mario D.; Körner, Samuel; Böckmann, Rainer A.; Muller, Yves A.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule effectors regulate gene transcription in bacteria by altering the DNA-binding affinities of specific repressor proteins. Although the GntR proteins represent a large family of bacterial repressors, only little is known about the allosteric mechanism that enables their function. DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor belongs to the GntR/HutC subfamily and specifically recognises operators termed DasR-responsive elements (dre-sites). Its DNA-binding properties are modulated by phosphorylated sugars. Here, we present several crystal structures of DasR, namely of dimeric full-length DasR in the absence of any effector and of only the effector-binding domain (EBD) of DasR without effector or in complex with glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) and N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P). Together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a comparison with other GntR/HutC family members these data allowed for a structural characterisation of the different functional states of DasR. Allostery in DasR and possibly in many other GntR/HutC family members is best described by a conformational selection model. In ligand-free DasR, an increased flexibility in the EBDs enables the attached DNA-binding domains (DBD) to sample a variety of different orientations and among these also a DNA-binding competent conformation. Effector binding to the EBDs of DasR significantly reorganises the atomic structure of the latter. However, rather than locking the orientation of the DBDs, the effector-induced formation of β-strand β* in the DBD-EBD-linker segment merely appears to take the DBDs ‘on a shorter leash’ thereby impeding the ‘downwards’ positioning of the DBDs that is necessary for a concerted binding of two DBDs of DasR to operator DNA. PMID:27337024

  14. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

  15. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) of the KM3NeT experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, C.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Starting from 2015, the new generation underwater high energy neutrino telescope, KM3NeT, is being installed in the Mediterranean Sea. During Phase 1, 32 Detection Units (8 tower-like and 24 string-like) will be deployed in the Ionian Sea, about 100km offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily, and 7 string-like DUs will be deployed in the MEUST site, offshore Toulon in France. During Phase 2, several hundreds of DUs will be added to the Phase 1 detector, reaching an effective detection volume of some cubic kilometres. In this contribution the Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) of the string-based detector is described. The TriDAS is designed to scale with the detector size, allowing the read-out and the on-line trigger of data from both Phase 1 and Phase 2, whose continuous throughputs are expected to be about 10Gbps and more than 250Gbps, respectively.

  16. Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative CTM predictions of Antarctic ozone recovery to GCM and DAS generated meteorological fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D; Bergmann, D

    2003-12-04

    We use the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the evolution of stratospheric ozone between 1995 and 2030, using boundary conditions consistent with the recent World Meteorological Organization ozone assessment. We compare the Antarctic ozone recovery predictions of two simulations, one driven by meteorological data from a general circulation model (GCM), the other using the output of a data assimilation system (DAS), to examine the sensitivity of Antarctic ozone recovery predictions to the characteristic dynamical differences between GCM and DAS-generated meteorological data. Although the age of air in the Antarctic lower stratosphere differs by a factor of 2 between the simulations, we find little sensitivity of the 1995-2030 Antarctic ozone recovery between 350 K and 650 K to the differing meteorological fields, particularly when the recovery is specified in mixing ratio units. Relative changes are smaller in the DAS-driven simulation compared to the GCM-driven simulation due to a surplus of Antarctic ozone in the DAS-driven simulation which is not consistent with observations. The peak ozone change between 1995 and 2030 in both simulations is {approx}20% lower than photochemical expectations, indicating that changes in ozone transport at 450 K between 1995 and 2030 constitute a small negative feedback. Total winter/spring ozone loss during the base year (1995) of both simulations and the rate of ozone loss during August and September is somewhat weaker than observed. This appears to be due to underestimates of Antarctic Cl{sub y} at the 450 K potential temperature level.

  17. Correlation between DAS-28 and neopterin as a biochemical marker of immune system activation in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    D'agostino, Liliana Elena; Ventimiglia, Fernando; Verna, Juan Antonio; Colina, Amelia De La; Aguirre, Yanina; Arturi, Alfredo; Capparelli, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate neopterin plasma concentrations in patients with early Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and correlate them with disease activity. This is a 28-month prospective study carried out on 65 individuals. There were 27 patients with early RA and 38 healthy volunteers as control group. Enzyme immunoassay was used to measure concentrations of neopterin and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured turbidimetrically, and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were detected by immunofluorescence. Patients with early RA disease activity were divided into 4 groups according to DAS-28 criteria. Neopterin concentrations in RA patients were compared to conventional RA diagnostic serological markers. Healthy volunteers had a mean neopterin concentration of 5.63 ± 0.38 [1.36-9.93] nmol. L(- 1). A statistically significant elevation of neopterin mean concentration was found on early RA patients: mean value of 8.92 ± 0.93 [3.94-28.3] nmol. L(- 1) (p < 0.001). Pearson product moment correlation suggests a correlation between neopterin concentrations and DAS-28 (r = 0.208, p = 0.065). The analysis of the mean values grouped according with the DAS-28 criteria showed a correspondence between these means, with a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.979, p = 0.021. CRP concentrations also showed a similar trend. Anti-CCP antibodies and RF revealed a positive relationship with RA activity. Such a correlation was not found with ANA results. The elevation of plasma neopterin concentrations in early RA patients may indicate stimulation of immune response. Good correlation between neopterin concentrations and DAS-28 may facilitate assessing disease activity.

  18. Periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis lowers gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1beta and DAS28 in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Bıyıkoğlu, Başak; Buduneli, Nurcan; Aksu, Kenan; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Lappin, David F; Evrenosoğlu, Evren; Kinane, Denis F

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate clinical outcomes and effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in chronic periodontitis patients with/without rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fifteen RA patients with chronic periodontitis (RA-P) and 15 systemically healthy non-RA chronic periodontitis patients (H-P) were recruited. Clinical periodontal recordings, GCF, and blood samples were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after periodontal treatment. GCF, serum IL-1β, TNF-α levels were analyzed by ELISA. Disease activity score 28 (DAS28) was used to assess RA clinical morbidity. Study groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon test was used to compare the data at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after periodontal therapy within the same group. DAS28 decreased significantly after periodontal therapy in RA-P group (p < 0.01). Serum TNF-α concentrations of H-P group were significantly higher than those of RA-P group (p < 0.01), whereas IL-1β levels were similar. No significant change was observed in serum levels of these cytokines after periodontal therapy. GCF IL-1β amounts decreased significantly in both groups following treatment (p < 0.01). At 6-months, H-P GCF IL-1β concentrations were significantly lower than baseline. DAS28 and GCF IL-1β correlated with clinical periodontal indices (p < 0.01). Significant decreases in DAS28 and GCF IL-1β amounts after periodontal treatment suggest that periodontal therapy synergizes with systemic RA therapy to improve RA status.

  19. MiDas: automatic extraction of a common domain of discourse in sleep medicine for multi-center data integration.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Luo, Lingyun; Dong, Xiao; Cui, Licong; Redline, Susan S; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies often use data dictionaries with controlled sets of terms to facilitate data collection, limited interoperability and sharing at a local site. Multi-center retrospective clinical studies require that these data dictionaries, originating from individual participating centers, be harmonized in preparation for the integration of the corresponding clinical research data. Domain ontologies are often used to facilitate multi-center data integration by modeling terms from data dictionaries in a logic-based language, but interoperability among domain ontologies (using automated techniques) is an unresolved issue. Although many upper-level reference ontologies have been proposed to address this challenge, our experience in integrating multi-center sleep medicine data highlights the need for an upper level ontology that models a common set of terms at multiple-levels of abstraction, which is not covered by the existing upper-level ontologies. We introduce a methodology underpinned by a Minimal Domain of Discourse (MiDas) algorithm to automatically extract a minimal common domain of discourse (upper-domain ontology) from an existing domain ontology. Using the Multi-Modality, Multi-Resource Environment for Physiological and Clinical Research (Physio-MIMI) multi-center project in sleep medicine as a use case, we demonstrate the use of MiDas in extracting a minimal domain of discourse for sleep medicine, from Physio-MIMI's Sleep Domain Ontology (SDO). We then extend the resulting domain of discourse with terms from the data dictionary of the Sleep Heart and Health Study (SHHS) to validate MiDas. To illustrate the wider applicability of MiDas, we automatically extract the respective domains of discourse from 6 sample domain ontologies from the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies (NCBO) and the OBO Foundry.

  20. MoSST DAS: The First Working Geomagnetic Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Wei, Zigang; Tangborn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Earth possesses an internal magnetic field (geomagnetic field) generated by convection in the outer core (geodynamo). Previous efforts have been focused along two distinct paths: (1) numerical geodynamo modeling to understand the origin of the geomagnetic field, and the mechanisms of geomagnetic secular variations (SV); and (2) geomagnetic field modeling to map the spatial/temporal variations of the field from geomagnetic data, and to derive core properties, e.g. inversion of core flow near the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Geomagnetic data assimilation is a new approach emerged over the past 5 years: surface observations are assimilated with geodynamo models for better understanding of the core dynamical state, and accurately prediction of SV. In collaboration with several geomagnetic research groups, we have developed the first working geomagnetic data assimilation system, Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent, and Three-dimensional (MoSST) DAS, that includes the MoSST numerical dynamo model; 7000 years of geomagnetic field maps from several field models utilizing satellite and ground observatory data, historical magnetic records and archeo/paleo magnetic data; and an ensemble based optimal interpolation (01) assimilation algorithm. With this system, we have demonstrated clearly that the assimilated core dynamical state is substantially different from those of pure geodynamo simulations. Ensemble assimilation runs also show the convergence of the assimilated solutions inside the core, suggesting that the simulation state is pulled closer to the truth via data assimilation. The forecasts from this system are also very accurate: the 5-year forecast of the geomagnetic field agrees very well with the observations; and the 5-year secular variation forecast is more accurate than the IGRF SV forecast models in the past. Using geomagnetic records up to 2009, we have made an SV forecast for the period from 2010-2015, and is a candidate SV model for IGRF-11.

  1. A novel abundant family of retroposed elements (DAS-SINEs) in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Smit, Arian F A; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2005-04-01

    About half of the mammalian genome is composed of retroposons. Long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) are the most abundant repetitive elements and account for about 21% and 13% of the human genome, respectively. SINEs have been detected in all major mammalian lineages, except for the South American order Xenarthra, also termed Edentata (armadillos, anteaters, and sloths). Investigating this order, we discovered a novel high-copy-number family of tRNA derived SINEs in the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, a species that successfully crossed the Central American land bridge to North America in the Pliocene. A specific computer algorithm was developed, and we detected and extracted 687 specific SINEs from databases. Termed DAS-SINEs, we further divided them into six distinct subfamilies. We extracted tRNA(Ala)-derived monomers, two types of dimers, and three subfamilies of chimeric fusion products of a tRNA(Ala) domain and an approximately 180-nt sequence of thus far unidentified origin. Comparisons of secondary structures of the DAS-SINEs' tRNA domains suggest selective pressure to maintain a tRNA-like D-arm structure in the respective founder RNAs, as shown by compensatory mutations. By analysis of subfamily-specific genetic variability, comparison of the proportion of direct repeats, and analysis of self-integrations as well as key events of dimerization and deletions or insertions, we were able to delineate the evolutionary history of the DAS-SINE subfamilies.

  2. Predictors of European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) good response, DAS-28 remission and sustained responses to TNF-inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study in refractory disease.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Farahat, Faisal; Kewan, Hanady H; Bukhari, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey factors related to EULAR good response, the DAS-28 definition of remission, ACR 50 response, sustained response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-I) therapy in biologic naïve patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis. This was a single center observational clinical prospective 2 years' study, EULAR response criteria, DAS 28, HAQ and radiographic changes were recorded. Eighty patients included (64 females and 16 males, mean age was 48.4 + -17.9 years, mean disease duration 7.3 + -5.9 years). At 6 months 70% achieved EULAR good response, 51.8% achieved DAS-28 remission. Good response/sustained responses inversely correlated with baseline DAS-28 and radiographic erosions P <0.05. EULAR good response/remission by 6 months, sustained response at 2 years positively correlated with the decline in RF titers (r = 0.33, P < 0.05 & r = 0.30, P < 0.03 respectively), negatively correlated with the baseline HAQ. Regression analysis identified higher serum hemoglobin concentration, lower baseline HAQ scores, and the absence of radiographic erosions as significant predictors of good as well as sustained responses after adjustment for potential covariates. Methotrexate was associated with favorable responses and remission at 6 months (ORs = 1.13, 1.30 respectively). The study concluded that a lower baseline DAS-28 and HAQ scores, the lack of radiographic erosions favored EULAR good response and were significant predictors of sustained response to TNF-I.

  3. Properties of Noise Cross Correlation Functions Obtained from a Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array at Garner Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Lancelle, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Chalari, A.; Clarke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The field test of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) conducted at Garner Valley, California on September 11-12, 2013 provided a continuous overnight record of ambient noise. The DAS array recorded ground motions every one meter of optical cable that was arranged approximately in the shape of a rectangle with dimensions of 160 m by 80 m. The long dimension of the array was adjacent to a state highway. Three hours of record were used to compute noise cross-correlation functions (NCFs) in one-minute windows. The trace from each sensor channel was pre-processed by downsampling to 200 Hz, followed by normalization in the time-domain and bandpass filtering between 2 and 20 Hz (Bensen et al., 2007). The one-minute NCFs were then stacked using the time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking method (Schimmel & Gallart, 2007). The NCFs between channels were asymmetrical reflecting the direction of traffic noise. The group velocities were found using the frequency-time analysis method. The energy was concentrated between 5 and 15 Hz, which falls into the typical traffic noise frequency band. The resulting velocities were between 100 and 300 m/s for frequencies between 10 and 20 Hz, which are in the same range as described in the results for surface-wave dispersion obtained using an active source for the same site (Lancelle et al., 2015). The group velocity starts to decrease for frequencies greater than ~10 Hz, which was expected on the basis of a previous shear-wave velocity model (Steidl et al., 1996). Then, the phase velocity was calculated using the multichannel analysis of surface wave technique (MASW - Park et al., 1999) with 114 NCFs spaced one meter apart. The resulting dispersion curve between 5 and 15 Hz gave phase velocities that ranged from approximately 170 m/s at 15 Hz to 250 m/s at 5 Hz. These results are consistent with other results of active-source DAS and seismometer records obtained at the Garner Valley site (e.g., Stokoe et al. 2004). This analysis is

  4. Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura-Costa, Gislaine F; Nocchi, Samara R; Ceole, Ligia F; de Mello, João Carlos P; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Temponi, Livia G; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania

    2012-09-28

    A considerable percentage of global biodiversity is located in Brazil, a country that also has rich cultural and ethnic diversity. In the community of Rio das Cobras, Paraná, plants are still widely used in the health care not only by indigenous people but also by the non-indigenous population that inhabits the region. The investigation of the efficacy and safety of these plants in the treatment of infectious diseases provides insights for future studies of these species allowing the appropriated use by the indigenous people, since few or none study has been conducted so far. Evaluate the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of some plants used as medicinal on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil. The aqueous extracts were obtained by decoction and the 50% and 70% hydroalcoholic extracts by turbo extraction. The extracts were tested against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Leishmania amazonensis, Poliovirus and HSV-1. Cytotoxicity assay using VERO cells were also performed. None of the extracts had a selectivity index (SI)>1 for any of the tested bacteria. Only Campomanesia eugenioides and Schinus terebinthifolius had an SI>1.0 for all of the tested Candida species. The best anti-Leishmania activity was obtained with Zanthoxylum rhoifolium and Schinus terebinthifolius. Extracts of Cordia americana were the most effective against herpes simplex virus type 1. Zanthoxylum rhoifolium was the most effective against Poliovirus, and Ocimum gratissimum was effective against both Poliovirus and Herpes Simplex virus. Among the plants investigated in the present study, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium had the fewest cytotoxic effect. The plants investigated in the present study exhibited potential for future pharmacological uses, but additional studies, especially with regard to in vivo toxicity, must be conducted. The results of this

  5. Insect-Protected Event DAS-81419-2 Soybean (Glycine max L.) Grown in the United States and Brazil Is Compositionally Equivalent to Nontransgenic Soybean

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated. PMID:25641393

  6. Insect-protected event DAS-81419-2 soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in the United States and Brazil is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Schafer, Ariane C; Johnson, Tempest Y; Potts, Brian L; Herman, Rod A

    2015-02-25

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated.

  7. Priming index of the Spanish word fragments from the Dasí, Soler, and Ruiz (2004) database.

    PubMed

    Dasí, Carmen; Soler, María José; Ruiz, Juan Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Word-fragment completion is a frequently used test in implicit memory research. A database of 196 Spanish fragments was recently published (Dasí, Soler, & Ruiz, 2004) in which the fragments were described for indices, such as difficulty, familiarity, frequency, number of meanings, and so on (www.psychonomic.org/archive). In this work, a new index, the priming index, is described for the same 196 fragments. This index is calculated for each fragment by subtracting the difficulty index (the proportion of correct completion when the fragment is not studied) from the proportion of correct completion when the fragment is studied, and it means the capacity of an item to be primed. In order to determine whether the new index performs well, we have replicated some important experimental effects, such as priming, frequency, and difficulty. We consider that this index can help researchers to better select stimuli for fragment-completion tasks.

  8. Das Märchen vom Zauberer im weißen Kittel: Mythen um berühmte Experimente und Experimentatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2003-09-01

    Um berühmte Experimentatoren und Experimente ranken sich ebenso Mythen wie um geniale Theoretiker. Sie sind in populärwissenschaftlichen Büchern, Lehrbüchern und sogar in wissenschaftshistorischen Texten verbreitet. Die durch die Aufklärung etablierte Kultur des eleganten Schauexperiments vermittelt ein schiefes Bild vom mühsamen Weg vieler Experimentatoren zum dargestellten Ergebnis. Auch der Mythos des einsamen, genialen Experimentators ohne Helfer widerspricht dem historischen Befund. Gleiches gilt für das experimentum crucis, das eine Theorie als entscheidendes Experiment belegen soll. Die historische Forschung zeigt, dass es eine lange, eigenständige Tradition der experimentellen und instrumentellen Arbeit gibt.

  9. Development of a surface-wave imaging system for geotechnical applications based on distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and ambient noise interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Tang, D. G.; Zhang, R.; Wagner, A. M.; Dou, S.; Lindsey, N.; Bjella, K.; Pevzner, R.

    2014-12-01

    Distributed fiber-optic sensing methods have been used since the 1980's for continuous monitoring of near-surface soil properties, typically exploiting Raman scattering to measure temperature (DTS) or stimulated Brillouin scattering to measure strain (DSS). Recent advances in high speed measurement of Rayleigh scattering has enabled distributed recording of seismic waves over long sections of fiber; this approach, referred to as distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has the potential to allow nearly continuous monitoring of near-surface mechanical properties, a crucial target for geotechnical management of infrastructure dependent on soil strength. We present initial results from our effort to build a real-time soil property monitoring system based on DAS; our approach employs seismic interferometry and dispersion analysis of ambient noise generated by infrastructure to provide a continuously updated model of shear modulus. Our preliminary results include an in-depth investigation of DAS fiber response in the context of active sources; this component of our study verifies classical models for the azimuthal response of straight fibers to propagating surface waves. We also explore the "noisescape" of linear infrastructure and show a usable seismic signal band of 8-40 hz at a series of sites, primarily consisting of Rayleigh waves. Finally, we present preliminary results from a DAS monitoring array installed at the Richmond Field Station near a heavily used road and compare interferometric processing of the acquired data to that generated by surface deployment of geophones.

  10. Inhibition of Primary Clinical Isolates of Human Parainfluenza Virus by DAS181 in Cell Culture and in a Cotton Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B. G.; Hayden, R.T.; Hurwitz, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    DAS181 is a novel drug in development for the treatment of influenza as well as human parainfluenza viruses (hPIV). Previous studies demonstrated that DAS181 inhibited laboratory strains of hPIV, but no tests were conducted with primary clinical isolates of hPIV. To fill this gap, we studied six primary isolates including hPIV-2 and hPIV-3. First tests showed that the amplification of all viruses in vitro was reproducibly inhibited with DAS181 drug concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 nM. An hPIV-3 primary clinical isolate was then tested in a cotton rat model for sensitivity to 0.3-1 mg/kg drug treatments. Results showed that virus amplification in the lower respiratory tract was significantly and reproducibly inhibited by drug. Together, experiments demonstrated that DAS181 inhibited primary clinical isolates of hPIV in vitro and in vivo at doses similar to those previously described for inhibition of laboratory hPIV and influenza virus isolates. PMID:24076357

  11. Novas determinações dos parâmetros atmosféricos das estrelas anãs brancas DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, O.; Costa, A. F. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    Nós temos selecionado uma amostra de estrelas anãs brancas DA (atmosfera de hidrogênio) a partir dos índices de Strömgren cujos valores estão próximos a região de instabilidade das estrelas anãs brancas DA variáveis, as chamadas estrelas DAV ou ZZ Ceti. O objetivo é determinar os parâmetros fundamentais (temperatura efetiva, Teff, aceleração da gravidade, log g, e massa) destas estrelas para verificar quais os parâmetros estelares estão envolvidos com o mecanismo de pulsação das estrelas DAV. Nós obtemos, até agora, mais de 120 espectros óticos de estrelas DA. Entre as estrelas selecionadas há 20 estrelas variáveis (DAV). Assim, podemos verificar se existem ou não estrelas não variáveis dentro da faixa de instabilidade das estrelas ZZ Ceti. Neste trabalho nós apresentamos a determinação dos parâmetros atmosféricos (temperatura efetiva, Teff, e aceleração da gravidade, log g) das estrelas anãs brancas DA usando os novos modelos de atmosfera ML2/a = 0.6. Estes modelos têm sido utilizados recentemente por fornecerem uma excelente consistência interna na determinação das temperaturas nas regiões do ultra-violeta e ótico. Os parâmetros atmosféricos são determinados espectroscopicamente através da comparação do fluxo de energia das linhas de Balmer (Hb à H9) entre os espectros observados e sintéticos (gerados pelos modelos de atmosfera). As temperaturas obtidas com os novos modelos são, em geral, menores (~ 1000 K menos) que as temperaturas determinadas anteriormente, com modelos ML1. Os valores de log g não mudaram significativamente (menos de 10%). A faixa de instabilidade das DAVs está entre 11000 e 13000 K, consistente com dados de outros autores.

  12. Three genes encoding citrate synthases in Saccharopolyspora erythraea are regulated by the global nutrient-sensing regulators GlnR, DasR, and CRP.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng-Heng; Yao, Li-Li; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2014-10-08

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea has three citrate synthases encoded by gltA-2, citA, and citA4. Here, we characterized and identified the expression and regulatory properties of these synthases. Three pleiotropic global regulatory proteins of S. erythraea - CRP, GlnR, and DasR - are involved in carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and amino-sugar (chitin and GlcNAc) metabolism. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), we identified these regulators as proteins that bind directly to the promoter regions of all citrate synthase genes (gltA-2, citA, and citA4). Footprinting assays indicated the exact protect sequences of CRP, GlnR, and DasR on the promoter region of gltA-2, revealing binding competition between GlnR and DasR. Moreover, by comparing the transcription levels of citrate synthase genes between parental and glnR mutant or dasR mutant strains, or by comparing the transcription response of citrate synthases under various nutrient conditions, we found that GlnR and DasR negatively regulated citA and citA4 transcription but had no regulatory effects on the gltA-2 gene. Although no CRP mutant was available, the results indicated that CRP was a cAMP-binding receptor affecting gltA-2 transcription when the intracellular cAMP concentration increased. Thus, an overall model of CS regulation by C and/or N metabolism regulators and cAMP receptor protein was proposed.

  13. Simulation of the single-vibronic-level emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Daniel K. W.; Lee, Edmond P. F.; Dyke, John M.

    2016-05-01

    The single-vibronic-level (SVL) emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO have been simulated by electronic structure/Franck-Condon factor calculations to confirm the spectral molecular carrier and to investigate the electronic states involved. Various multi-reference (MR) methods, namely, NEVPT2 (n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory), RSPT2-F12 (explicitly correlated Rayleigh-Schrodinger second order perturbation theory), and MRCI-F12 (explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction) were employed to compute the geometries and relative electronic energies for the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO. These are the highest level calculations on these states yet reported. The MRCI-F12 method gives computed T0 (adiabatic transition energy including zero-point energy correction) values, which agree well with the available experimental T0 value much better than previously computed values and values computed with other MR methods in this work. In addition, the potential energy surfaces of the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO were computed using the MRCI-F12 method. Franck-Condon factors between the two states, which include anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation, were then computed and used to simulate the recently reported SVL emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO [R. Grimminger and D. J. Clouthier, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184308 (2011)]. Our simulated SVL emission spectra confirm the assignments of the molecular carrier, the electronic states involved, and the vibrational structures observed in the SVL emission spectra but suggest a loss of intensity in the reported experimental spectra at the low emission energy region almost certainly due to a loss of responsivity near the cutoff region (˜800 nm) of the detector used. Computed and experimentally derived re (equilibrium) and/or r0 {the (0,0,0) vibrational level} geometries of the two states of HAsO are discussed.

  14. Simulation of the single-vibronic-level emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO.

    PubMed

    Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M

    2016-05-14

    The single-vibronic-level (SVL) emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO have been simulated by electronic structure/Franck-Condon factor calculations to confirm the spectral molecular carrier and to investigate the electronic states involved. Various multi-reference (MR) methods, namely, NEVPT2 (n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory), RSPT2-F12 (explicitly correlated Rayleigh-Schrodinger second order perturbation theory), and MRCI-F12 (explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction) were employed to compute the geometries and relative electronic energies for the X̃(1)A(') and Ã(1)A(″) states of HAsO. These are the highest level calculations on these states yet reported. The MRCI-F12 method gives computed T0 (adiabatic transition energy including zero-point energy correction) values, which agree well with the available experimental T0 value much better than previously computed values and values computed with other MR methods in this work. In addition, the potential energy surfaces of the X̃(1)A(') and Ã(1)A(″) states of HAsO were computed using the MRCI-F12 method. Franck-Condon factors between the two states, which include anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation, were then computed and used to simulate the recently reported SVL emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO [R. Grimminger and D. J. Clouthier, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184308 (2011)]. Our simulated SVL emission spectra confirm the assignments of the molecular carrier, the electronic states involved, and the vibrational structures observed in the SVL emission spectra but suggest a loss of intensity in the reported experimental spectra at the low emission energy region almost certainly due to a loss of responsivity near the cutoff region (∼800 nm) of the detector used. Computed and experimentally derived re (equilibrium) and/or r0 {the (0,0,0) vibrational level} geometries of the two states of HAsO are discussed.

  15. Entomological fauna from Reserva Biológica do Atol das Rocas, RN, Brazil: I. Morphospecies composition.

    PubMed

    Almeida; Marchon-Silva; Ribeiro; Serpa-Filho; Almeida; Costa

    2000-05-01

    Atol das Rocas, the unique atoll in the South-western Atlantic, is located 144 nautical miles (266 Km) northeast from the city of Natal, NE Brazil and 80 nautical miles from Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, with geographic co-ordinates 3 masculine51'S and 33 masculine49"W. It's of volcanic origin and coralline formation. The reef is ellipsoid, its largest axis (E-W) is approximately 3.7 km long, and the shortest (N-S) is 2.5 km. Inside the lagoon, there are two islands: the Ilha do Farol and Ilha do Cemitério, which comprehend 7.2 Km2 of emerged area. The Atol das Rocas lodges 143,000 birds, mainly by Sula dactilatra, S. leucogaster, Anous stolidus, A. minuta and Sterna fuscata. Due to their remote location, the islands remain largely undisturbed by the human activities. Aiming to a first characterization of the entomological diversity and the general trophic niches of atoll's entomofauna, three collects were made (1994, 1995 and 1996) utilizing several methods for a wide sample. One thousand six hundred and six insect specimens were collected belonging to eight orders: 1. Coleoptera - 333 individuals of Dermestidae (Dermestes cadaverinus); Tenebrionidae (Phaleria testacea and morphospecies) and Curculionidae (one morphospecies); 2. Dermaptera - 50 individuals of Carcinophoridae (Anisolabis maritima); 3. Diptera - 281 individuals of Ephydridae (Scatella sp. and Hecamede sp.) and Hippoboscidae (one morphospecies); 4. Hymenoptera - 45 individuals of Formicidae (Brachymyrmex sp.); 5. Lepidoptera - 111 individuals of Microlepidoptera (one morphospecies); 6. Mallophaga - 18 individuals in birds (two morphospecies); 7. Orthoptera - 237 individuals of Acrididae (Schistocerca cancellata), Tridactylidae (one morphospecies) and Blattidae (three morphospecies); 8. Thysanoptera -531 individuals (one morphospecies). Also were collected 112 individuals of Arachnida. The taxa of the Order Araneae were represented by the families: 1. Miturgidae (Cheiracanthium inclusum); 2

  16. Evaluation of corn grain with the genetically modified input trait DAS-59122-7 fed to growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, H H; Rice, D W; Smith, B L; Hinds, M A; Sauber, T E; Pedersen, C; Wulf, D M; Peters, D N

    2009-04-01

    A growth performance experiment was conducted to assess the feeding value of a double-stacked transgenic corn grain for growing-finishing pigs. The genetically modified corn grain contained event DAS-59122-7, which expresses the Cry34/35Ab1 binary insecticidal protein for the control of corn rootworm. This modified transgenic grain is resistant to western corn rootworm and is also tolerant to herbicides containing the active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The modified grain (59122), a nontransgenic near-isoline grain (control corn), and a commercial corn (Pioneer brand hybrid 35P12) were grown in a 2005 production trial in individually isolated plots that were located 201 m apart. A total of 108 pigs were allotted to corn-soybean meal diets containing 1 of the 3 grains as the sole source of corn. There were 3 pigs per pen and 12 replicate pens per treatment. Pigs were fed grower diets from 37 to 60 kg, early finisher diets from 60 to 90 kg, and late finisher diets from 90 to 127 kg. Within each phase, data for ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated. At the conclusion of the experiment, pigs were slaughtered and data for carcass quality were collected. Differences between 59122 and the control corn were evaluated, with statistical significance at P<0.05. No differences in ADG, ADFI, or G:F between pigs fed the control corn and pigs fed the modified corn were observed during the grower, early finisher, or late finisher phases. For the entire experimental period, no difference between pigs fed the control and the 59122 corn were observed for final BW (128.9 vs. 127.1 kg), ADG (1.02 vs. 1.00 kg), ADFI (2.88 vs. 2.80 kg), or G:F (0.356 vs. 0.345 kg/kg). Likewise, no differences in dressing percentage (76.48 vs. 76.30%), LM area (49.8 vs. 50.4 cm(2)), 10th-rib back fat (2.20 vs. 2.12 cm), and carcass lean content (52.9 vs. 53.4%) were observed between pigs fed the control and the 59122 corn grain. It was concluded that the nutritional value of the modified transgenic corn

  17. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  18. Von neuen Geschäftsideen zur gelebten Digitalisierung in Utility 4.0 - das Integrierte Geschäftsmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleski, Oliver D.

    Die Energiewirtschaft benötigt neue, digitale Geschäftsmodelle. Gegenwärtig folgt auf Liberalisierung und Energiewende die nächste Stufe einer weitreichenden Bereinigung des Versorgungsmarktes. Digitalisierung und Dezentralisierung sind heute in aller Munde und verlangen nach neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen. Dabei wirken die immensen Herausforderungen einer digitalen Energiewelt wie Beschleuniger für die Transformation im Versorgungssektor und tragen damit zur breiten Etablierung von Utilities 4.0 bei. Dieser Entwicklungsprozess vollzieht sich mithilfe unterschiedlicher Methoden zur Realisierung neuer Geschäftsideen. Allerdings greifen die gängigen Konzepte zur Entwicklung von Geschäftsmodellen gerade im Hinblick auf die Berücksichtigung komplexer, unbeständiger Rahmenbedingungen und spezifischer Anforderungen der digitalen Energiewelt mitunter zu kurz. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das auf dem ganzheitlichen St. Galler Management-Konzept beruhende Integrierte Geschäftsmodell iOcTen als geeignetes Instrumentarium zur Geschäftsmodellentwicklung vorgestellt. Neben der Modellbeschreibung unterstützt ein intuitiv verständlicher Leitfaden den Praktiker bei der Transformation vom klassischen Versorgungsunternehmen zum digitalen Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen.

  19. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  20. Free convection in a parallelogrammic porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model.

    PubMed

    Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Sheremet, Mikhail A; Pop, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The free convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluids in a parallelogrammic enclosure filled with porous media is numerically analyzed. The bottom and top of the enclosure are insulated while the sidewalls are subject to limited temperature difference. The Darcy flow and the Tiwari and Das' nanofluid models are considered. The governing dimensionless partial differential equations are numerically solved using a finite difference code. The results are reported for isotherms and streamlines as well as Nusselt number as a function of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, porosity, types of the porous matrix, inclination angle, aspect ratio and different Rayleigh numbers. It is found that the presence of the nanoparticles inside the enclosure deteriorates the heat transfer rate, which is caused due to the increase of dynamic viscosity by the presence of nanoparticles. Therefore, in applications in which the nanofluids are used for their advantages, such as enhanced dielectric properties or antibacterial properties, more caution for the heat transfer design of the enclosure is necessary.

  1. Nutrient budgets (C, N and P) and trophic dynamics of a Brazilian tropical estuary: Barra das Jangadas.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Carlos E D; Araujo, Moacyr

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on the nutrient dynamics of a tropical estuary on the northeastern Brazilian coast, studied using the LOICZ biogeochemical budgeting protocol. We describe the methodology and assumptions underlying this model. Input data (monthly for rainfall, evaporation, river discharge, and concentrations of salt, phosphorus and nitrogen) were obtained during field campaigns in the Barra das Jangadas Estuary (BJE) over a 5 years period (1999 to 2003). Mass balance results indicate large inputs of nutrients to the system. The model shows that the seasonal variation of the Net Ecosystem Metabolism (NEM) indicates that the system passes from a stage of organic matter liquid production and mineralization during the dry season (-0.5 mmoles C m(-2) d(-1)) to liquid mineralization during the rainy season (-19 mmoles C m(-2) d(-1)). We suggest that the system varies slightly between autotrophy and heterotrophy during the year due to the rainfall regime, human activities in the basin (density population and sugarcane plantations), and associated DIP riverine loads. High per capita loads of N and P indicate a high population density and high runoff. The application of flux balance modeling was useful to understand the nutrient dynamics of this typical small tropical estuary.

  2. Stacking transgenic event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 alters maize composition less than traditional breeding.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Fast, Brandon J; Scherer, Peter N; Brune, Alyssa M; de Cerqueira, Denise T; Schafer, Barry W; Ekmay, Ricardo D; Harrigan, George G; Bradfisch, Greg A

    2017-10-01

    The impact of crossing ('stacking') genetically modified (GM) events on maize-grain biochemical composition was compared with the impact of generating nonGM hybrids. The compositional similarity of seven GM stacks containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, and their matched nonGM near-isogenic hybrids (iso-hybrids) was compared with the compositional similarity of concurrently grown nonGM hybrids and these same iso-hybrids. Scatter plots were used to visualize comparisons among hybrids and a coefficient of identity (per cent of variation explained by line of identity) was calculated to quantify the relationships within analyte profiles. The composition of GM breeding stacks was more similar to the composition of iso-hybrids than was the composition of nonGM hybrids. NonGM breeding more strongly influenced crop composition than did transgenesis or stacking of GM events. These findings call into question the value of uniquely requiring composition studies for GM crops, especially for breeding stacks composed of GM events previously found to be compositionally normal. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities - A General Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Marshall, PeggL.; Duncan, Michael E.; Morris, Jon A.; Franzl, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition system (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis' development and deployment.

  4. Acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis: current prevalence at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School.

    PubMed

    Belczak, Sergio Quilici; Cleva, Roberto D E; Utiyama, Edivaldo M; Cecconello, Ivan; Rasslan, Samir; Parreira, José Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Postsurgical acute suppurative parotitis is a bacterial gland infection that occurs from a few days up to some weeks after abdominal surgical procedures. In this study, the authors analyze the prevalence of this complication in Hospital das Clínicas/São Paulo University Medical School by prospectively reviewing the charts of patients who underwent surgeries performed by the gastroenterological and general surgery staff from 1980 to 2005. Diagnosis of parotitis or sialoadenitis was analyzed. Sialolithiasis and chronic parotitis previous to hospitalization were exclusion criteria. In a total of 100,679 surgeries, 256 patients were diagnosed with parotitis or sialoadenitis. Nevertheless, only three cases of acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis associated with the surgery were identified giving an incidence of 0.0028%. All patients presented with risk factors such as malnutrition, immunosuppression, prolonged immobilization and dehydration. In the past, acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis was a relatively common complication after major abdominal surgeries. Its incidence decreased as a consequence of the improvement of perioperative antibiotic therapy and postoperative support. In spite of the current low incidence, we believe it is important to identify risks and diagnose as quick as possible, in order to introduce prompt and appropriate therapeutic measures and avoid potentially fatal complications with the evolution of the disease.

  5. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  6. Variation of the anthropic vulnerability in Ribeirão das Pedras watershed in Campinas/SP - Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damame, Desirée; Longo, Regina; Ribeiro, Admilson; Fengler, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    The human actions has caused over the years profound changes in environmental quality in urban ecosystems suffering losses in the quality of air, soil , water and vegetation also the quality of life of the population that inhabit these areas . The study area is characterized by being a highly urbanized watershed, with about 43 % of its area covered by buildings, houses , and commercial and industrial establishments . Called the Ribeirão das Pedras Basin, located in Campinas / SP - Brazil and is bounded by coordinates 22˚47'10 '' and 22˚52'20 '' S , and 47˚ 07'15 '' and 46˚ 02 ' 15' ' . Has an average temperature of 22.4 ° C and average annual rainfall of 1424.5 mm . It has an area of about 42 km² . This is located two universities and a large mall. It also demands a strong agriculture , which occupies about 30 % of the area . It has also been part of two major forest reserves of the municipality, the Forest Santa Geneva and the Forest of Quilombo , both added to other small fragments overlying only about 6% of the total basin area . Avalição to environmental quality , the analysis of the vulnerability of urban watershed becomes an important environmental management tool. The vulnerability can be defined by susceptibility to changes of environment in its initial state , a current tax status by human intervention , and is almost always associated with risk , and the intensity at which such projects in one place, person or structure. In this context , this study aimed to assess environmental vulnerability in an urban watershed coming under increasing human pressures , especially in recent years . For this analysis were prepared soil graphics, slope , elevation and land use and land cover for the years 2009 and 2014 , generating with these , comparative anthropic vulnerability maps of the past five years. Crafting vulnerability maps is a sensitivity in order to enable appropriate management of biotic systems. With the results can be seen that the variation of

  7. Bottom Characterization with High Resolution Sonar Data and Geochemical Analyses of an Uninvestigated Cone in Lagoa das Furnas on São Miguel Island, Azores Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, T.

    2015-12-01

    Lagoa das Furnas is a crater lake located in an area exposed to geohazards from earthquakes and volcanic activity on the island São Miguel in the Azores Archipelago. The Furnas volcanic center has a long history of earthquakes and volcanic activity. The area is relatively well studied except for the lake floor. Therefore, a high resolution geophysical and geological mapping survey was conducted at Lagoa das Furnas. Sidescan sonar was used to map the surface of the lake floor and single beam sonar was used to acquire sub-bottom profiles. In addition to the geophysical mapping, sediment surface sampling and core drilling were carried out followed by geochemical analyses of the retrieved material. The mapped data permitted a characterization of the floor of Lagoa das Furnas and revealed several volcanic features including fumarolic activity and a previously uninvestigated volcanic cone in the southern part of the lake. In order to unravel the origin of this cone several methods were applied, including analyses of tephra and minerals collected from the cone itself and from nearby deposits of two known eruptions, Furnas I and Furnas 1630. Sedimentological, petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies of pyroclastic deposits from the cone suggest a subaqueous eruption linked to the Furnas 1630 eruption. The chemistry of glass and crystal fragments sampled from the cone suggests that it is composed of more evolved magma than that of the main Furnas 1630, implying that the lake cone is likely a product of the last eruptional phase. According to historical records, two of three lakes were lost due the Furnas 1630 eruption. The results of this study show that the remaining lake is most likely Lagoa das Furnas, which consequently must have existed before the 1630 eruption.

  8. Comparative morphology of the reproductive system of seven species of ostariophysan fishes from the upper Das Velhas River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Gomes, Débora Diniz; Moreira, Davidson Peruci; Gomes, Maysa Regina; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2017-02-01

    The success of fishes in different environments is related with the variation of reproductive strategies developed by the systematic group, which is reflected in the morphology of the reproductive system and can have ecological and evolutionary implications. This study comparatively analyzed the morphological characteristics of the male and female reproductive systems of ostariophysan fish species from the upper Das Velhas River in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil. In order to accomplish this, 393 specimens belonging to seven fish species were sampled between April 2010 and June 2015 for histological, ultrastructural, histochemical, and morphometric analyses. All the species examined have anastomosing tubular testes with unrestricted distribution of spermatogonia. Astyanax bimaculatus, A. fasciatus, A. scabripinnis, and Harttia torrenticola had their spermatozoa embedded in a glycoprotein secretion within the tubule lumen. Most species had type I spermiogenesis, whereas Rhamdia quelen had type III spermiogenesis. While all females examined had asynchronous oocyte development, there were remarkable morphological, histochemical, and morphometric differences in the ovarian follicles and enveloping layers. Hoplias malabaricus and H. torrenticola, which exhibit parental care behaviour, had a significantly larger diameter of vitellogenic oocytes and larger spermatozoa nuclei. Apareiodon ibitiensis, H. torrenticola, and A. scabripinnis, species that have rheophilic preferences, exhibited a thicker zona radiata than the other species examined. The follicular cells of R. quelen and H. torrenticola were columnar and produced a jelly coat and mucosubstances, respectively. The females of the seven fish species studied show a correlation of the reproductive strategies with the reproductive system morphology, while males retained more similar morphological characteristics between species. J. Morphol. 278:170-181, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc. © 2016 Wiley

  9. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  10. Das wissenschaftliche Handbuch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckenbach, Reiner; Sunkel, Josef

    1981-02-01

    The 100th anniversary of Beilstein's Handbook of Organic Chemistry, founded in 1881, merits a brief description of the principal concepts and goals of the literary genre “scientific handbook” in general. Systematic arrangement, critical data and fact evaluation, thoroughness and reliability are among these goals, thus providing the handbook user with a concise compilation of carefully checked and cross-referenced information in his particular field of interest.

  11. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  12. Soil gas Rn monitoring at Chã das Caldeiras prior the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Fernandes, Paulo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Sagiya, Takeshi; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio

    2015-04-01

    Since 2007 the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC research team has implemented a geochemical program for the volcanic surveillance of Fogo volcano by means of applying different geochemical methods in a regularly basis (diffuse degassing surveys, fumarole gas sampling, etc.). This program was improved by setting up a geochemical permanent station (CHA01) to perform continuous measurements of soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities at Chã das Caldeiras, more specific in Portela village, since April 20, 2013. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion and/or advection mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn activities were performed by an alpha-spectrometer after pumping the soil gas from a thermally isolated PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground. Even though during the study period the recorded data did not show high 222Rn activity values, a change in the temporal evolution of soil gas 222Rn activity was observed. During the first six months, from April to October, 2013, recorded time series of 222Rn and 220Rn activities showed normal background levels with values of 80.5 and 55.2 Bqm-3, respectively. However, from October, 2013, to February, 2014, 222Rn time series showed an increase trend reaching peak values of 396 Bqm-3 and having an average activity of 134 Bqm-3 until the removal of the station on November 25, 2014 due to the potential danger of being destroyed by the lava flows. The observed increase in the soil gas 222Rn activity from October 2013 to February 2014 occurs almost at the same time of slight observed changes in the vertical displacements detected by the geodetic network installed at the Fogo Island by the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC/Nagoya University research team. Since seismic data are not available, we cannot conclude if the observed changes in soil

  13. Geochemistry of komatiites and basalts from the Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts, São Francisco Craton, Brazil: Implications for the origin, evolution, and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.; Silva, Paola M.; Moreno, Juan A.; Amaral, Wagner S.

    2017-07-01

    The Neoarchean Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts are situated in the southern São Francisco Craton, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These greenstone belts were formed between ca. 2.79-2.73 Ga, and consist mostly of mafic to ultramafic volcanics and clastic sediments, with minor chemical sediments and felsic volcanics that were metamorphosed under greenschist facies. Komatiites are found only in the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, which is composed of high-MgO volcanic rocks that have been identified as komatiites and high-Mg basalts, based on their distinctive geochemical characteristics. The Rio das Velhas komatiites are composed of tremolite + actinolite + serpentine + albite with a relict spinifex-texture. The Rio das Velhas komatiites have a high magnesium content ((MgO)adj ≥ 28 wt.%), an Al-undepleted Munro-type [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj and (CaO/Al2O3)adj] ratio ranging from 27 to 47 and 0.48 to 0.89, relatively low abundances of incompatible elements, a depletion of light rare earth elements (LREE), a pattern of non-fractionated heavy rare- earth elements (HREE), and a low (Gd/Yb)PM ratio (≤ 1.0). Negative Ce anomalies suggest that alteration occurred during greenschist facies metamorphism for the komatiites and high-Mg basalts. The low [(Gd/Yb)PM < 1.0] and [(CaO/Al2O3)adj < 0.9)], high [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj > 18] and high HREE, Y, and Zr content suggest that the Rio das Velhas komatiites were derived from the shallow upper mantle without garnet involvement in the residue. The chemical compositions [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj, (FeO)adj, (MgO)adj, (CaO/Al2O3)adj, Na, Th, Ta, Ni, Cr, Zr, Y, Hf, and REE] indicate that the formation of the komatiites, high-Mg basalts and basalts occurred at different depths and temperatures in a heterogeneous mantle. The komatiites and high-Mg basalts melted at liquidus temperatures of 1450-1550 °C. The Pitangui basalts are enriched in the highly incompatible LILE (large-ion lithophile elements) relative to the moderately incompatible HFS (high

  14. Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, Marcos; von Sperling, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the Qual2E model (model Qual-UFMG). Simulations of intervention scenarios were made for the current conditions, with three reference flows for the das Velhas River, tributaries and direct contribution: Q7,10 (representative of low-flow conditions), Q50 (average conditions) and Q10 (rainy season). The intervention scenarios simulated were: (a) current conditions without intervention; (b) scenario with effluent disinfection in the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the basin (around 2.4 million inhabitants); (c) scenario with 95% sewage collection and treatment, with disinfection in all municipalities of the study area; (d) scenario with the calculation of values required for the coverage of sewage treatment and coliform removal efficiencies based on a mathematical optimization process. The monitoring data and results of all simulations indicated improvement in coliform concentration as the river flows downstream. However, results suggested that disinfection per se is not enough. Even under hypothetical conditions of excellent sanitary infrastructure for a developing country, coverage of collection and treatment of 95% of the generated sewage, and treatment with disinfection at all wastewater treatment plants, concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms in das Velhas River are likely to be above the maximum allowable of 1,000 MPN/100 mL for bathing purposes. The mathematical optimization indicated the need for very high percentages of sewage treatment coverage (near 100%, i.e. universality of collection and treatment) and implementation of disinfection in most treatment plants

  15. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  16. Seismic Monitoring of Permafrost During Controlled Thaw: An Active-Source Experiment Using a Surface Orbital Vibrator and Fiber-Optic DAS Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S.; Wood, T.; Lindsey, N.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Freifeld, B. M.; Gelvin, A.; Morales, A.; Saari, S.; Ekblaw, I.; Wagner, A. M.; Daley, T. M.; Robertson, M.; Martin, E. R.; Ulrich, C.; Bjella, K.

    2016-12-01

    Thawing of permafrost can cause ground deformations that threaten the integrity of civil infrastructure. It is essential to develop early warning systems that can identify critically warmed permafrost and issue warnings for hazard prevention and control. Seismic methods can play a pivotal role in such systems for at least two reasons: First, seismic velocities are indicative of mechanical strength of the subsurface and thus are directly relevant to engineering properties; Second, seismic velocities in permafrost systems are sensitive to pre-thaw warming, which makes it possible to issue early warnings before the occurrence of hazardous subsidence events. However, several questions remain: What are the seismic signatures that can be effectively used for early warning of permafrost thaw? Can seismic methods provide enough warning times for hazard prevention and control? In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using permanently installed seismic networks for early warnings of permafrost thaw. We conducted continuous active-source seismic monitoring of permafrost that was under controlled heating at CRREL's Fairbanks permafrost experiment station. We used a permanently installed surface orbital vibrator (SOV) as source and surface-trenched DAS arrays as receivers. The SOV is characterized by its excellent repeatability, automated operation, high energy level, and the rich frequency content (10-100 Hz) of the generated wavefields. The fiber-optic DAS arrays allow continuous recording of seismic data with dense spatial sampling (1-meter channel spacing), low cost, and low maintenance. This combination of SOV-DAS provides unique seismic datasets for observing time-lapse changes of warming permafrost at the field scale, hence providing an observational basis for design and development of early warning systems for permafrost thaw.

  17. ACR/EULAR Definitions of Remission Are Associated with Lower Residual Inflammatory Activity Compared with DAS28 Remission on Hand MRI in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lisbona, Maria Pilar; Solano, Albert; Ares, Jesús; Almirall, Miriam; Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Maymó, Joan

    2016-09-01

    To determine the level of residual inflammation [synovitis, bone marrow edema (BME), tenosynovitis, and total inflammation] quantified by hand magnetic resonance imaging (h-MRI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in remission according to 3 different definitions of clinical remission, and to compare these remission definitions. A cross-sectional study. To assess the level of residual MRI inflammation in remission, cutoff levels associated to remission and median scores of MRI residual inflammatory lesions were calculated. Data from an MRI register of patients with RA who have various levels of disease activity were used. These were used for the analyses: synovitis, BME according to the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring system, tenosynovitis, total inflammation, and disease activity composite measures recorded at the time of MRI. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to identify the best cutoffs associated with remission for each inflammatory lesion on h-MRI. Median values of each inflammatory lesion for each definition of remission were also calculated. A total of 388 h-MRI sets of patients with RA with different levels of disease activity, 130 in remission, were included. Cutoff values associated with remission according to the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) ≤ 3.3 and the Boolean American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) definitions for BME and tenosynovitis (1 and 3, respectively) were lower than BME and tenosynovitis (2 and 5, respectively) for the Disease Activity Score on 28 joints (DAS28) ≤ 2.6. Median scores for synovitis, BME, and total inflammation were also lower for the SDAI and Boolean ACR/EULAR remission criteria compared with DAS28. Patients with RA in remission according to the SDAI and Boolean ACR/EULAR definitions showed lower levels of MRI-detected residual inflammation compared with DAS28.

  18. Comment on the use of self-reporting instruments to assess patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the longitudinal association between the DAS28 and the VAS general health.

    PubMed

    Kievit, W; Welsing, P M J; Adang, E M M; Eijsbouts, A M; Krabbe, P F M; van Riel, P L C M

    2006-10-15

    Recently, the use of patient self-reporting instruments instead of clinical, objective measurements to assess rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was proposed. This assumes a constant association between disease activity and the self-reporting instruments. The objective was to explore the association (in time) between disease activity and patient perception of general health, disease activity, pain, and functional disability in patients with RA. Data of 624 newly diagnosed RA patients who completed 3 years of followup were analyzed. Cross-sectional linear regression models and longitudinal regression models were estimated, with a visual analog scale (VAS) measuring general health (VAS-GH; 0 = best, 100 = worst) as a dependent variable and the Disease Activity Score (DAS28) without the VAS-GH as an independent variable. Other dependent variables were VAS disease activity, pain, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire. The DAS28 and VAS-GH were significantly associated in RA patients (P < 0.001). However, the explained variance was low (6.7%). From diagnosis to 3 years after the diagnosis, the intercept decreased given the same regression coefficient. The longitudinal regression model showed that the VAS-GH improved during disease course independent of a change in DAS28. Analyses on the other outcome parameters showed similar results. Patients' perception of health can be different with equal disease activity, depending on the moment in the disease course. Furthermore, our results indicate that self-reported measures on functionality, disease activity, and general health cannot substitute for objective measures of disease activity in RA in longitudinal studies; subsequently, both need to be measured.

  19. [Spanish version of the new World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS-II): initial phase of development and pilot study. Cantabria disability work group].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Vázquez Bourgón, E; Herrera Castanedo, S; Saiz, J; Uriarte, M; Morales, F; Gaite, L; Herrán, A; Ustün, T B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to present the initial phases of the development of the Spanish version of the "World Health Organization Disablement Assessment Schedule II" WHO-DAS-II and also to describe the quantitative and qualitative methodological strategies used in the elaboration process of an instrument: i) compatible with the new International Classification of Functioning and Disability -ICIDH-2- of the World Health Organisation; ii) with criteria of cross-cultural applicability and; iii) to allow us to assess the disability in all its dimensions.

  20. DasPy 1.0 - the Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework in combination with the Community Land Model 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Li, X.; He, G.; Kumbhar, P.; Montzka, C.; Kollet, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Rosolem, R.; Zhang, Y.; Vereecken, H.; Franssen, H.-J. H.

    2015-08-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data from multiple model state variables into a simulation model. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. We developed an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with the C++ and Fortran programming languages. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be introduced by perturbed atmospheric forcing data, and represented by perturbed soil and vegetation parameters and model initial conditions. The Community Land Model (CLM) was integrated as the model operator. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. The Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform (CMEM), COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) and the Two-Source Formulation (TSF) were integrated as observation operators for the assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy has been evaluated in several assimilation studies of neutron count intensity (soil moisture), L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid Message Passing Interface and Open Multi-Processing techniques. All the input and output data flows are organized efficiently

  1. Agronomic performance of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 corn is equivalent to that of conventional corn.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Denise T Rezende de; Schafer, Ariane C; Fast, Brandon J; Herman, Rod A

    2017-03-31

    Agronomic characteristics of genetically modified (GM) MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 (PowerCore™ Enlist™), MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 (PowerCore™), and DAS-40278-9 (Enlist™) corn, a non-GM near-isogenic hybrid, and two commercial non-GM hybrids were assessed in a field study to determine if the agronomic performance of the GM corn hybrids is equivalent to that of non-transgenic hybrid corn. The MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 hybrid corn was developed through stacking of four individual transgenic events, MON 89034, TC1507, NK603, and DAS-40278-9 by traditional breeding and contains the cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 (MON 89034), cry1F and pat (TC1507), cp4 epsps (NK603) and aad-1 (DAS-40278-9) transgenes. These transgenes encode the proteins Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry1F, which confer insect resistance, PAT, CP4 EPSPS, and AAD-1, which confer herbicide tolerance. The following agronomic characteristics were assessed in the study: initial and final stand count, seedling vigor, time to silk, time to pollen shed, pollen viability, plant height, ear height, stalk lodging, root lodging, days to maturity, stay green, disease incidence, insect damage, herbicide injury, and yield. The agronomic assessment was conducted in two regions of Brazil (Indianopolis-MG; Cravinhos-SP). The agronomic attributes for all GM entries were statistically indistinguishable from the non-GM near-isogenic hybrid. In addition, most of the agronomic assessments fell within the range of the commercial varieties included in the study. Taken together, MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278, MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603, and DAS-40278-9 were found to be agronomically equivalent to non-GM corn.

  2. Alterations in the immunohistochemical expression of Das-1 and CG-3 in colonic mucosal biopsy specimens helps distinguish ulcerative colitis from Crohn disease and from other forms of colitis.

    PubMed

    Yantiss, Rhonda K; Das, Kiron M; Farraye, Francis A; Odze, Robert D

    2008-06-01

    Distinction between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD) in mucosal biopsies is often difficult. Das-1 and CG-3 are monoclonal antibodies directed against an unknown colonic epithelial protein and human tropomyosin isoform-5, respectively, both show altered expression in patients with UC. In this study, we evaluated the utility of Das-1 and CG-3 in distinguishing UC from CD and from other types of colitis. One colonic biopsy specimen from each of 85 patients with confirmed UC (n=25), CD (n=15), lymphocytic (n=15), collagenous (n=15), and ischemic (n=15) colitis, and also 10 samples from normal controls, were stained for Das-1 and CG-3 using standard techniques. Reactivity for Das-1 and CG-3 was noted to be absent or present, and the location (ie, surface+/-crypt epithelium) and degree (weak or strong) of CG-3 staining was recorded. Loss of Das-1 staining occurred more frequently in UC (96%) compared with CD (20%), lymphocytic (20%), collagenous (13%), and ischemic colitis (0%) cases, as well as controls (10%, P<0.001 for all comparisons). CG-3 positivity in crypt epithelium was significantly more common in UC (52%) compared with the other groups (P< or =0.02 for all comparisons). The combination of strong crypt CG-3 staining and loss of Das-1 staining was noted in 44% of UC cases, but not in any other type of colitis (P=0.003 for all comparisons). We conclude that the patterns of Das-1 and CG-3 staining in colonic mucosal biopsies may be clinically useful in distinguishing UC from CD and from other colitidies.

  3. [Maternal mortality in the Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto (USP) from 1957 to 1977. Pt. 1: Incidence (Author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Parente, J V; Martinez, A R; Franco Jg; De Carvalho, R L; Carravazzo, N C; Meirelles, R S

    1979-08-01

    A study was carried out from 1957-1977 which investigated the incidence of maternal mortality in the Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto. The yearly distribution of these deaths related to the resolution of pregnancy always showed predominance of the abortion group over the others (pregnant patients, normal delivery, and surgical delivery), with increased evidence starting at the beginning of the 1970's. When the deaths were distributed by relating pregnancy resolution to marital status, absolute predominance of married over single patients was observed, including the abortion group. When the site of the 21st obstetrical aid was considered, it was observed that in 17 of 68 cases studied, the patients were directed to another hospital or delivered at home assisted by a midwife. The mortality rate for the entire period studied was 22.04%. When the cases receiving 1st obstetrical aid outside the Hospital das Clinicas are subtracted, the rate drops to 16.53% and to 8.1% when the abortion group is also excluded. On the basis of these data, it was concluded that abortion is the greatest medical-social problem detected in this study.

  4. Development of multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of four events of genetically modified maize: DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON863 and MON88017.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Mano, Junichi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous event-specific detection of four events of GM maize, i.e., DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON88017, and MON863. The single laboratory examination of analytical performance using simulated DNA mixtures containing GM DNA at various concentrations in non-GM DNA suggested that the limits of detection (LOD) of the multiplex PCR method were 0.16% for MON863, MIR604, and MON88017, and 0.078% for DAS-59122-7. We previously developed a nonaplex (9plex) PCR method for eight events of GM maize, i.e., Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, MON863, NK603, T25, and TC1507. Together with the nonaplex PCR method, the newly developed method enabled the detection and identification of eleven GM maize events that are frequently included in commercial GM seed used in Japan. In addition, this combinational analysis may be useful for the identification of combined event products of GM maize.

  5. Metabolism and Residues of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in DAS-40278-9 Maize (Zea mays) Transformed with Aryloxyalkanoate Dioxygenase-1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Rotondaro, Sandra L; Ma, Mingming; Rosser, Steve W; Olberding, Ed L; Wendelburg, Brian M; Adelfinskaya, Yelena A; Balcer, Jesse L; Blewett, T Craig; Clements, Bruce

    2016-10-12

    DAS-40278-9 maize, which is developed by Dow AgroSciences, has been genetically modified to express the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 (AAD-1) protein and is tolerant to phenoxy auxin herbicides, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). To understand the metabolic route and residue distribution of 2,4-D in DAS-40278-9 maize, a metabolism study was conducted with (14)C-radiolabeled 2,4-D applied at the maximum seasonal rate. Plants were grown in boxes outdoors. Forage and mature grain, cobs, and stover were collected for analysis. The metabolism study showed that 2,4-D was metabolized to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), which was then rapidly conjugated with glucose. Field-scale residue studies with 2,4-D applied at the maximum seasonal rate were conducted at 25 sites in the U.S. and Canada to measure the residues of 2,4-D and free and conjugated 2,4-DCP in mature forage, grain, and stover. Residues of 2,4-D were not detectable in the majority of the grain samples and averaged <1.0 and <1.5 μg/g in forage and stover, respectively. Free plus conjugated 2,4-DCP was not observed in grain and averaged <1.0 μg/g in forage and stover.

  6. Brazil's premier gold province. Part I: The tectonic, magmatic, and structural setting of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Lydia; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Luiz; Zucchetti, Márcia; Noce, Carlos; Baltazar, Orivaldo; da Silva, Luiz; Pinto, Claiton

    2001-07-01

    Rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup comprise one of the most significant Archean greenstone-belt successions in Brazil, in both their appreciable mineral productivity and extensive mineral potential. A large part of this greenstone belt is contained within the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Iron Quadrangle) region, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, which occupies the southernmost portion of the São Francisco craton. The Nova Lima Group rocks, at the base of the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, host important orogenic gold deposits. The group contains lithological associations from bottom to top as follows: (1) mafic-ultramafic volcanic, (2) volcanic-chemical, (3) clastic-chemical, (4) volcaniclastic, and (5) resedimented rocks. Rocks of the resedimented, volcanic-chemical, and mafic-ultramafic volcanic associations mainly host the most important gold deposits. An early compressional deformation occurs in the rocks of the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt and basement gneisses, with tangential thrusting from the north to the south or southwest. Structures generated during a second, compressional deformation, encompass NW-striking thrust faults and SW-vergent, tight to isoclinal folds, inferring a general southwest transport direction. In the central portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, the Paciência lineament, which strikes northwest and dips to the northeast in the south, or strikes northeast and dips to the southeast in the north, is a thrust-related, oblique ramp fault that hosts important gold deposits. The convergence of these two trends in the Nova Lima region is accommodated by roughly E-W-striking transcurrent faults, which are the most favored sites for large gold concentrations. Intracratonic extension in Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic times and NW-vergent, Trans-Amazonian compressional deformation post-date gold deposition. Late extension during the Paleoproterozoic led to basin formation and the prominent dome-and-keel architecture of the

  7. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    PubMed

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    The stigma of nasal deformity due to a congenital cleft lip-palate has an undeniable influence on the affected patient's life. It is therefore of interest to investigate if efforts to reduce esthetic and functional impairments by rhinoplasty (single or multiple) can result in an increased satisfaction with appearance and a self-perception similar to the noncleft population. Retrospective scoring before and after rhinoplasty using the validated Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59) and subsequent statistical evaluation and comparison to datasets available in the literature for further classification was used. Of the 61 patients who underwent at least one rhinoplasty, 26 responded to all questions. The mean age of responders was approximately 30 years of age and the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. The scale showed a significant overall improvement after surgery. The full scale and all subscale scores of the DAS-59 were significantly reduced after surgery demonstrating an improvement in the respective categories. Most importantly, if postoperative results were compared with a population concerned and unconcerned about appearance, no difference "facial self-consciousness" of appearance was apparent. Also postoperative subscores for "general self-consciousness" (GSC) and "social self-consciousness" of appearance (SSC) showed no difference from those obtained from the population concerned about appearance. The postoperative subscore for "sexual and bodily self-consciousness" of appearance (SBSC) indicated improvement beyond the level found in the concerned control population. Due to only a low improvement in the difference compared with the subscore representing a "negative self-concept," a statistically significant difference to the concerned population remained, possibly indicating that therapy beyond surgery is needed for improvement. After rhinoplasty, the investigated group of cleft lip-palate patients with nasal deformities showed an improvement in their self

  8. Relationship between time-integrated disease activity estimated by DAS28-CRP and radiographic progression of anatomical damage in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The main aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between persistent disease activity and radiographic progression of joint damage in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). Methods Forty-eight patients with active ERA was assessed every 3 months for disease activity for 3 years. Radiographic damage was measured by the Sharp/van der Heijde method (SHS). The cumulative inflammatory burden was estimated by the time-integrated values (area under the curve-AUC) of Disease Activity Score 28 joint based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) in rapid progressors versus non-progressors. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement method were used to estimate the smallest detectable difference (SDD) of radiographic progression. The relationship between clinical and laboratory predictors of radiographic progression and their interactions with time was analysed by logistic regression model. Results After 3-years of follow-up, radiographic progression was observed in 54.2% (95%CI: 39.8% to 67.5%) of patients and SDD was 9.5 for total SHS. The percentage of patients with erosive disease increased from 33.3% at baseline to 76% at 36 months. The total SHS of the progressors worsened from a median (interquartile range) of 18.5 (15-20) at baseline to 38.5 (34-42) after 3 years (p < 0.0001) whereas non-progressors worsened from a median of 14.5 (13-20) at baseline to 22.5 (20-30) after 3 years (p < 0.001). In the regression model, time-integrated values of DAS28-CRP and anti-CCP positivity have the highest positive predictive value for progression (both at level of p < 0.0001). Radiographic progression was also predicted by a positive IgM-RF (p0.0009), and a high baseline joint damage (p = 0.0044). Conclusions These data indicate that the level of disease activity, as measured by time-integrated DAS28-CRP, anti-CCP and IgM-RF positivity and a high baseline joint damage, affects subsequent progression of radiographic damage in ERA. PMID:21624120

  9. Donation of the body for scientific purposes in Italy: ethical and medico-legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Bin, Paola; Delbon, Paola; Piras, Mauro; Paternoster, Mariano; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Conti, Adelaide

    2016-01-01

    In recent years in Italy (and in the other European Countries) a new debated topic involves anatomists and the scientific world: donation of the body after death for scientific purposes. The aim of our analysis is to analyze the issue of voluntary body donation in Italy focusing first of all, on key principles of the disciplines of donation. Considering the rise of exhibitions and events in which death is spectacularized, the debate is focus on will, on respect and overall on the purpose for which the body is donated. Anatomical dissection is considered necessary in the direct learning of the human body, of surgical practices and new scientific techniques but the scarcity of programmes and regulations regarding the donation of bodies for study and research make it an uncommon practice. After discussing what are the constitutional principles underlying the issue we want to emphasize the need of a more effective and updated regulation to set limits and methods of a practice still essential for scientific progress.

  10. [Medico-legal study on crashes of fighter planes of the National People's Army].

    PubMed

    Lignitz, Eberhard; Kopetz, Bernd; Wirth, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    In the years 1974 to 1990, 39 pilots died in 34 crashes of fighter planes of the National People's Army; 32 victims were examined forensically. For the present study all autopsy protocols and examination reports available in the German Federal Military Archives in Freiburg could be evaluated. Both officer cadets and experienced pilots of high military ranks were among the victims. The majority of the crashes (24 out of 34) was caused by human failure. Health problems or the use of alcohol and medications did not play a role in the aircraft accidents. All killed pilots were identified. The injury patterns after fatal ejection are different from the patterns seen after impact with a plane. Such patterns of findings are meaningful in the reconstruction of unknown sequences of events leading to the accidents and for the assessment of the pilots' capacity to act at the moment of the incident

  11. [Medico-statistical characteristics of the cholelithiasis in the Udmurt Republic].

    PubMed

    Vakhrushev, Ia M; Kudrina, E A; Gorbunov, A Iu; Khokhlachev, N A; Suchkova, E V

    2011-01-01

    THE AIM OF OUR INVESTIGATION: siuay me level or moroiaity or cnolelimiasis and its dynamic in adult and children population of Udmurt Republic. We used the materials of state statistic registration documentation. We took into account the average population of Udmurt Republic, data of cholrlithiasis morbidity and the quantity of registrated cases of disease. To reveal tendency of cholelithiasis morbidity we spent the regressive analysis with using of trend models. We found that during analyzing period (2005-2009) common morbidity of cholelithiasis in Udmurt Republic exceeds the same data in Russian Federation. Morbidity of adult urban population is significantly higher than in rural population. The cholelithiasis morbidity increases at the age of 41-60 years. In children population we marked significant raising of primary cholelithiasis morbidity. CONCLUSION. It was revealed that cholelithiasis morbidity in Udmurt Republic remains high. Due to this information we have possibility to determine medical and prophylactic measures.

  12. [Prevalence of enteral patients with suboptimal feeding at Centro Medico Lic. Adolfo Lopez Mateos].

    PubMed

    Baca Molina, Giovanna Paola; Peña Corona, Maribel

    2015-04-01

    Antecedentes y Objetivo: En México, el 64% de los pacientes hospitalizados sufren de desnutrición hospitalaria y hasta un 100% en adultos mayores, se han estudiado las causas, entre ellas se destacan: la sub-alimentación, el tiempo de hospitalización, el catabolismo presente en diversas patologías, falta de interés o tiempo del personal que labora en los hospitales entre otras. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener la prevalencia de sub-alimentación en los pacientes hospitalizados con soporte enteral, en el Centro Médico “Lic. Adolfo López Mateos” (CMLALM) durante el periodo Agosto – Octubre 2014. Metodología: Se diseñó un estudio observacional, transversal, descriptivo; con una población de 52 pacientes con soporte enteral en el que se analizó la prevalencia de pacientes con sub-alimentación a partir de la ministración de la dieta enteral y la prescripción nutricional calórica establecida, durante el periodo de Agosto – Octubre 2014. Resultados: Se realizaron medidas de tendencia central para obtener el porcentaje de pacientes con sub-alimentación calórica. La prevalencia de pacientes con sub-alimentación fue del 71%, con mayor predominio el sexo masculino (70%) y en un rango de edad entre 51 años y 61 años (43%). El servicio médico de hospitalización donde se encontró la mayor prevalencia de pacientes con sub-alimentación fue medicina interna afectando a 14 pacientes (38%), seguido de neurocirugía con 7 pacientes (19%) y unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) con 7 pacientes (19%); siendo el turno nocturno donde se presentó en mayor predominio la sub-alimentación. Conclusiones: La sub-alimentación afectó a 37 pacientes con soporte enteral los cuales representan el 71% de la población estudiada, esta cifra coincide con otros estudios similares. La causa principal de la sub-alimentación fue el incumplimiento en la ministración de la dieta enteral.

  13. THE MEDICO-SCIENTIFIC MARGINALISATION OF HOMEOPATHY: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AND REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2015-09-01

    The 2010 report of the United Kingdom Science and Technology Committee of the House of Commons and the 2015 report of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council have overtaken in significance the uncritical Swiss report of 2012 and have gone a long way to changing the environment of tolerance toward proselytising claims of efficacy in respect of homeopathy. The inquiry being undertaken in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration during 2015 may accelerate this trend. An outcome of the reports and inquiries has been a series of decisions from advertising regulators and by courts rejecting medically unjustifiable claims in respect of the efficacy of homeopathy. Class actions have also been initiated in North America against manufacturers of homeopathic products. The changing legal and regulatory environment is generating an increasingly scientifically marginalised existence for homeopathy. That new environment is starting to provide effective inhibition of assertions on behalf of homeopathy and other health modalities whose claims to therapeutic efficacy cannot be justified by reference to the principles of evidence-based health care. This has the potential to reduce the financial support that is provided by insurers and governments toward homeopathy and to result in serious liability exposure for practitioners, manufacturers and those who purvey homeopathic products, potentially including pharmacists. In addition, it may give a fillip to a form of regulation of homeopaths if law reform to regulate unregistered health practitioners gathers momentum, as is taking place in Australia.

  14. Current trends for medico-legal disputes related to functional nasal surgery in Italy.

    PubMed

    Motta, S; Nappi, S

    2014-06-01

    The problem of professional liability in case of adverse outcomes or failures secondary to surgery is very sensitive in many countries of the European Community. In Italy, a recent sentence of the Supreme Court concerning a patient who underwent septoplasty raised considerable doubts in relation to the guidance to be followed in disputes related to an alleged professional liability, further exacerbating the juridical orientation of recent years in this context. This ruling involves any surgery, as well as rhinologic surgery, and calls into question most regulatory and legal principles that have traditionally been adopted by the Italian Civil Law. The sentence states that the plaintiff is only required to document the failure of surgical treatment, but not the breach of the duty of care by the surgeon, thus shifting the burden of proof to the physician-debtor. It also considers that, in assessing the degree of negligence, reference should be made to the qualifications of the surgeon, according to principles that are not covered by current regulations, denying that in general surgery (i.e., not with aesthetic purposes) the surgeon must only to act with diligence and need not guarantee a favourable outcome. This series of statements, complementing one another and evolving more unfavourably towards physicians, facilitate legal disputes for speculative purposes through complainants, with obvious health and socio-economic implications.

  15. Traumatic dental injuries during anaesthesia. Part II: medico-legal evaluation and liability.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Barbieri, Stefania; Feltracco, Paolo; Tiano, Letizia; Galligioni, Helmut; Uberti, Manuela; Ori, Carlo; Avato, Francesco Maria

    2011-02-01

    Claims for tooth damage following intubation are increasing. An anaesthetic chart (AC) has been proposed to describe patient's pre-existent dental diseases and any possible lesions caused during intubation and extubation. We conducted a retrospective study of 235 cases of dental lesions reported in litigation files from January 2000 to June 2009. Based on preoperative oral inspection the anaesthetist decided whether or not to use a protective aid. Two different tooth protectors were applied: (i) a standard mouthguard and (ii) silicone impression putty. The study population consisted of 110 female (age 6-88 years) and 125 male patients (11-90 years) patients. In 66% of cases greater risk of perianesthetic dental injury was reported in the AC due to pre-existing poor dentition. In intubation procedures without protective devices dental subluxation/luxation occurred in 55% of patients, dental avulsion in 43%, exfoliation in 2%, and soft tissue damage in five patients. One patient suffered from transient facial nerve paralysis. The costs of treatments and of impression materials, as well as the total value of compensation for injuries are reported. Definition and demonstrability of damages on the AC is important in order to separate the cases worthy of compensation from the non-compensable ones, as to evaluate the possibility of solving the litigation by extrajudicial channels. There are cases in which, based on AC reporting and device adoption the damage resulted to be compensable, but the costs were defined on different estimates of lesions. The use of a protective device makes it possible to down-modulate the damage compensation. The analysis of litigation records and 'incident reports' has suggested that the choice of accurate proceeding and the use of protection aids could reduce the number of claims, insurance premiums and the costs of litigation process, thus improving physician-patient relationship. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. [Medico-legal assessment in the sequelae of burns (1st part)].

    PubMed

    Costagliola, R; Cantaloube, D; Costagliola, M; Foyatier, J-L

    2011-10-01

    The assessment of physical injury in after-effects of burns is very specific. Indeed, the evolution of burn scars is particular compared to the scarring process in general. The expert needs to know these specific aspects in order to objectively assess the after-effects due to burns, in order to compensate for the loss of autonomy in major burn victims. The assessment has to analyze all the effects, functional and aesthetic, of the after-effects due to burns and has to particularly specify: the mending, which can never be set before one year, the pressure test allowing to check the complete maturation of the scars; the functional disability which results from skin retractions (due to after-effects) on the limbs mobility but which also must consider the burnt skin surface; the aesthetic damage, often important, with a discrimination between hypertrophic and keloid scars; the suffering, always significant in view of specialized and prolonged therapeutics; the sexual damage, often unrecognized in this type of injured people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Diffculties in medico-social management of tuberculosis in Pneumology Departement of Fann University Teaching Hospital].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M W; Preira, A; Ndir, M; Ba, O; Cissokho, S; Diop Dia, D; Kandji, M; Diatta, A; Toure, N O; Niang, A; Dia, Y; Sylla, O; Hane, A A

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study included all the patients who, during the month of September 1995, were admitted for pulmonary baclliferous tuberculosis to the Pneumology Clinic of the Fann University Hospital, Dakar. The patient's escorts and the health personnel were also included in this study. The aim of the study was to find the different socio-economic and health factors impeding the hospitalization of tuberculosis patients in the Pneumology Clinic of Fann University Hospital. 22 members of the health team, 209 patients aged between 15 and 65 years and 209 escorts were interviewed. Out of the 10% of tuberculosis patients with HIV seropositivity, 80% admitted not to have informed their spouses of their infection. The decision to be admitted was made by the patient himself in 54.4% of cases and by his family in 45.5% of cases. Late admittance with regards to the beginning of symptoms was due to the recourse to traditional medicine in 43.7% of cases, wrong diagnosis in 24%, ignorance in 19.3% and, in 13% of cases, due to inappropiate anti tuberculosis treatment. Despite the fact that anti tuberculosis medicine was free of charge, each patient or his family spent an average sum of 87,500 CFA F (US dollar 175) for a month's admission (the minimal salary (SMIG) in Senegal is 32,000 CFA F (US dollar 64), and 40% of the patients and escorts had difficulties making this payment. 9 patients were judged to be poor by 25.7% of the patients and 8.7% found relations with the health personnel difficult. The escorts deplored the lack of toilets (only 1 out of 4 was functional), the time worn facilities, the overcrowding as well as the irregularity and poor quality of the hospital meals. The entire health team deplored the lack of adequate personnel and 30% of them deplored the lack of hygiene of some patients and escorts. Taking financial charge of tuberculosis patients at the Pneumology Clinic of the Fann University Hospital requires an increased financial effort from the State (rehabilitation of the facilities, recruitment of medical and paramedical personnel, improved meals) harmonisation on a national scale of anti tuberculosis therapeutic protocoles and an Information-Education-Communication (IEC) programme on tuberculosis and hygiene.

  18. Abortion laws and medical developments: a medico-legal anomaly in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kerry

    2011-03-01

    In October 2010 the District Court sitting in Cairns, Queensland, found Tegan Leach not guilty of attempting to procure her own abortion and Sergie Brennan not guilty of supplying Leach with the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol to procure an abortion. Brennan obtained the drugs from his sister in the Ukraine through the regular postal system. R v Brennan and Leach was the first case in Queensland's history where a woman was charged with procuring her own abortion. The drugs are accepted by the medical profession worldwide for medical abortions. A prosecution witness gave evidence that Mifepristone is not harmful or injurious to the health of a woman and it is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organisation and approved for use by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. The jury found the defendants not guilty because they were not satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the combination of the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol was a "noxious" substance under the Criminal Code (Old). This article concludes that there is no regulatory miracle which will stop the traffic of Mifepristone and Misoprostol into Australia and therefore an intelligent regulatory response is required which would make it unnecessary for women to seek Mifepristone and Misoprostol from overseas networks and the internet. Among other things, this would include the repeal of confusing, inappropriate and ineffective abortion laws.

  19. Nobel Prize for Physical Therapy? Rise, Fall, and Revival of Medico-Mechanical Institutes.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Ottosson, Anders

    2015-08-01

    This historical vignette explores the considerations of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine by vetting the Nobel Prize chances of Dr Gustaf Zander (1835-1920). His way to stardom started 150 years ago when he began mechanizing the passive and active movements that physical therapists manually used to treat diseases. A glance at his machines shows that they parallel surprisingly well what can be found in modern fitness studios. By combining files from the Nobel Prize Archive and sources from the first physical therapists, this vignette pieces together why Zander was considered one of the best candidates for the Nobel Prize in 1916. By providing this glimpse of history, questions about the origin of physical therapy concepts and the profession of the physical therapist are raised.

  20. [Medico-ecological approaches to the integrated management of water resources].

    PubMed

    El'piner, L I

    2012-01-01

    The necessity of taking into account the interests of public health care informing and implementing solutions for water management has been substantiated. Scientific frameworks and regulatory sanitary legislative documents relating to various areas of water management have been considered. The possibilities and the importance of performing complex territory medical ecological forecasts of effects of changes in hydrological situation have been demonstrated.

  1. [Giant recurrent trochanteric pressure sore: A complex medico-surgical care].

    PubMed

    Pesenti, S; Ciceron, C; Toledano, E; Niddam, J; Tournebise, H

    2016-12-01

    Pressure sores are a frequent complication in spinal injured people. Their treatment is often long and complex. We report the case of a 60-year-old man affected with complete paraplegia who developed a right trochanteric pressure ulcer complicated with osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joint. The treatment was done in three steps. First, a large excision of necrotic tissues and a femoral head-neck resection is performed. Then, the defect is partly covered with a Gluteus Maximus and a Biceps Femoris myocutaneous flaps. Finally, the residual defect is covered with a cutaneous pedicled groin flap called McGregor's flap. Later, the patient showed a right para-scrotal pressure sore on a heterotopic ossification of the ischial tuberosity. McGregor's flap is rarely employed for treating trochanteric pressure sores. It was here the only pedicled flap available. It was necessary to autonomize it in order to get enough length and to place a hip external fixation. The para-scrotal pressure sore illustrates the fact that bone resection surgery lifts the weight-bearing zones and can lead to pressure sores in unusual locations. The surgical treatment of these "giant" pressure sores requires a perfect collaboration between teams of rehabilitation and several surgical areas. Without a good adherence of the patient, the treatment is doomed to fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Medico-legal implications of mobbing. A false accusation of psychological harassment at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Jarreta, Begoña Martínez; García-Campayo, Javier; Gascón, Santiago; Bolea, Miguel

    2004-12-02

    Mobbing, or psychological harassment at the workplace, is usually defined as a situation in which a person or a group of people engage in extreme psychological violence against another person. In Spain, the number of reports for mobbing has increased extraordinarily in the last years. The reports are increasing dramatically not only before the Labour Courts, but also before the Civil Courts, with claims for damages, and before the Penal Court for offences causing physical or moral injury, etc., since at the present time this figure is not typified as an offence in the Spanish Penal Code. The high degree of complexity of this situation has given rise to frequent misuse of the term and to a number of false accusations of mobbing. A recent European Parliament Resolution on harassment at the workplace addressed the devastating consequences of false accusations. In this paper we present a case in which the "false" victim was mentally ill (paranoia) but succeed in generating an extreme dangerous environment of great harassment against the "false" assailants that were "falsely" accused of mobbing. Forensic diagnosis of the psychiatric disorder suffered by the "false" victim was essential to clarify the issue at the Penal Court.

  3. A case of stillbirth: the importance of placental investigation in medico-legal practice.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Daniela; Belviso, Maura; Fulcheri, Ezio

    2009-03-01

    The authors present a case of stillbirth in which histologic examination of the placenta provides the opportunity to make a definitive diagnosis of a death due to fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV). Establishing the etiology in cases of stillbirth may avoid medical malpractice litigation. The better knowledge of the cause of stillbirths also helped obstetricians to recognize factors that could have prejudiced future pregnancies.

  4. Detectability and medico-legal value of the gunshot residues in the intracorporeal channel.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Arnaldo Stanislao; Andreola, Salvatore; Battistini, Alessio; Gentile, Guendalina; Muccino, Enrico; Vancheri, Giulia; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The application of the histochemical stain of sodium rhodizonate to the entrance wound for the detection of the lead (Pb) residues coming from the gunshot may be affected by false positive cases due to the contamination of the environmental Pb. The aim of the Authors is to histochemically search the Pb of GSR in a region which should be more protected by the contamination: the intracorporeal channel. Two hundreds and eighteen serial histological specimens of the intracorporeal channels coming from 25 subjects (dead due to gunshots and being autopsied at the Section of Legal Medicine of the Milan University, in the years 2013-2014) were stained with the sodium rhodizonate and sodium rhodizonate in acid environment (HCl 5%), and then observed by the microscope. The sodium rhodizonate showed a positivity for the Pb residues in the intracorporeal channel, with the detection of the particles within the first 2 cm beyond the entrance wound in 6 cases over the total number of 25 (24%). Victims were characterized by common features: short-barreled weapon; contact shots or short-distance shots; involvement of regions that were not covered by clothing; preservation of the microscopic structure of organs interested by the intracorporeal channel. The searching of GSR in the intracorporeal channel, even in conditions securing a high sensitivity, could represent an important test for the discrimination between an environmental contamination of Pb and the presence of Pb residues by GSR: once confirmed the presence of GSR in the intracorporeal channel by the histochemical analysis, the diagnostic process should require the application of the SEM-EDX for the confirmation of the results. Although not yet studied, this combination could be applied to cadavers exposed to the environment, with advanced post-mortal phenomena permitting at least the suspects of the existence of gunshot wounds at the macroscopic autopsy evaluation. Indeed, in some cases, the putrefaction is so advanced that no suspect of gunshot injuries could be derived from the soft tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. [The issue of medico-legal assessment of noise induced hearing loss: comparison of methods].

    PubMed

    Bosio, D; Coggiola, M; Baracco, A; Andreis, P; Perrelli, F

    2011-01-01

    Audiogram classification is crucial for hearing protection of workers occupationally exposed to noise. The methods that have been proposed are based on two principles: the morphological evaluation of the audiometric curve (eg. Merluzzi-Pira-Bosio--MPB) or the average hearing loss on different frequencies (eg. Albera-Beatrice--AB). The purpose of this study was to classify audiograms compatible with chronic acoustic trauma performed at the Occupational Medicine Outpatient Clinic of CTO Hospital in Turin from 2004 to 2011 with the methods outlined in Guidelines published by SIMLII. A substantial agreement among the methods was observed. While MPB is the most appropriate method for secondary prevention, the AB would seem more appropriate for the verification of a permanent weakening that has to be reported to the competent legal authorities.

  6. Breakdowns in communication of radiological findings: an ethical and medico-legal conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Daniel R.; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Communication problems in diagnostic testing have increased in both number and importance in recent years. The medical and legal impact of failure of communication is dramatic. Over the past decades, the courts have expanded and strengthened the duty imposed on radiologists to timely communicate radiologic abnormalities to referring physicians and perhaps the patients themselves in certain situations. The need to communicate these findings goes beyond strict legal requirements: there is a moral imperative as well. The Code of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Association points out that “Ethical values and legal principles are usually closely related, but ethical obligations typically exceed legal duties.” Thus, from the perspective of the law, radiologists are required to communicate important unexpected findings to referring physicians in a timely fashion, or alternatively to the patients themselves. From a moral perspective, radiologists should want to effect such communications. Practice standards, moral values, and ethical statements from professional medical societies call for full disclosure of medical errors to patients affected by them. Surveys of radiologists and non-radiologic physicians reveal that only few would divulge all aspects of the error to the patient. In order to encourage physicians to disclose errors to patients and assist in protecting them in some manner if malpractice litigation follows, more than 35 states have passed laws that do not allow a physician’s admission of an error and apologetic statements to be revealed in the courtroom. Whether such disclosure increases or decreases the likelihood of a medical malpractice lawsuit is unclear, but ethical and moral considerations enjoin physicians to disclose errors and offer apologies. PMID:27006891

  7. Medico-historical review of Nyagrŏdha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Nyagrŏdha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacred medicinal plant since Vedic times. The English name Banyan is given by the Britishers to this tree because under the tree Banias i.e., the Hindu merchants used to assemble for business. The triad Ganges, the Himalayas and the Banyan tree are symbolise the images of India, hence it is considered as National Tree. Ficus means fig and bengalensis means belonging to or is of Bengal. To the most of Indians it is Sacred and symbolizes all three Gods of Hindus. The bark represents Lord Visnu, Brahma the roots and Siva the branches. Since Vedic times its small branches are used in Yajña (a sacrificial rite) and known for its giant structure. Alexander the Great is said to have camped under a banyan tree, which was big enough to shelter his whole army of 7,000 men. As per Vĕda it checks the environmental pollution and one of the source of Lăksă (Lac). Its medicinal importance is well documented in Ayurvĕda literature. However, more research needs for understanding the medicinal properties of this symbolic tree.

  8. [Medico legal considerations on prosthesis surgery of the erectile dysfunction in a La Peyronie disease case].

    PubMed

    Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Simeone, C; Letizia, P; Alei, G

    2013-04-01

    Peyronie's disease is characterized by the presence of an inelastic fibrous plaque of the penile tunica albuginea affecting 3-10% of the male population. The fibrous scar causes the curvature of the erect penis, which prevents the penetration. In the stabilization phase the plaque can cause a variable degree of erectile dysfunction (20-54%). In the treatment of the chronic disease, surgery is the gold standard and in case of concomitant erectile dysfunction the placement of a penile prosthesis is indicated. This surgery is loaded with an increase of the variables which can affect the outcome, such as individual clinical features and functionality of the device. The present case concerns a patient suffering from erectile dysfunction associated with Peyronie's disease who underwent surgery for implantation of hydraulic three-component penile prosthesis. After surgery a malfunction of the prosthesis was detected, which required unloading measures under sedation and a surgical revision of the scrotal pump. The latter was followed by the displacement of the prosthesis' cylinder and by a new surgical treatment for the reintegration of the prosthesis and the repair of the left corpus cavernosum. After two months a wrong positioning of the two cylinders inserted into the corpora cavernosa, with the left cranial extreme positioned 2 cm below the contralateral, was detected. In this case the failure of surgical treatment highlights a negligent behavior and the responsibility of the doctors by failing to examine adequately the variables, both clinical and not clinical, that might affect the outcome of the intervention.

  9. Los torturadores medicos: medical collusion with human rights abuses in Argentina, 1976-1983.

    PubMed

    Perechocky, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Medical collaboration with authoritarian regimes historically has served to facilitate the use of torture as a tool of repression and to justify atrocities with the language of public health. Because scholarship on medicalized killing and biomedicalist rhetoric and ideology is heavily focused on Nazi Germany, this article seeks to expand the discourse to include other periods in which medicalized torture occurred, specifically in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, when the country was ruled by the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military regime. The extent to which medical personnel embedded themselves within the Proceso regime's killing apparatus has escaped full recognition by both scholars and human rights activists. This article reconstructs the narrative of the Proceso's human rights abuses to argue that health professionals knowingly and often enthusiastically facilitated, oversaw, and participated in every phase of the "disappearance," torture, and mass murder process.

  10. [Medico-legal autopsy--selected legal issues: the autopsy protocol].

    PubMed

    Gaszczyk-Ozarowski, Zbigniew; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    The majority of experts in the field of forensic medicine maintain that the minutes of the medicolegal autopsy should be taken by the forensic pathologist. The authors argue that it is the public prosecutor who is obliged to draw up the minutes, whereas the forensic pathologist issues the expert opinion. To support their stance, the authors make frequent references to several provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code of 1997. The authors also imply that due to organizational reasons and the ratio legis of the aforementioned code, the forensic pathologist should not be assigned the role of the minutes-taker, despite the lack of a specific exclusion rule governing such a case. Possible consequences caused by the lack of the properly drawn up minutes are briefly discussed as well.

  11. Legal update: a roadmap of the recent changes to the medico-legal landscape.

    PubMed

    Plotzker, S R

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent changes to federal law that physicians should be aware of The Final Compliance Program Guidance for Individual and Small Group Practices, the HIPAA privacy regulations, and the Fraud and Abuse Safe Harbors are discussed specifically. Also addressed are miscellaneous tax changes and the lapse of the Advisory Opinions.

  12. [The vermillion border of the lips as the object of medico-criminalistics expertise].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Galitskaia, O I; Fomina, E E

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study biometric characteristics of the vermillion border of the lips and estimate the possibility of their use for personality identification. Photographs of the lips obtained from the archive of the Department of Forensic Medical Personality Identification, Russian Centre of Forensic Medical Expertise, were analysed with the use of the specially developed ALips 2.0 software. Verification of the hypothesis of normal sign distribution allowed the values of the signs to be split into intervals. Category limits of each sign were calculated for both men and women, the categories were compared in the automatic regime with the help of the ALips 2.0 software. The diagnostic value of the described system is thus far rather low. A number of calculation procedures allowing to identify the object of interest were performed at the concluding stage of the study. The results of experiments suggest the high identification significance of the signs under consideration while the number of the objects similar to the one being identified does not exceed five which confirms that the groups are fairly well distinguished.

  13. [Legal and medico-legal assessment of medical errors in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Rorat, Marta; Drozd, Radosław

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the doctrine of criminal law and the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in search of a starting point for the legal protection of human life and health. In cases of medical errors in obstetrics concerning a fetus, an act of a perpetrator can be classified as manslaughter or exposure to direct danger of loss of life or great bodily injury depending on whether the fetus is recognized as "a human being". The authors criticize the doctrinal criteria of the beginning of legal protection: spatial, physiological, obstetric, and developmental, pointing to the possibilities of decriminalization of medical errors of omission. A solution to this situation is the presented evolution of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It moves towards establishing the beginning of legal and criminal protection of life and health at the "moment of emergence of objective grounds to necessitate delivery".

  14. Donation of the body for scientific purposes in Italy: ethical and medico-legal considerations

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Paola; Delbon, Paola; Piras, Mauro; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Conti, Adelaide

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In recent years in Italy (and in the other European Countries) a new debated topic involves anatomists and the scientific world: donation of the body after death for scientific purposes. The aim of our analysis is to analyze the issue of voluntary body donation in Italy focusing first of all, on key principles of the disciplines of donation. Considering the rise of exhibitions and events in which death is spectacularized, the debate is focus on will, on respect and overall on the purpose for which the body is donated. Anatomical dissection is considered necessary in the direct learning of the human body, of surgical practices and new scientific techniques but the scarcity of programmes and regulations regarding the donation of bodies for study and research make it an uncommon practice. After discussing what are the constitutional principles underlying the issue we want to emphasize the need of a more effective and updated regulation to set limits and methods of a practice still essential for scientific progress. PMID:28352814

  15. Fetal laceration during caesarean section and its medico-legal sequelae.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Ciro; Escolino, Maria; Paternoster, Mariano; Buccelli, Claudio; Graziano, Vincenzo; Falco, Marianna; Alicchio, Francesca; Cerulo, Mariapina; Settimi, Alessandro; Savanelli, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Fetal laceration is a recognized complication of caesarean delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, type, location, risk factors and long-term consequences of accidental fetal incised wounds during caesarean delivery. During a five-year period, we observed 25 cases of fetal lacerations caused by the scalpel during hysterotomy. In 20 of these cases, we observed these lesions as consultants for the Neonatologic Care Unit; the other five cases came under our care after an insurance claim for damages against the gynaecologist. All the infants had a lesion located to the head. In only 5 of the 25 cases the lesion was reported in the operative summary, and only 16 of the 25 mothers had signed an informed consent before surgery. With regard to the 20 cases diagnosed at the Neonatologic Care Unit, the lesion was closed using single stitches in nine cases, and with biological glue in 11 cases. Concerning the five cases that underwent legal proceedings against the gynaecologist, a clinical examination was performed by an expert in Public Health and Social Security in collaboration with a paediatric surgeon to evaluate the degree of biological damage. In all five cases, the result of the legal challenge was monetary compensation for the physical and moral damage caused by the gynaecologists to the patients and their parents. Accidental fetal lesions may occur during caesarean delivery; the incidence is significantly higher during emergency caesarean delivery compared to elective procedures. Patients should sign an informed consent in which they should be informed about the risk of the occurrence of fetal lacerations during caesarean delivery in order to avoid legal complications. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Intimate partner violence against women in Spain: A medico-legal and criminological study.

    PubMed

    Regueira-Diéguez, Antía; Pérez-Rivas, Natalia; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio; Vázquez-Portomeñe, Fernando; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant worldwide problem whose magnitude and risk factors vary across different settings and cultures. Nowadays, it is a priority to improve the knowledge on this issue in order to formulate better evidence-based policy responses. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of non-fatal IPV against women in Spain. A retrospective analysis of IPV cases with a final judicial decision was carried out. The period under study extended from January 2005 to December 2012, with a total of 582 files included in the investigation. Most IPV victims were young adult women of Spanish origin, either married or single, with children, unemployed and with a low family income level. The majority of alleged perpetrators were young adults, employed, with a middle-low income level, a history of alcohol consumption/abuse, but no criminal records. Most victims had previous history of IPV, were engaged in a long-term relationship with their abuser and lived with him at the time of assault. The combination of psychological and physical abuse was the most frequent form of violence. The most common mechanisms of assault consisted in minor acts of physical violence, which resulted in mild injuries, most of them in the upper limbs and face. Nearly half of women sought medical care, but physician's injury report was only made in about a quarter of these cases, even though it is mandatory for health professionals. The majority of criminal proceedings were initiated by the victim's report and ended in conviction, most of them being considered occasional mistreatment. This study confirms the heterogeneity of the phenomenon of intimate partner violence. The importance of adopting standard IPV concepts and promoting the recognition and assessment of this form of violence amongst health care professionals, criminal investigators and forensic personnel is emphasized.

  17. Paranormal experience in a medico-swimming rescue: a case study.

    PubMed

    Avramidis, Stathis

    2013-06-01

    This study looks at the case of a 20-year-old fisherman, who was speared in the head, the spear entering at his jaw and protruding from the top of his scull, while he was swimming unaccompanied; he was rescued, admitted to the intensive care unit for an operation, remained in a coma for a few days and then had a full recovery. About 10 days before the rescue, he had visited a monk who, intuited and functioning as channel of the divine spirit, had told him that he 'should not be afraid of anything', rubbing the top of his scull and his jaw exactly at the points through which the 40-inch spear passed. After the incident, the monk prescience again the exact day on which he would recover from the coma. It is concluded that the survival of the fisherman can be attributed to a paranormal event. The monk's prescience permit the assumption that a divine spirit was pervasive throughout the universe and present in this life-threatening situation, endeavouring to assist the lifeguard, the neurosurgeons and the young fisherman.

  18. Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis: a completely neglected medico-social dilemma.

    PubMed

    van Belkum, Alex; Fahal, Ahmed; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2013-01-01

    Mycetoma is a debilitating disease with a highly particular geographical distribution. The mycetoma belt circles the entire world just above the equator and defines the region with the highest prevalence and incidence. Although the disease is seen in Central America, India and all across Africa, Sudan seems to be the homeland of mycetoma. Mycetoma is an infectious disease caused either by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or true fungi (eumycetoma). In Sudan most cases are caused by the fungal species Madurella mycetomatis. The precise natural habitat of this fungus is still an enigma, but its DNA can easily be found in soil and plant samples in endemic areas. Although the entire human population in these areas are in regular contact with the fungus, most individuals are unaffected. Thus mycetoma is an ideal clinical and experimental model system for the study of host-pathogen interactions. Also, given its relative importance locally, improvements in clinical and laboratory diagnostics and knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease are badly needed. This chapter describes the current state of affairs in the field of eumycetoma caused by M. mycetomatis. The value of laboratory research on this disease and future perspective for control and prevention of the infection are discussed.

  19. A study of homicidal deaths in medico-legal autopsies at UMMC, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Li, Adeline Khaw Mae; Zanial, Ahmad Zaid; Lee, Ding Ai; Salleh, Syahrul Anuar

    2005-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the causes and epidemiological aspects of homicidal deaths. Data were collected on 217 homicidal victims from the total number of 2762 autopsies performed in UMMC, Kuala Lumpur over a five-year period, from year 1999 to 2003. There were 194 male victims and 23 female victims. The largest number of victims (63.6%) were in the age group of 20-39 years. Indians comprised the maximum proportion of victims (28.1%). Approximately 71.9% of victims came from the semiskilled and unskilled group. A majority of victims were married (47%). Injuries caused by sharp weapons (41%) were the most common cause of death, followed by blunt trauma and firearm injuries.

  20. A Management Guide to Asbestos: Medico-Legal, Regulatory, and Hazard Abatement Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    1935 between Sumner Simpson, then president of Raybestos-Manhattan, and Vandiver Brown, then general counsel of Johns - Manville , discussing how they...damage suits is skyrocketing. The nation’s largest asbestos producer, the Denver-based Manville Corporation (formerly Johns - Manville ), chose a unique...company that provided coverage at anytime in between? 2 0 In 1947, Johns - Manville signed the first of a series of policies It would hold with Travelers

  1. Whiplash-Associated Disorders : Clinical and medico-legal guidelines on the methods of ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, S D; Ananian, V; Baccino, E; Banczerowski, P; Bordignon, D; Boscolo-Berto, R; Domenici, R; Gorriz Quevedo, J; Graw, M; Hell, W; Hernandez Cueto, C; Knudsen, P J T; Masiero, S; Montisci, M; Norelli, G A; Pinchi, V; Raudys, R; Raul, J S; Sterzik, V; Tessitore, E; Tuusov, J; Vanezis, P; Vermylen, Y; Vieira, D N; Viel, G; Viero, A; Villanueva, E; Zoia, R

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the International Guidelines developed by the Working Group on Personal Injury and Damage under the patronage of the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM) regarding the Methods of Ascertainment of any suspected Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD).The document includes a detailed description of the logical and methodological steps of the ascertainment process as well as a synoptic diagram in the form of Flow Chart.

  2. Exorcising excision: medico-legal issues arising from male and female genital surgery in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mason, C

    2001-08-01

    Genital surgery is one of the most controversial and contested practices, yet it is frequently described and referred to with little or no attention to cultural and social context. This article examines the practice, performed on both men and women, and the extent to which it clashes with issues of consent and capacity, as well as multicultural concepts of toleration for minority group practices. It then questions why female genital surgery, unlike male genital surgery, is legally prohibited in Australia. It argues that such legal gender bias stems from a liberal conception of "tolerance" and the limits of consent in Australia, placing female genital surgery in an "unacceptable" category and male genital surgery in an "acceptable" category.

  3. Phenazepam: A review of medico-legal deaths in South Scotland between 2010 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Shearer, K; Bryce, C; Parsons, M; Torrance, H

    2015-09-01

    Phenazepam is a long acting benzodiazepine that is not prescribed in the United Kingdom. In Scotland it has been detected in a large number of post mortem cases, but very little data has been published looking at post mortem concentrations of this drug and indeed concentrations that may be associated with causing death. We looked at all post mortem cases between 2010 and 2014 where phenazepam was found in blood and correlated these with the given cause of death. The data collected shows the variability in reporting of phenazepam deaths and will provide a useful tool for those deciding when phenazepam should or should not be included as a cause of death. Cases discussed include drug related deaths with phenazepam as the sole cause of death (as is), drug related death when the cause of death was noted as being from a combination of phenazepam plus one or more other drugs (range <0.005-0.9mg/L, median 0.10mg/L) and causes of death in non-drug related deaths where phenazepam was detected (hangings range <0.05-0.39mg/L, median 0.09mg/L and deaths due to ischaemic heart disease range 0.05-0.1mg/L, median 0.04mg/L).

  4. Project MEDICO; Model Experiment in Drug Indexing by Computer. First Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan; Baxendale, Stanley

    This report describes Phase 1 of a research project with the over-all objective of exploring the applicability of automatic methods in the indexing of drug information appearing in English natural language text. Two major phases of the research have been completed: (1) development of the automatic indexing method and its implementation on the test…

  5. Treatment of Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer: Medico-Surgical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Essadi, Ismail; Sbitti, Yassir; Fetohi, Mohamed; Slimani, Khaoula Alaoui; Essadi, Meryam; Tazi, Elmehdi; Ichou, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background The management of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer can be understood only as part of a multidisciplinary strategy. Progress experienced by medical treatment, surgical techniques and ways of imaging, has improved the prognosis of patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancers. This work displays the experience of Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Methods From January 2007 to December 2009, 60 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer, synchronous or metachronous were supported in the Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Results Liver metastases were synchronous in 41 (68%) patients and metachronous in 19 (32%). Patients were classified into 3 categories according to their resectability: 14 (22%) were resectable at the outset, 28 (47%) were unresectable and 18 (31%) were considered uncertain resectability. Thirty-five patients (58%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgical gesture, 25 (42%) received chemotherapy after resection of primary tumor. This chemotherapy enabled the resection of liver metastases in 5 patients initially deemed uncertain resectability. The average objective responses to chemotherapy were in the range of 59% with 4 complete responses and one confirmed histologically. Twenty-three patients (38%) underwent surgery including 15 liver resections with R0 (25%). The median progression-free survival in this series was 15.5 months. Some minor side effects were noted, which have not entered the prognosis of patients. Conclusions Hepatic resection remains the only potentially curative treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancers. Perioperative chemotherapy is a promising standard, which has improved the prognosis of patients historically associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:27942326

  6. Medico legal and epidemiological aspects of femicide in a judicial district of north eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Moreschi, Carlo; Da Broi, Ugo; Zamai, Valentina; Palese, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Femicide is the intentional killing of a woman because she is female, and often occurs when there are pre-existing relations, intimate or otherwise, between the victim and the murderer. A retrospective epidemiological study was made of 34 female homicides recorded in a university departmental register of post-mortems, pertaining to a judicial district of about 700,000 inhabitants in north eastern Italy, during a 21-year period from January 1st 1993 to December 31st 2013. The temporal trend, the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and perpetrators, the circumstances surrounding the crime and the risk factors for femicide were studied with the aim of identifying and developing preventive strategies.

  7. [Medico-economic impact of an innovative management of CHF by HF unit].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C; Groshens, S; Gueneau, P; Rousseau, M; Saura, M; Hryschyschyn, N; Hillani, A; Dagorn, J; Pitthan, E; Jourdain, P

    2015-11-01

    Chronic heart failure remains a frequent, severe and costly disease. Despite encouraging data from different countries, heart failure clinics are scarce in France. We have analyzed the impact of a heart failure clinic (UTIC of Pontoise) in terms of reduction of rehospitalizations and in hospitalization costs in 4855 consecutive patients. In our study, heart failure clinic management dramatically reduces HF related hospitalizations (RRR: -28 %, P=0.001) and HF related costs (55% reduction, P<0.001) regardless of comorbidities or disease severity. HF clinics have to be developed in France in order to optimize management of CHF and reduce the HF related costs.

  8. Morphological changes in genesial system of men: medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, Olga Anatolievna

    2003-03-01

    With the purpose of perfection of examination the character of structural changes in testicles and prostate is investigated; the comparative qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellular reactions of persons with chronic somatopathies (rheumatic disease, idiopathic hypertensia) and chronic household intoxications (alcoholic illness, narcomania) is carried out. The work is carried out on 50 corpses of male persons, 18-35 years old, who died of chronic drunkenness (13 observations), narcomania (20), idiopathic hypertensia (9), and rheumatic disease (8). The suppression of testicles was characterized by disturbances of spermatogenesis at a level of the cell population, characteristic for a zero and first degree of spermatogenesis activity especially expressed in chronic narcotic intoxication. The damage to a prostate was stacked in a picture of a chronic relapsing prostatitis and chronic indurative prostatitis with the outcome of cirrhosis of prostata, being most typical for chronic alcohol intoxication. Morpho-functional investigation of a prostate and testicles affected by chronic somatopathies and chronic household intoxications, both qualitative and quantitative, testify to reduction of function of activity of these organs (hormonal imbalances, mail sterility, sex frustration). Thus, the persons suspected of violent actions of a sexual nature should be examined in order to reveal both erectile dysfunctions and disruption of spermatogenesis.

  9. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality.

  10. [Crohn disease. Medico-surgical experience. A 10-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Pérez Torres, E; Sobrino Cossío, S; García Guerrero, V A; Abdo Francis, M; Murguía Domínguez, D; Bernal Sahagún, F

    1992-01-01

    Crohn's disease is rare in Mexico. The regarding of this pathology at Gastrointestinal Unit of the General Hospital of Mexico city, between january 1980 and december 1989, is presented. There were six cases of Crohn's disease, two women (33%) and four men (66%). The definitive diagnosis was done preoperatively only in one case, the other were diagnosed postoperatively. In all, intestinal obstruction was the surgical indication. A patient died (16.6%), three cases were followed for 12 months, only two patients are still under surveillance after 15 months.

  11. Readiness for legally literate medical practice? Student perceptions of their undergraduate medico-legal education.

    PubMed

    Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy; Kong, Wing May; Smith, Sue

    2011-10-01

    Medical councils increasingly require graduates to understand law and to practise medicine mindful of the legal rules. In the UK a revised curriculum for medical law and ethics has been published. However, coverage of law in medical education remains variable and doubts exist about how far students acquire legal knowledge and skills in its implementation. This survey of students in two UK medical schools measured their law learning and their confidence in using this knowledge. Concept maps and a self-audit questionnaire were used to capture students' understanding and perceptions of this knowledge domain and self-assessments of their legal knowledge and skills. A large sample was achieved across first, second and final year students. Students agree that a sound understanding of law is essential to being a good doctor. Their perceptions of law are generally positive but the interface between the legal rules and codes of medical ethics creates difficulty. In some areas students offer relatively confident self-assessments of their legal knowledge and skills for practising law. However, levels of confidence in other areas of their law learning raise doubts about the degree to which they can advocate for and protect their patients. Conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of students' law learning and recommendations made for further research.

  12. [Li-Fraumeni syndrome: clinico-molecular diagnostics and medico-genetic counseling].

    PubMed

    Liubchenko, L N

    2011-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (sarcoma family syndrome, OMIM 151623) is a rare clinically and genetically hetergoeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the evolvement and accumulation of soft-tissue osteogenic sarcomas in members of a family, as well as uni- and bilateral breast cancer in young women, brain tumours, adrenocortical cancer, and lymphoproliferative diseases. Germinal mutations of the TP53 gene constitute the etiological genetic basis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network developed recommendations for genetic testing and observation of carriers of TP53 mutations. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated correlation between the TP53-mutant genotype and resistance to standard therapeutic modalities. This finding gave impetus to the development of new genotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of TP53-associated tumours in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

  13. Medico-Science and School Hygiene: A Contribution to a History of the Senses in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    This article takes as its inspiration Ian Grosvenor's conjectural essay presented for the symposium "Historiography of the Future: Looking Back to the Future" held at the International Standing Conference for History of Education (ISCHE) 33 in July 2011 in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. It contributes to a sensory history of schooling by…

  14. Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population In the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2008-01-01

    The study grains to explore ethno-medicobotany of Badaga population in the Nilgiri hills of Tamilnadu, South India. Ethno botanical field survey and personal discussion methods have been adopted in the collection of data. A list of 71 flowering plants belonging to 42 families, 67 genera and 70 species are employed by the Badaga popu-lation in their native system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. In reviewing ethnomedical information, data on folk herbal remedies and their various methods of applications for treating a wide range of ailments have been furnished. A brief description of plants, their habitat, family and local Badaga names are outlined here. PMID:22557279

  15. Khat induced psychosis and its medico-legal implication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alem, A; Shibre, T

    1997-04-01

    It has been established that khat plant leaves (Catha edulis forsk) contain an active psychostimulant substance known as Cathinone that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamine. There have been no previously reported cases of khat induced psychosis in Ethiopia despite heavy consumption of khat in most parts of the country. We report here a case of brief and episodic psychosis attributed to heavy khat chewing. We maintain that khat leaf is a substance of abuse and that Khat chewing has the potential to complicate psychiatric conditions and forensic events.

  16. Medico-legal aspects of congenital heart diseases in buying and selling of pets

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Pugliese, Michela; Quartarone, Valeria; Russo, Natalia; Bussadori, Roberto; Guercio, Bartolomeo

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The veterinarian should be able to assess congenital and inherited malformations such as heart defects because they may be object of legal disputes. In this study, the authors report some cases of congenital heart defects in pets (dogs and cats) to clarify whether or not they may be considered a redhibitory defect. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 medical records of pets referred with suspected congenital heart disease were examined. All patients aged between 3 and 24 months underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography and angiocardiography when necessary. Results: Congenital heart diseases or associated cardiac malformations were confirmed. Considering the above congenital diseases as redhibitory defect and the rights of the owners from a strictly legal viewpoint, 9 owners demanded an estimatory action and 11 a redhibitory action; 1 owner decided to demand the reimbursement of veterinary expenses because the animal died; 7 owners took no legal action but requested surgical intervention. Conclusions: Until more appropriate and detailed legislation on the buying and selling of pet animals is put in place; the authors propose to include in the contract a temporal extension of the guarantee relating to congenital heart disease, which can often become evident later. PMID:28246457

  17. Paulus aegineta: review of spine-related chapters in "Epitomoe medicoe libri septem".

    PubMed

    Er, Uygur; Naderi, Sait

    2013-04-15

    Analysis of chapters related to spinal fractures and dislocations of an important medical book from medieval age. A historical study. To present the sections on spinal fractures and dislocations in the treatise of Paulus Aegineta or Paul of Aegina, and to discuss their relationship with preceding and subsequent literature. Paul of Aegina was influenced by precedent great authors and provided a significant link in the transmission of the surgical knowledge to present day via the prominent physicians of Islamic golden age. The edition on which this study is based was translated from Greek into English by Francis Adams and was published in 1846 by The Sydenham Society in London in 3 volumes. The related sections were examined and compared with the treatises of earlier and subsequent writers. Although Paul of Aegina was influenced by Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen, he also put forward his own opinions. The most prominent representatives of the Islamic Golden Age, Rhazes, Albucasis, Avicenna, and Haly Abas were influenced by Paul of Aegina. Paul of Aegina, who was the last representative of the Byzantine School, compiled approximately 1000 years of medical knowledge up to his own era. By taking on this task, he provided a significant link in the transmission of ancient knowledge to later generations. He is also considered as a bridge between Western and Eastern medicines as he conveyed medical knowledge of the ancient era to Islamic authors.

  18. Use of sensorineural tests in a large volume of medico-legal compensation claims for HAVS.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, K L; Lawson, I J; Burke, F; Proud, G; Miles, J

    2004-12-01

    The Department of Trade and Industry set up a contract to examine miners and ex-miners claiming compensation for hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). They had been exposed to hand-transmitted vibration. Over 100,000 have now been examined using sensorineural tests as part of that process. The purpose of this paper was to examine the internal consistency of the vibrotactile threshold test (VTT) and the thermal aesthesiometry test (TA). In 18 centres across the UK, nurses were trained to perform the measurement of VTT and TA in a controlled standardized manner. These tests were to aid the staging of the neurological component of the Stockholm Workshop Scales. The staging of this component was modified by dividing stage 2SN into 2SN (early) and 2SN (late). The test results and an automatic neurological staging were presented to the examining doctor following the clinical examination. The results of these sensorineural tests were held on a central database. The results and analysis of the first 57,000 tests are reported. The correlations within the VTT and TA scores were consistent with reliable measures. However, these correlations were not of such strength as to allow reliance on the results of a single test when making an assessment of the severity of neurological damage. Different end organs and nerve fibres should be tested when making an assessment of damage in the sensorineural component of HAVS. The correlations demonstrated for the VTT and TA suggest that they are of value in assessing these claimants and would be for other vibration exposed workers.

  19. Medico-legal analysis of legal complaints in bariatric surgery: a 15-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tuchtan, Lucile; Kassir, Radwan; Sastre, Bernard; Gouillat, Christian; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Bartoli, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Bariatric surgery for severe obesity has become an effective and accepted treatment for sustained weight loss. The aim of our study was to analyze the complications and issues raised by the experts on which jury or judges' decisions were made for the different types of bariatric surgery. University Hospital, France. We have carried out a retrospective study of 59 expert review dossiers over a period of 15 years (1999-2014) on the different types of bariatric surgery (laparoscopic adjustable gastric band [LAGB], sleeve gastrectomy [SG], Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB], vertical banded gastroplasty [VBG], and gastric plication [GP]). Of the cases, 81% were women and the average age was 39 years old (range 19 to 68 years). Among the procedures giving rise to the complaints, 40% were for LAGB, 28% for RYGB, and 23% for SG. The most common initial complications were perforations (30%), fistulae (27%), bowel obstruction (14%), vascular injuries (9.5%), and infections (peritonitis, pleurisy, abscesses, and so forth) (8%). Revision surgery was required in 78% of patients, and perioperative complications accounted for 28.5% of dossiers. The experts concluded that fault had occurred in 40% of case. Negligence arising from an error deemed to be an act of negligence was found in 30% of cases, 67% of which were because of delayed diagnosis. Major long-term complications accounted for 8% of dossiers and minor long-term complications for 22%. Forty-seven percent of patients completely recovered. Delayed diagnosis was the main error established by the experts. Surgeons should remain vigilant postoperatively after every bariatric surgical procedure. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Resistant starches. Part II. Physico-chemical and technological aspects solution medico-biological problems].

    PubMed

    Iur'ev, V P; Gapparov, M M; Vasserman, L A; Genkina, N K

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recent literature data related to structure, composition and physico-chemical properties of starches as well as the special methods of processing of the starch containing raw sources producing the food products with increasing content of resistant starches. The prognosis is made about usefulness of such resistant starches for control of some metabolic disorder in human organism and for prophylactic aims.

  1. [Medico-social and administrative aspects of optimization of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurism surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Belov, Iu V; Komarov, R N

    2008-01-01

    Improvement of diagnostics, availability and quality of surgical help for patients with thoracoabdominal aneurisms is necessary. Cardiosurgical hospitals should be supplied with modern equipment, new technologies should be wider introduced to practice. Establishing departments of aortic surgery with the concentration of patients in the single center together with the risin the level of surgical skills are crucial.

  2. MEDICO-BOTANY OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS – III AYURVEDIC DRUGS – I

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K.V.; Yoganarasimhan, S.N.; Murthy, K.R. Kesava; Shantha, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Ayurveda is not exploited to the maximum extent in the islands. In order to provide a basic data for establishing Ayurvedic and allied pharmaceutical based industries, information of on fortyfour drugs available in the islands are provided in this first paper of the series PMID:22557452

  3. MEDICO – BOTANY OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS – IV (AYURVEDIC DRUGS – 2)

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K. Vasudevan; Gopakumar, K.; Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Shantha, T. R.; Keshavamurthy, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    Details on 33 plants / drugs belonging to 30 genera and 22 families are provided in this paper; ayurvedic drug name, botanical sources in the island, short description of the species occurring in the islands, chemical constituents, ayurvedic preparations and therapeutic properties are elucidated. PMID:22557524

  4. HANNIBAL REVISITED: ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER VERSUS PSYCHOPATHY--MEDICO-LEGAL PERSPECTIVES FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Psychopathy and its relation to criminal behaviour has been the focus of clinical research for many years. Within the context of South African criminal law, the impact of psychopathy on criminal liability has been addressed in numerous decisions with varying outcomes all indicative of the reality that psychopathy will at most serve as a factor in mitigation of sentence, but will not exonerate an accused of criminal responsibility. In this contribution, the author reflects on the diagnostic entities of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder against the backdrop of South African criminal law cases in terms of which either of these entities were raised in support of mitigation of sentence and/or as extenuating circumstances.

  5. [Medico-prophylactic foundations of the safety of information and communication technologies used in educational institutions].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Kuchma, V R; Sukhareva, L M; Stepanova, M I; Teksheva, L M

    2011-01-01

    The problems pertaining to the safety of information and communication technologies used in the spheres of education and leisure activities of children and adolescents are discussed. The relevant risk factors are identified. Results of physiological and hygienic studies for substantiating regulations of continuous work with a personal computer are presented taking into account the children's age and hygienic requirements to electronic teaching aids.

  6. [Medico-economic assessment of two methods for implementing thyroid testing guidelines].

    PubMed

    Saillour-Glénisson, F; Michel, P; Daucourt, V

    2005-09-01

    To compare independent and combined effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two implementation interventions of guidelines for ordering thyroid function tests. The two implementation interventions were a Memorandum Pocket Card (MPC) and a Test Request Form (TRF). Intervention groups were wards. The study used an experimental 2*2 factorial design with matching hospitals according to size and activity and wards according to pre-intervention appropriateness for test ordering. Four ward groups were established: the dual intervention group, the order form group, the pocket card group and the control group. Physicians in all groups received guidelines and were invited to a local information meeting. The main outcome measure of effectiveness was the Guideline Conformity Rate (GCR). The cost-effectiveness ratio was the cost difference between the tested intervention and the control intervention upon effectiveness difference between the tested intervention and the control intervention. Six hospitals participated in the study (two middle-sized hospitals, two small-sized hospitals and two psychiatric hospitals). A total of 1412 orders for thyroid function tests were collected. GCR was 78% in the dual intervention group, 83% in the order form group, 73% in the pocket card group and 62% in the control group. The interaction between TRF and MPC was not significant (B=-0.70, p=0.21). Compared to simple information, TRF was effective in increasing GCR (OR=2.65, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52-4.62), unlike MPC (OR=1.28, CI: 0.75-2.19). TRF was the less expensive and the most effective intervention. Using a robust design, our study shows a greater effectiveness of TRF than MPC and their association in implementing thyroid function test guidelines. The development of clinical practice improvement projects through the second procedure of accreditation in France is a good opportunity to develop a guidelines implementation research project.

  7. [Medico-criminal examination of damages to clothes in flight accidents].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Alpatov, I M

    2005-01-01

    Examination of cloths is a permanent sphere in the practice of forensic-medical expert and an indispensable expertise stage providing for decision-making on the key issues set before the expert. Although, the examination of cloth in forensic-medical expertise has been productive, research in this field slowed down during the recent decades; definition of new sets of evident informative signs has been also suspended. The methodological potentialities of examination of cloths items were demonstrated by examples of aviation incidents because such incidents reflect the principle variations of impacts, i.e. blow, explosion, fire, compression and chemical factors etc., which are subject to examination in the forensic-medical practice. Identification of mechanism causing damage and other signs on cloths helps a lot the forensic-medical expert in solving quite a number of issues related with circumstances of an incident and with a nature of an impact encountered by a person.

  8. Medico-Science and School Hygiene: A Contribution to a History of the Senses in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    This article takes as its inspiration Ian Grosvenor's conjectural essay presented for the symposium "Historiography of the Future: Looking Back to the Future" held at the International Standing Conference for History of Education (ISCHE) 33 in July 2011 in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. It contributes to a sensory history of schooling by…

  9. Short-term monitoring of a gas seep field in the Katakolo bay (Western Greece) using Raman spectra DTS and DAS fibre-optic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.; Finfer, D.; Christodoulou, D.; Kordella, S.; Papatheodorou, G.; Geraga, M.; Ferentinos, G.

    2012-12-01

    A wide submarine seep of thermogenic gas in the Katakolo bay, Western Greece, was monitored passively using the intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS) and Ultima Raman spectra Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS), in order to study the thermal and noise signal of the bubble plumes released from the seafloor. Katakolo is one one of the most prolific thermogenic gas seepage zones in Europe and the biggest methane seep ever reported in Greece. Very detailed repetitive offshore gas surveys, including marine remote sensing (sub-bottom profiling, side scan sonar), underwater exploration by a towed instrumented system (MEDUSA), long-term monitoring benthic station (GMM), compositional and isotopic analyses, and flux measurements of gas, showed that: (a) gas seepage takes place over an extended area in the Katakolo harbour and along two main normal faults off the harbour; (b) at least 823 gas bubble ( 10-20 cm in diameter) plumes escaping over an area of 94,200 m2, at depths ranging from 5.5 to 16 m; (c) the gas consists mainly of methane and has H2S levels of hundreds to thousands ppmv, and shows significant amounts of other light hydrocarbons like ethane, propane, iso-butane and C6 alkanes, (d) offshore and onshore seeps release the same type of thermogenic gas; (e) due to the shallow depth, more than 90 % of CH4 released at the seabed enters the atmosphere, and (f) the gas seeps may produce severe geohazards for people, buildings and construction facilities due to the explosive and toxicological properties of methane and hydrogen sulfide, respectively. For the short-term monitoring, the deployment took place on a site located inside the harbour of Katakolo within a thermogenic gas seepage area where active faults are intersected. The iDAS system makes it possible to observe the acoustical signal along the entire length of an unmodified optical cable without introducing any form of point sensors such as Bragg gratings. When the bubble plumes are released by the

  10. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area.

  11. Registry of Hospital Das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School: First Official Solid Organ and Tissue Transplantation Report – 2008

    PubMed Central

    Azeka, Estela; Auler Júnior, José Otavio Costa; Fernandes, Paulo Manuel Pego; Nahas, Willian Carlos; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Tannuri, Uenis; Cristofani, Lílian Maria; Caiero, Marcelo Tadeu; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; de Oliveira Paggiaro, André; Bacchella, Telesforo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a single center experience of organ and tissue transplantation INTRODUCTION: This is the first report of organ and tissue transplantation at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School. METHODS: We collected data from each type of organ transplantation from 2002 to 2007. The data collected were patient characteristics and actuarial survival Kaplan-Meier curves at 30 days, one year, and five years RESULTS: There were a total of 3,321 transplants at our institution and the 5-year survival curve ranged from 53% to 88%. CONCLUSION: This report shows that solid organ and tissue transplants are feasible within the institution and allow us to expect that the quality of transplantation will improve in the future. PMID:19219318

  12. Application of a Fibre Optic Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) for Shallow Seismic Investigations of a Fractured Dolostone Aquifer in Guelph, Ontario.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, J. D.; Parker, B. L.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.; Chalari, A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding groundwater flow and contaminant transport in fractured bedrock aquifers requires detailed characterization of the discrete features that control flow, as well as the properties of the rock matrix. This requires multiple, high-resolution, depth discrete datasets that provide different, but complementary information. Distributed fibre optic sensing is a relatively new technology used to continuously monitor properties along the entire length of an optical fibre. Technological advances over the past few years have brought the sensitivity and spatial resolution to the point where shallow (<200m) borehole applications are practicable. Recent studies using fibre optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS) have shown excellent application of DTS for characterizing groundwater flow in both continuously sealed and open boreholes. This presentation highlights the results of a field trial at the Bedrock Aquifer Research Station on the University of Guelph campus (Ontario, Canada) where a single fibre optic cable was interrogated by both a DTS (Ultima-DTS) and a Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS). DAS is a relatively recent development that allows an optical fibre to be used as a receiver for seismic imaging. These seismic images are produced by sending an optical pulse down the fibre and analyzing the effects of seismic waves on the propagating light. Numerous vertical seismic profiles were collected and the effects of different fibre optic cable structures and coupling techniques were examined. The seismic profiles will help delineate structural features and lithological contacts away from the borehole wall, and will assist in correlating other geophysical, hydraulic, or geological logs collected in the boreholes across the site. Preliminary results show promise for shallow seismic imaging and continued field trials will allow refinement of the technique.

  13. Evaluation of two evidence-based knowledge transfer interventions for physicians. A cluster randomized controlled factorial design trial: the CardioDAS Study.

    PubMed

    Amsallem, Emmanuel; Kasparian, Christelle; Cucherat, Michel; Chabaud, Sylvie; Haugh, Margaret; Boissel, Jean-Pierre; Nony, Patrice

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the potential benefits of two modes of evidence-based knowledge transfer ('active' and 'passive' modes) in terms of improvement of intention of prescription, knowledge, and real prescription in practice, we performed an open randomized controlled trial (CardioDAS) using a factorial design (two tested interventions: 'active' and 'passive' knowledge transfer) and a hierarchical structure (cluster of physicians for each department level). The participants were cardiologists working in French public hospitals. In the 'passive' transfer group, cardiologists received evidence-based knowledge material (available on Internet) every week for a duration of 1 year. In the 'active' transfer group, two knowledge brokers (EA, PN) visited the participating departments (every 2 months for 1 year, 2 h per visit). The primary outcome consisted in the adjusted absolute mean variation of score (difference between post- and pre-study session) of answers to simulated cases assessing the intention to prescribe. Secondary outcomes were the variation of answers to a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) assessing knowledge and of the conformity of real prescriptions to evidence-based reference assessing the behavioral change. Twenty-two French units (departments) of cardiology were randomized (72 participating cardiologists). In the 'active' transfer group, the primary outcome was more improved than that in the control (P = 0.031 at the department level, absolute mean improvement of 5 points/100). The change in knowledge transfer (MCQ) was also significant (P = 0.039 at the department level, absolute mean improvement of 6 points/100). However, no benefit was shown in terms of prescription conformity to evidence. For the 'passive' mode of knowledge transfer and for the three outcomes considered, no improvement was identified. CardioDAS findings confirm that 'active' knowledge transfer has some impact on participants' intent to prescribe and knowledge, but no effect on

  14. Simultaneous functions of the installed DAS/DAK formaldehyde-assimilation pathway and the original formaldehyde metabolic pathways enhance the ability of transgenic geranium to purify gaseous formaldehyde polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengen; Xiao, Sunqin; Xuan, Xiuxia; Sun, Zhen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-04-01

    The overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) from methylotrophic yeasts in chloroplasts created a photosynthetic formaldehyde (HCHO)-assimilation pathway (DAS/DAK pathway) in transgenic tobacco. Geranium has abilities to absorb and metabolize HCHO. Results of this study showed that the installed DAS/DAK pathway functioning in chloroplasts greatly enhanced the role of the Calvin cycle in transgenic geranium under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress. Consequently, the yield of sugars from HCHO-assimilation increased approximately 6-fold in transgenic geranium leaves, and concomitantly, the role of three original HCHO metabolic pathways reduced, leading to a significant decrease in formic acid, citrate and glycine production from HCHO metabolism. Although the role of three metabolic pathways reduced in transgenic plants under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress, the installed DAS/DAK pathway could still function together with the original HCHO metabolic pathways. Consequently, the gaseous HCHO-resistance of transgenic plants was significantly improved, and the generation of H2O2 in the transgenic geranium leaves was significantly less than that in the wild type (WT) leaves. Under environmental-polluted gaseous HCHO stress for a long duration, the stomata conductance of transgenic plants remained approximately 2-fold higher than that of the WT, thereby increasing its ability to purify gaseous HCHO polluted environment.

  15. Multispectral Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) Analysis of Near-Surface Structure at Brady Hot Springs from Active Source and Ambient Noise Using a 8700-meter Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. F.; Lord, N. E.; Zeng, X.; Fratta, D.; Feigl, K. L.; Team, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Porotomo research team deployed 8700-meters of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) cable in a shallow trench on the surface and 400 meters down a borehole at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016. The goal of the experiment was to detect changes in geophysical properties associated with hydrologic changes. The DAS cable occupied a natural laboratory of 1500-by-500-by-400-meters overlying a commercial, geothermal field operated by Ormat Technologies. The DAS cable was laid out in three parallel zig-zag lines with line segments approximately 120-meters in length. A large Vibroseis truck (T-Rex) provided the seismic source with a sweep frequency between 5 and 80 Hz over 20 seconds. Over the 15 days of the experiment, the Vibroseis truck re-occupied approximately 250 locations outside and within the array days while changes were made in water reinjection from the power plant into wells in the field. At each source location, one vertical and two orthogonal horizontal modes were excited. Dispersion curves were constructed using MASW and a Vibroseis source location approximately in line with each DAS cable segment or from ambient noise correlation functions. Representative fence diagrams of S-wave profiles were constructed by inverting the dispersion curves obtained for several different line segments.

  16. Further evidence of 777 Ma subduction-related continental arc magmatism in Eastern Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil: The Chácara das Pedras Orthogneiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, E.; Porcher, C. C.; Pimentel, M. M.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Vignol-Lelarge, M. L.; Oliveira, L. D.; Ramos, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    In this study new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data for the Chácara das Pedras Gneiss in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil are presented. They represent a small exposure of the crust which was intruded by a large volume of orogenic to anorogenic granitoids at ca. 618-562 m.y. in the Eastern Domain of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The Chácara das Pedras tonalitic orthogneiss has geochemical similarities with subduction-related magmatic rocks of continental arcs. They present high Sr initial ratios (∼0.712), negative ɛNd(t = 777) values (∼-6), TDM varying from 1.8 to 2.0 Ga. The igneous protoliths of these orthogneisses were previously considered to be Paleoproterozoic based on an upper intercept age of discordant zircon analyses. In the present study these orthogneisses were re-sampled and re-analyzed in an attempt to obtain more concordant analytical data. The U-Pb zircon analyses were carried out using the SHRIMP IIe at the Laboratório de Geocronologia de Alta Resolução of the Universidade de São Paulo. The U-Pb concordia age obtained for igneous textural domains of the zircon grains is 777 ± 4 Ma. A few analyses on zircon overgrowths give poorly defined late Cryogenian ages of ca. 650 Ma. Older ages, mostly discordant, were obtained in a few zircon cores, showing an upper intercept age of ca. 1.9 Ga. One sample of the Três Figueiras Granodiorite, which crosscut the orthogneiss in the same outcrop, was also investigated. The zircons of this granodiorite are, however, mostly metamitic, preventing the determination of a reliable age. Some concordant analyses from a few grains define ages ranging in the interval between ca. 603 and 1022 Ma. The youngest (ca. 603 Ma) may represent a maximum age for the granodiorite crystallization. Older ages, with discordance <10%, are of 745, 777, 836 and 1022 Ma. The 777 ± 4 Ma age obtained for the Chácara das Pedras orthogneiss is the first Early Cryogenian magmatic age determined for granitoids in the Porto Alegre region, although

  17. Water Quality-Quantity Evaluation of the Ribeirão das Posses Watershed, Brazil, applying the AgES-W model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, T. R.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Santos, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Brazil is under a period of drought that has impacted the conservation of watersheds and the management of water quality and quantity for agricultural and urban demands. In this context agro-hydrological modeling tools can generate information of water response over time in response to climate and landuse changes. A 12-km2 watershed which has suffered from anthropogenic activities is the Ribeirão das Posses watershed that is located in the extreme south of Minas Gerais State and is a headwater catchment of the Jaguari river, one of the contributing rivers of the Cantareira Reservoir Complex in the state of São Paulo. This watershed had its landscape changed over the last century from native forests to more homogeneous vegetation for pastures and small crops and some forest plantations fragments with eucalyptus. Currently, the Conservative Waters project has planted some small areas with vegetation of native species, especially where there are springs and at the top of the hills, in order to recover degraded areas and improve the hydrogeochemistry in this study basin. In this context, the AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) model is presented to simulate the water movement and storage in agricultural watersheds with different spatial resolutions of land areas or hydrological responses units. The objectives are to evaluate the quality and quantity of water in Ribeirão das Posses Basin using measured data, then simulate these responses in space and time to test the AgES-W model. The period chosen for research was from 2011 to 2015, because the water quality data were collected during this period. The answers that we hope to find out are: How well does the AgES-W model simulate this Brazilian watershed in the tropics? What are the future prospects of the quality and quantity of water in this basin? The results will help to guide hydrological simulations in similar tropical environments in Brazil in this and other agricultural watersheds with AgES-W.

  18. Massa do gás e das estrelas em aglomerados: eficiência da formação estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laganá, T. F.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados de galáxias apresentam um interesse especial para a cosmologia observacional. Eles são as maiores estruturas ligadas pela gravitação no Universo e relaxadas na região central. A comparação entre a massa do gás intra-aglomerado (responsável por ~25% da massa total, inferida a partir de observações em raios-X), a massa contida nas estrelas (i.e., nas galáxias) e a massa total (incluindo a matéria escura não bariônica), nos dá informações importantes sobre os processos de formação e evolução de aglomerados. Por exemplo, a razão entre a massa do gás e a massa total é uma medida da fração de bárions no Universo (razão entre a matéria bariônica e matéria escura) e, utilizando a densidade de bárions predita pela nucleosíntese primordial, podemos deduzir a densidade de matéria escura no Universo (cf. White et al. 1993). O objetivo deste trabalho é obter as razões entre as massas do gás, estelar (contida nas galáxias), e a total (massa dinâmica). As massas do gás e total são obtidas a partir das análises fotométrica e espectroscópica em raios-X enquanto que a massa estelar é obtida pela análise fotométrica das galáxias. Esta análise foi aplicada ao aglomerado Abell 496 observado pelo satélite XMM-Newton. A massa contida nas galáxias foi estimada a partir da função de luminosidade obtida por Durret et al. (2002). Para determinar as massas dinâmica e do gás nos precisamos determinar os perfis radiais de densidade e temperatura. Nós apresentaremos aqui estes resultados e suas implicações na eficiência da formação estelar em Abell 496.

  19. Simulation of sampling error of average rainfall rates in space and time by five satellites using radar-AMeDAS composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Yasuhisa; Okamoto, Ken'ichi; Ushio, Tomoo; Oki, Riko

    2006-01-01

    Sampling error has long been an important issue in satellite-based rainfall measuring mission planning such as for TRMM and GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), and in evaluating global maps of space-time average rain rate from multi-satellite rainfall data. Sampling errors due to sparse space-time rainfall observations from five currently operated low-earth-orbiting satellites (Aqua, DMSP-F13, F14, F15, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission)) were evaluated using 3-year radar-AMeDAS composite data around Japan. We simulate realistic observational patterns for the satellite-borne microwave radiometers. Root-mean-square sampling error is expressed as a fraction of true average rain rate. We formulate sampling error as a function of space scale ranging from 0.1° to 5.0°, time scale from 1 to 30 (day), and true average rain rate from 0.001 to 15 (mm/h) for five different combinations of these five satellites.

  20. Dating of fossil human teeth and shells from Toca do Enoque site at Serra das Confusões National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Sullasi, Henry L; Asfora, Viviane K; Azevedo, Renata L; Guzzo, Pedro; Guidon, Niede; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Khoury, Helen; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-06-07

    This work reports the dating of a fossil human tooth and shell found at the archaeological site Toca do Enoque located in Serra das Confusões National Park (Piauí, Brazil). Many prehistoric paintings have been found at this site. An archaeological excavation unearthed three sepulchers with human skeletons and some shells. Two Brazilian laboratories, in Ribeirão Preto (USP) and Recife (UFPE), independently performed Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements to date the tooth and the shell and obtain the equivalent dose received by each sample. The laboratories determined similar ages for the tooth and the shell (~4.8 kyBP). The results agreed with C-14 dating of the shell and other samples (charcoal) collected in the same sepulcher. Therefore, this work provides a valid inter-comparison of results by two independent ESR-dating laboratories and between two dating methods; i.e., C-14 and ESR, showing the validity of ESR dating for this range of ages.

  1. Using a multi-user desktop-based virtual reality system to recreate the São Miguel das Missões ruins.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Selan R; Fraga, Letícia S

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a project initiated back in 1999, in which Virtual Reality is applied in order to create a virtual community over the Internet. The desktop-based multi-user virtual reality system recreates a three-dimensional environment based on photogrammetric maps from the São Miguel das Missões church ruins. The ruins correspond to one of the Jesuit Mission (settlement) which was active in the south of Brazil in the 17th and 18th centuries. It has a great importance to the local region in terms of cultural, historic, and tourist aspects. It has also been inscribed in the UNESCO's world heritage list since 1983. This electronic mock-up allows several interactive operations such as community chats, electronic message exchanging, message boards, walking-through, discussion groups, and embedding of other media such as movies, sound, and html pages. The only requirement necessary to access the community is a web browser powered with any Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) plug-in freely available over the Internet. It is expected that such a solution improves the conservation and dissemination of the Brazilian historic patrimony, congregating history, art, and tourist information in one place on the Internet.

  2. A prospective study of dentoalveolar trauma at the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Fernanda Mendes do Carmo; Gaujac, Cristiano; Rocha, André Caroli; Peres, Maria Paula Siqueira de Melo

    2007-04-01

    This prospective study evaluated the profile of patients with dentoalveolar trauma assisted at the emergency room of the Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma and Surgery Service at the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School (Brazil). A prospective study by a questionnaire applied during the first attendance of those patients, in a period of eight months. The collected data were statistically analyzed. It was observed that 4.7% of the patients that sought treatment at the Service had sustained dentoalveolar trauma and among these 74% were male. The most affected individuals were children aged 0 to 5 years and fall was the most prevalent etiologic factor. Avulsion and coronal/crown-root fractures were the most common types of dentoalveolar traumatic injures. As the age increases, the most common etiologic factors are traffic accidents and physical assault. The incidence of dentoalveolar trauma decreased with age and the main etiologic factors in adult patients were traffic accidents and physical assault.

  3. The Serra das Araras Batholith: An example of Ediacaran syntectonic peraluminous granitic magmatism in the southwestern Paraíba do Sul Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retamal, Iuri; Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Lana, Cristiano; Gonçalves, Guilherme O.

    2017-10-01

    The Serra das Araras Batholith (SAB), located at the southwest portion of the Paraíba do Sul Domain, Central Ribeira Belt, is composed of orthogneisses with peraluminous character. Combined LA-ICP-MS U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses have been performed in zircon grains for a representative sample (SA-3H) of SAB. Data point to Rhyacian to Orosirian (ca. 2.1-1.8 Ga) inherited zircon cores with positive ɛHf(t) values and Ediacaran U-Pb crystallization age (595 ± 8 Ma). A leucogranite dyke (SA-3D), 15-25 cm thick, which crosscuts SAB and a biotite-hornblende quartz diorite enclave (SA-06) have been analyzed. Crystallization ages for the three samples (ca. 600-590 Ma) and ɛHf(t) values, ranging from -5.6 to -29.4 for Neoproterozoic zircon grains, indicate an Ediacaran crustal magmatism involving mid to lower crust anatexis and the reworking of Paleoproterozoic juvenile and crustal rocks.

  4. [Nutritional status of patients with breast cancer attended in the Mastology Service of Belo Horizonte's Hospital das Clínicas in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Dirce Ribeiro; Carvalho, Erika Simone Coelho; Campos, Liliane Cunha; Leal, José Adalberto; Sampaio, Estela Viana; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the nutritional status, body composition and tumor characteristics of 31 patients with breast cancer attended at the Mastology Service of Hospital das Clínicas of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Dietary data were obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall in the pre-operative state and analyzed by the DietWin Professional 2008 Nutrition Software. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The tumor characterization data were collected from medical records. The mean age of patients was 50.75 ± 14.34 years. Excess body weight was found in 58% and waist circumference greater than 80 cm in 64.5% of patients Excessive consumption of oils and sugars was observed in 90.3% and 83.8%, respectively. Most had low intakes of calcium and vitamins B6, B12 and A. The predominant diagnosis was type II histological grade invasive ductal carcinoma in stage II or III. The prevalence of overweight and inadequate dietary intake demonstrate the need for individualized nutritional guidance and monitoring to improve the prognosis and quality of the life of patients.

  5. [Travelers' vaccinations: experience from the Travelers' Clinic of Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chinwa Lo, Simone; Mascheretti, Melissa; Chaves, Tânia do Socorro Souza; Lopes, Marta Heloisa

    2008-01-01

    The profile and vaccination status of travelers seeking pre-travel medical advice at the Travelers' Clinic of Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, and the vaccines recommended for them, were analyzed in the present study. Among the 445 travelers who were studied, 51% were women, the median age was 33.5 years, 51% were traveling on business and 39.5% were traveling for leisure purposes. The destinations most sought were Africa (47%), Asia (31.7%) and South America (21.4%). Vaccination before traveling was recommended for 385 (86.5%) of the travelers. The main vaccines recommended were against typhoid fever (55.7%), diphtheria-tetanus (54.1%), hepatitis A (46.1%), hepatitis B (44.2%) and yellow fever (24.7%). The pre-travel guidance was shown to be important not only for indicating the vaccines recommended for the trip, but also as an opportunity to update routine vaccinations.

  6. [Voice disorder clinic in the speech therapy outpatient unit at "Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais"].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Letícia Neiva de; Behlau, Mara; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Teixeira, Letícia Caldas

    2011-07-01

    This study set out to describe the profile of the patients with voice complaints and/or alterations who were attended between July 2003 and December 2006 at the speech therapy outpatient unit of "Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais." This was analyzed according to age, sex, profession, schooling, origin, treatment performed and factors that interfere in medical care evolution. This was a retrospective study based on the analysis of the recorded data of the individuals according to a specifically prepared Protocol. The results showed that the individuals included in this study were predominantly young women, referred by a specialist from Belo Horizonte, who do not work and also have incomplete elementary school education. Attendance of those patients was on an individual basis, and almost half of them were discharged by the speech therapist. The elderly patients, who have functional or psychogenic dysphonia and a neutral or wheezy type of voice, showed a close correlation with the discharge rate by speech therapist. The younger individuals with organo-functional dysphonia bore a statistical correlation with abandoning treatment. The individuals who eventually abandoned treatment did not bear any correlation with the crossed variables.

  7. Relation among anti-rheumatic drug therapy, CD14(+)CD16(+) blood monocytes and disease activity markers (DAS28 and US7 scores) in rheumatoid arthritis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Angela; Sola, Daniele; Rossi, Luca; Obeng, Joyce Afrakoma; Fresu, Luigia Grazia; Sainaghi, Pier Paolo; Pirisi, Mario; Brunelleschi, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Circulating human monocytes, a functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous population, are emerging as fundamental cell types in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the correlation, if any, among anti-rheumatic drug therapy, circulating CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes and validated clinical scales (e.g., DAS28 score and ultrasonography US7 score) of disease severity in RA. Thirty consecutive RA patients, either naïve or under disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biological therapy, and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers, were enrolled. Monocytes were prepared from heparinized blood samples; surface expression of CD14 and CD16 was determined by flow cytometry. RA patients presented a significantly higher percentage of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, as compared to healthy subjects. There was a good correlation between DAS28 clinical score and the ultrasound composite score US7 (r=0.66), as well as between both scores and the percentage of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes (r=0.43 and 0.47, respectively). Naïve RA patients had the highest expression (19.2±3.2%) of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes and elevated DAS28 score; patients on DMARDs presented a 7-fold increased expression of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, relatively to healthy volunteers (2.1±1.4%), and an intermediate disease severity. The RA patients treated with biological therapy had a low percentage of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes (5.1±3.6%; p<0.01 vs naïve and DMARDs groups), similar to the one detected in healthy controls, and reduced US7 and DAS28 scores. Interestingly, for the same DAS28 score, monocytes isolated from RA patients on biological therapy had a lower CD16 expression than patients on DMARDs. Therefore, CD14(+)CD16(+) circulating blood monocytes may represent an appropriate biomarker to assess RA disease activity along with DAS28 and US7 scores. Together, these three parameters may represent a better indicator for evaluating therapy efficacy.

  8. Guidelines on management of human infection with the novel virus influenza A (H1N1)--a report from the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao; Schout, Denise; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Uip, David Everson; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Caiaffa Filho, Helio Hehl; Sakane, Pedro Takanori; Suslik, Carlos Alberto; Teixeira, Jose Manoel de Camargo; Bonfa, Eloisa; Barone, Antonio Alci; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Boulos, Marcos; Auler, Jose Otavio Costa

    2009-01-01

    The pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) infection was considered widespread in Brazil on July, 2009. Since then, 9.249 cases were confirmed in Brazil, most of them concentrated in São Paulo. The Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo is a reference center for H1N1 cases in São Paulo. The purpose of this review is to analyze the evidence concerning diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. In addition, we propose guidelines for the management of this pandemic emphasizing Hospital das Clínicas "bundles" for the control of the pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1).

  9. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  10. Imaging Fractures Through Relative Velocity Change Using Ambient Seismic Noise And Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS): A SUBTER Pilot Study At Blue Canyon Dome, Socorro NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. R.; Knox, H. A.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Johnson, T. C.; Morris, J.; Grubelich, M. C.; King, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of fracture systems, including locations, morphology, and evolution, is critical for groundwater management, contaminant transport, and energy applications such as reservoir development (i.e. tight shale and geothermal) and reservoir management (i.e. carbon sequestration and wastewater injection). It has long been understood that the presence of fractures reduces bulk seismic velocity, with waves traveling perpendicular to fracture planes experiencing the strongest velocity reduction. We present results from seismic interferometry using ambient seismic noise to detect velocity changes following fracture emplacement from two energetic stimulations. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) using fiber optic cables was used to record seismic arrivals at high spatial resolution ( 3 ft). Cables were grouted in the annulus of four cased monitoring boreholes surrounding the stimulation borehole at a radius of 4 feet. Ambient noise was recorded before and after each stimulation for 12-hour time periods. We used the Python package MSNoise to compute cross-correlations of all near-horizontal (less than 60°) channel pairs between boreholes and calculated the velocity change of each time period relative to initial conditions prior to stimulation. Results show an average velocity decrease of approximately 6% following the first fracturing event. Variations between channel pairs suggest some are more strongly affected than others, which is supported by evaluation of other geophysical data. These results show promise for locating fractures based on spatial variation in velocity changes. Unsurprisingly, results following the second stimulation are generally more scattered. Some velocities are further reduced compared to those after the first stimulation while others show a relative velocity increase. These results are roughly consistent with time-lapse seismic measurements conducted using active sources and classical sensors (e.g. hydrophones). Sandia National Laboratories is

  11. Using the DAS-ELISA Test to Establish an Effective Distance Between Bait Stations for Control of Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Natural Areas.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinbo; Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Gerard, Patrick; Scott, Simon W

    2015-08-01

    Linepithema humile (Mayr), the Argentine ant, is an invasive pest that has spread throughout the United States and is a problem in natural and managed habitats in South Carolina. Foraging patterns and the effectiveness of liquid baits for control of this pest have been studied in urban areas. However, similar studies have not been conducted in natural areas such as parks, picnic grounds, or campsites. L. humile populations can be large and widespread, making them a major nuisance pest for visitors to these natural areas. The primary objective of this study was to determine an effective distance between bait stations for control of L. humile in a natural area. A double antibody-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) procedure was used to detect individual ants that consumed rabbit immunoglobin (IgG) protein for marking and tracking. In both lab and field conditions, there was a significant difference in the detection of IgG in ants fed protein marker mixed with sugar water compared with ants only fed sugar water. Additional field studies revealed that an individual ant could retain detectable levels of protein marker for 3 d and that an ant feeding on IgG containing bait could be detected over 15 m from the original bait source. Overall, we found that using liquid ant baits, with a placement of 20 m between stations, was effective in reducing L. humile numbers between April to October, 2012 in a natural park area of Lake Greenwood State Park, SC.

  12. Cometas: Das Lendas aos Fatos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    O descobrimento de cometas, devido ao seu aparecimento espetacular, tem registro nas mais antigas culturas humanas. A primeira referência situa-se no ano de 1095 antes de Cristo [a.C.; HO; HO, 1962]. A quantidade de registros de descobrimentos cometários, principalmente provenientes do território chinês em particular e do oriente em geral, aumentou gradualmente a partir do quarto século depois de Cristo (d.C.). É de origem chinesa a primeira referência ao cometa P/Halley no ano de 240 a.C. [VOELZKE, 1993]. Com o desenvolvimento da astronomia relativamente às técnicas observacionais os descobrimentos bem como as observações cometárias aumentaram sensivelmente a partir do século XVII, sendo que a partir do século XIX um novo incremento ocorreu devido ao emprego da fotografia e a resultante melhora de sensibilidade na observação.

  13. Synthetic generation of spatially high resolution extreme rainfall in Japan using Monte Carlo simulation with AMeDAS analyzed rainfall data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruki, W.; Iseri, Y.; Takegawa, S.; Sasaki, O.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    Natural disasters caused by heavy rainfall occur every year in Japan. Effective countermeasures against such events are important. In 2015, a catastrophic flood occurred in Kinu river basin, which locates in the northern part of Kanto region. The remarkable feature of this flood event was not only in the intensity of rainfall but also in the spatial characteristics of heavy rainfall area. The flood was caused by continuous overlapping of heavy rainfall area over the Kinu river basin, suggesting consideration of spatial extent is quite important to assess impacts of heavy rainfall events. However, the spatial extent of heavy rainfall events cannot be properly measured through rainfall measurement by rain gauges at observation points. On the other hand, rainfall measurements by radar observations provide spatially and temporarily high resolution rainfall data which would be useful to catch the characteristics of heavy rainfall events. For long term effective countermeasure, extreme heavy rainfall scenario considering rainfall area and distribution is required. In this study, a new method for generating extreme heavy rainfall events using Monte Carlo Simulation has been developed in order to produce extreme heavy rainfall scenario. This study used AMeDAS analyzed precipitation data which is high resolution grid precipitation data made by Japan Meteorological Agency. Depth area duration (DAD) analysis has been conducted to extract extreme rainfall events in the past, considering time and spatial scale. In the Monte Carlo Simulation, extreme rainfall event is generated based on events extracted by DAD analysis. Extreme heavy rainfall events are generated in specific region in Japan and the types of generated extreme heavy rainfall events can be changed by varying the parameter. For application of this method, we focused on Kanto region in Japan. As a result, 3000 years rainfall data are generated. 100 -year probable rainfall and return period of flood in Kinu River

  14. Brazil's premier gold province. Part II: geology and genesis of gold deposits in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Lydia; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Luiz; Vieira, Frederico

    2001-07-01

    Orogenic, gold deposits are hosted by rocks of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, one of the major gold provinces in the world. The gold deposits occur at the base of the mafic-ultramafic succession, with the most important orebodies controlled by E-W-striking, strike-slip faults. The main mineralization styles are (1) structurally controlled, sulfide replacement zones in banded iron formation (BIF); (2) disseminated sulfide minerals and gold in hydrothermally altered rocks along shear zones; and (3) auriferous quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins and veinlets in mafic, ultramafic, and felsic volcanic rocks, and also in clastic sedimentary rocks. The most common host rocks for ore are metamorphosed oxide- and carbonate-facies banded iron (± iron-rich metachert) formations (e.g., the Cuiabá, São Bento and Raposos deposits) and the lapa seca unit, which is a local term for intensely carbonatized rock (e.g., the giant Morro Velho mine with >450 t of contained gold). Metabasalts host most of the remaining gold deposits. Mineralogical characteristics and fluid inclusion studies suggest variations in the H2O/CO2 ratio of a low-salinity, near-neutral, reducing, sulfur-bearing, ore fluid. The presence of abundant CH4-rich inclusions is related to reduction of the original H2O-CO2 fluid via interaction with carbonaceous matter in the wallrocks. Oxygen fugacity was close to that of graphite saturation, with variations likely to have been influenced by reaction with the carbonaceous matter. Carbon-rich phyllites and schists, which commonly bound ore-bearing horizons, seem to have played both a physical and chemical role in localizing hydrothermal mineral deposition. Microtextural studies indicate that gold deposition was mainly related to desulfidation reactions, and was paragenetically coeval with precipitation of arsenic-rich iron sulfide minerals. Carbon isotope data are compatible with dissolution of

  15. Diagnostische Präzision der komponentenbasierten vs. der extraktbasierten In-vitro-Diagnostik von Insektengift-Allergien: Auswirkungen auf das klinische Management.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Florian; Miguel, Diana; Schliemann, Sibylle; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2017-05-01

    Die Bestimmung von spezifischen IgE-Antikörpern spielt eine zentrale Bedeutung bei der Diagnostik von Bienen- und Wespengiftallergien. In den letzten Jahren wurden die komponentenbasierte Diagnostik (CRD) eingeführt, die die Bestimmung spezifischer IgE-Antikörper gegen die Allergene Api m 1, Ves v 1, Ves v 5 und Pol d 5 sowie kreuzreaktive Kohlenhydratdeterminanten (CCDs) erlaubt. Hierdurch soll vor allem bei Probanden mit Doppelsensibilisierungen die klinische Relevanz der einzelnen Sensibilisierungen besser beurteilt werden können. Die spezifischen IgE-Antikörper-Bestimmungen an 143 Probanden mit Bienen- und/oder Wespengiftallergie erfolgten mit den extraktbasierten ImmunoCAP®-Allergenen i1 und i3 sowie den ImmunoCAP®-Allergenkomponenten i208-211 und o214 (Api m 1, Ves v 1, Ves v 5, Pol d 5, CCD). Bei Doppelsensibilisierten wurde zusätzlich ein Inhibitionstest durchgeführt. An einem Teilkollektiv der Studienpopulation erfolgten sIgE-Bestimmungen gegen Api m 1, Api m 4, Pol d 5 und Ves v 5 mittels Allergiechip (ISAC®, n  =  44). Die Sensitivität von Ves v 5 bei isolierten Wespengiftallergikern betrug 78,5 %, gemeinsam mit Ves v 1 stieg diese auf 92,3 %. Die Sensitivität von Api m 1 bei isolierten Bienengiftallergikern betrug 25 %. Die komponentenbasierte Diagnostik und Inhibitionstests bei Doppelsensibilisierten lieferten divergente Ergebnisse. Die CRD mittels ISAC®-Allergiechip erbrachte deutliche Unterschiede vor allem im Hinblick auf die Diagnostik von Api m 1 und CCDs. Die CRD bereichert das diagnostische Spektrum, sofern sie nicht allein sondern zusätzlich zu den etablierten Verfahren eingesetzt wird. Sie sollte neben Ves v 5 stets die Bestimmung der IgE-Antikörper gegen Ves v 1 umfassen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the activity of rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice. Agreement between self-rated clinimetric evaluation and clinical evaluation with activity indexes: DAS28, CDAI and SDAI.

    PubMed

    Horta-Baas, Gabriel; Pérez Bolde-Hernández, Arturo; Hernández-Cabrera, María Fernanda; Vergara-Sánchez, Imelda; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro

    2017-10-11

    To achieve control of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) it is necessary to be able to evaluate its activity. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommends for this purpose indexes of activity that can be performed by the patient (PAS-II and RAPID-3) and IA including medical evaluation with laboratory studies (DAS28 and SDAI) or without them (CDAI). The objective was to analyze the concordance between self-rated clinimetric evaluation and clinimetric evaluation performed by the physician. Analytical cross-sectional study in 126 patients with RA. The agreement was evaluated through the weighted κ coefficient and the Krippendorff's α coefficient. The PAS-II and RAPID-3 significantly correlated with all variables included in the core set of measures recommended by the ACR/EULAR. The agreement between PAS-II and CDAI-SDAI was good (κ: 0.6, α: 0.61-0.62), and moderate with DAS28-ESR (κ: 0.53, α: 0.56). The concordance between RAPID-3 and CDAI-SDAI was moderate (κ: 0.55-0.57, α: 0.50-0.51), and moderate with DAS28-ESR (κ: 0.55, α: 0.53). When categorizing the activity in remission/low activity vs. moderate/severe activity, the agreement was greater with the PAS-II (0.59 vs. 0.34; P=.012). The good concordance between PAS-II and SDAI supports their use in clinical practice, especially if biomarkers of inflammation or the possibility of joint count are not available. However, in order to recommend its routine application in clinical practice, it is necessary to perform longitudinal studies that assess its responsiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of human infection with the novel virus influenza A (H1N1) in the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil--June-September 2009.

    PubMed

    Schout, Denise; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Uip, David Everson; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Caiaffa Filho, Helio Hehl; Sakane, Pedro Takanori; Suslik, Carlos Alberto; Teixeira, Jose Manoel de Camargo; Bonfa, Eloisa; Barone, Antonio Alci; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Boulos, Marcos; Auler, Jose Otavio Costa

    2009-01-01

    The pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) infection was considered widespread in Brazil on July 16, 2009. Since then, 46,810 cases of acute respiratory syndrome have been reported in Brazil, most of them concentrated in São Paulo. Through September 16, we have confirmed 9,249 cases of novel influenza A H1N1in Brazil, including 699 deaths. The mortality rate observed in Brazil is 0.47/100,000 inhabitants and varies according to region. In this period, São Paulo registered 3733 cases (40.3% of the total) of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection and 327 deaths, reflecting a mortality rate of 0.79/100,000 inhabitants. The Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HC) is a reference center for H1N1 cases in São Paulo. During the winter of 2009, 472 patients in this hospital were diagnosed with H1N1 infection; of these, 210 were admitted, and 16 died. To control this pandemic and to provide adequate care for these patients, the Hospital das Clínicas implemented "bundles" including prevention strategies, an epidemiologic surveillance service, availability of fast diagnosis, antiviral treatment and training of staff. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the epidemiologic features of novel human influenza A (H1N1) infection in the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo during the winter period of the 2009 pandemic.

  18. Método numérico das diferenças finitas no domínio do tempo aplicado a ondas Alfvén em plasma astrofísico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. C.; Kintopp, J. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Opher, R.

    2003-08-01

    Ondas Alfvén em plasma astrofísico têm sido objeto de intenso estudo nas últimas décadas pelo fato de apresentarem papel importante em muitas áreas de pesquisa na astrofísica. Particularmente são importantes no mecanismo de aquecimento da coroa solar; em ventos estelares; em jatos galácticos e extragalácticos; em discos protoestelares, etc. A formulação para diferenças finitas no domínio do tempo (FDTD), aplicada a plasma magnetizado é desenvolvida para estudo das propriedades de ondas Alfvén em três dimensões (3D-FDTD). O método é aplicado inicialmente a um plasma homogêneo e isotérmico imerso em uma região com campo magnético externo B0, que sofre uma pequena perturbação. Uma vez gerada a onda, esta perturbação é retirada e, então analisamos a evolução temporal das ondas, bem como a forma de seu amortecimento.

  19. Assessment of the validity of the 28-joint disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) as a disease activity index of rheumatoid arthritis in the efficacy evaluation of 24-week treatment with tocilizumab: subanalysis of the SATORI study.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Norihiro; Takagi, Nobuhiro

    2010-12-01

    As tocilizumab (TCZ) greatly inhibits inflammatory markers, methods of evaluating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity that include inflammatory markers may overestimate the effect of TCZ treatment. We have evaluated the impact of inflammatory markers on the efficacy of TCZ by comparing the efficacy indicated by the 28-joint disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) with that indicated by the clinical and simplified disease activity indexes (CDAI and SDAI, respectively) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) core set criteria in a double-blind study of TCZ-the SATORI study. The Spearman correlation coefficient between DAS28-ESR and CDAI was comparable between that at week 24 and that at baseline [correlation coefficient at baseline and week 24 was 0.823 (p < 0.0001) and 0.818 (p < 0.0001), respectively]. A large difference between the DAS28 remission rate and CDAI remission rate was observed at week 24. However, these results are comparable to those of a previous study conducted with non-TCZ-treated patients. Moreover, the same results were obtained in the comparison between the DAS28-ESR and SDAI, even though the SDAI includes an inflammatory parameter as a component. These results confirm that the DAS28-ESR has a validity comparable to that of other methods in terms of evaluating the RA treatment efficacy of TCZ, despite its strong inflammatory marker-inhibiting effects.

  20. [Medico-legal conditions of recognition and compensation of occupational asthma in Sénégal].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, I; Ndiaye, M; Soumah, M; Sanou, C; Sow, M L

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to appreciate how frequent asthma was named in the legal list of worker's compensation, state hazards and occupations involved and appreciate conditions required for a legal recognition of the disease. The study consisted of a review of the legal list of occupational diseases of all tables where asthma was stated. Medical, technical and administrative criteria allowing compensation were looked for. Asthma was listed in 12 among the 67 tables; causal substances listed were known as sensitizers and included mainly organic and metallic compounds. Numerous occupations were concerned in all primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. Medical conditions refered to "all asthma confirmed by functionally respiratory tests or regenerated by a new exposure". Time length of declaration was seven days. Variety of occupations concerned and numerous substances involved should invite to look for occupations in all patients with asthma. Physicians should be aware of theses legal conditions in order to recognize better occupational asthma and ease it legal compensation.